GNU/Linux AI & Alife HOWTO

Table of Contents


  1. Introduction
     1.1 Purpose
     1.2 What's New
     1.3 Where to find this software
     1.4 Updates and comments
     1.5 Copyright/License

  2. Traditional Artificial Intelligence
     2.1 AI class/code libraries
     2.2 AI software kits, applications, etc.

  3. Connectionism
     3.1 Connectionist class/code libraries
     3.2 Connectionist software kits/applications

  4. Evolutionary Computing
     4.1 EC class/code libraries
     4.2 EC software kits/applications

  5. Alife & Complex Systems
     5.1 Alife & CS class/code libraries
     5.2 Alife & CS software kits, applications, etc.

  6. Agents & Robotics
     6.1 Software Agents
     6.2 Robotics and Simulators

  7. Programming languages
  8. Missing & Dead
     8.1 MIA - Projects missing linkage.
     8.2 Dead projects.


  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction



  1.1.  Purpose


  The GNU/Linux OS has evolved from its origins in hackerdom to a full
  blown UNIX, capable of rivaling any commercial UNIX.  It now provides
  an inexpensive base to build a great workstation.  It has shed its
  hardware dependencies, having been ported to DEC Alphas, Sparcs,
  PowerPCs, and many others.  This potential speed boost along with its
  networking support will make it great for workstation clusters.  As a
  workstation it allows for all sorts of research and development,
  including artificial intelligence and artificial life.



  The purpose of this Howto is to provide a source to find out about
  various software packages, code libraries, and anything else that will
  help someone get started working with (and find resources for)
  artificial intelligence, artificial life, etc.  All done with
  GNU/Linux specifically in mind.


  1.2.  What's New



  В·  v2.4 -

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'',
     ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'',
     ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'',
     and ``''.

     I chopped the Agents section into two sub-sections, one for ``''
     and one for ``''. I play it a bit fast and loose in my deciding
     what goes into each category, but it is an improvement.

     MIA found! ``'' the cellular automata programming system.  Fixed
     many bad links and cleaned out missing projects.

  В·  v2.3 -

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'',
     and ``''.

     Updated information for some entries including ``'', ``'', ``'',
     ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'' and others.

     I also changed the MIA section to ``'' which now groups into
     subsections entries with bad links that I can't find replacements
     for and long dead projects.

  В·  v2.2 -

     Fixed a some bad links and was forced to move a few entries into
     the MIA (missing) section. I also removed one duplicate entry.

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'' and ``''.

  В·  v2.1 -

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'',
     ``'' and ``''


  В·  v2.0 - Ran linkchecker and for any bad links I either found a new
     link or removed the item. See the new section MIA for a list of the
     removed entries (please let me know if you know of a new home for
     them).

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', and
     ``''

  В·  v1.9 - One new entry (``'') and fixed the link below to the dynamic
     list (now defunct).

  В·  v1.8 - Cleaned up bad links, finding new ones where possible and
     eliminating those that seem to have disappeared. Quite a few new
     entries as well.

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'',
     ``'', ``'', and ``''

  В·  v1.7 - Another 9 new entries, a bunch of links fixed, and a few
     items removed that have vanished from the net.

     New entries: ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', ``'', and
     ``UTCS Neural Nets Research Group Software''

  В·  v1.6 - 9 new entries, a couple link fixes and one duplicate item
     removed.

  В·  v1.5 - 26 new entries plus a couple link fixes.

  В·  v1.4 - 10 new updates and fixed some lisp-related links.

  В·  v1.3 - Putting a dent in the backlog, I added 30+ new entries today
     and submitted it to the LDP.

  В·  Previous records were in a mixed format with site updates. See the
     old notes section of the master site for them.


  1.3.  Where to find this software


  All this software should be available via the net (ftp || http).  The
  links to where to find it will be provided in the description of each
  package.  There will also be plenty of software not covered on these
  pages (which is usually platform independent) located on one of the
  resources listed on the links section of the Master Site (given
  above).



