The Linux Thai HOWTO

Table of Contents


  1. Introduction

  2. Thai Input and Output

     2.1 Linux console
        2.1.1 Thai fonts
        2.1.2 Keyboard layout
     2.2 X Window system
        2.2.1 Thai fonts
           2.2.1.1 Installing Thai fonts
        2.2.2 Thai keyboard layout There are two ways to map Thai keyboard on X window, using X Keyboard Extension (XKB) and using
           2.2.2.1 XKB and Thai keyboard layout.
           2.2.2.2 Thai keyboard layout with xmodmap

  3. Applications with Thai language

     3.1 Some X applications and Thai language
        3.1.1 txterm
        3.1.2 Emacs, Mule
        3.1.3 vi
        3.1.4 pine
        3.1.5 Netscape
        3.1.6 Ss, Simple thai word Separator
        3.1.7 Xzthai, X keyboard configurator + simple editor
     3.2 Printing Thai document
        3.2.1 Latex and Thai language
        3.2.2 Latex's configuration for Thai language
        3.2.3 Use Thai
        3.2.4 Editing
     3.3 X Application Resources
     3.4 Thai Extension for Linux (TE)

  4. References and FTP sites

     4.1 Other documents of relevance
     4.2 Thai related stuffs
     4.3 FTP and Web sites

  5. Acknowledgments and Copyright



  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction

  It's about one year that I didn't update this document. There were a
  lot of movement in Thai computing and using Linux in Thailand. For
  example, Linux boxes are used as server in many schools in Thailand
  <http://www.school.net.th>.

  The purpose of this document is to show how to set your Linux to use
  Thai language. I use Linux RedHat 5.0 as I wrote this document, so
  directories which I mention in this document may be different from
  other distribution.
  First I would like to talk about Thai standard character set. Thai
  standard character set is TIS-620. There are also other Thai standard
  character sets such as ISO-IR-166, CP874, etc. Please see
  http://www.inet.co.th/cyberclub/trin/thairef/
  <http://www.inet.co.th/cyberclub/trin/thairef/> for further
  information about Thai standard character set.  TIS-620 is 8-bit
  character set. It has the same range as ISO-8859-1, so we can use
  apllications that support ISO-8859-1 character set also. Although we
  can use Thai language with apllications that support ISO-8859-1
  character set, but it does not mean those applications support Thai
  language.

  Thai characters are different from English characters.  There is a
  variation of position, normal position, character can be on other
  character, character can be under other character. There is no space
  between words. These are some problems in developing Thai supported
  application.

  You can find the lastest version of Thai-HOWTO document from
  http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/Linux
  <http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/Linux>.  Your comment is welcome.



  2.  Thai Input and Output

  2.1.  Linux console

  Thai characters do not display properly in Linux console. If you
  mainly use X window, you may pass this section.

  2.1.1.  Thai fonts

  You can obtain Linux Thai console fonts which created by Mr. Phaisarn
  Techajaruwong from ZzzThai ftp site
  <ftp://ftp.fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Sofware/Linux/fonts/console>

  For example, there is a font name "phaisarn.psf". Put it in
  /usr/lib/kbd/consolefonts/ directory. Then, you can load the new font
  from Linux console by command


       %setfont phaisarn.psf



  2.1.2.  Keyboard layout

  You can set keyboard behavior as you like by using loadkeys command.
  Usually, you use loadkeys to load the file located in
  /usr/lib/kbd/keytables. You can create a US/Thai keyboard-map file and
  save it in this directory. Here is a sample.



