Table of Contents

  1. License

  2. Introduction

  3. Further Information

  4. Installation

  5. Running The Daemons

  6. General Configuration (/etc/smb.conf)

  7. Sharing A Linux Drive With Windows Machines

  8. Accessing an SMB Share With Linux Machines

  9. Sharing A Linux Printer With Windows Machines

  10. Sharing A Windows Printer With Linux Machines

  11. Backing Up Windows Machines to a Linux Host

  12. Using Samba Across Routed Networks

  13. Acknowledgements


  1.  License

  Copyright (c)  2000  David Wood.

  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
  any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  Invariant Sections , with no Front-Cover Texts and with no Back-Cover
  Texts.  A copy of the license is available at

  2.  Introduction

  This is the SMB HOWTO.  This document describes how to use the Server
  Message Block (SMB) protocol, also called the Session Message Block,
  NetBIOS or LanManager protocol, with Linux using Samba.  Although this
  document is Linux-centric, Samba runs on most Unix-like operating

  This document is maintained by David Wood (
  Additions, modifications or corrections may be mailed there for
  inclusion in the next release.
  Much more Samba documentation is available at the Samba Web site,
  located at <>.  There is a
  tremendous amount of information there; please have a look before
  asking for help!  You also might try the comp.protocols.smb newsgroup.

  The SMB protocol is used by Microsoft Windows 3.11, NT and 95/98 to
  share disks and printers.  Using the Samba suite of tools by Andrew
  Tridgell (, UNIX (including Linux) machines
  can share disk and printers with Windows hosts.  The smbfs tools by
  Paal-Kr. Engstad ( and Volker Lendecke
  ( enable Unix machines to mount SMB shares
  from Windows or Samba hosts.

  There are four basic things that one can do with Samba:

  1. Share a Linux drive with Windows machines.

  2. Access an SMB share with Linux machines.

  3. Share a Linux printer with Windows machines.

  4. Share a Windows printer with Linux machines.

  All of these are covered in this document, plus a few other odds and

  Disclaimer: The procedures and scripts either work for the author or
  have been reported to work by the people that provided them.
  Different configurations may not work with the information given here.
  If you encounter such a situation, please e-mail the author with
  suggestions for improvement in this document.

  Please note that for Windows 3.x machines to access SMB shares, they
  must have a TCP/IP stack and the Win32s DLLs.  Both of these are
  available on Microsoft's Web site (
  <>).  As of the writing of this version of the
  HOWTO, Microsoft are reportedly requiring a subscription to the
  Microsoft Software Developers Network (MSDN) to download the TCP/IP-32
  stack for Windows 3.x from their Web site.  Since this software used
  to be free, many older copies are in existance and may be acquired
  from friends and user group contacts.

  3.  Further Information

  This HOWTO attempts to explain how to configure basic SMB file and
  print services on a Linux machine.  Samba is a very complex and
  complete package.  There would be no point in attempting to duplicate
  all of the documentation for Samba here.

  For further information, please see the following documents:

  ·  The Samba documentation, available as part of the Samba
     distribution.  The distribution is available at: <>

  ·  The Linux Printing HOWTO.

  ·  Protocol Standard For A NetBIOS Service On A TCP/UDP Transport.

     RFC 1001
        > RFC 1001 - Concepts and Methods.

     RFC 1002
        > RFC 1002 - Detailed Specifications.
  4.  Installation

  First, in order to use Samba your machines must be on a single
  ethernet LAN segment using the TCP/IP protocol.  Samba will not work
  using other network protocols.  This is generally easy since Linux and
  Windows 95/98/NT ship with TCP/IP support.  However, if you are using
  Windows 3.X machines TCP/IP support will need to be added.  One of the
  most common questions that I get asked is why Samba "isn't working"
  when Windows machines are not using TCP/IP.

  In order to setup Windows 95/98 to use TCP/IP, select Control Panel |
  Network, then add and configure Microsoft TCP/IP.  Under Windows NT,
  select Control Panel | Network | Protocols.

  To get the latest source version of Samba, go to this URL and pick the
  closest mirror site to you:

  In most cases, though, your Linux distribution will already come with
  an installable package containing a recent version of Samba.

  The following two daemons are required for the Samba package.  They
  are typically installed in /usr/sbin and run either on boot from the
  systems startup scripts or from inetd.  Example scripts are shown in
  ``Running the Daemons''.

          smbd (The SMB daemon)
          nmbd (Provides NetBIOS nameserver support to clients)

  Please note that the name service provided by the nmbd daemon is
  different from the name service provided by the Domain Name Service
  (DNS).  NetBIOS name service is a 'Windows-style' name service used
  for SMB.  In other words, having DNS name service tells you nothing
  about the state of the ability for Samba to resolve host names.

  Typically, the following Samba binaries are installed in /usr/bin or
  /usr/local/samba/bin, although the location is optional.

          smbclient       (An SMB client for UNIX machines)
          smbprint        (A script to print to a printer on an SMB host)
          smbprint.sysv   (As above, but for SVR4 UNIX machines)
          smbstatus       (Lists the cuurent SMB connections for the local host)
          smbrun          (A 'glue' script to facilitate runnning applciations
                           on SMB hosts)

  The binaries for smbfs file system support are discussed later in this

  Additionally, a script called 'print' is included with this HOWTO,
  which serves as a useful front end to the smbprint script.

  The Samba package is simple to install.  Simply retrieve the source
  from the location mentioned above, and read the file README in the
  distribution.  There is also a file called docs/INSTALL.txt in the
  distribution that provides a simple step-by-step set of instructions.

  Following installation, place the daemons in /usr/sbin and the
  binaries in /usr/bin.  Install the man pages in /usr/local/man.