  1.4.  Updates and comments



  If you find any mistakes, know of updates to one of the items below,
  or have problems compiling any of the applications, please mail me at:
  jae@zhar.net and I'll see what I can do.


  If you know of any AI/Alife applications, class libraries, etc. Please
  email me about them. Include your name, ftp and/or http sites where
  they can be found, plus a brief overview/commentary on the software
  (this info would make things a lot easier on me... but don't feel
  obligated ;).


  I know that keeping this list up to date and expanding it will take
  quite a bit of work. So please be patient (I do have other projects).
  I hope you will find this document helpful.


  1.5.  Copyright/License

  Copyright (c) 1996-2006 John A. Eikenberry

  LICENSE

  This document may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in part,
  in any medium physical or electronic, provided that this license
  notice is displayed in the reproduction. Commercial redistribution is
  permitted and encouraged. Thirty days advance notice, via email to the
  author, of redistribution is appreciated, to give the authors time to
  provide updated documents.

  A. REQUIREMENTS OF MODIFIED WORKS

  All modified documents, including translations, anthologies, and
  partial documents, must meet the following requirements:



  В·  The modified version must be labeled as such.

  В·  The person making the modifications must be identified.

  В·  Acknowledgement of the original author must be retained.

  В·  The location of the original unmodified document be identified.

  В·  The original author's name(s) may not be used to assert or imply
     endorsement of the resulting document without the original author's
     permission.

  In addition it is requested (not required) that:


  В·  The modifications (including deletions) be noted.

  В·  The author be notified by email of the modification in advance of
     redistribution, if an email address is provided in the document.

  As a special exception, anthologies of LDP documents may include a
  single copy of these license terms in a conspicuous location within
  the anthology and replace other copies of this license with a
  reference to the single copy of the license without the document being
  considered "modified" for the purposes of this section.

  Mere aggregation of LDP documents with other documents or programs on
  the same media shall not cause this license to apply to those other
  works.

  All translations, derivative documents, or modified documents that
  incorporate this document may not have more restrictive license terms
  than these, except that you may require distributors to make the
  resulting document available in source format.



  2.  Traditional Artificial Intelligence

  Traditional AI is based around the ideas of logic, rule systems,
  linguistics, and the concept of rationality.  At its roots are
  programming languages such as Lisp and Prolog.  Expert systems are the
  largest successful example of this paradigm.  An expert system
  consists of a detailed knowledge base and a complex rule system to
  utilize it.  Such systems have been used for such things as medical
  diagnosis support and credit checking systems.



  2.1.  AI class/code libraries


  These are libraries of code or classes for use in programming within
  the artificial intelligence field.  They are not meant as stand alone
  applications, but rather as tools for building your own applications.

     ACL2

        В·  Web site: www.cliki.net/ACL2

        ACL2 (A Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp) is a
        theorem prover for industrial applications. It is both a
        mathematical logic and a system of tools for constructing proofs
        in the logic.  ACL2 works with GCL (GNU Common Lisp).



     AI Kernel

        В·  Web site: aikernel.sourceforge.net

        В·  Sourceforge site: sourceforge.net/projects/aikernel/

        The AI Kernel is a re-usable artificial intelligence engine that
        uses natural language processing and an Activator / Context
        model to allow multi tasking between installed cells.



     AI Search II

        В·  WEB site:

        Basically, the library offers the programmer a set of search
        algorithms that may be used to solve all kind of different
        problems. The idea is that when developing problem solving
        software the programmer should be able to concentrate on the
        representation of the problem to be solved and should not need
        to bother with the implementation of the search algorithm that
        will be used to actually conduct the search. This idea has been
        realized by the implementation of a set of search classes that
        may be incorporated in other software through C++'s features of
        derivation and inheritance.  The following search algorithms
        have been implemented:



        В·  depth-first tree and graph search.