  keycode   0 =
  keycode   1 = Escape           Escape
          alt     keycode   1 = Meta_Escape
  keycode   2 = +one              exclam          +0x0e5          plus
          alt     keycode   2 = Meta_one
          alt shift keycode 2 = Meta_exclam
  keycode   3 = +two              at              +slash          0x0f1
          control keycode   3 = nul
          control shift keycode 3 = nul
          alt     keycode   3 = Meta_two
          alt shift keycode 3 = Meta_at
  keycode   4 = +three            numbersign      +underscore     0x0f2
          control keycode   4 = Escape
          alt     keycode   4 = Meta_three
          alt shift keycode 4 = Meta_numbersign
  keycode   5 = +four             dollar          +0x0c0          0x0f3
          control keycode   5 = Control_backslash
          alt     keycode   5 = Meta_four
          alt shift keycode 5 = Meta_dollar
  keycode   6 = +five             percent         +0x0b6          0x0f4
          control keycode   6 = Control_bracketright
          alt     keycode   6 = Meta_five
          alt shift keycode 6 = Meta_percent
  keycode   7 = +six              asciicircum     +0x0d8          0x0d9
          control keycode   7 = Control_asciicircum
          alt     keycode   7 = Meta_six
          alt shift keycode 7 = Meta_asciicircum
  keycode   8 = +seven            ampersand       +0x0d6          0x0df
          control keycode   8 = Control_underscore
          alt     keycode   8 = Meta_seven
  keycode   9 = +eight            asterisk        +0x0a4          0x0f5
          control keycode   9 = Delete
          alt     keycode   9 = Meta_eight
  keycode  10 = +nine             parenleft       +0x0b5          0x0d6
          alt     keycode  10 = Meta_nine
  keycode  11 = +zero             parenright      +0x0a8          0x0f7
          alt     keycode  11 = Meta_zero
  keycode  12 = +minus            underscore      +0x0a2          0x0f8
          control keycode  12 = Control_underscore
          control shift keycode 12 = Control_underscore
          alt     keycode  12 = Meta_minus
  keycode  13 = +equal            plus            +0x0aa          0x0f9
          alt     keycode  13 = Meta_equal
  keycode  14 = Delete           Delete           Delete          Delete
          alt     keycode  14 = Meta_Delete
  keycode  15 = Tab              Tab              Tab             Tab
          alt     keycode  15 = Meta_Tab
  keycode  16 = +q        Q       +0x0e6          0x0f0
  keycode  17 = +w        W       +0x0e4          quotedbl
  keycode  18 = +e        E       +0x0d3          0x0ae
  keycode  19 = +r        R       +0x0be          0x0b1
  keycode  20 = +t        T       +0x0d0          0x0b8
  keycode  21 = +y        Y       +0x0d1          0x0ed
  keycode  22 = +u        U       +0x0d5          0x0ea
  keycode  23 = +i        I       +0x0c3          0x0b3
  keycode  24 = +o        O       +0x0b9          0x0cf
  keycode  25 = +p        P       +0x0c2          0x0ad
  keycode  26 = +bracketleft      braceleft       +0x0ba          0x0b0
          control keycode  26 = Escape
          alt     keycode  26 = Meta_bracketleft
          alt shift keycode 26 = Meta_braceleft
  keycode  27 = +bracketright     braceright      +0x0c5          comma
          control keycode  27 = Control_bracketright
          alt     keycode  27 = Meta_bracketright
          alt shift keycode 27 = Meta_braceright
  keycode  28 = Return            Return          Return          Return
          alt     keycode  28 = 0x080d
  keycode  29 = Control           Control         Control         Control
  keycode  30 = +a        A       +0x0bf          0x0c4
  keycode  31 = +s        S       +0x0cb          0x0a6
  keycode  32 = +d        D       +0x0a1          0x0af
  keycode  33 = +f        F       +0x0b4          0x0e2
  keycode  34 = +g        G       +0x0e0          0x0ac
  keycode  35 = +h        H       +0x0e9          0x0e7
  keycode  36 = +j        J       +0x0e8          0x0eb
  keycode  37 = +k        K       +0x0d2          0x0c9
  keycode  38 = +l        L       +0x0ca          0x0c8
  keycode  39 = +semicolon        colon           +0x0c7          0x0ab
          alt     keycode  39 = Meta_semicolon
  keycode  40 = +apostrophe       quotedbl        +0x0a7          period
          control keycode  40 = Control_g
          alt     keycode  40 = Meta_apostrophe
  keycode  41 = +grave            asciitilde      +minus          percent
          control keycode  41 = nul
          alt     keycode  41 = Meta_grave
  keycode  42 = Shift            Shift            Shift           Shift
  keycode  43 = +backslash        bar             +0x0a3          0x0a5
          control keycode  43 = Control_backslash
          alt     keycode  43 = Meta_backslash
          alt shift keycode 43 = Meta_bar
  keycode  44 = +z        Z       +0x0bc          parenleft
  keycode  45 = +x        X       +0x0bb          parenright
  keycode  46 = +c        C       +0x0e1          0x0a9
  keycode  47 = +v        V       +0x0cd          0x0ce
  keycode  48 = +b        B       +0x0d4          0x0da
  keycode  49 = +n        N       +0x0d7          0x0ec
  keycode  50 = +m        M       +0x0b7          question
  keycode  51 = +comma    less    +0x0c1          0x0b2
          alt     keycode  51 = Meta_comma
          alt shift keycode 51 = Meta_less
  keycode  52 = +period           greater         +0x0e3          0x0cc
          alt     keycode  52 = Meta_period
          alt shift keycode 52 = Meta_greater
  keycode  53 = +slash            question        +0x0bd          0x0c6
          control keycode  53 = Delete
