Linux Assembly HOWTO

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Legal Blurb
    1.2. Foreword
    1.3. Contributions
    1.4. Translations
2. Do you need assembly?
    2.1. Pros and Cons
    2.2. How to NOT use Assembly
    2.3. Linux and assembly
3. Assemblers
    3.1. GCC Inline Assembly
    3.2. GAS
    3.3. NASM
    3.4. Other Assemblers
4. Metaprogramming
    4.1. External filters
    4.2. Metaprogramming
5. Calling conventions
    5.1. Linux
    5.2. DOS and Windows
    5.3. Your own OS
6. Quick start
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Hello, world!
    6.3. Building an executable
    6.4. MIPS Example
7. Resources
    7.1. Pointers
    7.2. Mailing list
8. Frequently Asked Questions
A. History
B. Acknowledgements
C. Endorsements
D. GNU Free Documentation License

Chapter 1. Introduction

Note You can skip this chapter if you are familiar with HOWTOs, or just hate 
     to read all this assembly-unrelated crap.                               

1.1. Legal Blurb

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU [] Free
Documentation License Version 1.1; with no Invariant Sections, with no
Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover texts. A copy of the license is included
in the GNU Free Documentation License appendix.

The most recent official version of this document is available from the
[] Linux Assembly and [
docs.html] LDP sites. If you are reading a few-months-old copy, consider
checking the above URLs for a new version.

1.2. Foreword

This document aims answering questions of those who program or want to
program 32-bit x86 assembly using free software, particularly under the Linux
operating system. At many places Universal Resource Locators (URL) are given
for some software or documentation repository. This document also points to
other documents about non-free, non-x86, or non-32-bit assemblers, although
this is not its primary goal. Also note that there are FAQs and docs about
programming on your favorite platform (whatever it is), which you should
consult for platform-specific issues, not related directly to assembly

Because the main interest of assembly programming is to build the guts of
operating systems, interpreters, compilers, and games, where C compiler fails
to provide the needed expressiveness (performance is more and more seldom as
issue), we are focusing on development of such kind of software.

If you don't know what free software is, please do read carefully the GNU
[] General Public License (GPL or 
copyleft), which is used in a lot of free software, and is the model for most
of their licenses. It generally comes in a file named COPYING (or
COPYING.LIB). Literature from the [] Free Software
Foundation (FSF) might help you too. Particularly, the interesting feature of
free software is that it comes with source code which you can consult and
correct, or sometimes even borrow from. Read your particular license
carefully and do comply to it.

1.3. Contributions

This is an interactively evolving document: you are especially invited to ask
questions, to answer questions, to correct given answers, to give pointers to
new software, to point the current maintainer to bugs or deficiencies in the
pages. In one word, contribute!

To contribute, please contact the maintainer.

Note At the time of writing, it is Konstantin Boldyshev and no more          
     Francois-Rene Rideau (since version 0.5). I (Fare) had been looking for 
     some time for a serious hacker to replace me as maintainer of this      
     document, and am pleased to announce Konstantin as my worthy successor. 

1.4. Translations

Korean translation of this HOWTO is avalilable at [
/Assembly-HOWTO/] Turkish
translation of this HOWTO is available at [
Incomplete Russian translation is available at [
GrableVodstvo/articles/AssembleInLinux/. Also, there was a French translation
of the early HOWTO versions, but I can't find it now.

Chapter 2. Do you need assembly?

Well, I wouldn't want to interfere with what you're doing, but here is some
advice from the hard-earned experience.

2.1. Pros and Cons

2.1.1. The advantages of Assembly

Assembly can express very low-level things:

  * you can access machine-dependent registers and I/O
  * you can control the exact code behavior in critical sections that might
    otherwise involve deadlock between multiple software threads or hardware
  * you can break the conventions of your usual compiler, which might allow
    some optimizations (like temporarily breaking rules about memory
    allocation, threading, calling conventions, etc)
  * you can build interfaces between code fragments using incompatible
    conventions (e.g. produced by different compilers, or separated by a
    low-level interface)
  * you can get access to unusual programming modes of your processor (e.g.
    16 bit mode to interface startup, firmware, or legacy code on Intel PCs)
  * you can produce reasonably fast code for tight loops to cope with a bad
    non-optimizing compiler (but then, there are free optimizing compilers
  * you can produce hand-optimized code perfectly tuned for your particular
    hardware setup, though not to someone else's
  * you can write some code for your new language's optimizing compiler (that
    is something what very few ones will ever do, and even they not often)
  * i.e. you can be in complete control of your code


2.1.2. The disadvantages of Assembly

Assembly is a very low-level language (the lowest above hand-coding the
binary instruction patterns). This means

  * it is long and tedious to write initially
  * it is quite bug-prone
  * your bugs can be very difficult to chase
  * your code can be fairly difficult to understand and modify, i.e. to
  * the result is non-portable to other architectures, existing or upcoming
  * your code will be optimized only for a certain implementation of a same
    architecture: for instance, among Intel-compatible platforms each CPU
    design and its variations (relative latency, through-output, and
    capacity, of processing units, caches, RAM, bus, disks, presence of FPU,
    MMX, 3DNOW, SIMD extensions, etc) implies potentially completely
    different optimization techniques. CPU designs already include: Intel
    386, 486, Pentium, PPro, PII, PIII, PIV; Cyrix 5x86, 6x86, M2; AMD K5, K6
    (K6-2, K6-III), K7 (Athlon, Duron). New designs keep popping up, so don't
    expect either this listing and your code to be up-to-date.
  * you spend more time on a few details and can't focus on small and large
    algorithmic design, that are known to bring the largest part of the speed
    up (e.g. you might spend some time building very fast list/array
    manipulation primitives in assembly; only a hash table would have sped up
    your program much more; or, in another context, a binary tree; or some
    high-level structure distributed over a cluster of CPUs)
  * a small change in algorithmic design might completely invalidate all your
    existing assembly code. So that either you're ready (and able) to rewrite
    it all, or you're tied to a particular algorithmic design
  * On code that ain't too far from what's in standard benchmarks, commercial
    optimizing compilers outperform hand-coded assembly (well, that's less
    true on the x86 architecture than on RISC architectures, and perhaps less
    true for widely available/free compilers; anyway, for typical C code, GCC
    is fairly good);
  * And in any case, as moderator John Levine says on [news:comp.compilers]
    "compilers make it a lot easier to use complex data structures,
    and compilers don't get bored halfway through
    and generate reliably pretty good code."
    They will also correctly propagate code transformations throughout the
    whole (huge) program when optimizing code between procedures and module


2.1.3. Assessment

All in all, you might find that though using assembly is sometimes needed,
and might even be useful in a few cases where it is not, you'll want to:

  * minimize use of assembly code
  * encapsulate this code in well-defined interfaces
  * have your assembly code automatically generated from patterns expressed
    in a higher-level language than assembly (e.g. GCC inline assembly
  * have automatic tools translate these programs into assembly code
  * have this code be optimized if possible
  * All of the above, i.e. write (an extension to) an optimizing compiler


Even when assembly is needed (e.g. OS development), you'll find that not so
much of it is required, and that the above principles retain.

See the Linux kernel sources concerning this: as little assembly as needed,
resulting in a fast, reliable, portable, maintainable OS. Even a successful
game like DOOM was almost massively written in C, with a tiny part only being
written in assembly for speed up.

2.2. How to NOT use Assembly

2.2.1. General procedure to achieve efficient code

As Charles Fiterman says on [news:comp.compilers] comp.compilers about human
vs computer-generated assembly code:

    The human should always win and here is why.
    First the human writes the whole thing in a high level language.
    Second he profiles it to find the hot spots where it spends its time.
    Third he has the compiler produce assembly for those small sections of code.
    Fourth he hand tunes them looking for tiny improvements over the machine generated code.
    The human wins because he can use the machine.
2.2.2. Languages with optimizing compilers

Languages like ObjectiveCAML, SML, CommonLISP, Scheme, ADA, Pascal, C, C++,
among others, all have free optimizing compilers that will optimize the bulk
of your programs, and often do better than hand-coded assembly even for tight
loops, while allowing you to focus on higher-level details, and without
forbidding you to grab a few percent of extra performance in the
above-mentioned way, once you've reached a stable design. Of course, there
are also commercial optimizing compilers for most of these languages, too!

Some languages have compilers that produce C code, which can be further
optimized by a C compiler: LISP, Scheme, Perl, and many other. Speed is
fairly good.

2.2.3. General procedure to speed your code up

As for speeding code up, you should do it only for parts of a program that a
profiling tool has consistently identified as being a performance bottleneck.

Hence, if you identify some code portion as being too slow, you should

  * first try to use a better algorithm;
  * then try to compile it rather than interpret it;
  * then try to enable and tweak optimization from your compiler;
  * then give the compiler hints about how to optimize (typing information in
    LISP; register usage with GCC; lots of options in most compilers, etc).
  * then possibly fallback to assembly programming


Finally, before you end up writing assembly, you should inspect generated
code, to check that the problem really is with bad code generation, as this
might really not be the case: compiler-generated code might be better than
what you'd have written, particularly on modern multi-pipelined
architectures! Slow parts of a program might be intrinsically so. The biggest
problems on modern architectures with fast processors are due to delays from
memory access, cache-misses, TLB-misses, and page-faults; register
optimization becomes useless, and you'll more profitably re-think data
structures and threading to achieve better locality in memory access. Perhaps
a completely different approach to the problem might help, then.

