Table of Contents

  1. Introduction.

     1.1 Copyright.
     1.2 Software described in this document.
        1.2.1 teTeX.
        1.2.2 Text editors.
        1.2.3 dvips.
        1.2.4 Fonts.

  2. Using teTeX.

     2.1 Printing the documentation.

  3. TeX commands.

     3.1 Command overview.
     3.2 Font commands.
     3.3 Paragraph styles and dimensions.
        3.3.1 Tolerances.  (What are those black rectangles after every line?)
     3.4 Page layout.
     3.5 Page numbers, headers, and footers.
     3.6 Titles and macros.

  4. LaTeX commands.

     4.1 Document structure.
     4.2 Characters and type styles.
     4.3 Margins and line spacing.
     4.4 Document classes.
        4.4.1 Articles and reports.
        4.4.2 Letters.

  5. LaTeX extension packages and other resources.

  6. Mixing text and graphics with
     6.1 What if my printer isn't supported?

  7. Using Postscript fonts.

  8. Appendix A: CTAN site list.

  9. Appendix B: Installing the CTAN teTeX distribution.

     9.1 Installing the binary distribution.
        9.1.1 Minimal installation.
        9.1.2 Complete installation.
     9.2 Base system configuration.
     9.3 Installing the CTAN source distribution.
     9.4 Post-installation configuration details.

  10. Appendix C: Distribution and Copyright.

     10.1 Distribution.
     10.3 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs


  1.  Introduction.

  1.1.  Copyright.

  The teTeX-HOWTO is copyright (C) 1997, 1998 by Robert Kiesling.
  Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
  manual provided that the copyright notice and this permission notice
  are preserved on all copies.

  Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
  manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that
  the sections entitled, ``Distribution,'' and, ``GNU General Public
  License,'' are included exactly as in the original, and provided that
  the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
  permission notice identical to this one.

  Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
  manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
  versions.  except that the sections entitled, ``Distribution,'' and,
  ``GNU General Public License,'' may be included in a translation
  approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the original
  English.  Please refer to Section ``Distribution and Copyright'' for
  terms of copying.

  1.2.  Software described in this document.

  TeX handles only the formatting part of the document preparation.
  Generating output from TeX is like compiling source code into object
  code, which still needs to be linked.  You prepare an input file with
  a text editor----what most people think of as ``word processing''---
  and format the input file document with TeX to produce a device-
  independent output file, called a .dvi file.

  You also need a program or two to translate TeX's .dvi output for your
  screen and printer.  These programs are collectively known as
  ``dviware.''  For example, TeX itself only makes requests for fonts.
  It is up to the .dvi output translator to provide the actual font for
  the output regardless of whether the medium is a video screen or
  paper.  This extra step may seem overly complicated, but the
  abstraction allows documents to display the same on different devices
  with little or no change to the original document.

  1.2.1.  teTeX.

  TeX is implemented for practically every serious computer system in
  the world---and quite a few ``non-serious'' ones---so implementors
  must provide the installation facilities for all of them.  This
  accounts in part for teTeX's complexity, in addition to the inherent
  complexity of any TeX installation.  It also accounts for the fact
  that installing the system yourself is a significant task, and unless
  you are already familiar with TeX, it is easy to get lost in the
  numerous executable programs, TeX files, documentation, and fonts.

  Fortunately, teTeX is part of the GNU/Linux distribution. You can
  install the package much more easily using GNU/Linux installation
  tools. You may already have teTeX installed on your system.  If so,
  you can skip ahead to Section ``Using teTeX''.

  However, if you want to install the package, the archives necessary
  for a workable teTeX installation are on the CTAN archive network.
  There is a list of these sites in Section ``CTAN site list''.

  CTAN is the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network, a series of anonymous
  FTP sites that archive TeX programs, macros, fonts, and documentation.
  In the course of using TeX you'll probably become familiar with at
  least one CTAN site.  In this document, a pathname like
  ~CTAN/contrib/pstricks means ``look in the directory contrib/pstricks
  of your nearest CTAN site.''

  The installation of the generic teTeX distribution described in
  Section ``Installing the CTAN teTeX distribution'' concentrates on the
  Intel versions of Linux.  Installing teTeX on other hardware should
  require only substituting the appropriate executable program archive
  in the installation process.

  In addition to the executable programs, the distribution includes all
  of the TeX and LaTeX package, metafont and its sources, bibtex,
  makeindex, and all of the documentation... more than 4 megabytes'
  worth.  The documentation covers everything you will forseeably need
  to know to get started.  So, you should install all of the documents.
  Not only will you eventually read them, the documents themselves
  provide many examples of ``live'' TeX and LaTeX code.

  TeX was written by Professor Donald Knuth of Stanford University.  It
  is a lower-level typesetting language for all of the higher-level
  packages like LaTeX.  Essentially, LaTeX is a set of TeX macros that
  provide convenient, predefined document formats for end users.  If you
  like the formats provided by LaTeX, you may never need to learn bare-
  bones TeX programming.  The difference between the two languages is
  like the difference between assembly language and C.  You can have the
  speed and flexibility of TeX, or the convenience of LaTeX.

  By the way, the letters of the word ``TeX'' are Greek, tau-epsilon-
  chi.  It is not a fraternity, but the root of the Greek word, techne,
  which means art and/or science.  ``TeX'' is not pronounced like the
  first syllable in ``Texas.''  The chi has no English equivalent, but
  TeX is generally pronounced so that it rhymes with ``yecch,'' to use
  Professor Knuth's example from The TeXBook, which is one of the
  standard TeX references.  When writing, ``TeX,'' on character devices,
  always use the standard capitalization, or the \TeX{} macro in

  1.2.2.  Text editors.

  Any of the editors that work under Linux---jed, joe, jove, vi, vim,
  stevie, Emacs, and microemacs---will work to prepare a TeX input file,
  as long as the editor reads and writes plain-vanilla ASCII text.  My
  preference is GNU Emacs.  There are several reasons for this:

  ·  You can format, preview and print documents with Emacs's TeX and
     LaTeX modes.

  ·  Emacs can automatically insert TeX-style, ``curly quotes,'' as you
     type, rather than the "ASCII-vanilla" kind.

  ·  Emacs has integrated support for Texinfo, a hypertext documentation

  ·  Emacs is widely supported.  Versions 19.34 and later, for example,
     are included in the major U.S. Linux distributions.  The most
     recent version from the GNU archives is 20.3.

  ·  Emacs does everything except butter the toast in the morning.

  ·  Emacs is free.

  1.2.3.  dvips .

  Tomas Rokicki's dvips generates Postscript from a .dvi file.  In
  addition, it runs Metafont if necessary to generate the bit mapped
  fonts it needs or uses Postscript fonts for the output.  It can also
  crop and resize pages and perform graphics translations from
  instructions in a TeX or LaTeX file,

  The dvips program is part of the teTeX distribution.  It is discussed
  fully in Section ``Mixing text and graphics with <tt>dvips</tt>''

  1.2.4.  Fonts.

  Much of TeX's, and therefore LaTeX's, complexity, arises from its
  implementation of various font systems, and the way these fonts are
  specified.  A major improvement of LaTeX 2e over its predecessor was
  the way users specify fonts, the former New Font Selection Scheme.
  They're discussed in Section ``Characters and type styles'', Section
  ``TeX Font Commands'', and Section ``Using Postscript fonts''.)

  teTeX comes distributed with about a dozen standard fonts preloaded,
  which is enough to get you started.  Also provided are the font
  metrics descriptions, in .tfm (TeX font metric) files.  To generate
  the other fonts that you need, it is simply a matter of installing the
  metafont sources.  teTeX's .dvi utilities will invoke metafont
  automatically and generate the Computer Modern fonts you need.

  2.  Using teTeX.

  Theoretically, at least, everything is installed correctly and is
  ready to run.  teTeX is a very large software package.  As with any
  complex software package, you'll want to start by learning teTeX
  slowly, instead of being overwhelmed by its complexity.

  At the same time, we want the software to do something useful.  So
  instead of watching TeX typeset

  ``Hello, World!''

  as Professor Knuth suggests, we'll produce a couple of teTeX's own
  documents in order to test it.

  2.1.  Printing the documentation.

  You should be logged in as root the first few times you run teTeX.  If
  you aren't, Metafont may not be able to create the necessary
  directories for its fonts.  The texconfig program includes an option
  to make the font directories world-writable, but if you're working on
  a multi-user system, security considerations may make this option
  impractical or undesirable.