          alt     keycode  53 = Meta_slash
  keycode  54 = Shift            Shift            Shift           Shift
  keycode  55 = KP_Multiply
  keycode  56 = Alt              Alt              Alt             Alt
  keycode  57 = space            space            space           space
          control keycode  57 = nul
          alt     keycode  57 = Meta_space
  keycode  58 = Caps_Lock        Caps_Lock        Caps_Lock       Caps_Lock
  keycode  59 = F1               F11              Console_13
          control keycode  59 = F1
          alt     keycode  59 = Console_1
          control alt     keycode  59 = Console_1
  keycode  60 = F2               F12              Console_14
          control keycode  60 = F2
          alt     keycode  60 = Console_2
          control alt     keycode  60 = Console_2
  keycode  61 = F3               F13              Console_15
          control keycode  61 = F3
          alt     keycode  61 = Console_3
          control alt     keycode  61 = Console_3
  keycode  62 = F4               F14              Console_16
          control keycode  62 = F4
          alt     keycode  62 = Console_4
          control alt     keycode  62 = Console_4
  keycode  63 = F5               F15              Console_17
          control keycode  63 = F5
          alt     keycode  63 = Console_5
          control alt     keycode  63 = Console_5
  keycode  64 = F6               F16              Console_18
          control keycode  64 = F6
          alt     keycode  64 = Console_6
          control alt     keycode  64 = Console_6
  keycode  65 = F7               F17              Console_19
          control keycode  65 = F7
          alt     keycode  65 = Console_7
          control alt     keycode  65 = Console_7
  keycode  66 = F8               F18              Console_20
          control keycode  66 = F8
          alt     keycode  66 = Console_8
          control alt     keycode  66 = Console_8
  keycode  67 = F9               F19              Console_21
          control keycode  67 = F9
          alt     keycode  67 = Console_9
          control alt     keycode  67 = Console_9
  keycode  68 = F10              F20              Console_22
          control keycode  68 = F10
          alt     keycode  68 = Console_10
          control alt     keycode  68 = Console_10
  keycode  69 = Num_Lock
  keycode  70 = Scroll_Lock      Show_Memory      Show_Registers
          control keycode  70 = Show_State
          alt     keycode  70 = Scroll_Lock
  keycode  71 = KP_7
          alt     keycode  71 = Ascii_7
  keycode  72 = KP_8
          alt     keycode  72 = Ascii_8
  keycode  73 = KP_9
          alt     keycode  73 = Ascii_9
  keycode  74 = KP_Subtract
  keycode  75 = KP_4
          alt     keycode  75 = Ascii_4
  keycode  76 = KP_5
          alt     keycode  76 = Ascii_5
  keycode  77 = KP_6
          alt     keycode  77 = Ascii_6
  keycode  78 = KP_Add
  keycode  79 = KP_1
          alt     keycode  79 = Ascii_1
  keycode  80 = KP_2
          alt     keycode  80 = Ascii_2
  keycode  81 = KP_3
          alt     keycode  81 = Ascii_3
  keycode  82 = KP_0
          alt     keycode  82 = Ascii_0
  keycode  83 = KP_Period
          altgr   control keycode  83 = Boot
          control alt     keycode  83 = Boot
  keycode  84 = Last_Console
  keycode  85 =
  keycode  86 = less             greater          bar
          alt     keycode  86 = Meta_less
  keycode  87 = F11              F11              Console_23
          control keycode  87 = F11
          alt     keycode  87 = Console_11
          control alt     keycode  87 = Console_11
  keycode  88 = F12              F12              Console_24
          control keycode  88 = F12
          alt     keycode  88 = Console_12
          control alt     keycode  88 = Console_12
  keycode  89 =
  keycode  90 =
  keycode  91 =
  keycode  92 =
  keycode  93 =
  keycode  94 =
  keycode  95 =
  keycode  96 = KP_Enter
  keycode  97 = Control
  keycode  98 = KP_Divide
  keycode  99 = Control_backslash
          control keycode  99 = Control_backslash
          alt     keycode  99 = Control_backslash
  keycode 100 = AltGr_Lock
  keycode 101 = Break
  keycode 102 = Find
  keycode 103 = Up
  keycode 104 = Prior
          shift   keycode 104 = Scroll_Backward
  keycode 105 = Left
          alt     keycode 105 = Decr_Console
  keycode 106 = Right
          alt     keycode 106 = Incr_Console
  keycode 107 = Select
  keycode 108 = Down
  keycode 109 = Next
          shift   keycode 109 = Scroll_Forward
  keycode 110 = Insert
  keycode 111 = Remove
          altgr   control keycode 111 = Boot
          control alt     keycode 111 = Boot
  keycode 112 =
  keycode 113 =
  keycode 114 =
  keycode 115 =
  keycode 116 =
  keycode 117 =
  keycode 118 =
  keycode 119 =
  keycode 120 =
  keycode 121 =
  keycode 122 =
  keycode 123 =
  keycode 124 =
  keycode 125 =
  keycode 126 =
  keycode 127 =
  string F1 = "\033[[A"
  string F2 = "\033[[B"
  string F3 = "\033[[C"
  string F4 = "\033[[D"
  string F5 = "\033[[E"
  string F6 = "\033[17~"
  string F7 = "\033[18~"
  string F8 = "\033[19~"
  string F9 = "\033[20~"
  string F10 = "\033[21~"
  string F11 = "\033[23~"
  string F12 = "\033[24~"
  string F13 = "\033[25~"
  string F14 = "\033[26~"
  string F15 = "\033[28~"
  string F16 = "\033[29~"
  string F17 = "\033[31~"
  string F18 = "\033[32~"
  string F19 = "\033[33~"
  string F20 = "\033[34~"
  string Find = "\033[1~"
  string Insert = "\033[2~"
  string Remove = "\033[3~"
  string Select = "\033[4~"
  string Prior = "\033[5~"
  string Next = "\033[6~"
  string F21 = ""
  string F22 = ""
  string F23 = ""
  string F24 = ""
  string F25 = ""
  string F26 = ""