2.2.4. Inspecting compiler-generated code

There are many reasons to inspect compiler-generated assembly code. Here is
what you'll do with such code:

  * check whether generated code can be obviously enhanced with hand-coded
    assembly (or by tweaking compiler switches)
  * when that's the case, start from generated code and modify it instead of
    starting from scratch
  * more generally, use generated code as stubs to modify, which at least
    gets right the way your assembly routines interface to the external world
  * track down bugs in your compiler (hopefully the rarer)


The standard way to have assembly code be generated is to invoke your
compiler with the -S flag. This works with most Unix compilers, including the
GNU C Compiler (GCC), but YMMV. As for GCC, it will produce more
understandable assembly code with the -fverbose-asm command-line option. Of
course, if you want to get good assembly code, don't forget your usual
optimization options and hints!

2.3. Linux and assembly

As you probably noticed, in general case you don't need to use assembly
language in Linux programming. Unlike DOS, you do not have to write Linux
drivers in assembly (well, actually you can do it if you really want). And
with modern optimizing compilers, if you care of speed optimization for
different CPU's, it's much simpler to write in C. However, if you're reading
this, you might have some reason to use assembly instead of C/C++.

You may need to use assembly, or you may want to use assembly. In short, main
practical (need) reasons of diving into the assembly realm are small code and
libc independence. Impractical (want), and the most often reason is being
just an old crazy hacker, who has twenty years old habit of doing everything
in assembly language.

However, if you're porting Linux to some embedded hardware you can be quite
short at the size of whole system: you need to fit kernel, libc and all that
stuff of (file|find|text|sh|etc.) utils into several hundreds of kilobytes,
and every kilobyte costs much. So, one of the possible ways is to rewrite
some (or all) parts of system in assembly, and this will really save you a
lot of space. For instance, a simple httpd written in assembly can take less
than 600 bytes; you can fit a server consisting of kernel, httpd and ftpd in
400 KB or less... Think about it.

Chapter 3. Assemblers

3.1. GCC Inline Assembly

The well-known GNU C/C++ Compiler (GCC), an optimizing 32-bit compiler at the
heart of the GNU project, supports the x86 architecture quite well, and
includes the ability to insert assembly code in C programs, in such a way
that register allocation can be either specified or left to GCC. GCC works on
most available platforms, notably Linux, *BSD, VSTa, OS/2, *DOS, Win*, etc.

3.1.1. Where to find GCC

GCC home page is []

DOS port of GCC is called [] DJGPP.

There are two Win32 GCC ports: [] cygwin and [http://] mingw

There is also an OS/2 port of GCC called EMX; it works under DOS too, and
includes lots of unix-emulation library routines. Look around the following
site: []

3.1.2. Where to find docs for GCC Inline Asm

The documentation of GCC includes documentation files in TeXinfo format. You
can compile them with TeX and print then result, or convert them to .info,
and browse them with emacs, or convert them to .html, or nearly whatever you
like; convert (with the right tools) to whatever you like, or just read as
is. The .info files are generally found on any good installation for GCC.

The right section to look for is C Extensions::Extended Asm::

Section Invoking GCC::Submodel Options::i386 Options:: might help too.
Particularly, it gives the i386 specific constraint names for registers:
abcdSDB correspond to %eax, %ebx, %ecx, %edx, %esi, %edi and %ebp
respectively (no letter for %esp).

The DJGPP Games resource (not only for game hackers) had page specifically
about assembly, but it's down. Its data have nonetheless been recovered on
the DJGPP site, that contains a mine of other useful information: [http://]

GCC depends on GAS for assembling and follows its syntax (see below); do mind
that inline asm needs percent characters to be quoted, they will be passed to
GAS. See the section about GAS below.

Find lots of useful examples in the linux/include/asm-i386/ subdirectory of
the sources for the Linux kernel.

3.1.3. Invoking GCC to build proper inline assembly code

Because assembly routines from the kernel headers (and most likely your own
headers, if you try making your assembly programming as clean as it is in the
linux kernel) are embedded in extern inline functions, GCC must be invoked
with the -O flag (or -O2, -O3, etc), for these routines to be available. If
not, your code may compile, but not link properly, since it will be looking
for non-inlined extern functions in the libraries against which your program
is being linked! Another way is to link against libraries that include
fallback versions of the routines.

Inline assembly can be disabled with -fno-asm, which will have the compiler
die when using extended inline asm syntax, or else generate calls to an
external function named asm() that the linker can't resolve. To counter such
flag, -fasm restores treatment of the asm keyword.

More generally, good compile flags for GCC on the x86 platform are

gcc -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -W -Wall

-O2 is the good optimization level in most cases. Optimizing besides it takes
more time, and yields code that is much larger, but only a bit faster; such
over-optimization might be useful for tight loops only (if any), which you
may be doing in assembly anyway. In cases when you need really strong
compiler optimization for a few files, do consider using up to -O6.

-fomit-frame-pointer allows generated code to skip the stupid frame pointer
maintenance, which makes code smaller and faster, and frees a register for
further optimizations. It precludes the easy use of debugging tools (gdb),
but when you use these, you just don't care about size and speed anymore

-W -Wall enables all useful warnings and helps you to catch obvious stupid

You can add some CPU-specific -m486 or such flag so that GCC will produce
code that is more adapted to your precise CPU. Note that modern GCC has
-mpentium and such flags (and [] PGCC has even more),
whereas GCC 2.7.x and older versions do not. A good choice of CPU-specific
flags should be in the Linux kernel. Check the TeXinfo documentation of your
current GCC installation for more.

-m386 will help optimize for size, hence also for speed on computers whose
memory is tight and/or loaded, since big programs cause swap, which more than
counters any "optimization" intended by the larger code. In such settings, it
might be useful to stop using C, and use instead a language that favors code
factorization, such as a functional language and/or FORTH, and use a
bytecode- or wordcode- based implementation.

Note that you can vary code generation flags from file to file, so
performance-critical files will use maximum optimization, whereas other files
will be optimized for size.

To optimize even more, option -mregparm=2 and/or corresponding function
attribute might help, but might pose lots of problems when linking to foreign
code, including libc. There are ways to correctly declare foreign functions
so the right call sequences be generated, or you might want to recompile the
foreign libraries to use the same register-based calling convention...

Note that you can add make these flags the default by editing file /usr/lib/
gcc-lib/i486-linux/ or wherever that is on your system (better
not add -W -Wall there, though). The exact location of the GCC specs files on
system can be found by gcc -v.

3.1.4. Macro support

GCC allows (and requires) you to specify register constraints in your inline
assembly code, so the optimizer always know about it; thus, inline assembly
code is really made of patterns, not forcibly exact code.

Thus, you can put your assembly into CPP macros, and inline C functions, so
anyone can use it in as any C function/macro. Inline functions resemble
macros very much, but are sometimes cleaner to use. Beware that in all those
cases, code will be duplicated, so only local labels (of 1: style) should be
defined in that asm code. However, a macro would allow the name for a non
local defined label to be passed as a parameter (or else, you should use
additional meta-programming methods). Also, note that propagating inline asm
code will spread potential bugs in them; so watch out doubly for register
constraints in such inline asm code.

Lastly, the C language itself may be considered as a good abstraction to
assembly programming, which relieves you from most of the trouble of

3.2. GAS

GAS is the GNU Assembler, that GCC relies upon.

3.2.1. Where to find it

Find it at the same place where you've found GCC, in the binutils package.
The latest version of binutils is available from [

3.2.2. What is this AT&T syntax

Because GAS was invented to support a 32-bit unix compiler, it uses standard
AT&T syntax, which resembles a lot the syntax for standard m68k assemblers,
and is standard in the UNIX world. This syntax is neither worse, nor better
than the Intel syntax. It's just different. When you get used to it, you find
it much more regular than the Intel syntax, though a bit boring.

Here are the major caveats about GAS syntax:

  * Register names are prefixed with %, so that registers are %eax, %dl and
    so on, instead of just eax, dl, etc. This makes it possible to include
    external C symbols directly in assembly source, without any risk of
    confusion, or any need for ugly underscore prefixes.
  * The order of operands is source(s) first, and destination last, as
    opposed to the Intel convention of destination first and sources last.
    Hence, what in Intel syntax is mov eax,edx (move contents of register edx
    into register eax) will be in GAS syntax mov %edx,%eax.
  * The operand size is specified as a suffix to the instruction name. The
    suffix is b for (8-bit) byte, w for (16-bit) word, and l for (32-bit)
    long. For instance, the correct syntax for the above instruction would
    have been movl %edx,%eax. However, gas does not require strict AT&T
    syntax, so the suffix is optional when size can be guessed from register
    operands, and else defaults to 32-bit (with a warning).
  * Immediate operands are marked with a $ prefix, as in addl $5,%eax (add
    immediate long value 5 to register %eax).
  * Missing operand prefix indicates that it is memory-contents; hence movl
    $foo,%eax puts the address of variable foo into register %eax, but movl
    foo,%eax puts the contents of variable foo into register %eax.
  * Indexing or indirection is done by enclosing the index register or
    indirection memory cell address in parentheses, as in testb $0x80,17
    (%ebp) (test the high bit of the byte value at offset 17 from the cell
    pointed to by %ebp).


Note: There are few programs which may help you to convert source code
between AT&T and Intel assembler syntaxes; some of the are capable of
performing conversion in both directions.