  In either instance, if you don't have the appropriate permissions to
  write to the directories where the fonts are stored, Metafont will
  complain loudly because it can't make the directories.  You won't see
  any output because you have a bunch of zero-length font characters.
  This is no problem.  Simply log out, re-login as root, and repeat the
  offending operation.

  The nice thing about teTeX is that, if you blow it, no real harm is
  done.  It's not like a compiler, where, say, you will trash the root
  partition if a pointer goes astray.  What, you haven't read the teTeX
  manual yet?  Of course you haven't.  It's still in the distribution,
  in source code form, waiting to be output.

  So, without further delay, you will want to read the teTeX manual.
  It's located in the directory


  The LaTeX source for the manual is called TETEXDOC.tex.  (The .tex
  extension is used for both TeX and LaTeX files.  Some editors, like
  Emacs, can tell the difference.)  There is also a file TETEXDOC.dvi
  included with the distribution, which you might want to keep in a safe
  place---say, another directory ---in case you want to test your .dvi
  drivers later.  With that out of the way, type

  latex TETEXDOC.tex

  LaTeX will print several warnings.  The first,

  LaTeX Warning: Label(s) may have changed. Rerun to get the
  cross-references right.

  is standard.  It's common to build a document's Table of Contents by
  LaTeXing the document twice.  So, repeat the command.  The other warn­
  ings can be safely ignored.  They simply are informing you that some
  of the FTP paths mentioned in the documentation are too wide for their
  alloted spaces.  Sections ``Paragraph styles and dimensions'' and
  ``Tolerances'' describe horizontal spacing in more detail.

  teTeX will have generated several files from TETEXDOC.tex.  The one
  that we're interested in is TETEXDOC.dvi. This is the device-
  independent output which you can send either to the screen or the
  printer.  If you're running teTeX under the X Windows System, you can
  preview the document with xdvi.

  For the present, let's assume that you have a HP LaserJet II.  You
  would give the command

  dvilj2 TETEXDOC.dvi

  which writes a PCL output file from TETEXDOC.dvi, including soft fonts
  which will be downloaded to the LaserJet.  This is not a feature of
  TeX or LaTeX, but a feature provided by dvilj2.  Other .dvi drivers
  provide features that are relevant to the devices they support.
  dvilj2 tries to fill the font requests which were made in the original
  LaTeX document with the the closest equivalents available on the sys­
  tem.  In the case of a plain text document like TETEXDOC.tex, there
  isn't much difficulty.  All of the fonts requested by TETEXDOC.tex
  will be generated by metafont, which is automatically invoked by
  dvilj2, if the fonts aren't already present.  (If you're running
  dvilj2 for the first time, the program may need to generate all of the
  fonts.)  There are several options that control font generation via
  dvilj2.  They're outlined in the manual page.  At this point, you
  shouldn't need to operate metafont directly.  If you do, then some­
  thing has gone awry with your installation.  All of the .dvi drivers
  will invoke metafont directly via the kpathsea path-searching
  library---the discussion of which is beyond the scope of this docu­
  ment---and you don't need to do any more work with metafont for the
  present---all of the metafont sources for the Computer Modern font
  library are provided.

  You can print TETEXDOC.lj with the command

  lpr TETEXDOC.lj

  You may also need to install a printer filter that understands PCL.

  The nine-page teTeX Guide provides some useful information for further
  configuring your system, some of which I have mentioned, much that
  this document doesn't cover.

  Some of the information in the next section I haven't been able to
  test, because I have a non-Postscript HP Deskjet 400 color ink jet
  printer connected to the computer's parallel port.  However, not
  owning a Postscript printer is no barrier to printing text and
  graphics from your text documents.  Ghostscript is available in most
  Linux distributions and it could already be installed on your system.

  3.  TeX commands.

  Preparing documents for TeX typesetting is easy.  Make sure there's a
  blank line between the paragraphs of a plain text file, and run file
  through the TeX program with the command

  tex your_text_file

  The result will be a file of the same base name and the extension
  .dvi.  TeX formats the text in 10-point, Computer Modern Roman, sin­
  gle-spaced, with justified left and right margins.  If you receive
  error messages from special characters like dollar signs, escape them
  with a backslash character, \, and run TeX on the file again.  You
  should be able to process the resulting file with the .dvi file trans­
  lator of your choice (see above) to get printed output.

  One peculiarity of TeX input is that you must use opening and closing
  quotes, which are denoted in the input file with the grave accent and
  single quote characters.  Emacs' TeX mode does this for you

  "These are ASCII-type quotes."
  ``These are `TeX-style' quotes.''

  3.1.  Command overview.

  Commands in TeX start with a backslash (``\'').  For example, the
  command to change the spacing between lines is


  The baseline is the bottom of the characters on a line, not counting
  descenders.  The distance between the baseline of one line and the
  next is the \baselineskip, and is assigned a value of 24 points.

  Measurements or dimensions in TeX are often given in the following

  pt                % Point        1/72 in.
  pc                % Pica:        12 pt.
  in                % Inch:        72.27 pt.
  cm                % Centimeter:  2.54 cm = 1 in.
  mm                % Millimeter:  10 mm = 1 cm.

  Some commands do not take assignments.  For example:

  \smallskip        % Approximately 3 pt.
  \medskip          % Two \smallskips.
  \bigskip         % Two \medskips.

  A \smallskip inserts a 3 pt. vertical space in the document.  The
  measurements are approximate because TeX needs to adjust the
  dimensions for page breaks, section headings, and other units of
  vertical space.  This is true for horizontal spacing as well.


  This command sets the line length to a width of 6.5 inches.  TeX tries
  to fill the line by adjusting the spacing between words, and some let­
  ters.  If TeX cannot fill a line to within its tolerances, it produces
  a warning message, and adjusts the horizontal spacing within the line
  as best it can.  Formatting tolerances are discussed in Section ``Tol­

  There are many other commands that specify horizontal and vertical
  dimensions and tolerances, and the most commonly use commands are
  described below.

  3.2.  Font commands.

  In TeX, the default font is 10 pt. Computer Modern Roman.  To specify
  a typeface, like italic, bold, or monospaced, use the following

  \rm          % Roman (the default).
  \it          % Italics.
  \bf         % Bold.
  \tt         % Monospaced (teletype).
  \sl          % Oblique (slanted).

  The commands change the typeface where they appear in the text, as in
  this example.

  This text is Roman, \it and this text is italic.  \bf This text is
  bold, and \rm this text is in Roman again.

  To specify a font for your document, use the\font command.


  This creates the font command \romantwelve, which, when used in the
  text, changes the font to Computer Modern Roman, 12 point.

  This is the Computer Modern Roman font at 12 points.

  For information about the fonts in the teTeX distribution look at the


  If you want to print a sample of a font, TeX the file


  and fill in the name of the font you want to print at the prompt.

  You can also change the size of a font to get different effects.  Font
  magnification is exponential, and specified with the scaled \magstep
  command, which is placed after the font specification.

  \font\sfmedium=cmss12 scaled \magstep 1

  This command will give you a sans serif font that is 120 percent the
  size of the 12-point Computer Modern sans serif font.  Fonts can be
  magnified in steps from 0 to 5.  Each step provides and additional 120
  percent magnification.

  3.3.  Paragraph styles and dimensions.

  As mentioned above, TeX typesets text in 10-point Computer Modern
  Roman by default.  The length of a line is the value of \hsize, which
  defaults to 6.5 in.  If you want to change the value of \hsize to 5.5
  in. for example, use this command.


  In TeX a dimension is an adjustable unit of length, either horizontal
  or vertical.  The amount by which a dimension can be increased or
  decreased can be specified in its definition.  Closely related to a
  dimension is a skip, which is a dimension that is placed in one of
  TeX's internal registers.  Skips are defined with the \newskip
  command.  The \smallskip dimension, as defined by TeX is:

  \newskip\smallskipamount \smallskipamount=3pt plus 1pt minus 1pt

  The \smallskip command is shorthand for:


  There are a number of dimensions that control the page layout.  They
  are summarized in Section ``Page layout''.

  TeX formats paragraphs with justified left and right margins.  If you
  want the text to be left justified only, use this command:


  To typeset a line that is justified to the right margin, use the
  \rightline command:

  \rightline{This is the line to be typeset.}

  The \line command typesets the text of its argument to fill the entire

  \line{This text will be spaced to fit the entire line.}

  The \hfil command adds space to fill out the line where it occurs.
  So, for example, the \rightline command is equivalent to:

  \line{\hfilThis line will be right justified.}

  To typeset a line that is centered, use the \centerline command.