  Suppose you save this file as thai.map. From Linux console, use
  command loadkeys to load thai.map.


       %loadkeys thai.map



  You can switch to Thai keyboard by pressing the right Alt key. If you
  want to switch the keyboard back, press the right Alt key again.



  2.2.  X Window system

  2.2.1.  Thai fonts

  You can obtain Thai fonts in bdf format or pcf format from internet.
  You can also use scalable fonts such as Type1 or TrueType fonts. But I
  will not describe about these.



  2.2.1.1.  Installing Thai fonts

  You must log in as root. Let's put Thai fonts in
  /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/, this is a default font path. Change
  directory to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/ and run command


       %mkfontdir
       %xset fp rehash



  If you put Thai fonts in different directory, you must use xset to add
  the new font path. Please see man-page for further information.  You
  can check the new fonts by running command xlsfonts and see whether
  there are Thai fonts or not. If you can not see any Thai fonts from
  this command, you may need to restart X window.



  2.2.2.  There are two ways to map Thai keyboard on X window, using X
  Keyboard Extension (XKB) and using xmodmap . Please select how you map
  Thai keyboard. I recommend using XKB.  Thai keyboard layout



  2.2.2.1.  XKB and Thai keyboard layout.

  Beginning with XFree86 3.1.2D, you can use the new X11R6.1 XKEYBOARD
  extension to manage the keyboard layout. This is very helpful.

  During X server configuration with xf86config you will be asked about
  XKB, if you want to to set Thai keyboard layout for your system, say
  yes. There are a list of pre-configured keymaps. Choose Standard
  101-key, Thai encoding.

  XF86Setup is the graphical X server configuration utility for XFree86
  X server.  It is easier than traditional xf86config. You can select a
  keyboard layout easily with this tool.

  Ther are many choices of keyboard switch key to select. The default is
  LeftAlt+RightShift switch to Thai and LeftAlt+LeftShift switch to US.
  You can type Thai characters in any applications which support
  ISO-8859-1 character set, but don't forget to use Thai fonts with
  those applications too.

  I found that pre-configured keymaps that came with XFree86-3.2 is not
  correct. You may not be able to type THO THUNG which located at " 5
  key " . To fix this problem, you should add the line


           key <AE05> {        [], [   paragraph,      ocircumflex     ]       };



  in the file /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/th as the example.


       .................
           key <AE03> {        [], [       minus,      ograve          ]       };
           key <AE04> {        [], [      Agrave,      oacute          ]       };
           key <AE05> {        [], [   paragraph,      ocircumflex     ]       };
           key <AE06> {        [], [    Ooblique,      Ugrave          ]       };
           key <AE07> {        [], [  Odiaeresis,      ssharp          ]       };
       .................



  You can not type SORUSI also. Please change the line from


           key <AC08> {        [], [      Ograve,      eacute          ]       };



  to


           key <AC08> {        [], [      Ograve,      Eacute          ]       };



  Note that eacute is equal to MAITHO and Eacute is equal to SORUSI.

  There are also XKB extension utilities such as setxkbmap, xkbcomp,
  etc. Please see man-page for more information. I recommend to use
  xkbvled. The leds will be on when you are using Thai keyboard so you
  can know your keyboard's status.
  The following is part of XF86Config file about keyboard section. If
  you want to configure the keyboard by hand, change the content of
  /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XF86Config as an example below. This configuration
  uses the default toggle key.


       Section "Keyboard"
          Protocol        "Standard"
          AutoRepeat      500 5
          LeftAlt         Meta
          RightAlt        Meta
          ScrollLock      Compose
          RightCtl        Control
       #  XkbDisable
          XkbKeycodes     "xfree86"
          XkbTypes        "default"
          XkbCompat       "default"
          XkbSymbols      "us(pc101)"
          XkbGeometry     "pc"
          XkbRules        "xfree86"
          XkbModel        "pc101"
          XkbLayout       "th"
       EndSection



  If you use XKB extension, Thai keyboard mapping with xmodmap may not
  work.  See XF86Config man-page for mor information.


  2.2.2.2.  Thai keyboard layout with xmodmap

  You can use the utility xmodmap to map Thai keyboard.  Normally
  xmodmap is used to load a keyboard configured file.  For most Linux
  distributions, when you start X window with startx, X server will find
  .Xmodmap in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xinit/ first. If .Xmodmap does not
  exist, X server will find .Xmodmap in your home directory. Please see
  the content of /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xinit/xinitrc.

  The following is the sample of .Xmodmap for Thai Kedmanee keyboard
  layout.



  !
  ! Linux/XFree86 Thai Kedmanee layout (based on US keyboard)
  ! Use ScrollLock to switch to Thai keyboard.
  ! This file will work with XFree86 only.
  !

