PLIP Install HOWTO

Table of Contents



  1. PLIP for the impatient

     1.1 Source side
     1.2 Target side
     1.3 Final tests

  2. Introduction

  3. License

  4. How did I write this howto ?

  5. What do you need ?

  6. The documentation

  7. Conventions

  8. Building your own cable

  9. Network parameters

  10. PLIP on the Source side

  11. The cdrom nfs server side

  12. FIPS, PARTED, splitting of hard disk partitions

  13. Debian installation

     13.1 Preparing the two floppies
     13.2 The real installation process
     13.3 An installation break: PLIP on the target side
     13.4 Return to the normal install process

  14. Installing Slackware, Caldera

     14.1 Slakware installation
        14.1.1 Making boot,root and plip disks
           14.1.1.1 1a- creating the boot and root disks.
           14.1.1.2 1b- Creating the PLIP disk
           14.1.1.3 1c- launching the installation.
        14.1.2 2a- Install PLIP module
        14.1.3 3a- Now create your NFS drive.
        14.1.4 4a- Installing Slakware
     14.2 Caldera Installation
     14.3 Troubleshooting

  15. Installing RedHat 6.x

     15.1 Using a fixed "bootnet" disk
     15.2 Building your own "bootnet" disk

  16. Installing RedHat 7.0

     16.1 Creating your own bootnet-plip disk

  17. Installing Suse

  18. Installing from a DOS partition

  19. Install the plip interface permanently

     19.1 On the source side
     19.2 On the target side

  20. Compatibility with a printer (lp)

  21. Need to compile a new kernel ?

  22. Known problems

     22.1 plip 2.2.14 versus 2.2.16

  23. What's new

  24. To do

  25. List of contributors and acknowledgements



  ______________________________________________________________________

  You can find the latest release of the PLIP-Install-HOWTO, by Gilles
  Lamiral, located at:

  If you have already read this HOWTO and you wonder what is new in this
  release, first read the section ``what's new''.


  1.  PLIP for the impatient


  This section is used to avoid reading the document when you need to
  install a plip connection in one minute. Skip it.


  1.1.  Source side



  cat /proc/parport/0/hardware
  insmod parport
  insmod parport_pc io=0x378 irq=7 # Got those values in BIOS setup.
  insmod plip
  tail /var/log/messages
  ifconfig plip0 192.168.0.2 pointopoint 192.168.0.1 \
           netmask 255.255.255.255 up
  ifconfig plip0
  ping -c1 192.168.0.2
  route -n



  1.2.  Target side


  ifconfig plip1 192.168.0.1  pointopoint  192.168.0.2 \
           netmask 255.255.255.255 up
  route add -host 192.168.0.2 dev plip1 # if the route is not present



  1.3.  Final tests



  ping 192.168.0.1 # from 192.168.0.2
  ping 192.168.0.2 # from 192.168.0.1



  Now all TCP/IP is available between the two computer via the parallel
  port. Have a nice trip !


  2.  Introduction

  "PLIP is Parallel Line IP, that is, the transportation of IP packages
  over a parallel port." Donald Becker (becker@super.org).

  Writing a PLIP install HOWTO seems useless nowadays since Ethernet
  cards are cheap: NE2000 cards cost about the same as a Null-Modem
  cable. This is true for desktop computers, but not for laptop
  computers, in which the PCMCIA card costs more than 10 times as much
  the Null-Modem cable.  Moreover, there is a parallel port on every
  computer, but not always a network card.

  Of course, this howto can be used to install Linux on every personal
  computer without loss of generality.

  This paper is just what I've done to install a Debian GNU/Linux
  distribution on a Toshiba Portйgй 620CT laptop, from a NFS exported
  cdrom drive, via a Null-Modem cable.

  A Null-Modem cable is also called a Null-Printer cable.

  A Null-Modem cable is also called a "LapLink" (or "Turbo Laplink")
  cable but the word "LapLink" is trademarked by Traveling Software
  under the number 75466713 since 1986, so I won't use it anymore.

  This HOWTO will be obsolete when every Linux distribution includes a
  PLIP install option. For example, the Debian installation only needs
  to add two commands to make this HOWTO obsolete (ifconfig + route). I
  hope one Debian maintainer will consider this point.

  I hoped this HOWTO would become obsolete but in fact it seems that it
  will never be, because some builders of some distributions do include
  PLIP installation sometimes but forget to maintain it in new releases
  (REDHAT for example).

  I would be happy to know if someone used the PLIP-Install-HOWTO to
  install other Linux distributions from other network protocols (ftp,
  http, nfs, samba, or even NT/Novell servers)

  Feedback with typos, bad English, comments, money, job, joy, fears,
  cries are welcome and recommended (not all with the same eagerness).

  If a translation in any language exists, please let me know, I'll be
  happy.



  3.  License

  This documentation used to be under the OpenContent
  <http://www.opencontent.org/opl.shtml> license.  It is not anymore. Do
  what you want with this document.



  4.

  How did I write this howto ?


  I wrote this paper during the installation process but since I
  encountered several problems at the same time, my notes were disparate
  and sometimes I forgot to write the good command lines because I was
  too fed up to reboot (kernel compilations) and edit this file each
  time.

  When the installation went wrong (it did, I'm a beginner on laptops,
  plip, linux nfs, portmapper, Debian), I tried several things to fix
  the problems. When they remained too long, my brain was focused on
  solving, not writing.

  So, when the installation process finally succeeded, I decided to
  restart the process from scratch by noting everything in order to save
  your time. It was the first time I had installed Linux twice on the
  same computer.

  Then, in order to verify the document, I again restarted from scratch
  with a Slink Debian distribution (the next after the Hamm one). It was
  the first time I had installed Linux 3 times on the same computer. I
  hope it was the last time I have to do that.


  Conclusion: If you do what is in this paper, it should work.


  5.

  What do you need ?


  ·  A Personal Computer, laptop or desktop, called the target computer
     or simply target.



  ·  A 3 1/4" inch floppy drive on the target.



  ·  Two or three fresh floppies.  They don't need to be formatted. You
     also need one more DOS formatted floppy if you have to play with
     FIPS.



  ·  Another computer with a cdrom drive and nfs services, called source
     computer or simply source. It doesn't have to be a Linux system but
     just a system which can export a cdrom drive via nfs. In this
     HOWTO, I assume it is a Linux system.



  ·  A cdrom distribution. I took a Debian Hamm (2.0r3) from an old
     Infomagic compilation. I think every distribution can be installed
     this way, but I'm not sure.  I've read a French document, written
     by Chmouel Boudjnah, saying the RedHat distribution has an easy
     installation process. Chmouel's document also deals with the Debian
     distribution, so if you read French, you can use Chmouel's document
     instead of this one.
  ·  A Null-Modem DB 25 cable. Is it the same as a serial cable? You'll
     find the answer in the next release.



  ·  Some time: 3 hours.



  ·  Coffee. 1 liter.


  6.

  The documentation


  I recommend these good readings in case you can't figure out how to
  solve a problem. I've read them. You should too if you're curious or
  conscientious.

  Please, do not forget to consider the LDP mirrors, listed at:

  Most HOWTOs are translated in many languages. Just go to the bottom of
  a mirror page and follow the translations/ link.


  If you want to use Linux on a laptop, read the latest Linux-Mobile-
  Guide, by Werner Heuser, located at:

  If you haven't installed any distribution yet, carefully read the
  Installation-HOWTO, by Eric S. Raymond, located at:
  <http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO/>. And make more
  coffee :-)

  If you need information about your cdrom drive, read the CDROM-HOWTO,
  by Jeff Tranter, located at:

  If you haven't installed an nfs server yet, read the NFS-HOWTO, by
  Nicolai Langfeldt, located at:

  If you need to compile a new kernel on the source box, read the
  Kernel-HOWTO, by Brian Ward, located at:

  If you are new to PLIP, read the PLIP     MINI-HOWTO, by Andrea
  Controzzi, located at:



  If you plan to make your Null-Modem cable yourself, a good reading is
  the file PLIP.txt, by Donald Becker, located at:
  /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt
  on your source linux computer, Luke.  Alternatively, read my notes in
  section "Building your own cable".


  7.