  \centerline{This is the line to be centered.}

  To change the left margin, set the value of \hoffset, as in this


  The \parindent command specifies the amount that the first line of
  every paragraph is indented.


  Two other dimensions, \leftskip and \rightskip, will indent the right
  and left margins, respectively, of the paragraphs that come after


  The control word \narrower is equivalent to:


  That is, \narrower narrows the paragraph margins by the value of

  As mentioned in the previous section, the \baselineskip specifies the
  distance between lines.  The default is 12 pt.  To approximate double-
  spaced text, use the following command.


  The \parskip command specifies the distance in addition to
  \baselineskip between paragraphs.  By default, no extra space is
  added, but the distance between paragraphs can stretch as much as 1
  pt. to fill the page correctly.  To put a blank line between
  paragraphs, use this command:


  3.3.1.  Tolerances.  (What are those black rectangles after every

  TeX normally formats text to strict tolerances.  If, for some reason,
  text cannot be formatted to within those tolerances, TeX produces a
  warning message and formats the text the best it can.  If the text
  must be stretched too much to fit the line, TeX warns you that the
  \hbox is underfull.  Text that must be squeezed to fit in the line
  produces an overfull \hbox warning.

  For each overfull \hbox, TeX places a slug, a black rectangle, after
  the line.  The slug indicates that the line could not be formatted to
  within the specifications set by the \hbadness parameter.

  The fit of the text within its specified dimensions is measured by its
  badness, which is a number between 0 and 10000.  A badness of 0 is a
  perfect fit, and a badness of 10000 means that the line probably will
  never fit.  The default value of \hbadness is 1000.  If you set
  \hbadness to 10000, TeX does not report underfull lines.

  Sometimes TeX allows a line to extend past the right margin.  This is
  an aesthetic decision on the part of TeX's author.  The amount is
  determined by the \hfuzz parameter, which defaults to 0.1 pt.  If the
  text does not fit within the line, the \tolerance parameter determines
  how TeX will handle the overfull \hbox.  The default value of
  \tolerance is 200.  Setting \tolerance to 1000 suppresses overfull
  \hbox warnings and the printing of slugs.

  3.4.  Page layout.

  In addition to the left margin and line length dimensions that are
  described in the previous section, TeX also lets you specify top and
  bottom margins, and vertical spacing.

  Like the \hsize and \hoffset dimensions described in the previous
  section, TeX also provides the \vsize and \voffset commands.  The
  default for \vsize is 8.9 in., and \voffset defaults to 0.

  Normally, teTeX places the beginning of the first line of text 1 in.
  below the top of the paper and 1 in. from the left edge.  You can
  start the text closer to the top of the page with the command:


  If you want to add vertical space in a document, the commands
  \smallskip, \medskip, and \bigskip will add approximately 3, 6, and 12
  points of blank vertical space.  These measurements are approximate;
  TeX will adjust them by as much as 1 pt. so the page is filled

  The \vfill command adds an adjustable vertical space between
  paragraphs on a page.  It is infinitely stretchable, so it will add
  vertical space to fill as much of the rest of the page as possible.
  If you want to specify a dimension, use \vskip as in:

  \vskip 10pt

  The commands \hss and \vss are similar to \hfil and \vfill, but they
  provide dimensions that are infinitely shrinkable as well as
  infinitely stretchable.

  The \vskip and \vfill commands produce flexible lengths.  They do not
  add space where no text exists; for example, at the top of a page.
  Use \vglue if you want to add an absolute space.

  TeX fills the \vsize dimension with as much text as possible before it
  starts a new page.  To force a page break, use the \vfill \eject
  sequence.  If \vfill is not used, the text before the \break will be
  spaced to fill the page.

  If you want TeX to be more flexible about its vertical page sizing,
  place the \raggedbottom command in your document.  TeX will then
  adjust the bottom margin of each page slightly to make vertical
  spacing more consistent.

  3.5.  Page numbers, headers, and footers.

  teTeX by default places the page number at the bottom center of the
  page.  If you want to change the location and style of the page
  number, you can specify alternate headers and footers by changing
  definitions of \headline and \footline.  The default value for
  \footline contains the \folio command, which prints the page number.
  The default value for \headline is \hfil, so a blank line is printed.

  The \pageno command is a synonym for TeX's internal page counter.  You
  can change the page number by changing the value of \pageno.  If
  \pageno is negative, the numbers are printed as Roman numerals.


  The command \nopagenumbers is shorthand for:


  The default footline also contains the font command \tenrm, which sets
  the page number's font to 10-point Roman.  If you want to print the
  page number in 12-point Roman, for example, you would first define a
  12-point Roman font, and use that in the definition of \footline.
  Font commands are discussed in Section ``Font commands''.


  You can put a rule, a horizontal line, at the top of each page by
  redefining \headline as:


  To specify different headers for even and odd pages use the
  \ifoddcommand, which has the form:


  An example \headline that uses different headers for even and odd
  pages would be:

  \headline={\ifodd\pageno odd-page-header \else even-page-header}

  The \ifodd statement uses the first argument if the page number is
  odd, and the second argument otherwise.

  3.6.  Titles and macros.

  TeX provides only the \beginsection macro for section headings.  It
  leaves a space above its argument, prints the text of the heading in
  bold type, adds a \smallskip after the text of the heading, and starts
  the next paragraph with no indent.

  The LaTeX chapter and section commands described below add section
  numbering, and will print the section names and numbers in the page
  headings, and automatically add the sections to the Table of Contents.

  In plain TeX, you must write these functions yourself.  The \def
  command allows you to define new commands.  Suppose you want to print
  a chapter title.  First you define the font that you want to use.  A
  large, sans serif font for chapter titles would be defined like this:

  \font\chapterfontsans=cmss12 scaled \magstep 4

  You can use the \chapterfontsans command anywhere you want to switch
  to this font, which is approximately 24 points in height.  However, in
  this example, it will be used primarily in the command \chaptertitle­
  sans.  Here is its definition:


  The first line, \hbox{}\bigskip, anchors a 12-point space at the top
  of the page by placing an empty \hbox{} there.  The line with the
  chapter title is not indented, nor is the paragraph which immediately
  follows it.  If you place a blank line between the \sschaptertitle
  macro and the next paragraph, the final \noindent applies to the blank
  line, not the text of the following paragraph.  To format correctly,
  use the \sschaptertitle as in this example:

  The #1 statement in the definition is replaced by the first argument
  to \chaptertitlesans; that is, the title of the chapter.  Parameters
  TeX definitions are declared with #1, #2, #3, and so on.  An example
  usage of \chaptertitlesans would be:

  \chaptertitlesans{Chapter 1}
  This is the starting text of the first paragraph of the chapter.
  The paragraph will not be indented.  The chapter's title is
  "Chapter 1."

  4.  LaTeX commands.

  4.1.  Document structure.

  Documents formatted for LaTeX have a few more rules, but with complex
  documents, LaTeX can greatly simplify the formatting process.

  Essentially, LaTeX is a document markup language which tries to
  separate the output style from the document's logical content.  For
  example, formatting a section heading with TeX would require
  specifying 36 points of white space above the heading, then the
  heading itself set in bold, 24-point type, then copying the heading
  text and page number to the Table of Contents, then leaving 24 points
  of white space after the heading.  By contrast, LaTeX has the
  \section{} command, which does all of the work for you.  If you need
  to change the format of the section headings throughout your document,
  you can change the definition of \section{} instead of the text in the
  document.  You can see where this would save hours of reformatting for
  documents of more than a dozen pages in length.

  All LaTeX documents have three sections: a preamble, the body text,
  and a postamble.  These terms are standard jargon and are widely used
  by TeXperts.

  The preamble, at a minimum, specifies the type of document to be
  produced---the document class---and a statement which signals the
  beginning of the document's body text.  For example:


  The document's postamble is usually very simple.  Except in special­
  ized cases, it contains only the statement:


  Note the \begin{document} and \end{document} pairing.  In LaTeX, this
  is called an environment.  All text must appear within an environment,
  and many commands are effective only in the environments in which
  they're called.  The document environment is the only instance where
  LaTeX enforces this convention, however.  That is, it's the only envi­
  ronment that is required in a document.  (An exception is letter
  class, which also requires you to declare \begin{letter} and
  \end{letter}.  See the section ``Letters''.)  However, many formatting
  features are specified as environments.  They're described in the fol­
  lowing sections.