GAS has comprehensive documentation in TeXinfo format, which comes at least
with the source distribution. Browse extracted .info pages with Emacs or
whatever. There used to be a file named gas.doc or as.doc around the GAS
source package, but it was merged into the TeXinfo docs. Of course, in case
of doubt, the ultimate documentation is the sources themselves! A section
that will particularly interest you is Machine Dependencies::i386-Dependent::

Again, the sources for Linux (the OS kernel) come in as excellent examples;
see under linux/arch/i386/ the following files: kernel/*.S, boot/compressed/
*.S, math-emu/*.S.

If you are writing kind of a language, a thread package, etc., you might as
well see how other languages ( [] OCaml, [http://] Gforth, etc.), or thread packages
(QuickThreads, MIT pthreads, LinuxThreads, etc), or whatever else do it.

Finally, just compiling a C program to assembly might show you the syntax for
the kind of instructions you want. See section Do you need assembly? above.

3.2.3. Intel syntax

Good news are that starting from binutils 2.10 release, GAS supports Intel
syntax too. It can be triggered with .intel_syntax directive. Unfortunately
this mode is not documented (yet?) in the official binutils manual, so if you
want to use it, try to examine [], which is an extract from AMD 64bit
port of binutils 2.11.

3.2.4. 16-bit mode

Binutils ( now fully support 16-bit mode (registers and
addressing) on i386 PCs. Use .code16 and .code32 to switch between assembly

Also, a neat trick used by several people (including the oskit authors) is to
force GCC to produce code for 16-bit real mode, using an inline assembly
statement asm(".code16\n"). GCC will still emit only 32-bit addressing modes,
but GAS will insert proper 32-bit prefixes for them.

3.2.5. Macro support

GAS has some macro capability included, as detailed in the texinfo docs.
Moreover, while GCC recognizes .s files as raw assembly to send to GAS, it
also recognizes .S files as files to pipe through CPP before feeding them to
GAS. Again and again, see Linux sources for examples.

GAS also has GASP (GAS Preprocessor), which adds all the usual macroassembly
tricks to GAS. GASP comes together with GAS in the GNU binutils archive. It
works as a filter, like CPP and M4. I have no idea on details, but it comes
with its own texinfo documentation, which you would like to browse (info gasp
), print, grok. GAS with GASP looks like a regular macro-assembler to me.

3.3. NASM

The Netwide Assembler project provides cool i386 assembler, written in C,
that should be modular enough to eventually support all known syntaxes and
object formats.

3.3.1. Where to find NASM

[], [http://] 

Binary release on your usual metalab mirror in devel/lang/asm/ directory.
Should also be available as .rpm or .deb in your usual Linux distribution.

3.3.2. What it does

The syntax is Intel-style. Comprehensive macroprocessing support is

Supported object file formats are bin, aout, coff, elf, as86, obj (DOS),
win32, rdf (their own format).

NASM can be used as a backend for the free LCC compiler (support files

Unless you're using BCC as a 16-bit compiler (which is out of scope of this
32-bit HOWTO), you should definitely use NASM instead of say AS86 or MASM,
because it runs on all platforms.

Note NASM comes with a disassembler, NDISASM.                                

Its hand-written parser makes it much faster than GAS, though of course, it
doesn't support three bazillion different architectures. If you like
Intel-style syntax, as opposed to GAS syntax, then it should be the assembler
of choice...

Note: There are few programs which may help you to convert source code
between AT&T and Intel assembler syntaxes; some of the are capable of
performing conversion in both directions.

3.4. Other Assemblers

There are other assemblers with various interesting and outstanding features
which may be of your interest as well.

Note They can be in various stages of development, and can be non-classic/   
     high-level/whatever else.                                               

3.4.1. AS86

AS86 is a 80x86 assembler (16-bit and 32-bit) with integrated macro support.
It has mostly Intel-syntax, though it differs slightly as for addressing
modes. Some time ago it was used in a several projects, including the Linux
kernel, but eventually most of those projects have moved to GAS or NASM.
AFAIK, only ELKS continues to use it.

AS86 can be found at []
~mayday/, in bin86 package with linker (ld86), or as separate archive.
Documentation is available as the man page and as.doc from the source
package. When in doubt, the source code itself is often a good doc: though it
is not very well commented, the programming style is straightforward. You
might try to see how as86 is(was) used in ELKS, LILO, or Tunes

Note A completely outdated version 0.4 of AS86 is distributed by HJLu just to
     compile the Linux kernel versions prior to 2.4, in a package named      
     bin86, available in any Linux GCC repository. But I advise no one to use
     it for anything else but compiling Linux. This version supports only a  
     hacked minix object file format, which is not supported by the GNU      
     binutils or anything, and it has a few bugs in 32-bit mode, so you      
     really should better keep it only for compiling Linux.                  

Note Using AS86 with BCC                                                     
     Here's the GNU Makefile entry for using BCC to transform .s asm into    
     both a.out .o object and .l listing:                                    
     %.o %.l:        %.s                                                     
             bcc -3 -G -c -A-d -A-l -A$*.l -o $*.o $<                        
     Remove the %.l, -A-l, and -A$*.l, if you don't want any listing. If you 
     want something else than a.out, you can examine BCC docs about the other
     supported formats, and/or use the objcopy utility from the GNU binutils 

3.4.2. YASM

YASM is a complete rewrite of the NASM assembler under the GNU GPL (some
portions are under the "new" BSD License). It is designed from the ground up
to allow for multiple syntaxes to be supported (eg, NASM, TASM, GAS, etc.) in
addition to multiple output object formats. Another primary module of the
overall design is an optimizer module.

It looks promising; it is under heavy development, and you may want to take
part. See []

3.4.3. FASM

FASM (flat assembler) is a fast, efficient 80x86 assembler that runs in 'flat
real mode'. Unlike many other 80x86 assemblers, FASM only requires the source
code to include the information it really needs. It is written in itself and
is very small and fast. It runs on DOS/Windows/Linux and can produce flat
binary, DOS EXE, Win32 PE, COFF and Linux ELF output. See [http://]


osimpa is an assembler for Intel 80386 processors and subsequent, written
entirely in the GNU Bash command interpreter shell. The predecessor of osimpa
was shasm. osimpa is much cleaned up, can create useful Linux ELF
executables, and has various HLL-like extensions and programmer convenience

It is (of course) slower than other assemblers. It has its own syntax (and
uses its own names for x86 opcodes) Fairly good documentation is included.
Check it out: [] ftp:// Probably you'll not use it on regular
basis, but at least it deserves your interest as an interesting idea.

3.4.5. AASM

Aasm is an advanced assembler designed to support several target
architectures. It has been designed to be easily extended and, should be
considered as a good alternative to monolithic assembler development for each
new target CPUs and binary file formats.

Aasm should make assembly programming easier for developer, by providing a
set of advanced features including symbol scopes, an expressions engine, big
integer support, macro capability, numerous and accurate warning messages...
Its dynamic modular architecture enables Aasm to extend its set of features
with plug-ins by taking advantages of dynamic libraries.

The input module supports Intel syntax (like nasm, tasm, masm, etc.). The x86
assembler module supports all opcodes up to P6 including MMX, SSE and 3DNow!
extensions. F-CPU and SPARC assembler modules are under development. Several
output modules are available for ELF, COFF, IntelHex, and raw binary formats.


3.4.6. TDASM

The Table Driven Assembler (TDASM) is a free portable cross assembler for any
kind of assembly language. It should be possible to use it as a compiler to
any target microprocessor using a table that defines the compilation process.

It is available from [] http://

3.4.7. HLA

[] HLA is a High Level Assembly
language. It uses a high level language like syntax (similar to Pascal, C/
C++, and other HLLs) for variable declarations, procedure declarations, and
procedure calls. It uses a modified assembly language syntax for the standard
machine instructions. It also provides several high level language style
control structures (if, while, repeat..until, etc.) that help you write much
more readable code.

HLA is free and comes with source, Linux and Win32 versions available. On
Win32 you need MASM and a 32-bit version of MS-link on Win32, on Linux you
nee GAS, because HLA produces specified assembler code and uses that
assembler for final assembling and linking.

3.4.8. TALC

[] TALC is another free MASM/Win32 based
compiler (however it supports ELF output, does it?).

TAL stands for Typed Assembly Language. It extends traditional untyped
assembly languages with typing annotations, memory management primitives, and
a sound set of typing rules, to guarantee the memory safety, control flow
safety,and type safety of TAL programs. Moreover, the typing constructs are
expressive enough to encode most source language programming features
including records and structures, arrays, higher-order and polymorphic
functions, exceptions, abstract data types, subtyping, and modules. Just as
importantly, TAL is flexible enough to admit many low-level compiler
optimizations. Consequently, TAL is an ideal target platform for
type-directed compilers that want to produce verifiably safe code for use in
secure mobile code applications or extensible operating system kernels.

3.4.9. Free Pascal

[] Free Pascal has an internal 32-bit assembler
(based on NASM tables) and a switchable output that allows:

  * Binary (ELF and coff when crosscompiled .o) output
  * NASM
  * MASM
  * TASM
  * AS (aout,coff, elf32)

The MASM and TASM output are not as good debugged as the other two, but can
be handy sometimes.

The assembler's look and feel are based on Turbo Pascal's internal BASM, and
the IDE supports similar highlighting, and FPC can fully integrate with gcc
(on C level, not C++).

Using a dummy RTL, one can even generate pure assembler programs.