  When you made the Samba package, you would have specified in the
  Makefile the location for the configuration file, smb.conf.  This is
  generally in /etc, but you can put it anywhere you like.  For these
  directions, we will presume that you specified the location of the
  configuration file as /etc/smb.conf, the log file location as log file
  = /var/log/samba-log.%m and the lock directory as lock directory =

  Install the configuration file, smb.conf.  Go to the directory where
  Samba was built.  Look in the subdirectory examples/simple and read
  the file README.  Copy the file smb.conf found in that directory to
  /etc.  BE CAREFUL!  If you have a Linux distribution that already has
  Samba installed, you may already have a Samba configuration file in
  /etc.  You should probably start with that one.

  If you don't want to have your configuration file in /etc, put it
  wherever you want to, then put a symlink in /etc:

          ln -s /path/to/smb.conf /etc/smb.conf

  5.  Running The Daemons

  The two SMB daemons are /usr/sbin/smbd and /usr/sbin/nmbd.  Under most
  Linux distributions, these are started, stoped and restarted via the
  startup script located in /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb and symlinked to the
  appropriate runlevels.

  If you choose not to use the standard startup script, you can run the
  Samba daemons from inetd or as stand-alone processes.  Samba will
  respond slightly faster as a standalone daemon than running from

  In either case, you should check the file /etc/services for lines that
  look like this:

       netbios-ns      137/tcp         nbns
       netbios-ns      137/udp         nbns
       netbios-dgm     138/tcp         nbdgm
       netbios-dgm     138/udp         nbdgm
       netbios-ssn     139/tcp         nbssn

  Make sure they are all uncommented.  Depending on your distribution,
  you may even need to add them.   Samba will not be able to bind to the
  appropriate ports unless /etc/services has these entries.

  To run the daemons from inetd, place the following lines in the inetd
  configuration file, /etc/inetd.conf:

      # SAMBA NetBIOS services (for PC file and print sharing)
      netbios-ssn stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/smbd smbd
      netbios-ns dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/nmbd nmbd

  Then restart the inetd daemon by running the command:

      kill -HUP `cat /var/run/`

  To run the daemons from the system startup scripts, put the following
  script in file called /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb (for most distributions)
  and symbolically link it to the files specified in the comments:


      # /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb - starts and stops SMB services.
      # The following files should be synbolic links to this file:
      # symlinks: /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K35smb  (Kills SMB services on shutdown)
      #           /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S91smb  (Starts SMB services in multiuser mode)
      #           /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K35smb  (Kills SMB services on reboot)

      # Source function library.
      . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions

      # Source networking configuration.
      . /etc/sysconfig/network

      # Check that networking is up.
      [ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0

      # See how we were called.
      case "$1" in
          echo -n "Starting SMB services: "
          daemon smbd -D
          daemon nmbd -D
          touch /var/lock/subsys/smb
          echo -n "Shutting down SMB services: "
          killproc smbd
          killproc nmbd
          rm -f /var/lock/subsys/smb
          echo ""
          echo "Usage: smb {start|stop}"
          exit 1

  If when starting Samba you get an error that says something about the
  daemon failing to bind to port 139, then you probably have another
  Samba process already running that hasn't yet shut down.  Check a
  process list (with 'ps auxww | grep mbd') to determine if another
  Samba service is running.

  6.  General Configuration (/etc/smb.conf)

  Samba configuration on a Linux (or other UNIX machine) is controlled
  by a single file, /etc/smb.conf.  This file determines which system
  resources you want to share with the outside world and what
  restrictions you wish to place on them.

  Since the following sections will address sharing Linux drives and
  printers with Windows machines, the smb.conf file shown in this
  section is as simple as you can get, just for introductory purposes.

  Don't worry about the details, yet.  Later sections will introduce the
  major concepts.

  Each section of the file starts with a section header such as
  [global], [homes], [printers], etc.

  The [global] section defines a few variables that Samba will use to
  define sharing for all resources.

  The [homes] section allows a remote users to access their (and only
  their) home directory on the local (Linux) machine).  That is, users
  trying to connect to this share from Windows machines, will be
  connected to their personal home directories.  Note that to do this,
  they must have an account on the Linux box.

  The sample smb.conf file below allows remote users to get to their
  home directories on the local machine and to write to a temporary
  directory.  For a Windows user to see these shares, the Linux box has
  to be on the local network.  Then the user simply connects a network
  drive from the Windows File Manager or Windows Explorer.

  Note that in the following sections, additional entries for this file
  will be given to allow more resources to be shared.

       ; /etc/smb.conf
       ; Make sure and restart the server after making changes to this file, ex:
       ; /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb stop
       ; /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb start

       ; Uncomment this if you want a guest account
       ; guest account = nobody
          log file = /var/log/samba-log.%m
          lock directory = /var/lock/samba
          share modes = yes

          comment = Home Directories
          browseable = no
          read only = no
          create mode = 0750

          comment = Temporary file space
          path = /tmp
          read only = no
          public = yes

  Having written a new smb.conf, it is useful to test it to verify its
  correctness.  You can test the correctness of a smb.conf file , using
  the 'testparm' utility (man page: testparm); if testparm reports no
  problems, smbd will correctly load the configuration file.

  Here's a good trick:  If your Samba server has more than one ethernet
  interface, the smbd may bind to the wrong one.  If so, you can force
  it to bind to the intended one by adding a line that looks like this
  to the [global] section of /etc/smb.conf:

       interfaces =

  where you replace the IP address above with the one that is assigned
  to the correct ethernet interface.  The "24" is correct for a Class C
  network, but may have to be recalculated if you have subnetted the
  network.  The number relates to the netmask.  Numbers for other
  classes of networks are given in the IP-Masquerade mini-HOWTO.

  There is now a GUI configuration tool for Samba:  GtkSamba.  See <>.