        В·  breadth-first tree and graph search.

        В·  uniform-cost tree and graph search.

        В·  best-first search.

        В·  bidirectional depth-first tree and graph search.

        В·  bidirectional breadth-first tree and graph search.

        В·  AND/OR depth tree search.

        В·  AND/OR breadth tree search.


        This library has a corresponding book, "Object-Oriented
        Artificial Intelligence, Using C++".



     Aleph

        В·  Web site:
           web.comlab.ox.ac.uk/oucl/research/areas/machlearn/Aleph/

        This document provides reference information on A Learning
        Engine for Proposing Hypotheses (Aleph). Aleph is an Inductive
        Logic Programming (ILP) system. Aleph is intended to be a
        prototype for exploring ideas.  Aleph is an ILP algorithm
        implemented in Prolog by Dr Ashwin Srinivasan at the Oxford
        University Computing Laboratory, and is written specifically for
        compilation with the YAP Prolog compiler



     Chess In Lisp (CIL)

        В·  Web site: *found as part of the CLOCC archive at:
           clocc.sourceforge.net


        The CIL (Chess In Lisp) foundation is a Common Lisp
        implementaion of all the core functions needed for development
        of chess applications.  The main purpose of the CIL project is
        to get AI researchers interested in using Lisp to work in the
        chess domain.



     FFLL

        В·  Web site: ffll.sourceforge.net

        The Free Fuzzy Logic Library (FFLL) is an open source fuzzy
        logic class library and API that is optimized for speed critical
        applications, such as video games. FFLL is able to load files
        that adhere to the  IEC 61131-7 standard.



     Fuzzy sets for Ada

        В·  Web site: www.dmitry-kazakov.de/ada/fuzzy.htm

        В·  Freshmeat: freshmeat.net/projects/fuzzy/

        Fuzzy sets for Ada is a library providing implementations of
        confidence factors with the operations not, and, or, xor, +, and
        *, classical fuzzy sets with the set-theoretic operations and
        the operations of the possibility theory, intuitionistic fuzzy
        sets with the operations on them, fuzzy logic based on the
        intuitionistic fuzzy sets and the possibility theory; fuzzy
        numbers, both integer and floating-point with conventional
        arithmetical operations, and linguistic variables and sets of
        linguistic variables with operations on them.  String-oriented
        I/O is supported.



     HTK

        В·  Web site: htk.eng.cam.ac.uk

        The Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) is a portable toolkit for
        building and manipulating hidden Markov models.  HTK consists of
        a set of library modules and tools available in C source form.
        The tools provide sophisticated facilities for speech analysis,
        HMM training, testing and results analysis. The software
        supports HMMs using both continuous density mixture Gaussians
        and discrete distributions and can be used to build complex HMM
        systems.  The HTK release contains extensive documentation and
        examples.



     JCK

        В·  Web site: www.pms.informatik.uni-muenchen.de/software/jack/

        JCK is a new library providing constraint programming and search
        for Java.

        В·  JCK consists of three components:

        В·  - JCHR: Java Constraint Handling Rules.  A high-level
           language to write constraint solvers.

        В·  - JASE: Java Abstract Search Engine.  A generic search engine
           for JCHR to solve constraint problems.

        В·  - VisualCHR: An interactive tool to visualize JCHR
           computations.

        Source and documentation available from link above.



     KANREN

        В·  Web site: kanren.sourceforge.net

        KANREN is a declarative logic programming system with first-
        class relations, embedded in a pure functional subset of Scheme.
        The system has a set-theoretical semantics, true unions, fair
        scheduling, first-class relations, lexically-scoped logical
        variables, depth-first and iterative deepening strategies. The
        system achieves high performance and expressivity without cuts.