3.4.10. Win32Forth assembler

Win32Forth is a free 32-bit ANS FORTH system that successfully runs under
Win32s, Win95, Win/NT. It includes a free 32-bit assembler (either prefix or
postfix syntax) integrated into the reflective FORTH language. Macro
processing is done with the full power of the reflective language FORTH;
however, the only supported input and output contexts is Win32For itself (no
dumping of .obj file, but you could add that feature yourself, of course).
Find it at []

3.4.11. Terse

[] Terse is a programming tool that provides THE most
compact assembler syntax for the x86 family! However, it is evil proprietary
software. It is said that there was a project for a free clone somewhere,
that was abandoned after worthless pretenses that the syntax would be owned
by the original author. Thus, if you're looking for a nifty programming
project related to assembly hacking, I invite you to develop a terse-syntax
frontend to NASM, if you like that syntax.

As an interesting historic remark, on [news:comp.compilers] comp.compilers,

1999/07/11 19:36:51, the moderator wrote:

"There's no reason that assemblers have to have awful syntax.  About
30 years ago I used Niklaus Wirth's PL360, which was basically a S/360
assembler with Algol syntax and a a little syntactic sugar like while
loops that turned into the obvious branches.  It really was an
assembler, e.g., you had to write out your expressions with explicit
assignments of values to registers, but it was nice.  Wirth used it to
write Algol W, a small fast Algol subset, which was a predecessor to
Pascal.  As is so often the case, Algol W was a significant
improvement over many of its successors. -John"

3.4.12. Non-free and/or Non-32bit x86 assemblers

You may find more about them, together with the basics of x86 assembly
programming, in the Raymond Moon's x86 assembly FAQ.

Note that all DOS-based assemblers should work inside the Linux DOS Emulator,
as well as other similar emulators, so that if you already own one, you can
still use it inside a real OS. Recent DOS-based assemblers also support COFF
and/or other object file formats that are supported by the GNU BFD library,
so that you can use them together with your free 32-bit tools, perhaps using
GNU objcopy (part of the binutils) as a conversion filter.

Chapter 4. Metaprogramming

Assembly programming is a bore, but for critical parts of programs.

You should use the appropriate tool for the right task, so don't choose
assembly when it does not fit; C, OCaml, perl, Scheme, might be a better
choice in the most cases.

However, there are cases when these tools do not give fine enough control on
the machine, and assembly is useful or needed. In these cases you'll
appreciate a system of macroprocessing and metaprogramming that allows
recurring patterns to be factored each into one indefinitely reusable
definition, which allows safer programming, automatic propagation of pattern
modification, etc. Plain assembler often is not enough, even when one is
doing only small routines to link with C.

4.1. External filters

Whatever is the macro support from your assembler, or whatever language you
use (even C!), if the language is not expressive enough to you, you can have
files passed through an external filter with a Makefile rule like that:

%.s:    %.S other_dependencies                                               
        $(FILTER) $(FILTER_OPTIONS) < $< > $@                                

4.1.1. CPP

CPP is truly not very expressive, but it's enough for easy things, it's
standard, and called transparently by GCC.

As an example of its limitations, you can't declare objects so that
destructors are automatically called at the end of the declaring block; you
don't have diversions or scoping, etc.

CPP comes with any C compiler. However, considering how mediocre it is, stay
away from it if by chance you can make it without C.

4.1.2. M4

M4 gives you the full power of macroprocessing, with a Turing equivalent
language, recursion, regular expressions, etc. You can do with it everything
that CPP cannot.

See []
macro4th (this4th) or [
tunes.0.0.0/] the Tunes sources as examples of
advanced macroprogramming using m4.

However, its disfunctional quoting and unquoting semantics force you to use
explicit continuation-passing tail-recursive macro style if you want to do 
advanced macro programming (which is remindful of TeX -- BTW, has anyone
tried to use TeX as a macroprocessor for anything else than typesetting ?).
This is NOT worse than CPP that does not allow quoting and recursion anyway.

The right version of M4 to get is GNU m4 1.4 (or later if exists), which has
the most features and the least bugs or limitations of all. m4 is designed to
be slow for anything but the simplest uses, which might still be ok for most
assembly programming (you are not writing million-lines assembly programs,
are you?).

4.1.3. Macroprocessing with your own filter

You can write your own simple macro-expansion filter with the usual tools:
perl, awk, sed, etc. It can be made rather quickly, and you control
everything. But, of course, power in macroprocessing implies "the hard way".

4.2. Metaprogramming

Instead of using an external filter that expands macros, one way to do things
is to write programs that write part or all of other programs.

For instance, you could use a program outputting source code

  * to generate sine/cosine/whatever lookup tables,
  * to extract a source-form representation of a binary file,
  * to compile your bitmaps into fast display routines,
  * to extract documentation, initialization/finalization code, description
    tables, as well as normal code from the same source files,
  * to have customized assembly code, generated from a perl/shell/scheme
    script that does arbitrary processing,
  * to propagate data defined at one point only into several
    cross-referencing tables and code chunks.
  * etc.


Think about it!

4.2.1. Backends from compilers

Compilers like GCC, SML/NJ, Objective CAML, MIT-Scheme, CMUCL, etc, do have
their own generic assembler backend, which you might choose to use, if you
intend to generate code semi-automatically from the according languages, or
from a language you hack: rather than write great assembly code, you may
instead modify a compiler so that it dumps great assembly code!

4.2.2. The New-Jersey Machine-Code Toolkit

There is a project, using the programming language Icon (with an experimental
ML version), to build a basis for producing assembly-manipulating code. See
around []

4.2.3. TUNES

The [] TUNES Project for a Free Reflective Computing
System is developing its own assembler as an extension to the Scheme
language, as part of its development process. It doesn't run at all yet,
though help is welcome.

The assembler manipulates abstract syntax trees, so it could equally serve as
the basis for a assembly syntax translator, a disassembler, a common
assembler/compiler back-end, etc. Also, the full power of a real language,
Scheme, make it unchallenged as for macroprocessing/metaprogramming.

Chapter 5. Calling conventions

5.1. Linux

5.1.1. Linking to GCC

This is the preferred way if you are developing mixed C-asm project. Check
GCC docs and examples from Linux kernel .S files that go through gas (not
those that go through as86).

32-bit arguments are pushed down stack in reverse syntactic order (hence
accessed/popped in the right order), above the 32-bit near return address.
%ebp, %esi, %edi, %ebx are callee-saved, other registers are caller-saved;
%eax is to hold the result, or %edx:%eax for 64-bit results.

FP stack: I'm not sure, but I think result is in st(0), whole stack
caller-saved. The SVR4 i386 ABI specs at [
devspecs/] is a good reference
point if you want more details.

Note that GCC has options to modify the calling conventions by reserving
registers, having arguments in registers, not assuming the FPU, etc. Check
the i386 .info pages.

Beware that you must then declare the cdecl or regparm(0) attribute for a
function that will follow standard GCC calling conventions. See C
Extensions::Extended Asm:: section from the GCC info pages. See also how
Linux defines its asmlinkage macro...

5.1.2. ELF vs a.out problems

Some C compilers prepend an underscore before every symbol, while others do

Particularly, Linux a.out GCC does such prepending, while Linux ELF GCC does

If you need to cope with both behaviors at once, see how existing packages
do. For instance, get an old Linux source tree, the Elk, qthreads, or

You can also override the implicit C->asm renaming by inserting statements
        void foo asm("bar") (void);                                          
to be sure that the C function foo() will be called really bar in assembly.

Note that the objcopy utility from the binutils package should allow you to
transform your a.out objects into ELF objects, and perhaps the contrary too,
in some cases. More generally, it will do lots of file format conversions.

5.1.3. Direct Linux syscalls

Often you will be told that using C library (libc) is the only way, and
direct system calls are bad. This is true. To some extent. In general, you
must know that libc is not sacred, and in most cases it only does some
checks, then calls kernel, and then sets errno. You can easily do this in
your program as well (if you need to), and your program will be dozen times
smaller, and this will result in improved performance as well, just because
you're not using shared libraries (static binaries are faster). Using or not
using libc in assembly programming is more a question of taste/belief than
something practical. Remember, Linux is aiming to be POSIX compliant, so does
libc. This means that syntax of almost all libc "system calls" exactly
matches syntax of real kernel system calls (and vice versa). Besides, GNU
libc(glibc) becomes slower and slower from version to version, and eats more
and more memory; and so, cases of using direct system calls become quite
usual. However, the main drawback of throwing libc away is that you will
possibly need to implement several libc specific functions (that are not just
syscall wrappers) on your own (printf() and Co.), and you are ready for that,
aren't you? :-)

Here is summary of direct system calls pros and cons.