  The document classes can be called with arguments.  For example,
  instead of the default, 10-point type used as the base point size, as
  in the previous example, we could have specified


  to produce the document using 12 points as the base point size.  The
  document class, article, makes the necessary adjustments.

  There are a few document classes which are commonly used.  They're
  described below.  The report class is similar to article class, but
  produces a title page and starts each section on a new page.  The
  letter class includes special definitions for addresses, salutations,
  and closings, a few of which are described below.

  You can include canned LaTeX code, commonly known as a package, with
  the \usepackage{} command.


  The command above would include the LaTeX style file fancyhdr.sty from
  one of the TEXINPUTS directories, which you and teTeX specified during
  installation and setup processes.


  Note that the \usepackage{} declarations are given before the
  \begin{document} statement; that is, in the document preamble.

  fancyhdr.sty extends the \pagestyle{} command so that you can create
  custom headers and footers.  Most LaTeX document classes provide
  headers and footers of the following standard page styles:

  \pagestyle{plain}       % default pages style -- page number centered at
                          % the bottom of the page.
  \pagestyle{empty}       % no headers or footers
  \pagestyle{headings}    % print section number and page number at the
                          % top of the page.
  \pagestyle{myheadings}  % print custom information in the page heading.

  Everything on a line to the right of the percent sign is a comment.

  The \pagestyle{} command doesn't take effect until the following page.
  To change the headers and footers on the current page, use the command


  4.2.  Characters and type styles.

  Character styles are partially a function of the fonts specified in
  the document.  However, bold and italic character emphasis should be
  available for every font present on the system.  Underlining, too, can
  be used, though its formatting presents special problems.  See section
  ``LaTeX extension packages and other resources'', below.

  You can specify text to be emphasized in several ways.  The most
  portable is the \em command.  All text within its scope is italicized
  by default.  For example:

  This word will be {\em emphasized.}

  If you have italicized text that runs into text which is not itali­
  cized, you can specify an italic correction factor to be used.  The
  command for this is \/; that is, a backslash and a forward slash.

  This example {\em will\/} print correctly.

  This example will {\em not} print correctly.

  Slightly less portable, but still acceptable in situations where
  they're used singly, are the commands \it, \bf, and \tt, which specify
  that the characters within their scope be printed using italic, bold,
  and monospaced (teletype) typefaces, respectively.

  {\tt This text will be printed monospaced,}
  {\it this text will be italic,} and
  {\bf this text will be bold\dots} all in one paragraph.

  The command \dots prints a series of three periods for ellipses, which
  will not break across a line.

  The most recent version of LaTeX, which is what you have, includes
  commands which account for instances where one emphasis command would
  supersede another.

  This is {\it not {\bf bold italic!}}

  What happens is that teTeX formats the text with the italic typeface
  until it encounters the \bf command, at which point it switches to
  boldface type.

  To get around this, the NFSS scheme of selecting font shapes requires
  three parameters for each typeface: shape, series, and family.  Not
  all font sets will include all of these styles.  LaTeX will print a
  warning, however, if it needs to substitute another font.

  You can specify the following font shapes:

  \textup{text}          % upright shape (the default)
  \textit{text}          % italic
  \textsl{text}          % slanted
  \textsc{text}          % small caps

  These are the two series that most fonts have:

  \textmd{text}          % medium series (the default)
  \textbf{text}          % boldface series.

  There are generally three families of type available.

  \textrm{text}          % Roman (the default)
  \textsf{text}          % sans serif
  \texttt{text}          % typewriter (monospaced, Courier-like)

  Setting font styles using these parameters, you can combine effects.

  \texttt{\textit{This example likely will result in a font
  substitution, because many fonts don't include a typewriter italic

  The font family defaults to Computer Modern, which is a bit-mapped
  font.  Other font families are usually Postscript-format Type 1 fonts.
  See section ``Using PostScript fonts'' for details on how to specify

  There are also many forms of accents and special characters which are
  available for typesetting.  This is only a few of them.  (Try
  typesetting these on your own printer.)

  \'{o}  \`{e}  \^{o}  \"{u}        \={o}  \c{c}  `? `!
  \copyright     \pounds                \dag

  Finally, there are characters which are used as meta- or escape char­
  acters in TeX and LaTeX.  One of them, the dollar sign, is mentioned
  above.  The complete set of meta characters, which need to be escaped
  with a backslash to be used literally, is:

  # $ % & _ { }

  There are also different alphabets available, like Greek and Cyrillic.
  LaTeX provides many facilities for setting non-English text, which are
  covered by some of the other references mentioned here

  4.3.  Margins and line spacing.

  Changing margins in a TeX or LaTeX document is not a straightforward
  task.  A lot depends on the relative indent of the text you're trying
  to adjust the margin for.  The placement of the margin-changing
  command is also significant.

  For document-wide changes to LaTeX documents, the \evensidemargin and
  \oddsidemargin commands are available.  They affect the left-hand
  margins of the even-numbered and odd-numbered pages, respectively.
  For example,


  adds on inch to the left-hand margin of the even and odd pages in
  addition to the standard one-inch, left-hand margin.  These commands
  affect the entire document and will shift the entire body of the text
  right and left across a page, regardless of any local indent, so
  they're safe to use with LaTeX environments like verse and list.

  Below is a set of margin-changing macros which I wrote.  They have a
  different effect than the commands mentioned above.  Because they use
  plain TeX commands, they're not guaranteed to honor the margins of any
  LaTeX environments which may be in effect, but you can place them
  anywhere in a document and change the margins from that point on.

  %%  margins.sty -- v. 0.1   by Robert Kiesling
  %%  Copies of this code may be freely distributed in verbatim form.
  %%  Some elementary plain TeX margin-changing commands. Lengths are
  %%  in inches:
  %%  \leftmargin{1}   %% sets the document's left margin in 1 inch.
  %%  \leftindent{1}   %% sets the following paragraphs' indent in
  %%                     1 inch.
  %%  \rightindent{1}  %% sets the following paragraphs' right margins
  %%                   %% in 1 inch.
  %%  \llength{3}      %% sets the following lines' lengths to 3 inches.
  \message{Margins macros...}
  \def\lmargin#1{\hoffset = #1 in}
  \def\lindent#1{\leftskip = #1 in}
  \def\rindent#1{\rightskip = #1 in}
  \def\llength#1{\hsize = #1 in}
  %% (End of margins macros.}

  Place this code in a file called margins.sty in your local $TEXINPUTS
  directory.  The commands are explained in the commented section of the
  file.  To include them in a document, use the command


  in the document preamble.

  While we're on the subject, if you don't want the right margin to be
  justified, which is the default, you can tell LaTeX to use ragged
  right margins by giving the command:


  Setting line spacing also has its complexities.

  The baselineskip measurement is the distance between lines of text.
  It is given as an absolute measurement.  For example,


  or even better:


  The difference between the two forms is that setlength will respect
  any scoping rules that may be in effect when you use the command.

  The problem with using baselineskip is that it also affects the
  distance between section headings, footnotes, and the like.  You need
  to take care that baselineskip is correct for whatever text elements
  you're formatting.  There are, however, LaTeX macro packages, like
  setspace.sty, which will help you in these circumstances.  See section
  ``LaTeX extension packages and other resources''.

  4.4.  Document classes.

  LaTeX provides document classes which provide standardized formats for
  documents.  They provide environments to format lists, quotations,
  footnotes, and other text elements.  Commonly used document classes
  are covered in the following sections.

  4.4.1.  Articles and reports.

  As mentioned above, the article class and the report class are
  similar.  The main differences are that the report class creates a
  title page by default and begins each section on a new page.  Mostly,
  though, the two document classes are similar.

  To create titles, abstracts, and bylines in these document classes,
  you can type, for example,

  \title{The Breeding Habits of Cacti}
  \author{John Q. Public}
  \abstract{Description of how common desert cacti search
  for appropriate watering holes to perform their breeding

  in the document preamble.  Then, the command


  given at the start of the text, will generate either a title page in
  the report class, or the title and abstract at the top of the first
  page, in the article class.

  Sections can be defined with commands that include the following:


  These commands will produce the standard, numbered sections used in
  technical documents.  For unnumbered sections, use


  and so on.

  LaTeX provides many environments for formatting displayed material.
  You can include quoted text with the quotation environment.

  Start of paragraph to be quoted...

  ... end of paragraph.

  For shorter quotes, you can use the quote environment.

  To format verse, use the verse environment.