  keycode 0x09 =  Escape
  keycode 0x43 =  F1
  keycode 0x44 =  F2
  keycode 0x45 =  F3
  keycode 0x46 =  F4
  keycode 0x47 =  F5
  keycode 0x48 =  F6
  keycode 0x49 =  F7
  keycode 0x4A =  F8
  keycode 0x4B =  F9
  keycode 0x4C =  F10
  keycode 0x5F =  F11
  keycode 0x60 =  F12
  keycode 0x6F =  Print
  keycode 0x4E =  Mode_switch     XF86ModeLock
  keycode 0x6E =  Pause
  keycode 0x31 =  grave           asciitilde      minus           percent
  keycode 0x0A =  1               exclam          0x0e5           plus
  keycode 0x0B =  2               at              slash           0x0f1
  keycode 0x0C =  3               numbersign      underscore      0x0f2
  keycode 0x0D =  4               dollar          0x0c0           0x0f3
  keycode 0x0E =  5               percent         0x0b6           0x0f4
  keycode 0x0F =  6               asciicircum     0x0d8           0x0d9
  keycode 0x10 =  7               ampersand       0x0d6           0x0df
  keycode 0x11 =  8               asterisk        0x0a4           0x0f5
  keycode 0x12 =  9               parenleft       0x0b5           0x0f6
  keycode 0x13 =  0               parenright      0x0a8           0x0f7
  keycode 0x14 =  minus           underscore      0x0a2           0x0f8
  keycode 0x15 =  equal           plus            0x0aa           0x0f9
  keycode 0x33 =  backslash       bar             0x0a3           0x0a5
  keycode 0x16 =  BackSpace
  keycode 0x6A =  Insert
  keycode 0x61 =  Home
  keycode 0x63 =  Prior
  keycode 0x4D =  Num_Lock
  keycode 0x70 =  KP_Divide
  keycode 0x3F =  KP_Multiply
  keycode 0x52 =  KP_Subtract
  keycode 0x17 =  Tab
  keycode 0x18 =  q               Q               0x0e6           0x0f0
  keycode 0x19 =  w               W               0x0e4           quotedbl
  keycode 0x1A =  e               E               0x0d3           0x0ae
  keycode 0x1B =  r               R               0x0be           0x0b1
  keycode 0x1C =  t               T               0x0d0           0x0b8
  keycode 0x1D =  y               Y               0x0d1           0x0ed
  keycode 0x1E =  u               U               0x0d5           0x0ea
  keycode 0x1F =  i               I               0x0c3           0x0b3
  keycode 0x20 =  o               O               0x0b9           0x0cf
  keycode 0x21 =  p               P               0x0c2           0x0ad
  keycode 0x22 =  bracketleft     braceleft       0x0ba           0x0b0
  keycode 0x23 =  bracketright    braceright      0x0c5           comma
  keycode 0x24 =  Return
  keycode 0x6B =  Delete
  keycode 0x67 =  End
  keycode 0x69 =  Next
  keycode 0x4F =  KP_7
  keycode 0x50 =  KP_8
  keycode 0x51 =  KP_9
  keycode 0x56 =  KP_Add
  keycode 0x42 =  Caps_Lock
  keycode 0x26 =  a               A               0x0bf           0x0c4
  keycode 0x27 =  s               S               0x0cb           0c0a6
  keycode 0x28 =  d               D               0x0a1           0x0af
  keycode 0x29 =  f               F               0x0b4           0x0e2
  keycode 0x2A =  g               G               0x0e0           0x0ac
  keycode 0x2B =  h               H               0x0e9           0x0e7
  keycode 0x2C =  j               J               0x0e8           0x0eb
  keycode 0x2D =  k               K               0x0d2           0x0c9
  keycode 0x2E =  l               L               0x0ca           0x0c8
  keycode 0x2F =  semicolon       colon           0x0c7           0x0ab
  keycode 0x30 =  apostrophe      quotedbl        0x0a7           period
  keycode 0x53 =  KP_4
  keycode 0x54 =  KP_5
  keycode 0x55 =  KP_6
  keycode 0x32 =  Shift_L
  keycode 0x34 =  z               Z               0x0bc           parenleft
  keycode 0x35 =  x               X               0x0bb           parenright
  keycode 0x36 =  c               C               0x0e1           0x0a9
  keycode 0x37 =  v               V               0x0cd           0x0ce
  keycode 0x38 =  b               B               0x0d4           0x0da
  keycode 0x39 =  n               N               0x0d7           0x0ec
  keycode 0x3A =  m               M               0x0b7           question
  keycode 0x3B =  comma           less            0x0c1           0x0b2
  keycode 0x3C =  period          greater         0x0e3           0x0cc
  keycode 0x3D =  slash           question        0x0bd           0x0c6
  keycode 0x3E =  Shift_R
  keycode 0x62 =  Up
  keycode 0x57 =  KP_1
  keycode 0x58 =  KP_2
  keycode 0x59 =  KP_3
  keycode 0x6C =  KP_Enter
  keycode 0x25 =  Control_L
  keycode 0x40 =  Alt_L           Meta_L
  keycode 0x41 =  space
  keycode 0x71 =  Alt_R           Meta_R
  keycode 0x6D =  Control_R
  keycode 0x64 =  Left
  keycode 0x68 =  Down
  keycode 0x66 =  Right
  keycode 0x5A =  KP_0
  keycode 0x5B =  KP_Decimal

  clear Shift
  clear Lock
  clear Control
  clear Mod1
  clear Mod2
  clear Mod3
  clear Mod4
  clear Mod5

  add    Shift   = Shift_L Shift_R
  add    Lock    = Caps_Lock
  add    Control = Control_L Control_R
  add    Mod1    = Alt_L Alt_R
  add    Mod2    = Mode_switch



  Just put .Xmodmap in your home directory will be OK. When you start X
  window, X server will load this file.

  You can also load .Xmodmap from command line.


  %xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap



  In above .Xmodmap file, US/Thai switch key is assigned to keycode 0x4E
  (78), Scroll Lock key, with the statement


       ______________________________________________________________________
       keycode 0x4E =  Mode_switch     XF86ModeLock
       ______________________________________________________________________



  XF86ModeLock is the special keysym for XFree86 X server. If you don't
  add this keysym, you have to hold the scroll lock key while you are
  typing Thai characters. Note that if you use commercial X server, some
  keycodes are different. You may have to map keyboard by yourself.  See
  man-pages of X and xev for further information.


  Note: If you are using XFree86 version 3.1.2D or later, you need to
  add the line XkbDisable in keyboard section of XF86Config file. You
  may config the keyboard section like the following sample.