  Conventions


  The file contents and line commands and install screen-shots are
  always in typewriter font, like this:


       #!/bin/bash
       #############################################
       #### This is the great file /bin/Windows ####
       #############################################

       while [ "1" ]; do
               echo "I do my best because I'm the best"
               echo "Very soon, next Y2Kill (the 01/01/0000)"
               echo "A new marvelous 64 bit release !"
               echo "Please wait a little more"
               sleep 18446744073709551615 # 2^64-1
       done



  or this:



       $ killall Windows
       Terminated



  The file content lines should never begin with white space. You'll
  have to remove them, if any. Sorry, I'm fed up with C-a M-AltGr-\
  (remember, I'm a French azerty writer). Tab-emacs reflex is untameable
  (coders who use Emacs always press the tabular key like a twitch).

  Command input lines begin with a dollar $ (the prompt), you don't have
  to type the dollar, just type the rest of the line; other lines are
  the command output, you don't have to type them either.

  Because all the configuration commands are important, you'll need to
  use a system administrator shell, like root, on the source and the
  target computers.


       $ su
       Password: blabla
       #



  The prompt will be shown as "$" in the remainder of this documentation
  "$", even if it should be "#". This is because "#" often means
  comment, so it is ambiguous. I don't like ambiguity in computer
  science.



  8.

  Building your own cable



  Extract from /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt, written
  by Donald Becker (becker@super.org):



  Parallel Transfer Mode 0 Cable
  ==============================

  The cable for the first transfer mode is a standard
  printer "null" cable which transfers data four bits at a time using
  data bit outputs of the first port (machine T) connected to the
  status bit inputs of the second port (machine R).  There are five
  status inputs, and they are used as four data inputs and a clock (data
  strobe) input, arranged so that the data input bits appear as contiguous
  bits with standard status register implementation.

  A cable that implements this protocol is available commercially as a
  "Null Printer" or "Turbo Laplink" cable.  It can be constructed with
  two DB-25 male connectors symmetrically connected as follows:

      STROBE output       1*
      D0->ERROR   2 - 15          15 - 2
      D1->SLCT    3 - 13          13 - 3
      D2->PAPOUT  4 - 12          12 - 4
      D3->ACK     5 - 10          10 - 5
      D4->BUSY    6 - 11          11 - 6
      D5,D6,D7 are   7*, 8*, 9*
      AUTOFD output 14*
      INIT   output 16*
      SLCTIN      17 - 17
      extra grounds are 18*,19*,20*,21*,22*,23*,24*
      GROUND      25 - 25
  * Do not connect these pins on either end

  If the cable you are using has a metallic shield it should be
  connected to the metallic DB-25 shell at one end only.



  I checked my cable twice. On both sides, pins are connected like this:


       1 -  1 Yes
       2 - 15
       3 - 13
       4 - 12
       5 - 10
       6 - 11
       7 not connected
       8 not connected
       9 not connected
      10 -  5
      11 -  6
      12 -  4
      13 -  3
      14 - 14 Yes
      15 -  2
      16 - 16 Yes
      17 - 17
      18 not connected
      19 not connected
      20 not connected
      21 not connected
      22 not connected
      23 not connected
      25 - 25 not connected to metallic shield



  Unlike the cable described in the kernel document, my cable has pins
  1, 14, 16 connected.  It doesn't matter, apparently, since plip works
  fine for me.


  9.

  Network parameters


  We will make a plip point-to-point network with this IP configuration:

  ·  target: 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.255

  ·  source: 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.255

  You should not already have those names in your name space:


       $ ping source
       ping: unknown host source

       $ ping target
       ping: unknown host target



  You should not already have those IP addresses in your network space:


       $ ping  192.168.0.1
       PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1): 56 data bytes
       ping: sendto: Network is unreachable
       ping: wrote 192.168.0.1 64 chars, ret=-1

       --- 192.168.0.1 ping statistics ---
       1 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss

       $ ping 192.168.0.2
       PING 192.168.0.2 (192.168.0.2): 56 data bytes
       ping: sendto: Network is unreachable
       ping: wrote 192.168.0.2 64 chars, ret=-1

       --- 192.168.0.2 ping statistics ---
       1 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss



  If those commands don't give you errors, change the names or the
  addresses.

  You can choose other addresses, names or netmask (netmask must be the
  same on both sides). In the rest of this document, I'll suppose you
  choose these addresses and these names.


  Add a line in /etc/exports



       #### file /etc/exports ####
       ...
       /cdrom          source(ro) target(ro)
       #### EOF ####



  Because the portmapper tries to resolve IP addresses, add the IP
  addresses and names in /etc/hosts


       #### file /etc/hosts ####
       ...
       192.168.0.1     target
       192.168.0.2     source
       #### EOF ####



  Verify you have the item files for the hosts search list in the file
  /etc/nsswitch.conf


       #### file /etc/nsswitch.conf ####
       ...
       hosts:      files nis dns
       ...
       #### EOF ####



  10.

  PLIP on the Source side


  This section describes how to set up the plip interface in the source
  server.  If you run into trouble, I suggest that you read the PLIP
  MINI-HOWTO.


  Check that your lp device is not set. You should not have this entry:


       $ cat /proc/devices
       Character devices:
       ...
       6 lp
       ...



  If you do have it, kill the lpd daemon and remove the lp module:



       $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd.init stop
       Shutting down lpd: lpd

       $ rmmod lp



  If you can't remove the lp module then you have to recompile the
  kernel with lp service as a module.

  Now, the "6 lp" line has disappeared from the /proc/devices file,
  which is a reflection of the kernel capabilities.

  You are not obliged to eliminate the lp device : the scheme may work
  with lp. Without guarantee (it works for me). Check it yourself.


  Check that your parallel port is handled:


       $ ls /proc/parport/
       0/

       $ cat /proc/parport/0/hardware
       base:   0x378
       irq:    7
       dma:    none
       modes:  SPP,ECP,ECPEPP,ECPPS2



  If you don't have any directory under /proc/parport/ then you have to
  load the parport and parport_pc modules:


       $ insmod parport
       $ insmod parport_pc



  You should see this new entry in /var/log/messages:


       Oct  9 20:50:47 louloutte kernel:
       parport0: PC-style at 0x378 [SPP,ECP,ECPEPP,ECPPS2]

       Oct  9 20:50:47 louloutte kernel:
       parport0: detected irq 7;
       use procfs to enable interrupt-driven operation.



  I repeat the message "detected irq 7, use procfs to enable interrupt-
  driven operation", so:


       $ echo 7 >  /proc/parport/0/irq



  Using a kernel 2.4 the last command is no longer available. Use
  instead:

          $ insmod parport
          $ insmod parport_pc io=0x378 irq=7



  Check that plip module is loaded:


       $ lsmod |grep plip



  If plip module is not loaded, then load it:


       $ insmod plip



  You should see something like this in /var/log/messages


       ==> /var/log/messages <==
       Oct  8 16:34:12 louloutte kernel:
       NET3 PLIP version 2.3-parport gniibe@mri.co.jp

       Oct  8 16:34:12 louloutte kernel:
       plip0: Parallel port at 0x378, using IRQ 7



  If you can't load the plip module then you have to recompile the
  kernel with plip service as a module.

  The syslog message says the module is loaded on the plip0 interface.
  Configure the plip0 interface:


       $ ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 up



  Check that everything is okay.


       $ ifconfig plip0
       plip0     Link encap:10Mbps Ethernet  HWaddr FC:FC:C0:A8:00:02
            inet addr:192.168.0.2  P-t-P:192.168.0.1  Mask:255.255.255.255
            UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP  MTU:1500  Metric:1
            RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0
            TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0
            Interrupt:7 Base address:0x378



  Now you can ping locally the source server:


       $ ping source
       PING source (192.168.0.2): 56 data bytes
       64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0.3 ms
       64 bytes from 192.168.0.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=0.2 ms

       --- source ping statistics ---
       2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
       round-trip min/avg/max = 0.2/0.2/0.3 ms



  Verify that the route to target exists:


       $ route
       Kernel IP routing table
       Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
       target          *               255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 plip0



  If the route doesn't exist, add it:


       $ route add -host  192.168.0.1  dev plip0



  When the target is configured you will be able to do a ping test:


       $ ping target
       PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1): 56 data bytes
       64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=4.5 ms
       64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=4.3 ms

       --- 192.168.0.1 ping statistics ---
       2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
       round-trip min/avg/max = 4.3/4.4/4.5 ms



  But if you try it now you should have:


       $ ping target
       PING target (192.168.0.1): 56 data bytes

       --- target ping statistics ---
       5 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss



  Now, the server network is ready to work.  Congratulations.



  11.