  * the smallest possible size; squeezing the last byte out of the system
  * the highest possible speed; squeezing cycles out of your favorite
  * full control: you can adapt your program/library to your specific
    language or memory requirements or whatever
  * no pollution by libc cruft
  * no pollution by C calling conventions (if you're developing your own
    language or environment)
  * static binaries make you independent from libc upgrades or crashes, or
    from dangling #! path to an interpreter (and are faster)
  * just for the fun out of it (don't you get a kick out of assembly



  * If any other program on your computer uses the libc, then duplicating the
    libc code will actually wastes memory, not saves it.
  * Services redundantly implemented in many static binaries are a waste of
    memory. But you can make your libc replacement a shared library.
  * Size is much better saved by having some kind of bytecode, wordcode, or
    structure interpreter than by writing everything in assembly. (the
    interpreter itself could be written either in C or assembly.) The best
    way to keep multiple binaries small is to not have multiple binaries, but
    instead to have an interpreter process files with #! prefix. This is how
    OCaml works when used in wordcode mode (as opposed to optimized native
    code mode), and it is compatible with using the libc. This is also how
    Tom Christiansen's Perl PowerTools reimplementation of unix utilities
    works. Finally, one last way to keep things small, that doesn't depend on
    an external file with a hardcoded path, be it library or interpreter, is
    to have only one binary, and have multiply-named hard or soft links to
    it: the same binary will provide everything you need in an optimal space,
    with no redundancy of subroutines or useless binary headers; it will
    dispatch its specific behavior according to its argv[0]; in case it isn't
    called with a recognized name, it might default to a shell, and be
    possibly thus also usable as an interpreter!
  * You cannot benefit from the many functionalities that libc provides
    besides mere linux syscalls: that is, functionality described in section
    3 of the manual pages, as opposed to section 2, such as malloc, threads,
    locale, password, high-level network management, etc.
  * Therefore, you might have to reimplement large parts of libc, from printf
    () to malloc() and gethostbyname. It's redundant with the libc effort,
    and can be quite boring sometimes. Note that some people have already
    reimplemented "light" replacements for parts of the libc -- check them
    out! (Redhat's minilibc, Rick Hohensee's [
    cLIeNUX/interim/libsys.tgz] libsys, Felix von Leitner's [http://] dietlibc, Christian Fowelin's [http://] libASM, [http://] asmutils project is working on pure
    assembly libc)
  * Static libraries prevent you to benefit from libc upgrades as well as
    from libc add-ons such as the zlibc package, that does on-the-fly
    transparent decompression of gzip-compressed files.
  * The few instructions added by the libc can be a ridiculously small speed
    overhead as compared to the cost of a system call. If speed is a concern,
    your main problem is in your usage of system calls, not in their
    wrapper's implementation.
  * Using the standard assembly API for system calls is much slower than
    using the libc API when running in micro-kernel versions of Linux such as
    L4Linux, that have their own faster calling convention, and pay high
    convention-translation overhead when using the standard one (L4Linux
    comes with libc recompiled with their syscall API; of course, you could
    recompile your code with their API, too).
  * See previous discussion for general speed optimization issue.
  * If syscalls are too slow to you, you might want to hack the kernel
    sources (in C) instead of staying in userland.


If you've pondered the above pros and cons, and still want to use direct
syscalls, then here is some advice.


  * You can easily define your system calling functions in a portable way in
    C (as opposed to unportable using assembly), by including asm/unistd.h,
    and using provided macros.
  * Since you're trying to replace it, go get the sources for the libc, and
    grok them. (And if you think you can do better, then send feedback to the
  * As an example of pure assembly code that does everything you want,
    examine Linux assembly resources.


Basically, you issue an int 0x80, with the __NR_syscallname number (from asm/
unistd.h) in eax, and parameters (up to six) in ebx, ecx, edx, esi, edi, ebp

Result is returned in eax, with a negative result being an error, whose
opposite is what libc would put into errno. The user-stack is not touched, so
you needn't have a valid one when doing a syscall.

Note Passing sixth parameter in ebp appeared in Linux 2.4, previous Linux    
     versions understand only 5 parameters in registers.                     

[] Linux Kernel Internals, and especially [http:/
/] How System Calls Are Implemented on
i386 Architecture? chapter will give you more robust overview.

As for the invocation arguments passed to a process upon startup, the general
principle is that the stack originally contains the number of arguments argc,
then the list of pointers that constitute *argv, then a null-terminated
sequence of null-terminated variable=value strings for the environment. For
more details, do examine Linux assembly resources, read the sources of C
startup code from your libc (crt0.S or crt1.S), or those from the Linux
kernel (exec.c and binfmt_*.c in linux/fs/).

5.1.4. Hardware I/O under Linux

If you want to perform direct port I/O under Linux, either it's something
very simple that does not need OS arbitration, and you should see the
IO-Port-Programming mini-HOWTO; or it needs a kernel device driver, and you
should try to learn more about kernel hacking, device driver development,
kernel modules, etc, for which there are other excellent HOWTOs and documents
from the LDP.

Particularly, if what you want is Graphics programming, then do join one of
the [] GGI or [] XFree86

Some people have even done better, writing small and robust XFree86 drivers
in an interpreted domain-specific language, GAL, and achieving the efficiency
of hand C-written drivers through partial evaluation (drivers not only not in
asm, but not even in C!). The problem is that the partial evaluator they used
to achieve efficiency is not free software. Any taker for a replacement?

Anyway, in all these cases, you'll be better when using GCC inline assembly
with the macros from linux/asm/*.h than writing full assembly source files.

5.1.5. Accessing 16-bit drivers from Linux/i386

Such thing is theoretically possible (proof: see how []
DOSEMU can selectively grant hardware port access to programs), and I've
heard rumors that someone somewhere did actually do it (in the PCI driver?
Some VESA access stuff? ISA PnP? dunno). If you have some more precise
information on that, you'll be most welcome. Anyway, good places to look for
more information are the Linux kernel sources, DOSEMU sources, and sources
for various low-level programs under Linux... (perhaps GGI if it supports

Basically, you must either use 16-bit protected mode or vm86 mode.

The first is simpler to setup, but only works with well-behaved code that
won't do any kind of segment arithmetics or absolute segment addressing
(particularly addressing segment 0), unless by chance it happens that all
segments used can be setup in advance in the LDT.

The later allows for more "compatibility" with vanilla 16-bit environments,
but requires more complicated handling.

In both cases, before you can jump to 16-bit code, you must

  * mmap any absolute address used in the 16-bit code (such as ROM, video
    buffers, DMA targets, and memory-mapped I/O) from /dev/mem to your
    process' address space,
  * setup the LDT and/or vm86 mode monitor.
  * grab proper I/O permissions from the kernel (see the above section)


Again, carefully read the source for the stuff contributed to the DOSEMU
project, particularly these mini-emulators for running ELKS and/or simple
.COM programs under Linux/i386.

5.2. DOS and Windows

Most DOS extenders come with some interface to DOS services. Read their docs
about that, but often, they just simulate int 0x21 and such, so you do "as
if" you are in real mode (I doubt they have more than stubs and extend things
to work with 32-bit operands; they most likely will just reflect the
interrupt into the real-mode or vm86 handler).

Docs about DPMI (and much more) can be found on [
msdos/programming/] (again, the
original x2ftp site is closing (no more?), so use a [
/x2ftp/README.mirror_sites] mirror site).

DJGPP comes with its own (limited) glibc derivative/subset/replacement, too.

It is possible to cross-compile from Linux to DOS, see the devel/msdos/
directory of your local FTP mirror for; Also see the MOSS
DOS-extender from the [] Flux project
from the university of Utah.

Other documents and FAQs are more DOS-centered; we do not recommend DOS

Windows and Co. This document is not about Windows programming, you can find
lots of documents about it everywhere... The thing you should know is that
there is the [] cygwin32.dll library, for GNU programs
to run on Win32 platform; thus, you can use GCC, GAS, all the GNU tools, and
many other Unix applications.

5.3. Your own OS

Control is what attracts many OS developers to assembly, often is what leads
to or stems from assembly hacking. Note that any system that allows
self-development could be qualified an "OS", though it can run "on the top"
of an underlying system (much like Linux over Mach or OpenGenera over Unix).

Hence, for easier debugging purpose, you might like to develop your "OS"
first as a process running on top of Linux (despite the slowness), then use
the [] Flux OS kit (which grants
use of Linux and BSD drivers in your own OS) to make it stand-alone. When
your OS is stable, it is time to write your own hardware drivers if you
really love that.

This HOWTO will not cover topics such as bootloader code, getting into 32-bit
mode, handling Interrupts, the basics about Intel protected mode or V86/R86
braindeadness, defining your object format and calling conventions.

The main place where to find reliable information about that all, is source
code of existing OSes and bootloaders. Lots of pointers are on the following
webpage: []

Chapter 6. Quick start

6.1. Introduction

Finally, if you still want to try this crazy idea and write something in
assembly (if you've reached this section -- you're real assembly fan), here's
what you need to start.

As you've read before, you can write for Linux in different ways; I'll show
how to use direct kernel calls, since this is the fastest way to call kernel
service; our code is not linked to any library, does not use ELF interpreter,
it communicates with kernel directly.

I will show the same sample program in two assemblers, nasm and gas, thus
showing Intel and AT&T syntax.

You may also want to read [] Introduction
to UNIX assembly programming tutorial, it contains sample code for other
UNIX-like OSes.

6.1.1. Tools you need

First of all you need assembler (compiler) -- nasm or gas.

Second, you need a linker -- ld, since assembler produces only object code.
Almost all distributions have gas and ld, in the binutils package.

As for nasm, you may have to download and install binary packages for Linux
and docs from the nasm site; note that several distributions (Stampede,
Debian, SuSe, Mandrake) already have nasm, check first.

If you're going to dig in, you should also install include files for your OS,
and if possible, kernel source.

6.2. Hello, world!

6.2.1. Program layout

Linux is 32-bit, runs in protected mode, has flat memory model, and uses the
ELF format for binaries.