       Section "Keyboard"
          Protocol        "Standard"
          AutoRepeat      500 5
          LeftAlt         Meta
          RightAlt        ModeShift
          ScrollLock      ModeLock
          RightCtl        Compose
          XkbDisable
       EndSection



  3.  Applications with Thai language

  This is the tricky part. Most applications support ISO-8859-1
  character set. For example, emacs can display ISO-8859-1 character. If
  we set emacs to display ISO-8859-1 and use Thai font, you can edit
  Thai document with emacs. But this is not a good policy. You should
  avoid using this trick as possible. What we need is Thai locale or
  Thai supported applications to manage these things.


  To make X window application displays Thai font, you should run the
  application with -fn option. For example,


       %xedit -fn thai8x16



  Note that thai8x16 is just a one of Thai font names. You can see all
  available fonts by command xlfonts.  If you don't want to fill -fn
  option every time you run application. You should set Thai font in
  your ~/.Xdefaults or ~/.Xresources like this


       XTerm*font:     thai8x16



  3.1.  Some X applications and Thai language



  3.1.1.  txterm

  txterm is Thai version of xterm. There are several programs running
  under xterm such as shell, pine, vi, less, etc. We can type Thai
  characters without any problems with txterm. Txterm also provides its
  own Thai input method by pressing " F1 " key. Txterm will use fonts
  thai9x13 as default Thai font. You can change this by add -fn option.

  You can get txterm from Thaigate <http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp> or
  ZzzThai
  <ftp://ftp.fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Software/Linux>.



     bash shell :
        Normally, shell accepts only ASCII character set. To type Thai
        characters in shell command line, you should set environment
        LC_CTYPE to iso_8859_1.

        I don't set LC_CTYPE environment variable to iso_8859_1 because
        this environment variable will effect other applications too.
        With bash shell, you can specify which environment variable to
        be passed to the application. For example, I can make a fake
        Thai X terminal with this syntax.


          LC_CTYPE=iso_8859_1 xterm -fn thai8x16



     This xterm display Thai characters well, but not good for typing
     Thai characters. I strongly recommend you to use txterm.


     ls :
        If you name a filename in Thai. Issue the command as


          ls -N



     You may set alias in ~/.bashrc or ~/.cshrc, so you can type ls
     without option. If you don't use ls with -N option, you may see
     Thai filename as ?????.


  3.1.2.  Emacs, Mule

  Mule stands for " Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs " . It has the
  same functions as emacs and supports many languages. Mule provides its
  own input method, so you don't need any configuration for typing Thai.
  You needs only Thai fonts for mule which you can get from, ZzzThai
  <ftp://ftp.fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Software/Linux/fonts/>
  or Etl site <ftp://etlport.etl.go.jp/pub/mule/fonts/ETL/>.  These Thai
  fonts are fixed width fonts.

  You need some configuration for mule. Puts the following lines in your
  .emacs.


       ;;
       ;; Thai System, add in .emacs
       ;;
       (set-file-coding-system-for-read '*tis620*)
       (set-default-file-coding-system '*tis620*)
       (set-display-coding-system '*tis620*)
       (set-keyboard-coding-system '*tis620*)
       (setq-deafault quail-current-package (assoc "thai" quail-package-alist))



  Add the following lines in .Xdefaults.


       !
       ! Emacs, Mule - Font menu
       !
       Emacs*FontSetList: thai14, thai16, thai24
       Emacs*FontSet-thai14:\
               -etl-fixed-medium-r-normal--14-140-72-72-m-70-tis620.2529-1
       Emacs*FontSet-thai16:\
               -etl-fixed-medium-r-normal--16-160-72-72-m-80-tis620.2529-1
       Emacs*FontSet-thai24:\
               -etl-fixed-medium-r-normal--24-500-72-72-m-120-tis620.2529-1



  When you hold shift key and press left mouse's button, you can select
  Thai fonts to display in mule window.  To type Thai characters, press
  " Ctrl + ] " . To type English, press " Ctrl + ] " again.

  You can get mule from ElectroTechnical Laboratory(ETL)
  <ftp://etlport.etl.go.jp/pub/mule/>


  3.1.3.  vi

  Vi should be run on txterm.


  3.1.4.  pine

  In the past, we could not send 8-bit characters through E-mail. Now,
  although mail transfer agent can handle 8-bit characters but some old
  mail transfer agent can not.  We can send Thai e-mail by using e-mail
  application that supports MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
  E-mail applications that support MIME are pine, elm, Netscape mail,
  etc.


  Put the following definition in your ~/.pinerc file:


       character-set=ISO-8859-1



  This can also be set via the Setup option in pine window. You can find
  it under Config. You can read Thai news from pine, too.

  Pine should be run in txterm.


  3.1.5.  Netscape

  If you have Thai fonts in your system. Just set Thai font from
  preference. Thai fonts will appear in User defined area. See
  http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/unix
  <http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/unix> for setting Thai language on
  Netscape.

  Some movement about Thai Mozilla project at
  http://members.xoom.com/inThai/mozthai.html
  <http://members.xoom.com/inThai/mozthai.html>.


  3.1.6.  Ss, Simple thai word Separator

  ss is a dictionary based Thai word separation program similar to
  cttex. It can be used to insert a configurable string between Thai
  words. It can also show words that cannot be found in the dictionary.
  More words can be added to the dictionary. Developed by Mr.Teera
  Kittichareonpot.