  The cdrom nfs server side


  This section describes how to mount and export via NFS a cdrom drive.

  Mount the cdrom. If you encounter a problem with your cdrom drive,
  read the CDROM-HOWTO. I assume that the cdrom device is /dev/hdd but
  it could be /dev/sr0 or /dev/hdb etc. The mount point I choose is
  /cdrom but you can choose the one you want:


       $ mount -t iso9660 /dev/hdd  /cdrom



  You have to set up nfs services.  If something goes wrong, read the
  NFS-HOWTO

  Verify your kernel supports nfs:


       $ cat /proc/filesystems
               ext2
       nodev   proc
       nodev   nfs
       nodev   ncpfs
       nodev   devpts
               iso9660



  Verify your portmapper can handle mountd and nfs client requests:



       $ rpcinfo -p
       program vers proto   port
       100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
       100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
       100005    1   udp    655  mountd
       100005    1   tcp    657  mountd
       100003    2   udp   2049  nfs
       100003    2   tcp   2049  nfs



  Lines with nfs or portmapper have to be there. We have NFS on tcp?
  progress have been made!

  It doesn't matter if you have only NFS on udp. NFS has to work, that's
  the thing you need.

  Then, rerun portmap, mountd, nfs:



       $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap.init stop
       Stopping INET services: portmap

       $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap.init start
       Starting portmapper: portmap

       $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs stop
       Shutting down NFS services: rpc.mountd rpc.nfsd

       $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs start
       Starting NFS services: rpc.mountd rpc.nfsd



  /etc/rc.d/init.d/ is /sbin/init.d/ on SuSE Linux systems. I had a
  dream last night: LSB was respected. (LDB: Linux Standard Base)


  Then, try to mount it "locally" (via nfs) on the source box and when
  the test is good remove the test directory:


       $ mkdir /tmp/nfstest
       $ mount -t nfs source:/cdrom /tmp/nfstest
       $ ls  /tmp/nfstest/
       README             debian/            locatedb.3         tools/
       TRANS.TBL          ftp.netscape.com/  ls_lR.3            upgrade/
       boot/              install/           realaudio/

       $ echo great stuff !
       $ umount /tmp/nfstest
       $ rmdir /tmp/nfstest



  Bad luck ? Read the NFS-HOWTO and /var/log/messages.

  Check the nfs server with those commands:


       $ rpcinfo -p



  Run portmap with the -v flag:


        $ portmap -v



  kill portmap, mountd, nfsd and rerun them in this order: portmap,
  mountd, nfsd.  Take a rest, get more coffee. Read again the NFS-HOWTO
  and restart.

  Now, the exported cdrom drive nfs server is ready to work.
  Congratulations.



  12.

  FIPS, PARTED, splitting of hard disk partitions


  This section is for anybody who has only one primary FAT partition
  (DOS, Windows 3.xx, NT) and wants to keep it without loosing data.
  Make some backups because if you burn it, I won't be responsible - you
  will.

  Journey to PARTED

  Andrew Clausen (clausen@gnu.org), GNU Parted maintainer, wrote "You
  might want to mention GNU Parted in the PLIP-Install Howto." That is
  done. Since I didn't try it I can only give you the links to parted by
  http <http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/> and parted ftp
  <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/parted/>. Help yourself. Parted seems very
  good.

  Andrew said: "GNU Parted is a *LOT* more powerful than FIPS (think
  Partition Magic).  For example, it can convert FAT16 <=> FAT32, change
  the size of the FATs, doesn't require a defragger, etc.  And it
  supports ext2, linux-swap..."

  Back to FIPS.

  Download FIPS <ftp://ftp.debian.org/pub/debian/tools/>. Don't forget
  the mirrors ftp.xx.debian.org where xx is your country abbreviation
  (fr, fi, us, uk, etc.).

  At the time of this writing the archive file is called fips20.zip.

  The fips program is already in the debian cdrom distribution. I found
  it (yes, after downloading the fips20.zip file) in
  /cdrom/debian/tools/fips15.zip (It supposes your cdrom is mounted on
  /cdrom)

  I guess you are on a Unix world but you're not compelled to be. Go in
  a good working place on the source computer:


       $ mkdir /tmp/fips-2.0/
       $ cd /tmp/fips-2.0/
       $ unzip -l /archive/fips/fips20.zip
       ...
       $ unzip  /archive/fips/fips20.zip
       ...
       $ ls
       $ dos2unix fips.doc fips.faq  readme.1st



  1. Read the file readme.1st

  2. Read the file fips.doc

  3. Read the file fips.faq

  Boot your target computer. Be in pure DOS (quit Windows).

  Read again the file fips.doc from the section "5. Before you start".

  Be aware of hidden files.

  Graham's comment: Hidden files will not be moved by DeFrag (as far as
  I know), so FIPS will reclaim less space for use by Linux.  Use the
  ATTRIB command to remove the "hidden" attribute.  Some things may
  require that files are hidden, so it will be necessary to hide the
  same files again later. I think that it would also be a good idea to
  run scandisk at this moment.  Perhaps I do not trust DOS.


  Be aware to eliminate the "virtual memory" file (swap for Win*) during
  the fips process.  In Windows 3.11 (quite up to date, no?)  this swap
  file is configured from Program-Manager->Control-Panel->Enhanced (a
  i386 chip icon).

  Click, Click->Click on the chip and re-click on a button called
  "Virtual Memory".

  Adjust the size to none, Click<-Click<-Click<-Click back plus Alt-F4
  to close all your windows. Don't you think the Gates are closed too?

  Graham's comment: I am not sure that this is a good idea.  What
  happens if "386spart.par" is not hidden?  I think that DEFRAG will
  move it, and Windows will complain next time it starts, then rebuild
  the file.  Since we are clearly keeping DOS/Windows, the user will
  require a swap file again later.  By not deleting it, the disc space
  is reserved for that time.

  Graham's new comment: "Make sure that the file is not hidden (attrib
  -h -s 386spart.par), then delete it (del 386spart.par).  The disc
  space is then free.  Run FIPS.  Next time Windows starts, it will
  complain that the file is corrupt, and will recreate it."

  I don't what to say. I've just parroted FIPS manual because I
  succeeded with it.

  So drink coffee, and pray.

  Run SCANDISK:


       C:\> SCANDISK



  Correct every cluster. You should have no dead cluster now.

  Quit  SCANDISK


  Run DEFRAG on C:


       C:\> DEFRAG C:



  All used clusters are at the beginning of the hard disk.

  Quit DEFRAG

  Make a bootable floppy disk:



       C:\> FORMAT A: /S



  Copy AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS to the new floppy if you want to keep
  your local features (keyboard keys etc.). Remove the line running
  SMARTDRIVE.EXE in AUTOEXEC.BAT.  Keep a minimal AUTOEXEC.BAT


  On the source box: Copy the fips files restorrb.exe, fips.exe and
  errors.txt to this floppy disk.


      $ mcopy errors.txt fips.exe restorrb.exe a:



  Graham's comment: Doesn't this assume that mtools are installed?  If
  the floppy disc is mounted as type msdos, the standard "cp" command
  should do the job, and mtools would not be needed.  I have never used
  mtools, but I have played with DOS files from Linux.

  Yes, this assumes that mtools are installed. mcopy is faster to type
  than mkdir, mount, cp, umount, rmdir.

  Boot the target with the floppy. Run fips while reading the section
  "Using FIPS" in the file fips.doc

  Do not forget to answer yes when fips asks for a rootboot saving.

  When everything is ok, save your hard disk space:

       $ cd
       $ rm -rf /tmp/fips-2.0/



  Now you have a nice free space for a new operating system.



  13.

  Debian installation


  I'm a Debian proselyte since it is my first Debian installation.
  Debian lovers are the same kind of people as Macintosh lovers or Linux
  lovers in the operating systems space.  Nothing else counts. Since I'm
  already a Mac and Linux lover (and French too :-) it was time to fall
  in love.

  Debian is well, clearly and internationally documented. Thanks to all
  those people who bred this really open distribution.

  I could leave you on your own during the installation process. But
  since we have to interact with a shell during it, the entire process
  will be described in detail.

  I know the description is Debian specific. I prefer to give you a
  complete example than nothing except a ``run a shell at the right
  moment and type bla bla...''. I do like concrete examples.

  Simon Forget <sforget@camelot.ca> told me he could not use this howto
  with his Toshiba Libretto 50CT because the kernel could not recognize
  the pcmcia floppy drive during the installation process. I don't know
  why but there is a solution using plip, if you already have a dos
  partition on the target computer.