     LK

        В·  Web site: www.cs.utoronto.ca/~neto/research/lk/

        LK is an implementation of the Lin-Kernighan heuristic for the
        Traveling Salesman Problem and for the minimum weight perfect
        matching problem. It is tuned for 2-d geometric instances, and
        has been applied to certain instances with up to a million
        cities. Also included are instance generators and Perl scripts
        for munging TSPLIB instances.

        This implementation introduces ``efficient cluster
        compensation'', an experimental algorithmic technique intended
        to make the Lin-Kernighan heuristic more robust in the face of
        clustered data.



     LingPipe

        В·  Web site:

        LingPipe is a state-of-the-art suite of natural language
        processing tools written in Java that performs tokenization,
        sentence detection, named entity detection, coreference
        resolution, classification, clustering, part-of-speech tagging,
        general chunking, fuzzy dictionary matching.



     Logfun

        В·  Web site:

        Logfun is a library of logic functors. A logic functor is a
        function that can be applied to zero, one or several logics so
        as to produce a new logic as a combination of argument logics.
        Each argument logic can itself be built by combination of logic
        functors. The signature of a logic is made of a parser and a
        printer of formulas, logical operations such as a theorem prover
        for entailment between formulas, and more specific operations
        required by Logical Information Systems (LIS). Logic functors
        can be concrete domains like integers, strings, or algebraic
        combinators like product or sum of logics.

        Logic functors are coded as Objective Caml modules. A logic
        semantics is associated to each of these logic functors. This
        enables to define properties of logics like the consistency and
        completeness of the entailment prover, and to prove under which
        conditions a generated entailement prover satisfies these
        properties given the properties of argument logics.



     Loom

        В·  Web site:

        * Note: Loom has been succeeded by ``''.

        Loom is a language and environment for constructing intelligent
        applications. The heart of Loom is a knowledge representation
        system that is used to provide deductive support for the
        declarative portion of the Loom language. Declarative knowledge
        in Loom consists of definitions, rules, facts, and default
        rules. A deductive engine called a classifier utilizes forward-
        chaining, semantic unification and object-oriented truth
        maintainance technologies in order to compile the declarative
        knowledge into a network designed to efficiently support on-line
        deductive query processing.

        The Loom system implements a logic-based pattern matcher that
        drives a production rule facility and a pattern-directed method
        dispatching facility that supports the definition of object-
        oriented methods. The high degree of integration between Loom's
        declarative and procedural components permits programmers to
        utilize logic programming, production rule, and object-oriented
        programming paradigms in a single application. Loom can also be
        used as a deductive layer that overlays an ordinary CLOS
        network. In this mode, users can obtain many of the benefits of
        using Loom without impacting the function or performance of
        their CLOS-based applications.



     maxent

        В·  Python/C++ version:
           homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/s0450736/maxent_toolkit.html

        В·  Java version: maxent.sourceforge.net

        The Maximum Entropy Toolkit provides a set of tools and library
        for constructing maximum entropy (maxent) models in either
        Python or C++.  It features conditional maximum entropy models,
        L-BFGS and GIS parameter estimation, Gaussian Prior smoothing, a
        C++ API, a Python extension module, a command line utility, and
        good documentation. A Java version is also available.



     Nyquist

        В·  Web site: www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~music/nyquist/

        The Computer Music Project at CMU is developing computer music
        and interactive performance technology to enhance human musical
        experience and creativity. This interdisciplinary effort draws
        on Music Theory, Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence and
        Machine Learning, Human Computer Interaction, Real-Time Systems,
        Computer Graphics and Animation, Multimedia, Programming
        Languages, and Signal Processing. A paradigmatic example of
        these interdisciplinary efforts is the creation of interactive
        performances that couple human musical improvisation with
        intelligent computer agents in real-time.



     OpenCyc

        В·  Web site: www.opencyc.org

        В·  Alt Web site: sourceforge.net/projects/opencyc/

        OpenCyc is the open source version of Cyc, the largest and most
        complete general knowledge base and commonsense reasoning
        engine. An ontology based on 6000 concepts and 60000 assertions
        about them.