  Because I could not stop for death\\
  He kindly stopped for me

  Notice that you must use the double backslashes to break lines in the
  correct places.  Otherwise, LaTeX fills the lines in a verse environ­
  ment, just like any other environment.

  Lists come in several flavors.  To format a bulleted list, the list
  environment is used:

  This is the first item of the list.
  This is the second item of the list...
  ... and so on.

  A numbered list uses the enumerate environment:

  Item No. 1.
  Item No. 2.

  A descriptive list uses the description environment.

  \item{Oven} Dirty, needs new burner.
  \item{Refrigerator}  Dirty.  Sorry.
  \item{Sink and drainboard}  Stained, drippy, cold water faucet.

  4.4.2.  Letters.

  The letter class uses special definitions to format business letters.

  The letter environment takes one argument, the address of the letter's
  addressee.  The address command, which must appear in the document
  preamble, defines the return address.  The signature command defines
  the sender's name as it appears after the closing.

  The LaTeX source of a simple business letter might look like this.

  \signature{John Q. Public}
  \address{123 Main St.\\Los Angeles, CA.  96005\\Tel: 123/456-7890}
  \begin{letter}{ACME Brick Co.\\100 Ash St.\\San Diego, CA 96403}
  \opening{Dear Sir/Madam:}

  With regard to one of your bricks that I found on my living room
  carpet surrounded by shards of my broken front window...

  (Remainder of the body of the letter.)



  Note that the addresses include double backslashes, which specify
  where the line breaks should occur.

  5.  LaTeX extension packages and other resources.

  We mentioned above that using underlining as a form of text emphasis
  presents special problems.  Actually, TeX has no problem underlining
  text, because it is a convention of mathematical typesetting.  In
  LaTeX, you can underline words with the command:

  \underline{text to be underlined}

  The problem is that underlining will not break across lines, and, in
  some circumstances, underlining can be uneven.  However, there is a
  LaTeX macro package, ready-made, that makes underlining the default
  mode of text emphasis.  It's called ulem.sty, and is one of the many
  contributed LaTeX packages that are freely available via the Internet.

  To use ulem.sty, include the command:


  in the document preamble.

  The packages which are available for LaTeX include:

        Include conditional statements in your documents.

        Defines a font for initial dropped capitals.

        Font and preprocessor for producing documents in Sanskrit.

        A LaTeX2e class to typeset recipes.

        Variant report and article styles.

  To make the path given in the Catalogue into a fully-qualified URL,
  concatenate the path to the host name URL and top-level path of the
  CTAN archive you wish to contact.  For example, the top-level CTAN
  directory of the site ftp.tex.ac.uk is ctan/tex-archive.  The complete
  URL of the directory of the refman package would be:

  ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk/ctan/tex-archive/   +
  macros/latex/contrib/supported/refman   =


  Some packages have more than one file, so only the path to the pack­
  age's directory is given.

  When you have the URL in hand, you can retrieve the package from one
  of the CTAN archive sites listed in section ``Appendix A''.  You can
  download a complete list of the archive's contents as the file
  FILES.byname, in the archive's top-level directory.  You can also
  search the archive on line for a keyword with the ftp command

  quote site index <keyword>

  6.  Mixing text and graphics with dvips .

  In general, this section applies to any TeX or LaTeX document which
  mixes text and graphics.  teTeX, like most other TeX distributions, is
  configured to request Computer Modern fonts by default.  When printing
  documents with Type 1 scalable fonts or graphics, font and graphics
  imaging is the job of dvips. dvips can use either Computer Modern bit
  mapped fonts or Type 1 scalable fonts, or any combination of the two.
  First, let's concentrate on printing and previewing some graphics.

  You will probably want to follow this procedure any time a LaTeX
  source document has the statement


  in the document preamble.  This statement tells LaTeX to include the
  text of the graphics.sty package in the source document.  There are
  other commands to perform graphics operations, and the statements in
  plain-TeX documents may not clue you in whether you need to use dvips.
  The difference will be apparent in the output, though, when the docu­
  ment is printed with missing figures and other graphics.

  So, for now, we'll concentrate on printing documents which use the
  LaTeX graphics.sty package.  You might want to take a look at the
  original TeX input.  It isn't included in the teTeX distribution, but
  it is available at


  What the teTeX distribution does include is the .dvi output file, and
  it is already TeXed for you.  There is a reason for this, and it has
  to do with the necessity of including Type 1 fonts in the output in
  order for the document to print properly.  If you want to LaTeX
  grfguide.tex, see the next section.  For now, however, we'll work on
  getting usable output using dvips.

  The file grfguide.dvi is located in the directory


  The first step in outputting grfguide.dvi is to translate it to
  Postscript.  The program dvips is used for this.  It does just exactly
  what its name implies.  There are many options available for invoking
  dvips, but the simplest (nearly) form is

  dvips -f -r <grfguide.dvi >grfguide.ps

  The -f command switch tells dvips to operate as a filter, reading from
  standard input and writing to standard output.  dvips output can be
  configured so its output defaults to lpr.

  If you can print Postscript directly to your printer via lpr, you can
  simply type

  dvips -r grfguide.dvi

  The -r option tells dvips to output the pages in reverse order so they
  stack correctly when they exit a printer.  Use it or not, as appropri­
  ate for your output device.

  Depending on whether you still have the fonts that dvilj2 generated
  from the last document, dvips and metafont may or may not need to
  create new fonts needed by grfguide.dvi.  Eventually, though, dvips
  will output a list of the pages translated to Postscript, and you will
  have your Postscript output ready to be rendered on whatever output
  device you have available.

  If you're lucky (and rich), then you have a Postscript-capable printer
  already and will be able to print grfguide.ps directly.  You can
  either spool the output to the printer using lpr.  If for some reason
  your printer software doesn't work right with Postscript files, you
  can, in a pinch, simply dump the file to printer, with

  cat grfguide.ps >/dev/lp0

  or whichever port your printer is attached to, though this is not rec­
  ommended for everyday use.

  If you want or need to invoke Ghostscript manually, this is the
  standard procedure for its operation.  The first thing you want to do
  is invoke Ghostscript to view its command line arguments, like this:

  gs -help | less

  You'll see a list of supported output devices and sundry other com­
  mands.  Pick the output device which most nearly matches your printer.
  I generally produce black-and-white text and use the cdjmono driver,
  which drives a color Deskjet in monochrome (black and white) mode.

  The command line I would use is:

  gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=cdjmono -sOutputFile=/tmp/gs.out grfguide.ps -c quit

  This will produce my HP-compatible output in the /tmp directory.  It's
  a good idea to use a directory like /tmp, because gs can be particular
  about access permissions, and you can't (and shouldn't) always count
  on being logged in as root to perform these steps.  Now you can print
  the file:

  lpr /tmp/gs.out

  Obviously, this can all go into a shell script.  On my system, I have
  two simple scripts written, pv and pr, which simply outputs the
  Postscript file either to the display or the printer.  Screen preview­
  ing is possible without X, but it's far from ideal.  So, it's defi­
  nitely worth the effort to install XFree86 to view the output on the

  The order of commands in a gs command line is significant, because
  some of the options tell Ghostscript to look for pieces of Postscript
  code from its library.

  The important thing to remember is that grfguide.dvi makes requests
  for both Computer Modern bit mapped and Type 1 scaled fonts.  If you
  can mix scalable and bit mapped fonts in a document, you're well on
  the way to becoming a TeXpert.

  6.1.  What if my printer isn't supported?

  The teTeX distribution comes with only a limited selection of DVI
  output drivers: dvips, drivers for Hewlett Packard LaserJets, and
  nothing else.  You have two options if you have a printer which isn't
  LaserJet-compatible: You can use dvips and Ghostscript, which I would
  recommend anyway, for reasons already mentioned, or you can
  investigate other dviware sources.

  A limited number of DVI drivers have been ported to Linux and are
  available as pre-built binaries.  They are located in the Linux
  archives at ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/tex/dvi/.

  The master dviware libraries are maintained at the University of Utah
  archives.  If you can't find a DVI driver there that supports your
  printer, chances are that it doesn't exist.  You can also write your
  own DVI driver using the templates available there.  The library's URL
  is ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/dvi/.

  7.  Using Postscript fonts.

  It used to be that public domain, Type 1 fonts were much poorer
  quality than Computer Modern bit mapped fonts.  This situation has
  improved in the last several years, though, but matching the fonts is
  up to you.  Having several different font systems on one machine can
  seem redundant and an unnecessary waste of disk space.  And the
  Computer Modern fonts can seem, well, a little too formal to be
  suitable for everyday use.  It reminds me sometimes of bringing out
  the good China to feed the dog.  At least you don't need to spend a
  bundle on professional quality fonts any longer.