  We can use this program to insert < WBR > tag between Thai words in
  html file. Browser will display Thai homepage better than normal html
  document.


  3.1.7.  Xzthai, X keyboard configurator + simple editor

  Xzthai, this is the Tcl/Tk application for mapping Thai keyboard on
  any keyboard with graphical user interface. Also provides simple
  editor and keyboard layout figure. It actually uses xmodmap program in
  background to map Thai keyboard. This may be useful for commercial X
  server and X server on UNIX.


  3.2.  Printing Thai document

  Thai2ps is used to convert plain text file to postscript file.You can
  use ghostscript(gs) to print your Thai document. For better quality
  document, you have to use (La)TeX.


  3.2.1.  Latex and Thai language

  Dr. Manop Wongsaisuwan first tried to use Thai language with latex. He
  wrote some perl script as filter for latex source code that contains
  Thai language. Then pass the result to latex. Mr. Vuthichai
  Ampornaramvech used this concept and wrote a program in C language,
  cttex, to handle this. It runs faster and makes Thai word segmentation
  based on dictionary. Cttex also fixes the position of Thai characters
  in word, so SARA and WANNAYUK will be placed in the beautiful
  position.
  You can find Thai latex filter from
  http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp/files/ttex.html
  <http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp/files/ttex.html>.


  3.2.2.  Latex's configuration for Thai language

  You must have latex installed in your computer.  First, download Thai
  postscript (Type1) fonts, tfm fonts and Thai style file. These fonts
  are needed by Latex. This is the list of files you should download.


       tfm fonts:
           dbtt.tfm    dbttb.tfm   dbttbi.tfm  dbtti.tfm
       postscript fonts:
           dbtt.pfa    dbttb.pfa   dbttbi.pfa  dbtti.pfa
       style files:
           thai.sty sakka.sty
       Thai Latex filter:
           cttex
       Sample Latex file:
           ttex.ttex test.ttex



  There is latex's directory at /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/ (RedHat 5.0). I
  will call /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/ as " $texroot " . We will concentrate
  at $texroot/texmf/ directory.  In $texroot/texmf/ directory, there are
  many files about tex's configuration. You have to edit files in dvips,
  fonts, tex subdirectories.

  Add the following lines to $texroot/texmf/dvips/misc/psfonts.map


       dbtt  DBThaiText <dbtt.pfa
       dbttb DBThaiTextBold <dbttb.pfa
       dbttbi DBThaiTextBoldItalic <dbttbi.pfa
       dbtti DBThaiTextItalic <dbtti.pfa



  Make a new directories and copy files to the appropriate directories.


       %mkdir /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts/tfm/public/thai
       %mkdir /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts/type1/public/thai
       %mkdir /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/tex/generic/thai
       %cp *.tfm /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts/tfm/public/thai
       %cp *.pfa /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/fonts/type1/public/thai
       %cp *.sty /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/tex/generic/thai



  Run texhash or MakeTeXls-R(in some system) to update Tex database.


       %/usr/bin/texhash
       texhash: updating /usr/lib/texmf/texmf/ls-R ...
       texhash: Done.

  3.2.3.  Use Thai LaTeX  filter

  We can use cttex as filter like this,


       %cttex < ttex.ttex > ttex.tex
       C-TTeX $Revivsion: 1.15 $
       Usage : cttex [cutcode] < infile > outfile
       Usage : cutcode=0 forces operation in HTML mode.
       Build-in dictionary size: 9945 words
        343
       Done
       %latex ttex.tex
       ...
       %xdvi ttex.dvi



  You can convert dvi file to postscript file by,


       %dvips -o ttex.ps ttex.dvi



  Finally, you can print ttex.ps by using gs or lpr. You must configure
  printer before printing. See man-pages of printcap, gs, lpr for more
  information.


  3.2.4.  Editing LaTex  source file

  For new latex user, lyx is helpful. But I recommend to use mule to
  edit Thai latex source file because mule supports Thai language and it
  is a powerful editor. You may take a look a Thai Latex tutorial
  <http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/Linux/ttex>.



  3.3.  X Application Resources

  Because Xt based applications allow user to configure the applications
  by resources. We can make the menu or label to be Thai language.

  For example, if you want xman to display Thai labels. You may add
  these lines in your .Xdefaults


       ......
       !!  Xman section
       Xman*Font:                          thai8x16
       Xman*helpButton.Label:
       Xman*quitButton.Label:
       Xman*manpageButton.Label:
       ......



  You can use the same idea to set window manager to be more Thai
  environment too.



  3.4.  Thai Extension for Linux (TE)

  Thai Extension for Linux is a installation package comes with
  applicaions and Thai fonts. You don't have to configure Linux system
  and applications by yourself.  Let TE do configuration task for you.
  After installation, you can use Thai language suddenly. Get TE from
  ftp://fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Software/Linux/
  <ftp://fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Software/Linux/>



  4.  References and FTP sites


  4.1.  Other documents of relevance

  The HOWTOs ought to be available from all mirrors of sunsite.unc.edu.

  The Linux Danish/International HOWTO by Niels Kristian Bech Jensen

  The Linux Cyrillic HOWTO by Alexander L. Belikoff

  The Keystroke mini-HOWTO by Zenon Fortuna.

  The Locales mini-HOWTO by Peeter Joot. (This one is mainly for
  developers.)