  7.  Sharing A Linux Drive With Windows Machines

  As shown in the simple smb.conf above, sharing Linux drives with
  Windows users is easy.  However, like everything else with Samba, you
  can control things to a large degree.  Here are some examples:

  To share a directory with the public, create a clone of the [tmp]
  section above by adding something like this to smb.conf:

          comment = Public Stuff
          path = /home/public
          public = yes
          writable = yes
          printable = no

  To make the above directory readable by the public, but only writable
  by people in group staff, modify the entry like this:

          comment = Public Stuff
          path = /home/public
          public = yes
          writable = yes
          printable = no
          write list = @staff

  It used to be that easy; you would now be able to start Samba and
  browse the shares from a Windows PC.  However, Microsoft has recently
  made life slightly more difficult for those using Samba.  Windows 98,
  Windows NT (service pack 3 or higher) and later builds of Windows 95
  now use encrypted passwords by default.  Samba uses unencrypted
  passwords by default.  You can't browse servers when either the client
  or server is using encrypted passwords, because a connection cannot be
  made anonymously.

  You can tell if you have a password type mismatch between client and
  server if when you try to connect to a share you see a dialog box
  which reads something like "You are not authorized to access that
  account from this machine".

  You can either configure your Samba server to use encrypted passwords,
  or configure the Windows machines to use unencrypted passwords.

  To get Windows to work with encrypted SMB passwords:

  Windows 95/98 =============

  Using the registry editor (regedit), create the registry setting
  HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\VxD\VNETSUP Add a
  new DWORD value: Value Name:  EnablePlainTextPassword Data:

  Windows NT ==========

  Using the registry editor (regedit), create the registry setting
  Add a new DWORD value: Value Name:  EnablePlainTextPassword Data:

  Windows 2000 ============

  Using the registry editor (regedit), create the registry setting
  Add a new DWORD value: Value Name: EnablePlainTextPassword Data: 0x01

  Once these registry changes have been made, reboot the Windows machine
  and try to map a network drive on the Samba server again.  It should
  work as long as the Samba server is using plain text passwords.

  To configure Samba to use encrypted passwords:

  In the [global] section of /etc/smb.conf, add the following lines:

       encrypt passwords = yes
       smb passwd file = /etc/smbpasswd

  You are highly encouraged to read the files ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt
  and WinNT.txt in the Samba documentation before doing this!

  If your clients and server are using encrypted passwords, you will not
  be able to browse the available shares on the server until an initial
  connection has been made with the appropriate authentication.  To get
  the initial connection, enter the share name manually in the Windows
  File Manager or Explorer dialog box, in the form
  '\\<hostname>\<sharename>'.  Log onto the server with a username and
  password that is valid on the server!

  If you suspect that your NetBIOS name service is not correctly
  configured (perhaps because you get 'host not found' errors when
  trying to connect), try using just the IP address of the server:
  '\\<host ip address>\<sharename>'.
  In order to get filenames to appear correctly, you may also need to
  set some options in the appropriate share section.  These work for
  Windows 95/98/NT clients, but may need to be modified if you have
  Windows 3.X clients:

           ; Mangle case = yes seems to give the correct filenames
           ; for Win95/98/NT.
           mangle case = yes

           ; If samba is case sensitive when looking for files
           case sensitive = no

           ; Default case of files that are created
           default case = lower

           ; Preserve case for all filenames
           preserve case = yes

           ; Preserve case for dos (8.3) filenames
           short preserve case = no

  For other tricks to play with drive shares, see the Samba
  documentation or man pages.

       interfaces =

  Note:  The bit after the / is a reference to the subnet mask.  "24" is
  the value to use for an unsegmented Class C network.  For more
  information on subnet calculations, you might want to see <>.

  There is a lot more to Samba configuration than this, but this will
  get you started.  If you want to do something more advanced, I refer
  you to the Samba Web site mentioned above.

  8.  Accessing an SMB Share With Linux Machines

  Linux (UNIX) machines can also browse and mount SMB shares.  Note that
  this can be done whether the server is a Windows machine or a Samba

  An SMB client program for UNIX machines is included with the Samba
  distribution.  It provides an ftp-like interface on the command line.
  You can use this utility to transfer files between a Windows 'server'
  and a Linux client.

  Most Linux distributions also now include the useful smbfs package,
  which allows one to mount and umount SMB shares.  More on smbfs below.

  To see which shares are available on a given host, run:

      /usr/bin/smbclient -L host

  where 'host' is the name of the machine that you wish to view.  this
  will return a list of 'service' names - that is, names of drives or
  printers that it can share with you.  Unless the SMB server has no
  security configured, it will ask you for a password.  Get it the
  password for the 'guest' account or for your personal account on that

  For example:

      smbclient -L zimmerman

  The output of this command should look something like this:

       Server time is Sat Aug 10 15:58:27 1996
       Timezone is UTC+10.0
       Domain=[WORKGROUP] OS=[Windows NT 3.51] Server=[NT LAN Manager 3.51]

       Server=[ZIMMERMAN] User=[] Workgroup=[WORKGROUP] Domain=[]

               Sharename      Type      Comment
               ---------      ----      -------
               ADMIN$         Disk      Remote Admin
               public         Disk      Public
               C$             Disk      Default share
               IPC$           IPC       Remote IPC
               OReilly        Printer   OReilly
               print$         Disk      Printer Drivers

       This machine has a browse list:

               Server               Comment
               ---------            -------
               HOPPER               Samba 1.9.15p8
               KERNIGAN             Samba 1.9.15p8
               LOVELACE             Samba 1.9.15p8
               RITCHIE              Samba 1.9.15p8

  The browse list shows other SMB servers with resources to share on the

  To use the client, run:

      /usr/bin/smbclient service <password>

  where 'service' is a machine and share name.  For example, if you are
  trying to reach a directory that has been shared as 'public' on a
  machine called zimmerman, the service would be called
  \\zimmerman\public.  However, due to shell restrictions, you will need
  to escape the backslashes, so you end up with something like this:

      /usr/bin/smbclient \\\\zimmerman\\public mypasswd

  where 'mypasswd' is the literal string of your password.