  One of the major improvements of LaTeX2e over its predecessor was the
  inclusion of the New Font Selection Scheme.  (It's now called PSNFSS.)
  Formerly, TeX authors would specify fonts with commands like

  \font=bodyroman = cmr10 scaled \magstep 1

  which provides precision but requires the skills of a type designer
  and mathematician to make good use of.  Also, it's not very portable.
  If another system didn't have the font cmr10 (this is TeX nomenclature
  for Computer Modern Roman, 10 point, with the default medium stroke
  weight), somebody would have to re-code the fonts specifications for
  the entire document.  PSNFSS, however, allows you specify fonts by
  family (Computer Modern, URW Nimbus, Helvetica, Utopia, and so forth),
  weight (light, medium, bold), orientation (upright or oblique), face
  (Roman, Italic), and base point size.  (See the section ``Characters
  and type styles'' for a description of the commands to specify
  typefaces.)  Many fonts are packaged as families.  For example, a
  Roman-type font may come packaged with a sans serif font, like
  Helvetica, and a monospaced font, like Courier.  You, as the author of
  a LaTeX document, can specify an entire font family with one command.

  There are, as I said, several high-quality font sets available in the
  public domain.  One of them is Adobe Utopia.  Another is Bitstream
  Charter.  Both are commercial quality fonts which have been donated to
  the public domain.

  These happen to be two of my favorites.  If you look around one of the
  CTAN sites, you will find these and other fonts archived there. There
  are enough fonts around that you'll be able to design documents the
  way you want them to look, and not just English text, either.  TeX was
  originally designed for mathematical typesetting, so there is a full
  range of mathematical fonts available, as well as Cyrillic, Greek,
  Kana, and other alphabets too numerous to mention.

  The important thing to look for is files which have either the .pfa or
  .pfb extension.  They indicate that these are the scalable fonts
  themselves, not simply the metrics files.  Type 1 fonts use .pfm
  metric files, as opposed to the .tfm metric files which bit mapped
  fonts use.  The two font sets I mentioned above are included in teTeX
  distributions, as well as separately.

  What I said above, concerning the ease of font selection under PSNFSS,
  is true in this instance.  If we want to use the Charter fonts in our
  document instead of Computer Modern bit mapped, all that is necessary
  is include the LaTeX statement


  in the document preamble, where ``bch'' is the common designation for
  Bitstream Charter.  The Charter fonts reside in the directory


  There you'll see the .pfb files of the Charter fonts: bchb8a.pfb for
  Charter Bold, bchr8a.pfb for Charter Roman, bchbi8a.pfb for Charter
  Bold Italic.  The ``8a'' in the font names indicates the character
  encoding.  At this point you shouldn't need to worry much about them,
  because the encodings mostly differ for 8-bit characters, which have
  numeric values above 128 decimal.  They mostly define accents and non-
  English characters.  The Type 1 font encodings generally work well for
  Western alphabets because they conform to the ISO 8859 standards for
  international character sets, so this is an added benefit of using

  To typeset a document which has Charter fonts selected, you would give
  the command

  pslatex document.tex

  pslatex is a variant of teTeX's standard latex command which defines
  the directories where the Type 1 fonts are, as well as some additional
  LaTeX code to load.  You'll see the notice screen for pslatex followed
  by the status output of the TeX job itself.  In a moment, you'll have
  a .dvi file which includes the Charter font requests.  You can then
  print the file with dvips, and gs if necessary.

  Installing a Type 1 font set is not difficult, as long as you follow a
  few basic steps.  You should unpack the fonts in a subdirectory of the
  /usr/lib/teTeX/texmf/fonts/type1 directory, where your other Type 1
  fonts are located, and then run texhash to let the directory search
  routines know that the fonts have been added.  Then you need to add
  the font descriptions to the file psfonts.map so dvips knows they're
  on the system.  The format of the psfonts.map file is covered in a
  couple different places in the references mentioned above.  Again,
  remember to run the texhash program to update the teTeX directory

  It is definitely an advantage to use the X Windows System with
  teTeX--- XFree86 under Linux---because it allows for superior document
  previewing.  It's not required, but in general, anything that allows
  for easier screen previewing is going to benefit your work, in terms
  of the quality of the output.  However, there is a tradeoff with speed
  of editing, which is much quicker on character-mode displays.

  8.  Appendix A: CTAN site list.

  This is the text of the file CTAN.sites, which is available in the
  top-level directory of each CTAN archive or mirror site.

  In order to reduce network load, it is recommended that you use the
  Comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN) host which is located in the
  closest network proximity to your site.  Alternatively, you may wish to
  obtain a copy of the CTAN via CD-ROM (see help/CTAN.cdrom for details).

  Known mirrors of the CTAN reside on (alphabetically):
    cis.utovrm.it (Italia)                /TeX
    ctan.unsw.edu.au (NSW, Australia)     /tex-archive
    dongpo.math.ncu.edu.tw (Taiwan)       /tex-archive
    ftp.belnet.be (Belgium)               /packages/TeX
    ftp.ccu.edu.tw (Taiwan)               /pub/tex
    ftp.cdrom.com (West coast, USA)       /pub/tex/ctan
    ftp.comp.hkbu.edu.hk (Hong Kong)      /pub/TeX/CTAN
    ftp.cs.rmit.edu.au  (Australia)       /tex-archive
    ftp.cs.ruu.nl (The Netherlands)       /pub/tex-archive
    ftp.cstug.cz (The Czech Republic)     /pub/tex/CTAN
    ftp.duke.edu (North Carolina, USA)    /tex-archive
    ftp.funet.fi (Finland)                /pub/TeX/CTAN
    ftp.gwdg.de (Deutschland)             /pub/dante
    ftp.jussieu.fr (France)               /pub4/TeX/CTAN
    ftp.kreonet.re.kr (Korea)             /pub/CTAN
    ftp.loria.fr (France)                 /pub/unix/tex/ctan
    ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de (Deutschland)       /pub/tex/mirror/ftp.dante.de
    ftp.nada.kth.se (Sweden)              /pub/tex/ctan-mirror
    ftp.oleane.net (France)               /pub/mirrors/CTAN/
    ftp.rediris.es (Espa\~na)             /mirror/tex-archive
    ftp.rge.com (New York, USA)           /pub/tex
    ftp.riken.go.jp (Japan)               /pub/tex-archive
    ftp.tu-chemnitz.de (Deutschland)      /pub/tex
    ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp (Japan)              /pub/tex/CTAN
    ftp.uni-augsburg.de (Deutschland)     /tex-archive
    ftp.uni-bielefeld.de (Deutschland)    /pub/tex
    ftp.unina.it (Italia)                 /pub/TeX
    ftp.uni-stuttgart.de (Deutschland)    /tex-archive (/pub/tex)
    ftp.univie.ac.at (\"Osterreich)       /packages/tex
    ftp.ut.ee (Estonia)                   /tex-archive
    ftpserver.nus.sg (Singapore)          /pub/zi/TeX
    src.doc.ic.ac.uk (England)            /packages/tex/uk-tex
    sunsite.auc.dk (Denmark)              /pub/tex/ctan
    sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch (Switzerland) /mirror/tex
    sunsite.icm.edu.pl (Poland)           /pub/CTAN
    sunsite.unc.edu (North Carolina, USA) /pub/packages/TeX
    wuarchive.wustl.edu (Missouri, USA)   /packages/TeX

  Known partial mirrors of the CTAN reside on (alphabetically):
    ftp.adfa.oz.au (Australia)            /pub/tex/ctan
    ftp.fcu.edu.tw (Taiwan)               /pub2/tex
    ftp.germany.eu.net (Deutschland)      /pub/packages/TeX
    ftp.gust.org.pl (Poland)              /pub/TeX
    ftp.jaist.ac.jp (Japan)               /pub/TeX/tex-archive
    ftp.uu.net (Virginia, USA)            /pub/text-processing/TeX
    nic.switch.ch (Switzerland)           /mirror/tex
    sunsite.dsi.unimi.it (Italia)         /pub/TeX
    sunsite.snu.ac.kr (Korea)             /shortcut/CTAN

  Please send updates to this list to <ctan@urz.uni-heidelberg.de>.