A program can be divided into sections: .text for your code (read-only),
.data for your data (read-write), .bss for uninitialized data (read-write);
there can actually be a few other standard sections, as well as some
user-defined sections, but there's rare need to use them and they are out of
our interest here. A program must have at least .text section.

Now we will write our first program. Here is sample code:

6.2.2. NASM (hello.asm)

section .text                           ;section declaration                    
                        ;we must export the entry point to the ELF linker or    
    global _start       ;loader. They conventionally recognize _start as their  
                        ;entry point. Use ld -e foo to override the default.    
;write our string to stdout                                                     
        mov     edx,len ;third argument: message length                         
        mov     ecx,msg ;second argument: pointer to message to write           
        mov     ebx,1   ;first argument: file handle (stdout)                   
        mov     eax,4   ;system call number (sys_write)                         
        int     0x80    ;call kernel                                            
;and exit                                                                       
        mov     ebx,0   ;first syscall argument: exit code                      
        mov     eax,1   ;system call number (sys_exit)                          
        int     0x80    ;call kernel                                            
section .data                           ;section declaration                    
msg     db      "Hello, world!",0xa     ;our dear string                        
len     equ     $ - msg                 ;length of our dear string              

6.2.3. GAS (hello.S)

.text                                   # section declaration                     
                        # we must export the entry point to the ELF linker or     
    .global _start      # loader. They conventionally recognize _start as their   
                        # entry point. Use ld -e foo to override the default.     
# write our string to stdout                                                      
        movl    $len,%edx       # third argument: message length                  
        movl    $msg,%ecx       # second argument: pointer to message to write    
        movl    $1,%ebx         # first argument: file handle (stdout)            
        movl    $4,%eax         # system call number (sys_write)                  
        int     $0x80           # call kernel                                     
# and exit                                                                        
        movl    $0,%ebx         # first argument: exit code                       
        movl    $1,%eax         # system call number (sys_exit)                   
        int     $0x80           # call kernel                                     
.data                                   # section declaration                     
        .ascii  "Hello, world!\n"       # our dear string                         
        len = . - msg                   # length of our dear string               

6.3. Building an executable

6.3.1. Producing object code

First step of building an executable is compiling (or assembling) object file
from the source:

For nasm example:

|$ nasm -f elf hello.asm                                                    |

For gas example:

|$ as -o hello.o hello.S                                                    |

This makes hello.o object file.

6.3.2. Producing executable

Second step is producing executable file itself from the object file by
invoking linker:

|$ ld -s -o hello hello.o                                                   |

This will finally build hello executable.

Hey, try to run it... Works? That's it. Pretty simple.

6.4. MIPS Example

As a demonstration of a fact that there's a universe other than x86, here
comes an example program for MIPS by Spencer Parkin. BTW, if you've got here,
you may also want to see [
hw_assembler.html] A Collection of Assembler Hello World Programs. 

# hello.S       by Spencer T. Parkin                                                               
# This is my first MIPS-RISC assembly program!                                                     
# To compile this program type:                                                                    
# > gcc -o hello hello.S -non_shared                                                               
# This program compiles without errors or warnings                                                 
# on a PlayStation2 MIPS R5900 (EE Core).                                                          
# EE stands for Emotion Engine...lame!                                                             
# The -non_shared option tells gcc that we`re                                                      
# not interrested in compiling relocatable code.                                                   
# If we were, we would need to follow the PIC-                                                     
# ABI calling conventions and other protocols.                                                     
#include <asm/regdef.h>         // ...for human readable register names                            
#include <asm/unistd.h>         // ...for system serivices                                         
                .rdata                                  # begin read-only data segment             
                .align          2                       # because of the way memory is built       
hello:          .asciz          "Hello, world!\n"       # a null terminated string                 
                .align          4                       # because of the way memory is built       
length:         .word           . - hello               # length = IC - (hello-addr)               
                .text                                   # begin code segment                       
                .globl          main                    # for gcc/ld linking                       
                .ent            main                    # for gdb debugging info.                  
main:           # We must specify -non_shared to gcc or we`ll need these 3 lines that fallow.      
#               .set            noreorder               # disable instruction reordering           
#               .cpload         t9                      # PIC ABI crap (function prologue)         
#               .set            reorder                 # re-enable instruction reordering         
                move            a0,$0                   # load stdout fd                           
                la              a1,hello                # load string address                      
                lw              a2,length               # load string length                       
                li              v0,__NR_write           # specify system write service             
                syscall                                 # call the kernel (write string)           
                li              v0,0                    # load return code                         
                j               ra                      # return to caller                         
                .end            main                    # for dgb debugging info.                  
# That`s all folks!                                                                                

Chapter 7. Resources

7.1. Pointers

Your main resource for Linux/UNIX assembly programming material is:

Do visit it, and get plenty of pointers to assembly projects, tools,
tutorials, documentation, guides, etc, concerning different UNIX operating
systems and CPUs. Because it evolves quickly, I will no longer duplicate it

If you are new to assembly in general, here are few starting pointers:

  * [] The Art Of Assembly
  * x86 assembly FAQ (use Google)
  * [] CoreWars, a fun way to learn assembly in general
  * Usenet: [news://comp.lang.asm.x86] comp.lang.asm.x86; [news://
    alt.lang.asm] alt.lang.asm


7.2. Mailing list

If you're are interested in Linux/UNIX assembly programming (or have
questions, or are just curious) I especially invite you to join Linux
assembly programming mailing list.

This is an open discussion of assembly programming under Linux, *BSD, BeOS,
or any other UNIX/POSIX like OS; also it is not limited to x86 assembly
(Alpha, Sparc, PPC and other hackers are welcome too!).

Mailing list address is <>.

To subscribe send a messgage to <> with the
following line in the body of the message:
subscribe linux-assembly                                                     

Detailed information and list archives are available at [http://]

Chapter 8. Frequently Asked Questions

Here are frequently asked questions (with answers) about Linux assembly
programming. Some of the questions (and the answers) were taken from the the 
linux-assembly mailing list.

8.1. How do I do graphics programming in Linux?
8.2. How do I debug pure assembly code under Linux?
8.3. Any other useful debugging tools?
8.4. How do I access BIOS functions from Linux (BSD, BeOS, etc)?
8.5. Is it possible to write kernel modules in assembly?
8.6. How do I allocate memory dynamically?
8.7. I can't understand how to use select system call!

8.1. How do I do graphics programming in Linux?

An answer from [] Paul Furber:

|Ok you have a number of options to graphics in Linux. Which one you use    |
|depends on what you want to do. There isn't one Web site with all the      |
|information but here are some tips:                                        |
|                                                                           |
|SVGALib: This is a C library for console SVGA access.                      |
|Pros: very easy to learn, good coding examples, not all that different     |
|from equivalent gfx libraries for DOS, all the effects you know from DOS   |
|can be converted with little difficulty.                                   |
|Cons: programs need superuser rights to run since they write directly to   |
|the hardware, doesn't work with all chipsets, can't run under X-Windows.   |
|Search for svgalib-1.4.x on                            |
|                                                                           |
|Framebuffer: do it yourself graphics at SVGA res                           |
|Pros: fast, linear mapped video access, ASM can be used if you want :)     |
|Cons: has to be compiled into the kernel, chipset-specific issues, must    |
|switch out of X to run, relies on good knowledge of linux system calls     |
|and kernel, tough to debug                                                 |
|Examples: asmutils ( and the leaves example   |
|and my own site for some framebuffer code and tips in asm                  |
|(                                          |
|                                                                           |
|Xlib: the application and development libraries for XFree86.               |
|Pros: Complete control over your X application                             |
|Cons: Difficult to learn, horrible to work with and requires quite a bit   |
|of knowledge as to how X works at the low level.                           |
|Not recommended but if you're really masochistic go for it. All the        |
|include and lib files are probably installed already so you have what      |
|you need.                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|Low-level APIs: include PTC, SDL, GGI and Clanlib                          |
|Pros: very flexible, run under X or the console, generally abstract away   |
|the video hardware a little so you can draw to a linear surface, lots of   |
|good coding examples, can link to other APIs like OpenGL and sound libs,   |
|Windows DirectX versions for free                                          |
|Cons: Not as fast as doing it yourself, often in development so versions   |
|can (and do) change frequently.                                            |
|Examples: PTC and GGI have excellent demos, SDL is used in sdlQuake,       |
|Myth II, Civ CTP and Clanlib has been used for games as well.              |
|                                                                           |
|High-level APIs: OpenGL - any others?                                      |
|Pros: clean api, tons of functionality and examples, industry standard     |
|so you can learn from SGI demos for example                                |
|Cons: hardware acceleration is normally a must, some quirks between        |
|versions and platforms                                                     |
|Examples: loads - check out under the links section.        |
|                                                                           |
|To get going try looking at the svgalib examples and also install SDL      |
|and get it working. After that, the sky's the limit.                       |

8.2. How do I debug pure assembly code under Linux?

There's an early version of the [] Assembly
Language Debugger, which is designed to work with assembly code, and is
portable enough to run on Linux and *BSD. It is already functional and should
be the right choice, check it out!