  You will get the smbclient prompt:

       Server time is Sat Aug 10 15:58:44 1996
       Timezone is UTC+10.0
       Domain=[WORKGROUP] OS=[Windows NT 3.51] Server=[NT LAN Manager 3.51]
       smb: \>

  Type 'h' to get help using smbclient:

       smb: \> h
       ls             dir            lcd            cd             pwd
       get            mget           put            mput           rename
       more           mask           del            rm             mkdir
       md             rmdir          rd             prompt         recurse
       translate      lowercase      print          printmode      queue
       cancel         stat           quit           q              exit
       newer          archive        tar            blocksize      tarmode
       setmode        help           ?              !
       smb: \>

  If you can use ftp, you shouldn't need the man pages for smbclient.

  Although you can use smbclient for testing, you will soon tire of it
  for real work.  For that you will probably want to use the smbfs
  package.  Smbfs comes with two simple utilties, smbmount and
  smbumount.  They work just like mount and umount for SMB shares.

  One important thing to note:  You must have smbfs support compiled
  into your kernel to use these utilities!

  The following shows a typical use of smbmount to mount an SMB share
  called "customers" from a machine called "samba1":

       [root@postel]# smbmount "\\\\samba1\\customers" -U rtg2t -c 'mount /customers -u 500 -g 100'
       Added interface ip= bcast= nmask=
       Got a positive name query response from ( )
       Server time is Tue Oct  5 10:27:36 1999
       Timezone is UTC-4.0
       Domain=[IPM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 2.0.3]

  Issuing a mount command will now show the share mounted, just as if it
  were an NFS export:

       [root@postel]# mount
       /dev/hda2 on / type ext2 (rw)
       none on /proc type proc (rw)
       none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,mode=622)
       //SAMBA1/CUSTOMERS on /customers type smbfs (0)

  Please see the manual pages for smbmount and smbumount for details on
  the above operation.

  9.  Sharing A Linux Printer With Windows Machines

  To share a Linux printer with Windows machines, you need to make
  certain that your printer is set up to work under Linux.  If you can
  print from Linux, setting up an SMB share of the printer is stright

  Note that Windows users must have an account on the Linux/Samba server
  in order to print.  Windows 95/98 will attempt to authenticate to the
  print server using the username and password used on login to the
  Windows box.This means that if you clicked 'Cancel' when logging onto
  Windows, you can't print (or connect to other SMB services)!  Windows
  NT allows one to explicitely provide a username and password when
  connecting to a printer.

  See the Printing HOWTO to set up local printing.

  Add printing configuration to your smb.conf:

     printing = bsd
     printcap name = /etc/printcap
     load printers = yes
     log file = /var/log/samba-log.%m
     lock directory = /var/lock/samba

     comment = All Printers
     security = server
     path = /var/spool/lpd/lp
     browseable = no
     printable = yes
     public = yes
     writable = no
     create mode = 0700

     security = server
     path = /var/spool/lpd/lp
     printer name = lp
     writable = yes
     public = yes
     printable = yes
     print command = lpr -r -h -P %p %s

  Make certain that the printer path (in this case under [ljet]) matches
  the spool directory in /etc/printcap!

  The lines:

     printcap name = /etc/printcap
     load printers = yes

  controls whether all the printers in /etc/printcap should be loaded by
  default.  If you do this, there is no reason to set up printers
  individually.  The section [printers] specifies options for the
  printers that you wish to explicitly difine.  If the printing
  subsystem you are using doesn't work this way (BSD), you need to set
  up a fake printcap file (or to use the 'print command' technique, see
  below).  For more information on the printcap system see the Printing

  A useful technique to test the network connection is to change the
  print command to:

     print command = cp %S /tmp/print.%P.%S

  The resulting file can then be analyzed.

  NOTE:  There are some problems sharing printers on UNIX boxes with
  Windows NT machines using Samba.  One problem is with NT seeing the
  shared printer properly.  To fix this, see the notes in the Samba
  distribution in the file docs/WinNT.txt.  The other deals with
  password problems.  See the comments in the same file for an annoying
  gain of understanding and failure to fix the problem.

  Oleg L. Machulskiy ( suggests that a better
  print command to use in the above example would be:

       print command = smb2ps %s | lpr -r -h -P %p

  where 'smb2ps' is a script which transforms the spool file received
  from Windows into usual a usable Postscript file. It must cut off
  first 3 lines and last 2 lines, because these lines contain some PJL
  or PCL codes.

  That approach is only needed if your Windows machine is printing PCL
  and not real Postscript.  I have found that Windows 95/98/NT don't
  have a generic Postscript driver per se, but the "Digital turbo
  Printserver 20" driver acts as a good general Postscript driver for
  most setups.  I have also heard that the "Apple LaserWriter II NTX"
  driver works for this purpose.

  If you are creating a printer spool directory instead of using one
  created by a Linux distribution's installation utility, be careful of
  permissions!  Neil Fraser ( suggested setting the
  permissions of the spool directory (in his case, /var/spool/lpd/lpr)
  to 4755 (note the suid bit).  This worked for him when the owner of
  the directory was 'root' and the group was 'lp'.