  The participating hosts in the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network are:
    ftp.dante.de  (Deutschland)
         -- anonymous ftp                 /tex-archive (/pub/tex /pub/archive)
         -- gopher on node gopher.dante.de
         -- e-mail via ftpmail@dante.de
         -- World Wide Web access on www.dante.de
         -- Administrator: <ftpmaint@dante.de>

    ftp.tex.ac.uk (England)
         -- anonymous ftp                 /tex-archive (/pub/tex /pub/archive)
         -- gopher on node gopher.tex.ac.uk
         -- NFS mountable from nfs.tex.ac.uk:/public/ctan/tex-archive
         -- World Wide Web access on www.tex.ac.uk
         -- Administrator: <ctan-uk@tex.ac.uk>

  9.  Appendix B: Installing the CTAN teTeX distribution.

  The generic, teTeX distribution isn't any harder to install than the
  Linux packages.  See section ``Generic CTAN distribution'', below.

  You should consider installing the generic teTeX distribution from the
  CTAN archives if:

  ·  Your system isn't based on one of the standard Linux distributions.

  ·  You don't have root privileges on your system.

  ·  You want or need to have the very latest version of teTeX, or

  ·  You don't have enough disk space available for a full installation.

  ·  You want to install teTeX somewhere instead of the /usr file

  ·  You would like to share your teTeX installation with other UNIX
     variants or platforms on a network.  In this case, you should
     strongly consider installing from the source distribution.  See
     section ``Installing the source distribution'', below.

  ·  You want the latest versions of teTeX's public domain Type 1 fonts,
     which are significantly better than the fonts included in earlier

  A complete installation of the binary distribution requires 40-50 Mb
  of disk space, and building the distribution from the source code
  takes about 75 Mb, so you should make sure that the disk space is
  available before you start.  You don't need to have the GCC compiler
  or the X Windows System installed (although X certainly helps because
  it is much easier to preview documents on-screen).  All you need is an
  editor that is capable of producing plain ASCII, text (see section 2).
  What could be simpler?

  You can retrieve the files from one of the CTAN archives listed in
  section ``Appendix A''.  In the examples below, the files were
  retrieved from the CTAN archive at ftp.tex.ac.uk.

  9.1.  Installing the binary distribution.

  9.1.1.  Minimal installation.

  First, FTP to ftp.tex.ac.uk and cd to the directory


  Retrieve the files


  and place them in the top-level directory where you want to install
  teTeX, for example, /var/teTeX if you plan to install teTeX in the
  /var file system.

  Print out the INSTALL.bin file.  Keep this file handy, because it
  describes how to install a minimal teTeX installation.  The minimal
  installation requires only 10-15 MB of disk space, but it is
  recommended that you install the complete teTeX package if at all
  possible.  For a minimum installation, you'll need the files


  You'll also need one of two archives which contain the executable
  teTeX programs.  Retrieve the archive file


  if your system uses the Linux ELF shared libraries, ld.so of at least
  version 1.73, and clibs of at least version 5.09.  If it doesn't,
  retrieve the archive


  which is compiled for systems that use the older, a.out-format static

  Then, following the instructions in the file INSTALL.bin, execute the

  sh ./install.sh

  while in the top-level teTeX installation directory. (Make sure that
  the teTeX archives are located there, too.)  After a few moments, the
  installation program will warn you that you are missing some of the
  teTeX packages.  However, if you're planning only a minimal teTeX
  installation, you should ignore the warnings and proceed.  To config­
  ure the basic teTeX system, see section ``Base system configuration'',

  To install the remaining packages, see the next section.

  9.1.2.  Complete installation.

  To perform a complete teTeX installation, retrieve the archive files
  listed in the previous section, as well as the following files:


  All of these files should be placed in the top-level directory where
  you want teTeX to reside.  As with the minimal installation, execute
  the command

  sh ./install.sh

  9.2.  Base system configuration.

  The install.sh script, after determining which teTeX archive series
  are present, will present you with a menu of options.  The only
  setting you need to make at this point is to set the top-level
  directory where you want teTeX installed, by selecting the ``D''
  option.  You must, of course, choose a directory in whose parent
  directory you have write permissions.  For example, if you are
  installing teTeX in your home directory, you would specify the teTeX
  installation directory as


  and, after returning to the main menu, select ``I'' to proceed with
  the installation.  Note that the directory must not exist already: the
  install.sh script must be able to create it.

  An option which you should consider enabling, is setting an
  alternative directory for generated fonts.  Even if you plan to use
  only Postscript-format, Type 1 scalable fonts, occasionally you'll
  process a file that requires the Computer Modern fonts.  Enabling this
  option requires that you enter the directory to use.  You must have
  write permissions for the parent directory.  Following the example
  above, you could specify


  or, if you want the generated fonts to be accessible by all users on
  the system, specify a directory like

  I would recommend that you not, however, use the default /var/tmp/tex­
  fonts directory for this option, because the generated fonts could be
  deleted after the next reboot, and the fonts will need to be generated
  again the next time they're needed.

  After you've selected the option ``I'', and install.sh has installed
  the archives, set various permissions, and generated its links and
  format files, the program will exit with a message telling you to add
  the teTeX binary directory to your $PATH environment variable, and the
  directories where the man pages and info files reside to your $MANPATH
  and $INFOPATH environment variables.  For example, add the statements

  export PATH=$PATH:"/home/john.q.public/teTeX/bin"
  export MANPATH=$MANPATH":/home/john.q.public/teTeX/man"
  export INFOPATH$=INFOPATH":/home/john.q.public/teTeX/info"

  to your ~/.bash_profile if you use bash as your shell, or to your
  ~/.profile if you use another shell for logins.

  Log out, and then log in again, so the environment variables are
  registered.  Then, run the command

  texconfig confall

  to insure that the installation is correct.

  Next, you can configure teTeX for you specific hardware.  See section
  ``Post-installation configuration details'', below.

  9.3.  Installing the CTAN source distribution.

  To install teTeX V. 0.4 from the source code, ftp to a CTAN site like
  ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk and retrieve the files


  Read over the instructions in INSTALL.src, then su to root and unpack
  the files in a directory for which you have read-write-execute

  Remember to use the p argument to tar, and also remember to unset the
  noclobber option of bash.  You can do this with the counterintuitive

  set +o noclobber

  Note that the argument +o to set unsets a variable, just exactly back­
  wards from what you might expect.

  The file teTeX-lib-0.4pl8.tar.gz will create the directory ./teTeX.
  The file teTeX-src-0.4pl7.tar.gz will create the directory teTeX-
  src-0.4 Print out the file INSTALL.src and keep it nearby for the
  following steps. cd to the ./teTeX-src-0.4 directory, and, per the
  instructions in the INSTALL.src file, edit ./Makefile.  You need to
  set the TETEXDIR variable to the absolute path of the parent teTeX
  directory.  This will be the subdirectory teTeX of the directory where
  you unpacked the source and library archives.  For example, if you
  unpacked the archives in your home directory, you would set TETEXDIR


  The rest of the Makefile options are pretty generic.  With GCC version
  2.7.2 and later, you should not need to make any further adjustments
  unless you have a non-standard compiler and library setup, or want the
  compiler to perform some further optimizations, or for some other rea­
  son.  Check that the USE_DIALOG, USE_NCURSES, and HAVE_NCURSES vari­
  ables are set correctly for your system, because the dialog program
  needs the ncurses library to be installed.  A ncurses library is
  included in the source distribution, so the default values in the
  Makefile should work fine.  If you can't get ncurses to compile or
  link, texconfig can also be run from the command line.

  If you've done everything correctly up to this point, you should be
  able to type make world in the top-level source directory, and relax
  until the teTeX executables are built.  This can take a few hours.

  After the build has completed, set the environment variables $PATH,
  $MANPATH, and $INFOPATH to include the teTeX directories.  The
  statements which would be added to the file ~/.bash_profile, in the
  example, above, would be

  export PATH=$PATH":/home/john.q.public/teTeX/bin/i386-linux"
  export MANPATH=$MANPATH":/home/john.q.public/teTeX/man"
  export INFOPATH=$INFOPATH":/home/john.q.public/teTeX/info"

  The $PATH variable is different in the source distribution than in the
  binary distribution.  Note that here the path to the binaries is
  teTeX/bin/i386-linux instead of simply teTeX/bin as in the binary dis­

  At this point you can run texconfig confall to ensure that the paths
  have been set correctly, and then proceed to configure teTeX as in the
  binary distribution.  See the section ``Post-installation
  configuration details'', below.