  This solution is simpler and faster because no floppy drive nor plip
  network is necessary during the installation process. If you are
  interested in this solution, go directly to the section ``Installing
  from a DOS     partition''. I'm keeping the old installation routine
  because this new one needs a DOS partition that becomes superfluous
  when you definitely want to leave the dark side.



  13.1.

  Preparing the two floppies


  On the source side, mount the cdrom and go to the install directory


        $ mount -t iso9660 /dev/hdd  /cdrom



  The device for your CDROM may be /dev/hdb or /dev/hdc or another
  device (SCSI), depending on where is plugged your CDROM.


        $ cd /cdrom/debian/dists/stable/main/disks-i386/current/



  Read the file install.html with a browser or install.txt with a more,
  a less, a cat (or a dog?).

  Now, record the install (alias rescue) floppy. Write a "resc1440.bin"
  label on it:


        $ dd if=resc1440.bin of=/dev/fd0H1440



  Write the drivers floppy. Write a "drv1440.bin" label on it:


        $ dd if=drv1440.bin of=/dev/fd0H1440



  Then make sure that the floppies are write-protected.

  Now you're ready to start the real installation process.


  13.2.

  The real installation process

  Insert the resc1440.bin floppy on target drive. Reboot your target
  box.


       Welcome to Debian GNU/Linux 2.x!
       ...



  Read the text.  The prompt is:


       boot:



  Press <ENTER>


       Loading root.bin...........
       loading linux...
       ....



  A new screen:


       Next: Select Color or Monochrome display



  Choose yours with the arrow up/down keys and press <ENTER>


       Next: Continue with the installation



  press <ENTER>


       Software in the Public Interest
               presents
        *** Debian GNU/Linux 2.1 ***
       ...



  Read the text Press <ENTER> (You see <Continue> on the screen)


       Next: Configure the Keyboard



  press <ENTER> Select your country and press <ENTER>


       Next : Partition a Hard Disk



  Press <ENTER>


       Select Disk Drive
       usually /dev/hda



  If you have several disks choose the good one (where you want to
  install Linux) and press <ENTER>

  You are now using the program cfdisk. Using cfdisk is safe until you
  decide to [Write] the partition on disk. Leaving cfdisk with [Quit] is
  safe.

  We are going to make just two new primary partitions, a Swap one and a
  big Linux one. If you want to create more partitions, leave some free
  space or extended partitions, you can. But read the documentation
  about "Partitioning" in the Installation-HOWTO, especially if you have
  more than 1024 cylinders and  an old version of LILO.

  If you previously ran the FIPS program, you see the hda1 partition
  (DOSFAT16). Switch to the next free partition with the up/down arrow
  keys.

  Select [New] with the right/left arrow keys and press <ENTER>

  Select [Primary] and press <ENTER>

  Enter the size of your swap partition. Twice the RAM is usual if you
  have less than 128 megabytes of ram. If you have 2 gigabytes of RAM,
  it's because you don't want to swap. In that case, no swap partition
  is needed.

  Select [Beginning] and press <ENTER>

  Select [Type] and press <ENTER>.  Type 82 (Linux Swap) and press
  <ENTER>.

  Switch to the next free partition with the up/down arrow keys. Select
  [New] and press <ENTER>

  Select [Primary] and press <ENTER>

  Enter the size in MB (you can leave the default) and press <ENTER> Its
  type should be already Linux. If not, change to Linux (83) with [Type]

  The partition table is defined now. Verify everything looks good. If
  you're not sure, read the documentation with [Help]. If doubts are
  still there, select [Quit] and leave the installation process. Go for
  a walk and restart from the beginning of this section.

  I assume you are confident now.

  Select [Write]


       Are you sure you want to write the partition table to disk?



  Type "yes" and press <ENTER>

  Select [Quit]  and press <ENTER>


       Next: Initialize and Activate a Swap Partition


  Press <ENTER>


       Please select the partition to initialize as a swap device



  Select /dev/hda2 (normally already selected).  Press <ENTER>


       Scan for Bad Blocks?



  select <YES>  and press <ENTER>


       Are you Sure?



  select <YES>  and press <ENTER>


       Initializing swap partition
       ...



       Next: Initialize a Linux Partition



  Press <ENTER>


       Select Partition. Please select the partition to initialize as a
       Linux "ext2" file-system.



  Select /dev/hda3 (normally already selected) and press <ENTER>.


       Scan for Bad Blocks?



  Select <YES>  and press <ENTER>


       Are you Sure?



  Select <YES>  and press <ENTER>

  A new page full of numbers.  You can take a rest because it takes some
  time (especially with a big hard disk).


       Next: Mount a Previously-Initialized Partition


  Press <ENTER>


       Please select the partition to mount



  Select /dev/hda3 and press <ENTER>


       Mount the /dev/hda3 device as the Root FileSystem?



  Select <Yes< and press <ENTER>


       Next: Install Operating System Kernel and Modules



  Press <ENTER>


       Please select the medium you will use to install the system



  Select /dev/fd0 and press <ENTER>


       Please place the Rescue Floppy in the first floppy drive



  The floppy is already there.
  Select <Continue> and press <ENTER>


       Installing the Rescue Floppy ...
       Please place the Drivers Floppy in the first floppy drive



  Eject the Rescue Floppy and insert the Drivers Floppy, the one I you
  labelled drv1440.bin (you did it, didn't you?).
  Select <Continue> and press <ENTER>


       Installing the Drivers  Floppy ...



  A new screen:


       Next: Configure Device Driver Modules



  Press <ENTER>



       Select Category



  Read the text.


       Please select the category of modules



  Select net and press <ENTER>
  Select plip.


       Module plip



  Select "Install the module in the kernel" and press <ENTER>
  No parameters are needed.
  Select <Ok> and press <ENTER>


       Installation succeeded
       Please press ENTER when you are ready to continue.



  Press <ENTER>

  Select Exit ("Finished with these modules") and press <ENTER>
  screen again.
  modules") and press <ENTER>


       Next: Configure the Network



  Choose a name, you can use a different name than debian or target.


       Is your system connect to a network?



  Select <No> and press <ENTER>

  STOP STOP STOP.  You see now:


       Next: Install the base system



  Now we need a shell.

  Press Alt F2 and <ENTER> You are in a root shell.



  13.3.

  An installation break: PLIP on the target side


  You are in a root shell.

  Verify the plip module is loaded:


       $ lsmod
       Module    Pages    Used by
       plip          3          0



  Find the exact name of the plip interface:


       $ dmesg
       ...
       NET3 PLIP version 2.2 gniibe@mri.co.jp
       plip1: Parallel port at 0x378, using assigned IRQ 7



  You can find the same information with


       $ cat /proc/kmsg
       ...
       <4>NET3 PLIP version 2.2 gniibe@mri.co.jp
       <4>plip1: Parallel port at 0x378, using assigned IRQ 7
       ...

       Ctrl-c (or ^C if you prefer)



  Configure the plip interface:


       $ ifconfig plip1 192.168.0.1  pointopoint  192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.255 up



  Verify everything is ok:


       $ ifconfig plip1
       plip0     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr FC:FC:C0:A8:00:01
            inet addr:192.168.0.1  P-t-P:192.168.0.2  Mask:255.255.255.255
            UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP  MTU:1500  Metric:1
            RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
            TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
            Collisions:0
            Interrupt:7 Base address:0x378



  Verify the route to source exists:



       $ route
       Kernel IP routing table
       Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
       127.0.0.0       0.0.0.0         255.0.0.0       U     0      0        0 lo



  If not, like in the previous example, add the route to 192.168.0.2,
  the source:


       $ route add -host 192.168.0.2 dev plip1



  Now the route is installed:


       $ route
       Kernel IP routing table
       Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
       192.168.0.2     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 plip1
       127.0.0.0       0.0.0.0         255.0.0.0       U     0      0        0 lo



  Now you can perform a successful ping from the source server (ping is
  not available on the Debian install process):


       $ ping target
       PING target (192.168.0.1): 56 data bytes
       64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=14.0 ms
       64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=4.3 ms

       --- target ping statistics ---
       2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
       round-trip min/avg/max = 4.3/9.1/14.0 ms



  If it doesn't work, check the Null-Modem cable connection, rerun
  dmesg, ifconfig, route. Verify everything. Take a rest. Restart.

  When the ping is okay, return to the normal installation process:

  On the target: press Alt F1



  13.4.