  The ISO-8859-1 FAQ and Programming for Internationalization FAQ (plus
  much more) by Michael Gschwind is available from his homepage
  <http://www.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/mike/i18n.html>.


  4.2.  Thai related stuffs

  " NACSIS R& D Thai Project Page " ,http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp
  <http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp>

  o  Information about Thai computing.

  o  Discussion groups in Thai language, such as thai-l (Thai Mailing
     list), Thai news, etc.

  o  Thai references and Thai softwares.

  o  Thai Latex filter.

  " ZzzThai Project " , http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp
  <http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/>

  o  Most softwares and Thai fonts introduced here can download from
     ZzzThai.

  o  Describe how to use Thai with 3 main computer platforms, UNIX like,
     Windows and Mac.

  o  Linux information at http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/Linux
     <http://www.fedu.uec.ac.jp/ZzzThai/Linux>, TE, Thai LaTeX tutorial,
     etc.

  o  By The group of students at The University of Electro-
     Communications, Tokyo.

  " Vuthichai's Page " , http://www.ctrl.titech.ac.jp:80/~vuthi/
  <http://www.ctrl.titech.ac.jp:80/~vuthi/>


  o  Information about Thai computing by Mr. Vuthichai Ampornaramveth.

  " An annotated reference to the Thai implementations " ,
  http://www.inet.co.th/cyberclub/trin/thairef/
  <http://www.inet.co.th/cyberclub/trin/thairef/>

  o  Information about Thai character standard.

  o  By Mr.Trin Tantsetthi.

  " X window and Thai language " , http://members.xoom.com.cwg.x11th/
  <http://members.xoom.com/cwg/x11th/>

  o  By Mr.Rawat S.Pirom

  " SchoolNet Internet Sever " , http://www.school.net.th/linux-sis/
  <http://www.school.net.th/linux-sis/>

  o  Using Linux in School, Thailand.

  o  By NECTEC <http://www.nectec.or.th> (National Electronics and
     Computer Technology Center).

  " Thai Open Source Development " , http://members.xoom.com/inThai
  <http://members.xoom.com/inThai>

  o  Mozilla Thai enabling.

  o  Open source Thai softwares and Libraries.

  o  By Mr.Samphan Raruenrom

  " Linux Thai Project " , http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/8302
  <http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/8302>

  o  Information about Linux in Thai language.

  o  By Kaiwal Development Team.

  " ThaiLinux unofficial Webboard " ,
  http://lulu.mptc.eng.cmu.ac.th/HyperNews/get/ThaiLinux.html
  <http://lulu.mptc.eng.cmu.ac.th/HyperNews/get/ThaiLinux.html>

  o  Questions and answers about Linux in Thai language.

  o  By Mr.Pruet Boonma

  " Thai Linux installation project " ,
  http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/4521/
  <http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/4521/>

  o  Installation guide in Thai language


  4.3.  FTP and Web sites


  Most softwares and Thai fonts which introdued in this howto.

  o  ftp://ftp.fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Software/Linux
     <ftp://ftp.fedu.uec.ac.jp/pub/thai/UEC/ZzzThai/Software/Linux>

  o  http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp/files/index.html
     <http://thaigate.nacsis.ac.jp/files/index.html>


  o  http://www.nectec.or.th/pub/software/i18n/thai
     <http://www.nectec.or.th/pub/software/i18n/thai>

  Mule

  o  ftp://etlport.etl.go.jp/pub/mule <ftp://etlport.etl.go.jp/pub/mule>

  Ss

  o  http://members.xoom.com/theera/ss/
     <http://members.xoom.com/theera/ss/>

  SunSite <ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/linux/> and mirrors.  doc/howto has
  the above mentioned HOWTOs. utils/nls and subdirectories contain files
  related to National Language Support.  Developers should take a look
  at locale-tutorial-0.8.txt.gz, locale-pack-0.8.tar.gz and cat-
  pack.tar.gz.

  The GNU archives <ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/> has the recode
  package for character table conversion, the ABOUT-NLS file and the
  gettext package for locale support of some GNU applications and (of
  course) the latest versions of GNU emacs.



  5.  Acknowledgments and Copyright

  Some parts of this HOWTO comes from The Linux Danish/International
  HOWTO by Thomas Petersen, petersen@post1.tele.dk (the original author)
  and Niels Kristian Bech Jensen, nkbj@image.dk.

  Thank you to Phaisarn Techajaruwong for building Thai fonts and
  valuable discussion.

  Thank you to Thai students at The University of Electro-Communications
  and Mr. Vuthichai Ampornaramveth for every help.

  This HOWTO is copyrighted by Poonlap Veeratanabutr, poon-
  v@fedu.uec.ac.jp. It is distributed as other Linux HOWTOs under the
  terms described below.

  Linux HOWTO documents may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in
  part, in any medium physical or electronic, as long as this copyright
  notice is retained on all copies. Commercial redistribution is allowed
  and encouraged; however, the authors would like to be notified of any
  such distributions.

  All translations, derivative works, or aggregate works incorporating
  any Linux HOWTO documents must be covered under this copyright notice.
  That is, you may not produce a derivative work from a HOWTO and impose
  additional restrictions on its distribution. Exceptions to these rules
  may be granted under certain conditions; please contact the Linux
  HOWTO coordinator at the address given below.

  If you have questions, please contact Tim Bynum, the Linux HOWTO
  coordinator, at linux-howto@sunsite.unc.edu via email.