  Jeff Stern ( reported that he had to set
  the permissions on his spool directory to 777 in order for non-
  priviledged users to print, although he notes that he could have also
  added users to the 'lp' group.  This is a decision for local systems
  administrators;  if printing security is an issue, then lock it down.
  In home environments, you will probably want everyone to be able to

  Dr. Michael Langner ( points out that write
  permission problems on the /var/spool/lpd/ tree could be avoided by
  use something like "path = /tmp" and "print command = lpr -r -P%p %s"

  Sometimes, a Postscript parsing error will occur with Postscript
  printing from Windows machines that causes an extra page to be printed
  at the end of every print job.  The last page will always have "%%[
  Lastpage ]%%" at the top of it.  This seems to happen with Windows 95
  and 98 only and is because the Postscript is malformed.

  One way to handle that is to use a script to remove that bit of bad
  Postscript from the spooled jobs.  Another way is to try to find a
  better Windows Postscript driver.  Probably the best way is to us
  LPRng instead of Postscript to print to a Samba server.

  Erik Ratcliffe ( Caldera tells me that using LPRng
  means that any printer driver can be used from Windows machines.  On
  the Samba server, they used an /etc/printcap entry that looked like

  LPRng doesn't require :\ at the end of every line.  A printer entry
  will still need to be made in /etc/smb.conf for the physical printer.
  The print command line needs to use the "raw" entry in /etc/printcap
  and data must be sent to the printer in binary form.  Try a print
  command line like this:

       print command = lpr -b -Praw %s

  You may also need to set the spooling on the Windows95 end to print
  directly to the printer instead of spooling.

  If you constantly get a extra page printing at the end of print jobs
  from Windows clients, try adding an "sf" directive in /etc/printcap.
  This will suppress form feeds separating jobs, but will not effect
  form feeds within documents.

  10.  Sharing A Windows Printer With Linux Machines

  To share a printer on a Windows machine, you must do the following:

  1. You must have the proper entries in /etc/printcap and they must
     correspond to the local directory structure (for the spool
     directory, etc).

  2. You must have the script /usr/bin/smbprint.  This comes with the
     Samba source, but not with all Samba binary distributions.  A
     slightly modifed copy is discussed below.

  3. If you want to convert ASCII files to Postscript, you must have
     nenscript, or its equivalent.  nenscript is a Postscript converter
     and is generally installed in /usr/bin.

  4. You may wish to make Samba printing easier by having an easy-to-use
     front end.  A simple perl script to handle ASCII, Postscript or
     created Postscript is given below.

  5. You could also use MagicFilter to do the above.  The details on
     setting up MagicFilter are given below the perl script.
     MagicFilter has advantages because it knows how to automatically
     convert a lot of file formats.

  The /etc/printcap entry below is for an HP 5MP printer on a Windows NT
  host.  The entries are as follows:

          cm - comment
          lp - device name to open for output
          sd - the printer's spool directory (on the local machine)
          af - the accounting file
          mx - the maximum file size (zero is unlimited)
          if - name of the input filter (script)

  For more information, see the Printing HOWTO or the man page for

       # /etc/printcap
       # //zimmerman/oreilly via smbprint
               :cm=HP 5MP Postscript OReilly on zimmerman:\

  Make certain that the spool and accounting directories exist and are
  writable.  Ensure that the 'if' line holds the proper path to the
  smbprint script (given below) and make sure that the proper device is
  pointed to (the /dev special file).

  Next is the smbprint script itself.  It is usually placed in /usr/bin
  and is attributable to Andrew Tridgell, the person who created Samba
  as far as I know.  It comes with the Samba source distribution, but is
  absent from some binary distributions, so I have recreated it here.

  You may wish to look at this carefully.  There are some minor
  alterations that have shown themselves to be useful.

  #!/bin/sh -x

  # This script is an input filter for printcap printing on a unix machine. It
  # uses the smbclient program to print the file to the specified smb-based
  # server and service.
  # For example you could have a printcap entry like this
  # smb:lp=/dev/null:sd=/usr/spool/smb:sh:if=/usr/local/samba/smbprint
  # which would create a unix printer called "smb" that will print via this
  # script. You will need to create the spool directory /usr/spool/smb with
  # appropriate permissions and ownerships for your system.

  # Set these to the server and service you wish to print to
  # In this example I have a WfWg PC called "lapland" that has a printer
  # exported called "printer" with no password.

  # Script further altered by (Michael Hamilton)
  # so that the server, service, and password can be read from
  # a /usr/var/spool/lpd/PRINTNAME/.config file.
  # In order for this to work the /etc/printcap entry must include an
  # accounting file (af=...):
  #   cdcolour:\
  #       :cm=CD IBM Colorjet on 6th:\
  #       :sd=/var/spool/lpd/cdcolour:\
  #       :af=/var/spool/lpd/cdcolour/acct:\
  #       :if=/usr/local/etc/smbprint:\
  #       :mx=0:\
  #       :lp=/dev/null:
  # The /usr/var/spool/lpd/PRINTNAME/.config file should contain:
  #   server=PC_SERVER
  #   service=PR_SHARENAME
  #   password="password"
  # E.g.
  #   server=PAULS_PC
  #   service=CJET_371
  #   password=""

  # Debugging log file, change to /dev/null if you like.
  # logfile=/dev/null

  # The last parameter to the filter is the accounting file name.

  # Should read the following variables set in the config file:
  #   server
  #   service
  #   password
  #   user
  eval `cat $config_file`

  # Some debugging help, change the >> to > if you want to same space.
  echo "server $server, service $service" >> $logfile

  # NOTE You may wish to add the line `echo translate' if you want automatic
  # CR/LF translation when printing.
          echo translate
          echo "print -"
  ) | /usr/bin/smbclient "\\\\$server\\$service" $password -U $user -N -P >> $logfile

  Most Linux distributions come with nenscript for converting ASCII
  documents to Postscript.  The following perl script makes life easier
  be providing a simple interface to Linux printing via smbprint.