  Return to the normal install process


  You are back to the normal installation process.  You should still
  see:


       Next: Install the base system



  Press <ENTER>

       Please select the medium you will use to install the system



  Select nfs and press <ENTER>


       Please choose the NFS server and the mount path ...



  Type: 192.168.0.2:/cdrom
  Press <ENTER>


       Please choose the path inside the mounted NFS filesystem



  Type /debian (normally already there) and press <ENTER>

  If no error message complains about the nfs mount then bravo. You can
  verify this mount by entering the shell again:

  Press Alt F2


       $ mount
       ...
       192.168.0.2:/cdrom on /instmnt type nfs (rw, addr=192.168.0.2)

       $ ls /instmnt/debian
       README                 README.non-US          doc/
       README.CD-manufacture  README.pgp@            hamm/
       README.mirrors.html    TRANS.TBL              tools/
       README.mirrors.txt     dists/



  Press Alt F1

  You're back again to the normal installation process.

  Now the plip nfs cdrom connection is done. Let's go on and finish our
  job.


       Please select the directory containing a file base2_0.tgz



  Select list  and press <ENTER>


       Please Wait
       The installation program is building a list of ...



  A new screen:


       Select Archive Path
       Please select the directory that you will use to install the Base
       System from.

  Only one long item, already selected. Press <ENTER>


       The Base System is being extracted from
       /instmnt/debian/dists/.....



  Take a second rest, you deserve it


       Next: Configure the Base System



  Press <ENTER>


       Select Timezone



  Select your timezone and your directory and press <ENTER>


       Timezone Configuration



  Read and press <ENTER>


       Timezone Configuration.



  An other page.  Read, select <YES> and press <ENTER>


       Next: Make Linux Bootable Directly From Hard Disk



  Press <ENTER>


       Create Master Boot Record?



  Read
  Select <Yes> and press <ENTER>


       Make Linux the Default Boot Partition?



  Read.
  Select <No> and press <ENTER>


       Next: Make a boot Floppy



  Press <ENTER>


       Change Disk
       Please place a blank floppy disk in the first floppy drive.



  Do it and press <ENTER>
  The floppy is being formatted


       Creating a filesystem on the floppy...
       Copying the operating system kernel...



  A new screen:


       Next: Reboot the System



  Press <ENTER>


       Reboot the system ?



  Remove the floppy and press <ENTER>

  The system reboots.  Are you still with the dark side?  I guess yes,
  so insert the boot floppy you've just made and reboot again with Ctrl-
  Alt-Del

  See the boot messages.
  Read the text.


       New password:



  Enter a root password.


       Re-enter new password



  Do it. And learn it.


       Shall I create a normal user account now? [Y/n]



  Enter n and press <ENTER>. Unless you want to do it (it is safe and
  good, in fact).


       Shall I install shadow passwords? [Y/n]


  Enter y and press <ENTER>


       Do you want to use a PPP connection to install



  Enter n and press <ENTER>


       Now you may choose one of several selections ...
       Do you want to perform this step?



  Enter n and press <ENTER>


       I'm going to start the 'dselect' program...



  Press <ENTER>
  Select [Q]uit and press <ENTER>


       You may now login as 'root' at the login: prompt...
       ...
       debian login:



  Enter root.


       Password:



  Enter the root password.


      ...
       debian:~#



  The system is installed and working. CONGRATULATIONS!

  My job stops here. Read the install documentation of your distribution
  and go on with the Unix system administration job.

  When you reboot your system, the plip connection won't be in good
  shape. But now you know what to do.

  I suggest you some work:

  ·  Configure the plip interface for the normal boot process (in the
     file /etc/init.d/network).


  ·  Configure /etc/fstat on the target to simply mount the remote
     source cdrom via nfs.



           source:/cdrom              /cdrom   nfs     noauto,intr 1 2



  ·  Learn Lilo. Configure it for your DOS and Linux systems and install
     it on a floppy.

  ·  When you master Lilo on the floppy, install it on your hard drive.


  ·  Install and configure the X Window System.

  ·  Have fun.

  ·  Mail me some feedback.



  14.

  Installing Slackware, Caldera

  This section is written by Florent SAUNIER.
  sabetflo@freesurf.fr

  Here, '&' is used for the root prompt, rather than '$'.


  I have performed a Slackware installation using PLIP very succesfully.
  I have also been able to install RedHat and Caldera Open linux using
  the very same method described below.

  As previously specified by Gilles, a Slackware installation requires
  everything specified in the chapter "What do you need?" with the time
  increased to 10 hours if you desire to install xfree(86) and some
  development tools.

  Further on, you first need to read Gilles' installation as I set up
  mine according to his method.

  Finally, I have performed Slackware and Caldera installation on a
  Twinhead 550C laptop, with 8Mb Ram, and 2Gbytes Hard drive.


  14.1.

  Slakware installation


  ·  1- Make 2 disks (boot and root) and prepare a plip disk

  ·  2- Install PLIP module

  ·  3- Create a NFS drive to use PLIP with

  ·  4- Launch the Slackware (or Caldera) Installation

  ·  5- Drink all remaining  coffee and go to bed waiting completion of
     installation. Graham said: Comment ? Du cafй avant de dormir ?  Non
     !  Le cafй au petit matin, aprиs la nuit. Avant, du vin.



  14.1.1.  Making boot,root and plip disks

  To install Slackware verion using an ATAPI CDROM from your source, you
  will need the standard kernel image bareapm.i or bare.i. If you want
  to make an install with SCSI support, use the scsinet.i image.

  Other images exist, such as net.i which should include the PLIP
  function but on my i486 laptop, Twinhead550C, the image does not work.
  In my experience, the standard image always works on any laptop I have
  used.


  14.1.1.1.

  1a- creating the boot and root disks.


  From DOS (PC-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, ...) create the boot disk by
  typing:


      rawrite bareapm.i



  then create the root disks:

      rawrite color.gz.a  (if you are using a color screen)



  14.1.1.2.

  1b- Creating the PLIP disk

  On a DOS formated disk copy the following files:

  ·  1- plip.o (object program for the plip tool)

  ·  2- parport_pc

  ·  3- parport

     Those modules are compulsory prior to a PLIP install, you will find
     them into the Slackware installation CDROM under the directory
     /MODULES.  The same applies to the Caldera installation. Run a
     "find" if you cannot find them.


  14.1.1.3.

  1c- launching the installation.

  Insert your boot disk in your Laptop and start the computer.  Follow
  the installation procedure and wait until the system ask for the root
  disk.  Insert it and wait for the prompt login: "Slackware login".

  To start the Slackware installation you must log in as root. Type
  "root" at the prompt. Be aware that at the time of installation your
  keyboard is still qwerty.



  14.1.2.

  2a- Install PLIP module

  Install your source computer according to Gilles' instructions, from
  chapter 7 to 9.

  Install PLIP on the target.  To install the PLIP module you need to
  launch the program from your PLIP disk.  Remember you did it, no !!!

  Access your floppy disk with:

            $ mount /dev/fd0h1440 /floppy
            $ cd /floppy
            $ insmod parport      # it will install your parallel port
            $ insmod parport_pc   # it will set it up
            $ insmod plip         # it will install plip module



  If during the PLIP installation you encounter an error,  it means that
  your parallel port has not been correctly installed. You may type
  again the instruction above, it does work sometimes !!, or go to the
  parport directory and write the appropriate setting.

        $ cd /proc/parport/0
        $ vi IRQ            # Verify that 7 is written in it if you are using
                            # that interrupt'



  See the chapter "PLIP on the source side" to get the proper setting.

  You should not bother too much as at 95% on the 5 laptops I have
  installed everyting went smoothly.  (Comment peut-on avoir "95% de
  cinq", said rational Graham)



  14.1.3.

  3a- Now create your NFS drive.

  From that point I have chosen to use the creation of a NFS drive on
  the target computer. Then I will make an installation using the "From
  directory" option rather than from nfs.

  Do not forget you still have a US keyboard layout.  Of course you have
  set up your source according to chapter "Network parameters".  You did
  then ping your source, but you cannot yet ping the target.

  So the first step is to configure your PLIP connection: On the target
  type:


         $ ifconfig plip0 192.168.0.1 pointopoint 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.255 up



  Test your Plip configuration by pinging the target from the source


       $ ping target


  then mount  your nfs drive on the target:

       $ cd /
       $ mkdir nfstest
       $ mount -t nfs 192.168.0.2:/cdrom /nfstest



  You have just configured a drive linked to your source directory
  /cdrom were you suppose to have the Slackware CDROM connected, from
  your target directory called nfstest.