You can also try gdb ;). Although it is source-level debugger, it can be used
to debug pure assembly code, and with some trickery you can make gdb to do
what you need (unfortunately, nasm '-g' switch does not generate proper debug
info for gdb; this is nasm bug, I think). Here's an answer from [mailto:] Dmitry Bakhvalov:

|Personally, I use gdb for debugging asmutils. Try this:                    |
|                                                                           |
|1) Use the following stuff to compile:                                     |
|   $ nasm -f elf -g smth.asm                                               |
|   $ ld -o smth smth.o                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|2) Fire up gdb:                                                            |
|   $ gdb smth                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|3) In gdb:                                                                 |
|   (gdb) disassemble _start                                                |
|   Place a breakpoint at _start+1 (If placed at _start the breakpoint      |
|   wouldnt work, dunno why)                                                |
|   (gdb) b *0x8048075                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|   To step thru the code I use the following macro:                        |
|   (gdb)define n                                                           |
|   >ni                                                                     |
|   >printf "eax=%x ebx=%x ...etc...",$eax,$ebx,...etc...                   |
|   >disassemble $pc $pc+15                                                 |
|   >end                                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|   Then start the program with r command and debug with n.                 |
|                                                                           |
|   Hope this helps.                                                        |

An additional note from ???:

|    I have such a macro in my .gdbinit for quite some time now, and it     |
|    for sure makes life easier. A small difference : I use "x /8i $pc",    |
|    which guarantee a fixed number of disassembled instructions. Then,     |
|    with a well chosen size for my xterm, gdb output looks like it is      |
|    refreshed, and not scrolling.                                          |

If you want to set breakpoints across your code, you can just use int 3
instruction as breakpoint (instead of entering address manually in gdb).

If you're using gas, you should consult gas and gdb related [http://] tutorials.

8.3. Any other useful debugging tools?

Definitely strace can help a lot (ktrace and kdump on FreeBSD), it is used to
trace system calls and signals. Read its manual page (man strace) and strace
--help output for details.

8.4. How do I access BIOS functions from Linux (BSD, BeOS, etc)?

Short answer is -- noway. This is protected mode, use OS services instead.
Again, you can't use int 0x10, int 0x13, etc. Fortunately almost everything
can be implemented by means of system calls or library functions. In the
worst case you may go through direct port access, or make a kernel patch to
implement needed functionality, or use LRMI library to access BIOS functions.

8.5. Is it possible to write kernel modules in assembly?

Yes, indeed it is. While in general it is not a good idea (it hardly will
speedup anything), there may be a need of such wizardy. The process of
writing a module itself is not that hard -- a module must have some
predefined global function, it may also need to call some external functions
from the kernel. Examine kernel source code (that can be built as module) for

Meanwhile, here's an example of a minimum dumb kernel module (module.asm)
(source is based on example by mammon_ from APJ #8):

section .text                                                                
        global init_module                                                   
        global cleanup_module                                                
        global kernel_version                                                
        extern printk                                                        
        push    dword str1                                                   
        call    printk                                                       
        pop     eax                                                          
        xor     eax,eax                                                      
        push    dword str2                                                   
        call    printk                                                       
        pop     eax                                                          
str1            db      "init_module done",0xa,0                             
str2            db      "cleanup_module done",0xa,0                          
kernel_version  db      "2.2.18",0                                           

The only thing this example does is reporting its actions. Modify
kernel_version to match yours, and build module with:

|$ nasm -f elf -o module.m module.asm                                       |

|$ ld -r -o module.o module.m                                               |

Now you can play with it using insmod/rmmod/lsmod (root privilidged are
required); a lot of fun, huh?

8.6. How do I allocate memory dynamically?

A laconic answer from [] H-Peter Recktenwald:

        ebx := 0        (in fact, any value below .bss seems to do)          
        eax := current top (of .bss section)                                 
        ebx := [ current top < ebx < (esp - 16K) ]                           
        eax := new top of .bss                                               

An extensive answer from [] Tiago Gasiba:

section .bss                                                                    
var1    resb    1                                                               
section .text                                                                   
;allocate memory                                                                
%define LIMIT   0x4000000                       ; about 100Megs                 
        mov     ebx,0                           ; get bottom of data segment    
        call    sys_brk                                                         
        cmp     eax,-1                          ; ok?                           
        je      erro1                                                           
        add     eax,LIMIT                       ; allocate +LIMIT memory        
        mov     ebx,eax                                                         
        call    sys_brk                                                         
        cmp     eax,-1                          ; ok?                           
        je      erro1                                                           
        cmp     eax,var1+1                      ; has the data segment grown?   
        je      erro1                                                           
;use allocated memory                                                           
                                                ; now eax contains bottom of    
                                                ; data segment                  
        mov     ebx,eax                         ; save bottom                   
        mov     eax,var1                        ; eax=beginning of data segment 
        mov     word    [eax],1                 ; fill up with 1's              
        inc     eax                                                             
        cmp     ebx,eax                         ; current pos = bottom?         
        jne     repeat                                                          
;free memory                                                                    
        mov     ebx,var1                        ; deallocate memory             
        call    sys_brk                         ; by forcing its beginning=var1 
        cmp     eax,-1                          ; ok?                           
        je      erro2                                                           

8.7. I can't understand how to use select system call!

An answer from [] Patrick Mochel:

When you call sys_open, you get back a file descriptor, which is simply an                     
index into a table of all the open file descriptors that your process has.                     
stdin, stdout, and stderr are always 0, 1, and 2, respectively, because                        
that is the order in which they are always open for your process from there.                   
Also, notice that the first file descriptor that you open yourself (w/o first                  
closing any of those magic three descriptors) is always 3, and they increment                  
from there.                                                                                    
Understanding the index scheme will explain what select does. When you                         
call select, you are saying that you are waiting certain file descriptors                      
to read from, certain ones to write from, and certain ones to watch from                       
exceptions from. Your process can have up to 1024 file descriptors open,                       
so an fd_set is just a bit mask describing which file descriptors are valid                    
for each operation. Make sense?                                                                
Since each fd that you have open is just an index, and it only needs to be                     
on or off for each fd_set, you need only 1024 bits for an fd_set structure.                    
1024 / 32 = 32 longs needed to represent the structure.                                        
Now, for the loose example.                                                                    
Suppose you want to read from a file descriptor (w/o timeout).                                 
- Allocate the equivalent to an fd_set.                                                        
my_fds: times 32 dd 0                                                                          
- open the file descriptor that you want to read from.                                         
- set that bit in the fd_set structure.                                                        
   First, you need to figure out which of the 32 dwords the bit is in.                         
   Then, use bts to set the bit in that dword. bts will do a modulo 32                         
   when setting the bit. That's why you need to first figure out which                         
   dword to start with.                                                                        
   mov edx, 0                                                                                  
   mov ebx, 32                                                                                 
   div ebx                                                                                     
   lea ebx, my_fds                                                                             
   bts ebx[eax * 4], edx                                                                       
- repeat the last step for any file descriptors you want to read from.                         
- repeat the entire exercise for either of the other two fd_sets if you want action from them. 
That leaves two other parts of the equation - the n paramter and the timeout                   
parameter. I'll leave the timeout parameter as an exercise for the reader                      
(yes, I'm lazy), but I'll briefly talk about the n parameter.                                  
It is the value of the largest file descriptor you are selecting from (from                    
any of the fd_sets), plus one. Why plus one? Well, because it's easy to                        
determine a mask from that value. Suppose that there is data available on                      
x file descriptors, but the highest one you care about is (n - 1). Since                       
an fd_set is just a bitmask, the kernel needs some efficient way for                           
determining whether to return or not from select. So, it masks off the bits                    
that you care about, checks if anything is available from the bits that are                    
still set, and returns if there is (pause as I rummage through kernel source).                 
Well, it's not as easy as I fantasized it would be. To see how the kernel                      
determines that mask, look in fs/select.c in the kernel source tree.                           
Anyway, you need to know that number, and the easiest way to do it is to save                  
the value of the last file descriptor open somewhere so you don't lose it.                     
Ok, that's what I know. A warning about the code above (as always) is that                     
it is not tested. I think it should work, but if it doesn't let me know.                       
But, if it starts a global nuclear meltdown, don't call me. ;-)                                

That's all for now, folks.

Appendix A. History

Each version includes a few fixes and minor corrections, that need not to be
repeatedly mentioned every time.