  Usage: print [-a|c|p] <filename>
         -a prints <filename> as ASCII
         -c prints <filename> formatted as source code
         -p prints <filename> as Postscript
          If no switch is given, print attempts to
          guess the file type and print appropriately.

  Using smbprint to print ASCII files tends to truncate long lines.
  This script breaks long lines on whitespace (instead of in the middle
  of a word), if possible.

  The source code formatting is done with nenscript.  It takes an ASCII
  file and foramts it in 2 columns with a fancy header (date, filename,
  etc).  It also numbers the lines.  Using this as an example, other
  types of formatting can be accomplished.

  Postscript documents are already properly formatted, so they pass
  through directly.


  # Script:   print
  # Authors:  Brad Marshall, David Wood
  #           Plugged In Communications
  # Date:     960808
  # Script to print to a Postscript printer via Samba.
  # Purpose:  Takes files of various types as arguments and
  # processes them appropriately for piping to a Samba print script.
  # Currently supported file types:
  # ASCII      - ensures that lines longer than $line_length characters wrap on
  #              whitespace.
  # Postscript - Takes no action.
  # Code       - Formats in Postscript (using nenscript) to display
  #              properly (landscape, font, etc).

  # Set the maximum allowable length for each line of ASCII text.
  $line_length = 76;

  # Set the path and name of the Samba print script
  $print_prog = "/usr/bin/smbprint";

  # Set the path and name to nenscript (the ASCII-->Postscript converter)
  $nenscript = "/usr/bin/nenscript";

  unless ( -f $print_prog ) {
          die "Can't find $print_prog!";
  unless ( -f $nenscript ) {
          die "Can't find $nenscript!";


  # DBG
  print "filetype is $filetype\n";

  if ($filetype eq "ASCII") {
  } elsif ($filetype eq "code") {
  } elsif ($filetype eq "ps") {
  } else {
          print " known file type.\n";
          exit 0;
  # Pipe the array to smbprint
  open(PRINTER, "|$print_prog") || die "Can't open $print_prog: $!\n";
  foreach $line (@newlines) {
          print PRINTER $line;
  # Send an extra linefeed in case a file has an incomplete last line.
  print PRINTER "\n";
  print "Completed\n";
  exit 0;

  # --------------------------------------------------- #
  #        Everything below here is a subroutine        #
  # --------------------------------------------------- #
  sub ParseCmdLine {
          # Parses the command line, finding out what file type the file is

          # Gets $arg and $file to be the arguments (if the exists)
          # and the filename
          if ($#_ < 0) {
          # DBG
  #       foreach $element (@_) {
  #               print "*$element* \n";
  #       }

          $arg = shift(@_);
          if ($arg =~ /\-./) {
                  $cmd = $arg;
          # DBG
  #       print "\$cmd found.\n";

                  $file = shift(@_);
          } else {
                  $file = $arg;

          # Defining the file type
          unless ($cmd) {
                  # We have no arguments

                  if ($file =~ /\.ps$/) {
                          $filetype = "ps";
                  } elsif ($file =~ /\.java$|\.c$|\.h$|\.pl$|\.sh$|\.csh$|\.m4$|\.inc$|\.html$|\.htm$/) {
                          $filetype = "code";
                  } else {
                          $filetype = "ASCII";

                  # Process $file for what type is it and return $filetype
          } else {
                  # We have what type it is in $arg
                  if ($cmd =~ /^-p$/) {
                          $filetype = "ps";
                  } elsif ($cmd =~ /^-c$/) {
                          $filetype = "code";
                  } elsif ($cmd =~ /^-a$/) {
                          $filetype = "ASCII"

  sub usage {
          print "
  Usage: print [-a|c|p] <filename>
         -a prints <filename> as ASCII
         -c prints <filename> formatted as source code
         -p prints <filename> as Postscript
          If no switch is given, print attempts to
          guess the file type and print appropriately.\n

  sub wrap {
          # Create an array of file lines, where each line is < the
          # number of characters specified, and wrapped only on whitespace

          # Get the number of characters to limit the line to.
          $limit = pop(@_);

          # DBG
          #print "Entering subroutine wrap\n";
          #print "The line length limit is $limit\n";

          # Read in the file, parse and put into an array.
          open(FILE, "<$file") || die "Can't open $file: $!\n";
          while(<FILE>) {
                  $line = $_;

                  # DBG
                  #print "The line is:\n$line\n";

                  # Wrap the line if it is over the limit.
                  while ( length($line) > $limit ) {

                          # DBG
                          #print "Wrapping...";

                          # Get the first $limit +1 characters.
                          $part = substr($line,0,$limit +1);

                          # DBG
                          #print "The partial line is:\n$part\n";

                          # Check to see if the last character is a space.
                          $last_char = substr($part,-1, 1);
                          if ( " " eq $last_char ) {
                              # If it is, print the rest.

                              # DBG
                              #print "The last character was a space\n";

                              substr($line,0,$limit + 1) = "";
                              substr($part,-1,1) = "";
                          } else {
                               # If it is not, find the last space in the
                               # sub-line and print up to there.