  Now everything is set up and you are ready to launch the Slackware
  installation program, by typing "setup".

  note:if you do not have enough memory, below 8MB setup will not be
  launched, then you will have to make a swap space to allow the program
  to work.  First, create your disk partition with your swap by typing

         $ fdisk



  Note which is your swap partition (e.g. /hda3), then quit fdisk with


         $ mkswap -c /dev/hda3
         $ swapon /dev/ha3



  Your swap is now set up.  You may then launch the "setup" program.


  14.1.4.

  4a- Installing Slakware

  the setup programm shows various menu items:

  ·  HELP - Help file

  ·  KEYMAP - Keyboard select (Azerty at last !!!)

  ·  ADDSWAP - Create and select swap

  ·  TARGET - Select target

  ·  SOURCE - select the source

  ·  SELECT - Select packages to install

  ·  CONFIGURE - Set up your Linux system and make LILO

  ·  EXIT - bye bye setup

  4b- Select your keyboard, for French take -Fr-latin1.map

  4c- Select your swap partition if not already configured

  4d- Select the target, default is '/'

  4e- Select the source. tricky stuff: choose "Installing from a drive",
  then type the drive so : /nfstest/slackware CDROM directory
  4f- Select packages to install

  4g- Wait, Wait, Wait and Wait........


  14.2.

  Caldera Installation


  I told you that Caldera works also with that install. In fact, as
  Caldera automatically launches its Setup program, once you arrived at
  the menu where you are supposed to choose your source disks, type ALT
  F2, go to another screen, then log on as root and make your nfs drive
  as described above in points 2 to 4.  Then go back to the installation
  screen with ALT F1, and type the famous nfstest as your source
  directory. Caldera will then install without problem.

  14.3.

  Troubleshooting

  If you are experiencing any trouble with that installation you may
  report it to me and I'll try to help as best as I can.

  15.

  Installing RedHat 6.x

  This section is written by Dr. Tilmann Bubeck, bubeck@think-at-work.de


  I tried hard to install a laptop through PLIP with a RedHat 6.2 but
  the installer from RedHat is buggy and could not be used for PLIP. I
  verified that it was already broken in RedHat 6.1, but works in RedHat
  5.2 as desired. Patches have been sent to RedHat and will hopefully be
  applied to the upcoming RedHat 7.0.

  So if you want to install a RedHat 6.x over PLIP you must follow these
  instructions.

  The problem is the "bootnet" disk. This disk should be used for PLIP
  installation but has 2 serious errors:


  ·  it does not contain the necessary driver "parport_pc"

  ·  it does not allow you to specify important module parameters to
     "parport_pc" (especially "iobase" and "irq").


  15.1.

  Using a fixed "bootnet" disk

  Probably the easiest way to solve the above problem is to use a fixed
  "bootnet" disk. You can get a fixed "bootnet" disk for RedHat 6.2 from
  http://www-ti.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/~bubeck/bootnet-plip-62.img

  Use the following command to copy the downloaded image to an empty
  disk:

  dd if=bootnet-plip-62.img of=/dev/fd0.

  Then insert the disk and turn your computer on. When you come to the
  point where you must choose your network device driver please do:
  ·  1- Choose "Parallel Port Module for PC" and select "specify module
     parameters".

  ·  2- Enter iobase and interrupt for your parallel port. Typical
     values are iobase=0x378 or iobase=0x3bc. Interrupt most often is
     "irq=7".


  ·  3- Validate that the kernel loads the module and finds the parallel
     port. Use ALT+F4 to switch to kernel messages and look for a line
     saying: "parport: ... irq: 7".

  ·  4- The installation will then try to access the network which is
     still not available. So the installer asks again for the
     installation method. Choose your method again.

  ·  5- Now choose the "plip" module without any parameters. Again
     verify the loading of the module in the kernel messages.

  ·  6- Network should be up and running, installation should proceed.
     If not, then check the modules parameters to "parport_pc".


  15.2.

  Building your own "bootnet" disk

  If the above bootnet disk is not suitable for your needs, I will
  present a small description of how to transform a standard bootnet
  disk for using "plip". This description is quite short and is
  addressed to the advanced user.


  ·  1- make a copy of the standard bootnet disk by using "dd".

  ·  2- insert this copy of standard bootnet disk and mount it with:
     mount /dev/fd0 /mnt

  ·  3- gunzip initial ramdisk with cp /mnt/initrd.img
     /tmp/initrd.img.gz; gunzip /tmp/initrd.img.gz

  ·  4- Mount initial ramdisk with mkdir /mnt2; mount -o loop
     /tmp/initrd.img /mnt2

  ·  5- gunzip and extract modules directory with: cd /tmp; zcat
     /mnt2/modules/modules.cgz | cpio -ivd

  ·  6- You should now have a directory called with your kernel version
     number (e.g. "2.2.14-5.0BOOT") containing a lot of modules. Check
     if the modules "parport_pc.o" is included in this directory (it is
     unfortunately NOT included in RedHat 6.0-6.2). If you can not find
     it, then please build a custom kernel with the EXTRAVERSION number
     like your bootnet disk (in this case: "5.0BOOT") and "parport"
     support as module. Copy the newly created parport_pc.o module to
     your new modules directory: cp .../parport_pc.o
     /tmp/2.2.14-5.0BOOT.

  ·  7- delete a normally unused module, so that you have additional
     space on the disk: rm /tmp/2.2.14-5.0BOOT/sktr.o (driver for token
     ring network adapter).

  ·  8- rebuild modules archive with: find /tmp/2.2.14-5.0BOOT | cpio
     -ov -H crc | gzip > /mnt2/modules/modules.cgz

  ·  9- insert a new modules dependency line into modules.dep saying
     that module "parport_pc" needs module "parport": echo "parport_pc:
     parport" >> /mnt2/modules/modules.dep

  ·  10- insert entry for parport_pc module into module-info so that the
     user can select the parport_pc module during installation. Append
     the following text to the end of /mnt2/modules/module-info:

     parport_pc
             plip
             "Parallel Port Module for PC"
             io "Base I/O address"
             irq "IRQ level"



  ·  11- unmount and gzip initial ramdisk with: umount /mnt2; gzip -9
     /tmp/initrd.img

  ·  12- copy initial ramdisk to bootnet disk and unmount: cp
     /tmp/initrd.img.gz /mnt/initrd.img; umount /mnt

  By following these instructions, you get a bootnet disk containing all
  necessary modules and therefore allowing for a PLIP installation.
  Please follow the instructions elsewhere in this how-to on how to do
  the installation with the new disk.


  16.

  Installing RedHat 7.0

  This section is written by Leonard den Ottolander
  <mailto:leonardjo@hetnet.nl>

  To install RedHat 7.0 over PLIP the easiest way to go is to use a
  patched bootnet.img which is available via the url
  <http://home.hetnet.nl/~ottolander>. This saves the need for a driver
  disk, which might be useful when installing on a machine which floppy
  drive stops functioning after boot (I made this bootnet-plip.img to do
  an install to a Toshiba Libretto 30 which has a funny PCMCIA floppy
  drive that is no longer available after boot).

  This disk is a full bootnet.img for RedHat 7.0, with the modules
  necessary for PLIP added to it. Since there was enough disk space, no
  modules had to be deleted. So you can use this image as if it were a
  full featured bootnet.img. No need for different disks.

  I am not going into detail on the actual installation procedure, but
  there are a few things to note:


  ·

     The parport module should be loaded before the PLIP module. Specify
     i/o address and irq parameters for the parallel port when inserting
     the parallel port module.

  ·

     After inserting the parport_pc module the installer will show the
     "Installation method" screen a second time. This is expected
     behaviour. Choose the PLIP module this second time. No parameters
     need to be specified when inserting the PLIP module.

  ·

     When specifying network parameters, do not use a netmask of
     255.255.255.255 as you might normally do for a PLIP connection. If
     you do this by accident you will have to reboot to be able to mount
     the installation directory succesfully. Going back and respecifying
     the parameters will not help you out.

  ·

     When doing an NFS install with RedHat 7.0 make sure all files from
     the RedHat directories from both CD's are copied to the NFS mount
     point (cp -a RedHat for both CD's). It is not possible to use the
     mounted CD's.



  16.1.