Revision History                                                             
Revision 0.6g           11 Feb 2006        Revised by: konst                 
Added AASM, updated FASM, added MIPS example to Quick Start section, added   
URLs to Turkish and Russian translations, misc URL updates                   
Revision 0.6f           17 Aug 2002        Revised by: konst                 
Added FASM, added URL to Korean translation, added URL to SVR4 i386 ABI      
specs, update on HLA/Linux, small fix in hello.S example, misc URL updates   
Revision 0.6e           12 Jan 2002        Revised by: konst                 
Added URL describing GAS Intel syntax; Added OSIMPA(former SHASM); Added     
YASM; FAQ update.                                                            
Revision 0.6d           18 Mar 2001        Revised by: konst                 
Added Free Pascal; new NASM URL again                                        
Revision 0.6c           15 Feb 2001        Revised by: konst                 
Added SHASM; new answer in FAQ, new NASM URL, new mailing list address       
Revision 0.6b           21 Jan 2001        Revised by: konst                 
new questions in FAQ, corrected few URLs                                     
Revision 0.6a           10 Dec 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Remade section on AS86 (thanks to Holluby Istvan for pointing out obsolete   
information). Fixed several URLs that can be incorrectly rendered from sgml  
to html.                                                                     
Revision 0.6            11 Nov 2000        Revised by: konst                 
HOWTO is completely rewritten using DocBook DTD. Layout is totally           
rearranged; too much changes to list them here.                              
Revision 0.5n           07 Nov 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Added question regarding kernel modules to FAQ, fixed NASM URLs, GAS has     
Intel syntax too                                                             
Revision 0.5m           22 Oct 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Linux 2.4 system calls can have 6 args, Added ALD note to FAQ, fixed mailing 
list subscribe address                                                       
Revision 0.5l           23 Aug 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Added TDASM, updates on NASM                                                 
Revision 0.5k           11 Jul 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Few additions to FAQ                                                         
Revision 0.5j           14 Jun 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Complete rearrangement of Introduction and Resources sections. FAQ added to  
Resources, misc cleanups and additions.                                      
Revision 0.5i           04 May 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Added HLA, TALC; rearrangements in Resources, Quick Start Assemblers         
sections. Few new pointers.                                                  
Revision 0.5h           09 Apr 2000        Revised by: konst                 
finally managed to state LDP license on document, new resources added, misc  
Revision 0.5g           26 Mar 2000        Revised by: konst                 
new resources on different CPUs                                              
Revision 0.5f           02 Mar 2000        Revised by: konst                 
new resources, misc corrections                                              
Revision 0.5e           10 Feb 2000        Revised by: konst                 
URL updates, changes in GAS example                                          
Revision 0.5d           01 Feb 2000        Revised by: konst                 
Resources (former "Pointers") section completely redone, various URL updates.
Revision 0.5c           05 Dec 1999        Revised by: konst                 
New pointers, updates and some rearrangements. Rewrite of sgml source.       
Revision 0.5b           19 Sep 1999        Revised by: konst                 
Discussion about libc or not libc continues. New web pointers and and overall
Revision 0.5a           01 Aug 1999        Revised by: konst                 
Quick Start section rearranged, added GAS example. Several new web pointers. 
Revision 0.5            01 Aug 1999        Revised by: konstfare             
GAS has 16-bit mode. New maintainer (at last): Konstantin Boldyshev.         
Discussion about libc or not libc. Added Quick Start section with examples of
assembly code.                                                               
Revision 0.4q           22 Jun 1999        Revised by: fare                  
process argument passing (argc, argv, environ) in assembly. This is yet      
another "last release by Fare before new maintainer takes over". Nobody knows
who might be the new maintainer.                                             
Revision 0.4p           06 Jun 1999        Revised by: fare                  
clean up and updates                                                         
Revision 0.4o           01 Dec 1998        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.4m           23 Mar 1998        Revised by: fare                  
corrections about gcc invocation                                             
Revision 0.4l           16 Nov 1997        Revised by: fare                  
release for LSL 6th edition                                                  
Revision 0.4k           19 Oct 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.4j           07 Sep 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.4i           17 Jul 1997        Revised by: fare                  
info on 16-bit mode access from Linux                                        
Revision 0.4h           19 Jun 1997        Revised by: fare                  
still more on "how not to use assembly"; updates on NASM, GAS.               
Revision 0.4g           30 Mar 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.4f           20 Mar 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.4e           13 Mar 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Release for DrLinux                                                          
Revision 0.4d           28 Feb 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Vapor announce of a new Assembly-HOWTO maintainer                            
Revision 0.4c           09 Feb 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Added section Do you need assembly?.                                         
Revision 0.4b           03 Feb 1997        Revised by: fare                  
NASM moved: now is before AS86                                               
Revision 0.4a           20 Jan 1997        Revised by: fare                  
CREDITS section added                                                        
Revision 0.4            20 Jan 1997        Revised by: fare                  
first release of the HOWTO as such                                           
Revision 0.4pre1        13 Jan 1997        Revised by: fare                  
text mini-HOWTO transformed into a full linuxdoc-sgml HOWTO, to see what the 
SGML tools are like                                                          
Revision 0.3l           11 Jan 1997        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.3k           19 Dec 1996        Revised by: fare                  
What? I had forgotten to point to terse???                                   
Revision 0.3j           24 Nov 1996        Revised by: fare                  
point to French translated version                                           
Revision 0.3i           16 Nov 1996        Revised by: fare                  
NASM is getting pretty slick                                                 
Revision 0.3h           06 Nov 1996        Revised by: fare                  
more about cross-compiling -- See on sunsite: devel/msdos/                   
Revision 0.3g           02 Nov 1996        Revised by: fare                  
Created the History. Added pointers in cross-compiling section. Added section
about I/O programming under Linux (particularly video).                      
Revision 0.3f           17 Oct 1996        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.3c           15 Jun 1996        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.2            04 May 1996        Revised by: fare                  
Revision 0.1            23 Apr 1996        Revised by: fare                  
Francois-Rene "Fare" Rideau creates and publishes the first mini-HOWTO,      
because "I'm sick of answering ever the same questions on comp.lang.asm.x86" 

Appendix B. Acknowledgements

I would like to thank all the people who have contributed ideas, answers,
remarks, and moral support, and additionally the following persons, by order
of appearance:

  * [mailto:buried.alive@in.mail] Linus Torvalds for Linux
  * [] Bruce Evans for bcc from which as86 is extracted
  * [] Simon Tatham and []
    Julian Hall for NASM
  * [] Greg Hankins and now [mailto:] Tim Bynum for maintaining HOWTOs
  * [] Raymond Moon for his FAQ
  * [] Eric Dumas for his translation of the
    mini-HOWTO into French (sad thing for the original author to be French
    and write in English)
  * [] Paul Anderson and [mailto:] Rahim Azizarab for helping me, if not for taking over
    the HOWTO
  * [] Marc Lehman for his insight on GCC invocation
  * [] Abhijit Menon-Sen for helping me figure out the
    argument passing convention


Appendix C. Endorsements

This version of the document is endorsed by Konstantin Boldyshev.

Modifications (including translations) must remove this appendix according to
the license agreement.

$Id: Assembly-HOWTO.sgml,v 1.8 2006/02/11 08:26:26 konst Exp $

Appendix D. GNU Free Documentation License

GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.1, March 2000

    Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
    Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
    of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
    written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
    effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying
    it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License
    preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
    work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by
    This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works
    of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements
    the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for
    free software.
    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
    software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
    should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software
    does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used
    for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is
    published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for
    works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
    This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
    placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the
    terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual
    or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as
    A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
    Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
    modifications and/or translated into another language.
    A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
    the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
    publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
    (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
    within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
    textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
    mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection
    with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
    philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
    The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
    designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
    that the Document is released under this License.
    The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
    Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
    Document is released under this License.
    A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
    represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
    public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
    straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
    pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
    drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
    automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
    formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose
    markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification
    by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called
    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
    without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML
    using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML
    designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF,
    proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word
    processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not
    generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word
    processors for output purposes only.
    The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus
    such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this
    License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which
    do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the
    most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of
    the body of the text.
    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
    commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
    copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to
    the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
    conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical
    measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the
    copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in
    exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies
    you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you
    may publicly display copies.
    If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
    and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
    the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
    Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the
    back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
    publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title
    with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add
    other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to
    the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
    satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other
    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly,
    you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the
    actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
    than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy
    along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
    publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
    Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
    general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
    charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter
    option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
    distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
    Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until
    at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy
    (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the
    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
    Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
    them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
    conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the
    Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version
    filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and
    modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it.
    In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
     A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
        from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which
        should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the
        Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the
        original publisher of that version gives permission.
     B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
        responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
        Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
        Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
     C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
        Version, as the publisher.
     D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
     E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent
        to the other copyright notices.
     F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
        giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
        terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
     G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
        and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
     H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
     I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it
        an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher
        of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no
        section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the
        title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its
        Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as
        stated in the previous sentence.
     J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
        public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the
        network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was
        based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit
        a network location for a work that was published at least four years
        before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the
        version it refers to gives permission.
     K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve
        the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance
        and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
        dedications given therein.
     L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in
        their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are
        not considered part of the section titles.
     M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
        included in the Modified Version.
     N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict
        in title with any Invariant Section.
    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices
    that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from
    the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these
    sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of
    Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles
    must be distinct from any other section titles.
    You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
    nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for
    example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by
    an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
    passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
    Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text
    and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made
    by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the
    same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same
    entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
    replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher
    that added the old one.
    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
    give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
    imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
    License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
    versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
    Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list
    them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license
    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
    multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy.
    If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different
    contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end
    of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of
    that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
    to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license
    notice of the combined work.
    In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in
    the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History";
    likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any
    sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled
    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
    released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
    License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
    the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
    verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
    it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
    License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other
    respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
    independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
    distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of
    the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
    compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
    License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
    with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are
    not themselves derivative works of the Document.
    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies
    of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the
    entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that
    surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must
    appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
    translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
    Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from
    their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all
    Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these
    Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License
    provided that you also include the original English version of this
    License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the
    original English version of this License, the original English version
    will prevail.
    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
    as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy,
    modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
    automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties
    who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not
    have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full
    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
    Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
    similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
    address new problems or concerns. See []
    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If
    the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License
    "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following
    the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later
    version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
    Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this
    License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by
    the Free Software Foundation.
How to use this License for your documents
    To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
    License in the document and put the following copyright and license
    notices just after the title page:
          Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
          Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/
    or modify this document
          under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
          or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
          with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
          Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
          A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
          Free Documentation License".
    If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
    instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover
    Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being
    LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
    If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
    recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
    software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their
    use in free software.

Комментариев нет:

Отправить комментарий