                              # DBG
                              #print "The last character was not a space\n";

                               # Remove the character past $limit
                               substr($part,-1,1) = "";
                               # Reverse the line to make it easy to find
                               # the last space.
                               $revpart = reverse($part);
                               $index = index($revpart," ");
                               if ( $index > 0 ) {
                                 substr($line,0,$limit-$index) = "";
                                     . "\n");
                               } else {
                                 # There was no space in the line, so
                                 # print it up to $limit.
                                 substr($line,0,$limit) = "";
                                     . "\n");

  sub codeformat {
          # Call subroutine wrap then filter through nenscript

          # Pipe the results through nenscript to create a Postscript
          # file that adheres to some decent format for printing
          # source code (landscape, Courier font, line numbers).
          # Print this to a temporary file first.
          $tmpfile = "/tmp/nenscript$$";
          open(FILE, "|$nenscript -2G -i$file -N -p$tmpfile -r") ||
                  die "Can't open nenscript: $!\n";
          foreach $line (@newlines) {
                  print FILE $line;

          # Read the temporary file back into an array so it can be
          # passed to the Samba print script.
          @newlines = ("");
          open(FILE, "<$tmpfile") || die "Can't open $file: $!\n";
          while(<FILE>) {
          system("rm $tmpfile");

  sub createarray {
          # Create the array for postscript
          open(FILE, "<$file") || die "Can't open $file: $!\n";
          while(<FILE>) {

  Now the MagicFilter way.  Thanks to Alberto Menegazzi
  ( for this information.

  Alberto says:

  -------------------------------------------------------------- 1)
  Install MagicFilter with the filter for the printers you need in
  /usr/bin/local but DON'T fill /etc/printcap with the suggestion given
  by the documentation from MagicFilter.

  2) Write the /etc/printcap like this way (it's done for my LaserJet

  lp|ljet4l:\ :cm=HP LaserJet 4L:\ :lp=/dev/null:\
  # or /dev/lp1 :sd=/var/spool/lpd/ljet4l:\
  :af=/var/spool/lpd/ljet4l/acct:\ :sh:mx#0:\ :if=/usr/local/bin/main-

  You should explain that the lp=/dev/... is opened for locking so
  "virtual" devices one for every remote printer should be used.

  Example creating with : touch /dev/ljet4l

  3) Write the filter /usr/local/bin/main-filter the same you suggest
  using the ljet4l-filter instead of cat.

  Here's mine.

  #! /bin/sh logfile=/var/log/smb-print.log
  spool_dir=/var/spool/lpd/ljet4l ( echo "print -"
  /usr/local/bin/ljet4l-filter ) | /usr/bin/smbclient "\\\\SHIR\\HPLJ4"
  -N -P >> $logfile

  P.S. : here is the quote from the Print2Win mini-Howto about locking
  and why creating virtual printers

  ---Starts here

  Hint from Rick Bressler :

  Good tip sheet.  I use something very similar.  One helpful tip, this
  is not a particularly good idea:


  lpr does an 'exclusive' open on the file you specify as lp=.  It does
  this in order to prevent multiple processes from trying to print to
  the dame printer at the same time.

  The side effect of this is that in your case, eng and colour can't
  print at the same time, (usually more or less transparent since they
  probably print quickly and since they queue you probably don't notice)
  but any other process that tries to write to /dev/null will break!

  On a single user system, probably not a big problem.  I have a system
  with over 50 printers.  It would be a problem there.

  The solution is to create a dummy printer for each.  Eg: touch

  I have modified the lp entries in the printcap file above to take into
  account Rick's suggestion. I did the following:

  #touch /dev/eng #touch /dev/colour

  ---Ends here


  11.  Backing Up Windows Machines to a Linux Host

  Adam Neat ( kindly contributed the following
  script to back up Windows machines to a Linux host, using the
  smbclient utility.  Adam says that it is used to backup Windows 3.x
  and NT machines to a Linux based DAT SCSI Drive.

  Adam is not proud of the coding style used here, but it works.  As I
  like to say, "If it works and its stupid, then it is not stupid".

  Another Windows backup script, contributed by Dan Tager
  (, is provided below.  Dan's script also backs up
  Unix machines via rsh, although that could be modified to use ssh
  rather easily.

  In this script, the string 'agnea1' is the username on the Linux
  machine that does the backups.

       echo Initialising ...
       checkdate=`date | awk '{print $1}'`

       if [ -f "~agnea1/backup-dir/backup-data" ]; then

               echo "ERROR: No config file for today!"
               echo "FATAL!"
               exit 1

       if [ -d "~agnea1/backup-dir/temp" ]; then

               echo "ERROR: No tempoary directory found!"
               echo "Attempting to create"
               cd ~agnea1
               cd backup-dir
               mkdir temp
               echo "Directory Made - temp"

       if [ "$1" = "" ]; then

               echo "ERROR: enter in a machine name (ie: cdwriter)"
               exit 1

       if [ "$2" = "" ]; then

               echo "ERROR: enter in a SMB (Lan Manager) Resource (ie: work)"
               exit 1

       if [ "$3" = "" ]; then

               echo "ERROR: enter in an IP address for $1 (ie:
     " exit 1

       # Main Section

       cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp
       rm -r ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp/*
       cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/

       case "$checkdate"
                       echo "Backuping for Monday"
                       cat backup-data | /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient
                       \\\\$1\\$2 -I$3 -N echo "Complete"

                               if [ -d "~agnea1/backup-dir/Monday" ]; then
                                       echo "Directory Monday Not found ...
                                       making" mkdir

                  echo "Archiving ..."
                  cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp
                  tar -cf monday.tar *                echo "done ..."
                  rm ~agnea1/backup-dir/Monday/monday.tar
                  mv monday.tar ~agnea1/backup-dir/Monday

                  echo "Backuping for Tuesday"
                  cat backup-data | /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient
                  \\\\$1\\$2 -I$3 -N echo "Complete"

                          if [ -d "~agnea1/backup-dir/Tuesday" ]; then
                                  echo "Directory Tuesday Not found ...
                                  making" mkdir
                  echo "Archiving ..."
                  cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp
                  tar -cf tuesday.tar *
                  echo "done ..."
                  rm ~agnea1/backup-dir/Tuesday/tuesday.tar
                  mv tuesday.tar ~agnea1/backup-dir/Tuesday

                  echo "Backuping for Wednesday"
                  cat backup-data | /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient
                  \\\\$1\\$2 -I$3 -N echo "Complete"