  Creating your own bootnet-plip disk

  This section is a slightly adapted copy of the procedure to create a
  bootnet-plip image for RedHat 6.2 described by Tilmann Bubeck. Thanx
  Tilmann!


  ·

     1) Mount a copy of the standard bootnet disk and copy all files to
     a temporary directory:

             mount -o loop -t vfat /tmp/bootnet.img /mnt/bootnet
             cp -a /mnt/bootnet /tmp



  ·

     2) Gunzip the initial ramdisk, mount it and copy all files to a
     temporary directory:

             mv /tmp/bootnet/initrd.img /tmp/bootnet/initrd.gz
             gzip -d /tmp/bootnet/initrd.gz
             mount -o loop /tmp/bootnet/initrd /mnt/initrd
             cp -a /mnt/initrd /tmp



  ·

     3) Gunzip and extract the modules directory with:

             cd /tmp
             zcat /tmp/initrd/modules/modules.cgz | cpio -ivd



  ·

     4) Install the kernel-BOOT-2.2.16-22 rpm and copy the modules
     parport.o, parport_pc.o and plip.o from /lib/modules/2.2.16-22BOOT
     to /tmp/2.2.16-22BOOT, or use the midnight commander to extract
     these files from rpm. When building modified boot disks you will
     always need the modules from the kernel-BOOT rpm.


  ·

     5) If you need additional space on your bootnet-plip disk, delete
     an unused module from the modules directory, fe:

             rm /tmp/2.2.16-22BOOT/old_tulip.o



  Note that this is not necessary for the RedHat 7.0 bootnet disk. There
  is enough space left for the added modules. Do *not* delete modules
  like sunrpc.o, lockd.o, nfs.o, fat.o, vfat.o and the like. This will
  make your disk useless. Use common sense.


  ·

     6) Rebuild the modules archive:

             find /tmp/2.2.16-22BOOT | cpio -ov -H crc | gzip > \
             /tmp/initrd/modules/modules.cgz



  ·

     7) Insert a new modules dependency line into modules.dep saying
     that module "parport_pc" needs module "parport":

             echo "parport_pc: parport" >> /tmp/initrd/modules/modules.dep



  ·

     8) Insert entries for the parport_pc and plip modules into module-
     info. These entries should look like this:


         parport_pc
             plip
             "Parallel Port, Insert Before PLIP"
             io "Base I/O address"
             irq "IRQ level"
         plip
             plip
             "PLIP (Parallel Link Interface Protocol)"
             io "Base I/O address"
             irq "IRQ level"



  You probably may omit the io and irq entries for plip.  Also delete
  any entries that refer to modules that you removed from the archive
  (ie old_tulip in the previous example).


  ·


     9) Copy the modified module files to the initial ramdisk:

            cp -a /tmp/initrd/modules/module* /mnt/initrd/modules



  ·


     10) Unmount and gzip the initial ramdisk and copy it to the disk
     image:

             umount /mnt/initrd
             gzip -9 /tmp/bootnet/initrd
             cp /tmp/bootnet/initrd.gz /mnt/bootnet/initrd.img
             umount /mnt/bootnet



  ·


     11) The file /tmp/bootnet.img is now your new bootnet-plip.img. You
     might want to clean up your temporary files:


             rm -r /tmp/2.2.16-22BOOT
             rm -r /tmp/initrd
             rm -r /tmp/bootnet



  17.  Installing Suse


  The Suse installation process includes PLIP support (Network type
  configuration). If you encounter a problem installing a Suse
  distibution using PLIP, feel free to report them.


  18.

  Installing from a DOS partition

  You can use this section if you already have a DOS partition on your
  target computer. I think it is a faster installation method.

  Read the section 5.3.1 "Installing from a DOS partition" from
  install.txt. This section is also available on the Debian CD in the
  html file ch-install-methods.html.

  I am just going to help you to make the first point : "1. Get the
  following files from your nearest Debian repository"


  The transfer is easy with the floppy-disc based Linux from  tomsrtbt.

  Export the source cdrom drive via nfs.

  Read the file tomsrtbt.FAQ

  Create the floppy under  DOS or Linux, you have the choice.


       Linux installation:
       a) extract the .tar.gz archive
       b) Be root
       c) Be in the tomsrtbt-<version> directory
       d) Have a blank floppy with no bad sectors
       e) Do './install.s'



  Boot the target with the floppy. Login as root.


        $ insmod plip
        $ ifconfig plip1 192.168.0.1 pointopoint 192.168.0.2 \
        netmask 255.255.255.255 up
        $ route add -host 192.168.0.2 dev plip1
        $ mount -t nfs 192.168.0.2:/cdrom /cdrom
        $ mkdir /c
        $ mount -t msdos /dev/hda1 /c
        $ mkdir /c/debian
        $ cd /cdrom/dists/stable/main/disks-i386/current/
        $ cp resc1440.bin drv1440.bin base2_1.tgz root.bin linux \
        install.bat loadlin.exe /c/debian



  The \ means the command line continues on the next line.  The cp
  command takes some time. When finished, remove the floppy and then :

        $ reboot



  Boot under DOS.


        C:\> cd debian
        C:\DEBIAN> install



  Now you start to install Debian from a DOS partition. You do not need
  plip or floppy during the installation process. Everything deals with
  the hard drive. Read the Debian install documentation, it is very good
  and clear.



  19.

  Install the plip interface permanently


  19.1.

  On the source side


  I use an old Linux RedHat 4.1 distribution. The location of the files
  can be different on other GNU/Linux distributions but the philosophy
  is the same (The Unix System V convention).

  Create the file /etc/rc.d/init.d/plip with this content:


  #!/bin/sh

  ##############################
  # file /etc/rc.d/init.d/plip #
  ##############################

  # See how we were called.
  case "$1" in
    start)
          # Start daemons.
          /bin/echo "Starting plip interface: "
          /bin/echo "Doing /sbin/ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 up"
          /sbin/ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 up
          /bin/echo  "Doing /bin/ping -q -c 4 target"
          /bin/ping -q -c 4 target
          /bin/echo "Starting plip interface: done"
          ;;
    stop)
          # Stop daemons.
          /bin/echo  "Shutting down plip interface:"
          /bin/echo  "Doing /sbin/ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 down"
          /sbin/ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 down
          /bin/echo  "Doing /sbin/modprobe  -r plip "
          /sbin/modprobe  -r plip
          /bin/echo "Shutting down plip interface: done"
          ;;
    *)
          echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop}"
          exit 1
  esac

  exit 0

  # === End of File ===



  Only the ifconfig lines are strictly necessary. Perhaps you will need
  to add some modprobe commands if you don't use kerneld or the kmod
  feature of new kernels 2.2.x

  Create the symbolic links in the rc*.d directories:



        $ cd /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/
        $ ln -s ../init.d/plip K97plip

        $ cd /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/
        $ ln -s ../init.d/plip K92plip

        $ cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/
        $ ln -s ../init.d/plip S11plip


        $ cd /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/
        $ ln -s ../init.d/plip S11plip



  You can choose other numbers. Make sure that the two-digit number
  after 'K' is greater than the number of every other file that stops a
  service depending on plip.

  Make sure that the two-digit number after 'S' is less than the number
  of every other file that start a service depending on plip: nfs, nis,
  ftp, http etc.

  Update the /etc/conf.modules file, choosing the correct IRQ number (7
  is mine, yours may be different):


  # /etc/conf.modules
  ...
  alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
  post-install parport_pc echo 7 >  /proc/parport/0/irq
  ...



  Test the plip shell:


        $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/plip
        Usage: /etc/rc.d/init.d/plip {start|stop}

        $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/plip stop
        Shutting down plip interface:
        Doing /sbin/ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 down
        Doing /sbin/modprobe  -r plip
        Shutting down plip interface: done

        $ /etc/rc.d/init.d/plip start
        Starting plip interface:
        Doing /sbin/ifconfig plip0 source pointopoint target netmask 255.255.255.255 up
        Doing /bin/ping -q -c 4 target
        PING target (192.168.0.1): 56 data bytes

        --- target ping statistics ---
        4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
        round-trip min/avg/max = 4.4/8.3/14.0 ms
        Starting plip interface: done



  Updating the start scripts is a good occasion to reboot a Unix system,
  to check the modifications. Do it:

        $ init 6 # or "shutdown -r now" or "reboot"



  19.2.