  9.4.  Post-installation configuration details.

  The first thing you want to do is look at Thomas Esser's README file.
  It contains a lot of hints on how to configure teTeX for your output
  device (i.e., printer).  The README file is located in the directory


  Read the file over with the command (the path in the following exam­
  ples is that of the Slackware distribution):

  less /usr/lib/teTeX/texmf/doc/tetex/README

  or, print it out with the command

  cat /usr/lib/teTeX/texmf/doc/tetex/README >/dev/lp0

  assuming that your printer is connected to /dev/lp0.  Substitute the
  device driver file that your printer is connected to, as appropriate.

  Or, better still, print it using the lpr command:

  lpr /usr/lib/teTeX/texmf/doc/tetex/README

  You should have installed the printer daemon that is included with
  your distribution of Linux.  If not, do that now, per the instructions
  that come with the package.

  Print out the teTeX-FAQ. Keep the FAQ handy because it contains useful
  hints for configuring teTeX's output drivers for your printer.  We'll
  get to that in a moment.  In more recent releases of teTeX, the teTeX-
  FAQ is viewable via the texconfig utility.

  Next, you want to define a directory to store your own TeX format
  files.  teTeX searches the directories listed by the $TEXINPUTS
  environment variable for local TeX input files:

  export TEXINPUTS=".:~/texinputs:"

  to the system-wide /etc/profile file.  Individual users can set their
  own local $TEXINPUTS directory, by adding the line in their ~/.profile
  or ~/.bash_profile if bash is the default shell.  The $TEXINPUTS envi­
  ronment variable tells teTeX to look for users' individual TeX style
  files in the ~/texinputs directories under each user's home directory.
  It is critical that a colon appear before and after this directory.
  teTeX is going to append its own directory searches to your own.  You
  want to have teTeX search the local format files first, so it uses the
  local versions of any of the standard files you have edited.

  Add the /usr/lib/teTeX/bin directory to the system-wide path if you're
  installing teTeX as root.  Again, if you're installing a personal copy
  of teTeX, add the directory where the teTeX binaries are located to
  the front your $PATH with the following line in your ~/.profile or

  export PATH="~/tetex/bin:"$PATH

  Now, log in as root and run texconfig per the instructions in the
  teTeX-FAQ and choose the printer that is attached to your system.
  Make sure that you configure teTeX for both the correct printer and
  printer resolution.

  Finally, run the texhash program.  This ensures that teTeX's internal
  database is up to date.  The database is actually a ls-lR file.  You
  must run texhash every time you change the system configuration, or
  teTeX will not be able to locate your changes.

  10.  Appendix C: Distribution and Copyright.

  10.1.  Distribution.

  teTeX is free software; this means everyone is free to use the
  software and free to redistribute it on certain conditions.  The
  package is not in the public domain.  It is copyrighted and there are
  restrictions on its distribution, but these restrictions are designed
  to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do.
  What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing
  any version of free software that they might get from you.  The
  precise conditions are found in the GNU General Public License that
  comes with many of the software packages and also appears following
  this section.

  One way to get a copy of the package is from someone else who has it.
  You need not ask for our permission to do so, or tell any one else;
  just copy it.  If you have access to the Internet, you can get the
  latest distribution versions by anonymous FTP.  See the chapter
  ``Sources'' for more information.

  You may also receive the software when you buy a computer.  Computer
  manufacturers are free to distribute copies on the same terms that
  apply to everyone else.  These terms require them to give you the full
  sources, including whatever changes they may have made, and to permit
  you to redistribute these packages received from them under the usual
  terms of the General Public License.  In other words, the program must
  be free for you when you get it, not just free for the manufacturer.

  You can also order copies of GNU software from the Free Software
  Foundation on CD-ROM.  This is a convenient and reliable way to get a
  copy; it is also a good way to help fund our work.  (The Foundation
  has always received most of its funds in this way.)  An order form is
  included many distribution, and on our web site in
  http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/order/order.html.  For further information,
  write to

  Free Software Foundation
  59 Temple Place, Suite 330
  Boston, MA  02111-1307 USA

  The income from distribution fees goes to support the foundation's
  purpose: the development of new free software, and improvements to our
  existing programs.

  If you use GNU software at your workplace, please suggest that the
  company make a donation.  If company policy is unsympathetic to the
  idea of donating to charity, you might instead suggest ordering a CD-
  ROM from the Foundation occasionally, or subscribing to periodic


  Version 2, June 1991

  Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59 Temple
  Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
  license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
  to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public License
  is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
  software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
  General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
  Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
  using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
  the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
  your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
  price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
  have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
  this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
  if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
  in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
  anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
  These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if
  you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
  gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
  you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
  source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
  (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
  distribute and/or modify the software.

  Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
  that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
  software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on,
  we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the
  original, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect
  on the original authors' reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
  patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
  program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
  program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
  patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
  modification follow.


  ·  This License applies to any program or other work which contains a
     notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
     under the terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program''
     below, refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on
     the Program'' means either the Program or any derivative work under
     copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a
     portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or
     translated into another language.  (Hereinafter, translation is
     included without limitation in the term,``modification.'')  Each
     licensee is addressed as ``you.''

     Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are
     not covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act
     of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the
     Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on
     the Program (independent of having been made by running the
     Program).  Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

  ·  You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source
     code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
     conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
     copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
     notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
     warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of
     this License along with the Program.

     You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy,
     and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange
     for a fee.

  ·  You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of
     it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
     distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
     above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

     1. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
     stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

     2. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
     whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
     part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
     parties under the terms of this License.

     3. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
     when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
     interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
     announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice
     that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a
     warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these
     conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
     License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does
     not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the
     Program is not required to print an announcement.)

     These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
     identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the
     Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate
     works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply
     to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But
     when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a
     work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on
     the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees
     extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part
     regardless of who wrote it.

     Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or
     contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the
     intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of
     derivative or collective works based on the Program.

     In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the
     Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a
     volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other
     work under the scope of this License.

  ·  You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
     under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms
     of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the

     1. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
     source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
     1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
     interchange; or,

     2. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
     years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost
     of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-
     readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed
     under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily
     used for software interchange; or,

     3. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
     to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
     allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
     received the program in object code or executable form with such an
     offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

     The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
     making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete
     source code means all the source code for all modules it contains,
     plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts
     used to control compilation and installation of the executable.
     However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need
     not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source
     or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so
     on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless
     that component itself accompanies the executable.

     If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
     access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
     access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
     distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
     compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

  ·  You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated
     so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

  ·  You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
     signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify
     or distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions
     are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.
     Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work
     based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License
     to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying,
     distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.

  ·  Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
     Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
     original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject
     to these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
     restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted
     herein.  You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third
     parties to this License.

  ·  If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
     infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent
     issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
     agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this
     License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this
     License.  If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously
     your obligations under this License and any other pertinent
     obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the
     Program at all.  For example, if a patent license would not permit
     royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive
     copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you
     could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely
     from distribution of the Program.

     If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable
     under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is
     intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply
     in other circumstances.

     It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
     patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of
     any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting
     the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
     implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
     generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
     through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
     system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
     willing to distribute software through any other system and a
     licensee cannot impose that choice.

     This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed
     to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

  ·  If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
     certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces,
     the original copyright holder who places the Program under this
     License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation
     excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only
     in or among countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this
     License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of
     this License.

  ·  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to
     it and ``any later version,'' you have the option of following the
     terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version
     published by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Program does not
     specify a version number of this License, you may choose any
     version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

  ·  If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
     programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the
     author to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by
     the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software
     Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.  Our decision
     will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of
     all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing
     and reuse of software generally.





  10.3.  How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
  possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
  free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
  to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
  convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
  the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is

  [one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.
  Copyright (C) 19[yy]  [name of author]

  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
  modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
  as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
  of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  GNU General Public License for more details.

  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
  with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
  59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

  Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper

  If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
  when it starts in an interactive mode:

  Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19[yy] [name of author]
  Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
  type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
  to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
  for details.

  The hypothetical commands ``show w'' and ``show c'' should show the
  appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
  commands you use may be called something other than ``show w'' and
  ``show c''; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
  suits your program.

  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
  your school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the
  program, if necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

  Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
  interest in the program `Gnomovision'
  (which makes passes at compilers) written
  by James Hacker.

  [signature of Ty Coon] 1 April 1989
  Ty Coon, President of Vice

  This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
  into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library,
  you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
  applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use
  the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.