                          if [ -d "~agnea1/backup-dir/Wednesday" ]; then
                                  echo "Directory Wednesday Not found
                                  ... making" mkdir
                  echo "Archiving ..."
                  cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp
                  tar -cf wednesday.tar *
                  echo "done ..."
               rm ~agnea1/backup-dir/Wednesday/wednesday.tar
                  mv wednesday.tar ~agnea1/backup-dir/Wednesday

                  echo "Backuping for Thrusday"
                  cat backup-data | /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient
                  \\\\$1\\$2 -I$3 -N echo "Complete"

                          if [ -d "~agnea1/backup-dir/Thursday" ]; then
                                  echo "Directory Thrusday Not found ...
                                  making" mkdir
                  echo "Archiving ..."
                  cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp
                  tar -cf thursday.tar *
                  echo "done ..."
                  rm ~agnea1/backup-dir/Thursday/thursday.tar
                  mv thursday.tar ~agnea1/backup-dir/Thursday

                  echo "Backuping for Friday"
                  cat backup-data | /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient
                  \\\\$1\\$2 -I$3 -N echo "Complete"

                          if [ -d "~agnea1/backup-dir/Friday" ]; then
                                  echo "Directory Friday Not found ...
                                  making" mkdir
                  echo "Archiving ..."
                  cd ~agnea1/backup-dir/temp
                  tar -cf friday.tar *
                  echo "done ..."
                  rm ~agnea1/backup-dir/Friday/friday.tar
                  mv friday.tar ~agnea1/backup-dir/Friday

                  echo "FATAL ERROR: Unknown variable passed for day"
                  exit 1;;


  Here's Dan's backup script:



  function CopyWinHost(){

  # tars and gzips "windows shares" to a local directory using samba's
  # smbclient
  # argument 1 is the remote host window's host name
  # argument 2 is the share name to be backed up

     echo $1,$2,$3

   # create a tarred gzip file using samba to copy direct from a
   # windows pc
   # 12345 is a password.  Needs some password even if not defined on
   # remote system
     $WINCMD \\\\$REMOTE\\$SHARE 12345 -Tc -|gzip > $DEST
     echo `date`": Done backing up "$REMOTE" to "$DEST

  function CopyUnixHost(){

  # tars and gzips a directory using rsh
  # argument 1 is the name of the remote source host
  # argument 2 is the full path to the remote source directory
  # argument 3 is the name of the local tar-gzip file.  day of week
  #  plus .tgz will be appended to argument 3


     if rsh $REMOTE tar -cf - $SRC |gzip > $DEST; then
        echo `date`": Done backing up "$REMOTE":"$SRC" to "$DEST
       echo `date`": Error backing up "$REMOTE":"$SRC" to "$DEST


  # $1: win=3Dbackup windows machine, unix=3Dbackup unix machine
  case $1 in
        # $2=3D remote windows name, $3=3Dremote share name,
        # $4=3Dlocal destination directory
        CopyWinHost $2 $3 $4;;
        # $2 =3D remote host, $3 =3D remote directory,
        # $4 =3D destination name
        CopyUnixHost $2 $3 $4;;

  12.  Using Samba Across Routed Networks

  Andrew Tridgell states that SMB host browsing across routers is
  problematic.  Here are his suggestions to allow this:

  -------------------------------------------------------------- For
  cross-subnet (ie. routed) browsing you should do the following. There
  are other methods but they are much more complex are error prone:

  1) all computers that you want visible should use a single WINS server
  (Samba or NT can do this)

  2) the master browser for each subnet must be either NT or Samba.
  (Win9X doesn't communicate cross-subnet browse info correctly)

  3) You should use the same workgroup name on all subnets. This is not
  strictly necessary but it is the simplest way to guarantee success. If
  you can't arrange this then you must organise for a way for browse
  info to propogate between subnets. (It does *not* propogate via WINS).
  It propogates via two mechanisms: i) each browse master notices
  workgroup announcements from other browse masters on the same
  broadcast domain ii) each non-Win9X browse master contacts the global
  DMB for the workgroup (typically the domain controller or a Samba box
  marked as the domain master) and swaps full browse info periodically.

  Also, Rakesh Bharania points out that Cisco routers can be configured
  to forward SMB traffic in a way that allows browsing.  His suggestion
  is to configure the router interface which hosts SMB clients with a
  command like this:

       ip helper-address x.x.x.x

  where x.x.x.x is the IP address of the SMB server.

  13.  Acknowledgements

  Special thanks to Andrew Tridgell ( for starting
  and directing the Samba project and for keeping this document honest.

  Brad Marshall ( and Jason Parker
  ( contributed time, patience, scripting and

  Adam Neat ( and Dan Tager (
  contributed the bash scripts used to back up Windows machines to a
  Linux host.

  Matthew Flint () told me about the use of the 'interfaces' option in

  Oleg L. Machulskiy (, Jeff Stern
  (, Dr. Michael Langner (langner@fiz- and Erik Ratcliffe ( suggested
  modifications to the section on Sharing A Linux Printer With Windows

  Alberto Menegazzi ( contributed the MagicFilter
  setup to enable a Linux machine to share a Windows printer.

  Rakesh Bharania ( contributed the suggestion for
  Cisco router configuration.

  Rich Gregory ( and others suggested that this
  document show some details about the smbfs package and its use.

  Andrea Girotto ( contributed a number of
  valuable suggestions throughout the document.

  Thanks, also, to all of the international translators that have
  brought this HOWTO to the non-English speaking world: Takeo Nakano
  (, Klaus-Dieter Schumacher (Klaus-, Andrea Girotto
  (, Mathieu Arnold (,
  Stein Oddvar Rasmussen ( Nilo Menezes
  ( and many others for whom I don't have contact

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