  On the target side


  Update the file /etc/init.d/network:


        #! /bin/sh
        #######################
        # /etc/init.d/network #
        #######################

        ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1
        route add -net 127.0.0.0

        ifconfig plip1 192.168.0.1 pointopoint 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.255 up
        route add -host 192.168.0.2 dev plip1



  That's all because the parport features are directly in the kernel.

  Updating the start scripts is a good occasion to reboot a Unix system,
  to check the modifications. Do it:


        $ init 6



  20.

  Compatibility with a printer (lp)

  I use the same parallel port for printing on a printer and networking
  with my laptop without big problems. It takes less than one second to
  switch from printing to networking. I just add a cheap manual switch
  between the parallel port, the printer and the laptop. The cable
  between the switch and the desktop computer is a fully connected one.
  The switch is just the one used to shared printers when no network is
  available. It works.

  Sometimes, the kernel is not very happy because it can't finish its
  network job. In that case, I shut down the plip interface and restart
  it when needed.

  I bought a new parallel card last year but it is still in its box.
  I'll write an "install a second parallel port" when I succeed in
  opening the box and add that beautiful card in the last connector I
  have left.



  21.

  Need to compile a new kernel ?


  Several times during the source server configuration we mentioned that
  a kernel compilation on the source computer could be needed.

  I list the things you need to change or set.  If you have never
  compiled a kernel, read the Kernel-HOWTO.


      Loadable module support  --->
          [*] Enable loadable module support

      General setup  --->
          [*] Networking support
          <M> Parallel port support
          <M>    PC-style hardware

      Networking options  --->
          [*] TCP/IP networking

      Network device support  --->
          [*] Network device support
          <*> Dummy net driver support
          <M> PLIP (parallel port) support
          <*> or <M>  PPP (point-to-point) support

      Character devices  --->
          <M> Parallel printer support


      Filesystems  --->
          [*] /proc filesystem support
          <*> or <M> ISO 9660 CDROM filesystem support
          Network File Systems  --->
              <*> or <M> NFS filesystem support



  22.  Known problems



  22.1.  plip 2.2.14 versus 2.2.16


  >From "Matt Haycraft" Matt.Haycraft@dakotaimaging.com

  Both sides have the right thing show up with ifconfig and route but
  ping (or anything else does not work) However what blows my mind is
  that the ifconfig section for both machines DOES show that packets are
  being received/transmitted.


  However it turned out to be a compatibility issue between 2.2.14 and
  2.2.16 and the plip code for each kernel version.  2.2.16 had some
  differences.  To address the issue, I copied the plip.c from the
  2.2.16 kernel to the source tree of 2.2.14 and recompiled the kernel
  module.  Then everything worked!
  23.  What's new

  This tag is automatic so it IS the reference.  (Sometimes I forget to
  update the version number and the date)

  $Id: PLIP-Install-HOWTO.sgml,v 1.40 2002/07/07 23:46:32 gilles Exp $


  $Log: PLIP-Install-HOWTO.sgml,v $
  Revision 1.40  2002/07/07 23:46:32  gilles
  Corrected tag problem

  Revision 1.39  2002/07/07 23:42:27  gilles
  Added Richard Barrington in "acknowledgements" section.

  Revision 1.38  2002/07/07 23:15:53  gilles
  Added a "Known problems" section
  Added "plip 2.2.14 versus 2.2.16" section. Thanks Matt.

  Revision 1.37  2002/07/07 22:56:44  gilles
  Adapted insmod parport_pc to 2.4 kernel



     v1.36, 3 December 2001

     ·  Changed the ``licence''. Do what you want.

     ·  Added a ``Suse'' section. Thanks Graham.

     ·  Added a ``PLIP for the impatient'' section.

     ·  Changed my email address.


     v1.31, 21 April 2001


     ·  Corrected a bad url in section "Installing RedHat 7.0". Thanks
        Leonard.


     ·  Corrected broken links find by the nice clink
        <http://www.jmarshall.com/tools/cl/> software.



     v1.30, 13 April 2001


     ·  Added section "Installing RedHat 7.0". Thanks Leonard.


     v1.28, 18 December 2000


     ·  Corrected more mistakes in my English. Thanks again Graham.



     v1.27, 11 August 2000



     ·  The SLIP line was not needed, SLIP is serial line oriented. The
        PPP line was partly wrong, we need PPP support by the kernel.



     ·  Corrected more mistakes in my English, though I know that more
        remain and new ones come every time I write a sentence...



     ·  Added a "compatibility with a printer" section.



     ·  Added a Null-Printer == Null-Modem comment.



     ·  Added a "build your own cable" section.



     ·  Corrected a bug in the Slackware section. ``Here'' (inverted IP
        adresses). Thanks to Brad Rigby.



     ·  Removed obsolete paragraph from the "Introduction" section.



     ·  Added request for information about translations in the
        "Introduction" section.



     ·  Mentioned the "what's new section" at the top of the document.



     ·  Added a vc-header in the What's new section



     ·  Added the WHAT_IS_NEW label



     v1.22, 16 June 2000

     ·  Added a mention to PARTED http://www.gnu.org/software/parted as
        told by Andrew Clausen (clausen@gnu.org).


     ·  Added section Installing Slackware, RedHat, or Caldera, by
        Florent SAUNIER.



     ·  Corrected some English faults, thanks to Graham and Tomas.



     v1.15,  26 November 1999

     ·  The section "What's new". It is this section.



     ·  The section  "Install the plip interface permanently".



     ·  The section "List of contributors and acknowledgements".



     ·  Joined the different chapters dealing with the detailed Debian
        installation to form a single chapter with the actual chapters
        as just subsections.



     ·  Made a new section "Installing from a DOS partition". A simpler
        and faster method.


  24.

  To do



  ·  Check a kernel compilation from scratch (no last .config file) with
     only the options I gave. Add the missing ones if any.



  ·  Make the Mandrake, Turbo Linux, and Stampede detailed installation
     chapters. Contributions are welcome. Gilles Lamiral won't do that
     job unless given new computers and CDs.


     Debian (done), Red Hat (redone by Tilmann Bubeck), Slackware
     (done), Caldera OpenLinux (done), SuSE (done).



  ·  Make "The CD-ROM NFS server side" chapter become simply "the server
     side" chapter with subsections like "cdrom medium", "zip medium",
     "hard disk medium", and "ftp server" "nfs server", "samba server"
     "http server". Again, contributions are welcome.

  25.

  List of contributors and acknowledgements


  I thank all the people in this list of contributors or projects. If
  you think I forgot someone, do not hesitate to complain.


     Werner Heuser <wehe@snafu.de>
        He said: "yesterday I had time enough to read your document.
        It's great and in the next issue of my HOWTO (probably 2.
        December) I will make a link to it."

        He did.



     LDP <linux-howto@metalab.unc.edu>
        The Linux Documentation Project accepted the PLIP-Install-HOWTO
        without any hesitation.


     Graham Bosworth <graham@bozikins.connectfree.co.uk>
        Graham corrected my bad English all over the document. Several
        times. Graham told me that Suse includes a PLIP installation
        process.


     Simon Forget <sforget@camelot.ca>
        Simon had a problem with his pcmcia floppy drive. So he led me
        search for a solution that is, in fact, simpler and faster (the
        DOS one).



     Andrew Clausen <clausen@gnu.org>
        Andrew suggested that I talk about parted
        http://www.gnu.org/software/parted



     Florent SAUNIER <FlorentSAUNIER@sabetflo.freesurf.fr>
        Florent wrote the section called "Installing Slackware/Caldera".


     Tomas Pospisek  <tpo@spin.ch>
        Tomas also corrected my bad english.


     Brad Rigby  <brigby@rocketmail.com>
        Brad corrected a bug in the Slackware section (inverted IP
        adresses).


     Donald Becker  <becker@super.org>
        Donald wrote the PLIP kernel  documentation
        /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt



     Tilmann Bubeck  <bubeck@think-at-work.de>
        Tilmann wrote the section called  "Installing RedHat 6.x".



     Leonard den Ottolander  <leonardjo@hetnet.nl>
        Leonard wrote the section called  "Installing RedHat 7.x".



     Richard Barrington (rich_b_nz@clear.net.nz)

        "Under linux 2.4, the described method of setting irq doesn't
        work. it needs insmod parport_pc io=0x378 irq=7 otherwise it
        will default to no irq." Thanks Richard.



     Matt Haycraft (Matt.Haycraft@dakotaimaging.com)
        Matt discovered and resolved a plip problem between 2.2.14 and
        2.2.16 kernels. See ``Known problems'' section.