     PowerLoom

        В·  Web site:

        PowerLoom is the successor to the ``'' knowledge representation
        system. It provides a language and environment for constructing
        intelligent, knowledge-based applications. PowerLoom uses a
        fully expressive, logic-based representation language (a variant
        of KIF). It uses a natural deduction inference engine that
        combines forward and backward chaining to derive what logically
        follows from the facts and rules asserted in the knowledge base.
        While PowerLoom is not a description logic, it does have a
        description classifier which uses technology derived from the
        Loom classifier to classify descriptions expressed in full first
        order predicate calculus (see paper). PowerLoom uses modules as
        a structuring device for knowledge bases, and ultra-lightweight
        worlds to support hypothetical reasoning.

        To implement PowerLoom we developed a new programming language
        called ``'', which is a Strongly Typed, Lisp-like LAnguage that
        can be translated into Lisp, C++ and Java. PowerLoom is written
        in STELLA and therefore available in Common-Lisp, C++ and Java
        versions.

     PyCLIPS

        В·  Web site:

        PyCLIPS is an extension module for the Python language that
        embeds full CLIPS functionality in Python applications. This
        means that you can provide Python with a strong, reliable,
        widely used and well documented inference engine.



     Pyke

        В·  Web site:

        Pyke is a knowledge-based inference engine (expert system)
        written in 100% python that can:


        В·  Do both forward-chaining (data driven) and backward-chaining
           (goal directed) inferencing.

           В·  Pyke may be embedded into any python program.


        В·  Automatically generate python programs by assembling
           individual python functions into complete call graphs.


           В·  This is done through a unique design where the individual
              python functions are attached to backward-chaining rules.

           В·  Unlike other approaches to code reuse (e.g. Zope adapters
              and generic functions), this allows the inference engine
              to ensure that all of the function's requirements are
              completely satisfied, by examining the entire call graph
              down to the leaves, before any of the functions are
              executed.

           В·  This is an optional feature. You don't need to use it if
              you just want the inferencing capability by itself.



     Python Fuzzy Logic Module

        В·  FTP site: ftp://ftp.csh.rit.edu/pub/members/retrev/

        A simple python module for fuzzy logic. The file is 'fuz.tar.gz'
        in this directory. The author plans to also write a simple
        genetic algorithm and a neural net library as well. Check the
        00_index file in this directory for release info.



     Reverend

        В·  Web site:

        Reverned is a general purpose Bayesian classifier written in
        Python. It is designed to be easily extended to any application
        domain.



     Screamer

        В·  Web site: www.cis.upenn.edu/~screamer-tools/home.html

        В·  Latest version is part of CLOCC: clocc.sourceforge.net

        Screamer is an extension of Common Lisp that adds support for
        nondeterministic programming. Screamer consists of two levels.
        The basic nondeterministic level adds support for backtracking
        and undoable side effects.  On top of this nondeterministic
        substrate, Screamer provides a comprehensive constraint
        programming language in which one can formulate and solve mixed
        systems of numeric and symbolic constraints. Together, these two
        levels augment Common Lisp with practically all of the
        functionality of both Prolog and constraint logic programming
        languages such as CHiP and CLP(R).  Furthermore, Screamer is
        fully integrated with Common Lisp. Screamer programs can coexist
        and interoperate with other extensions to Common Lisp such as
        CLOS, CLIM and Iterate.



     Shogun

        В·  Web site:

        The machine learning toolbox's focus is on large scale kernel
        methods and especially on Support Vector Machines (SVM) [1]. It
        provides a generic SVM object interfacing to several different
        SVM implementations, among them the state of the art LibSVM [2]
        and SVMLight [3]. Each of the SVMs can be combined with a
        variety of kernels. The toolbox not only provides efficient
        implementations of the most common kernels, like the Linear,
        Polynomial, Gaussian and Sigmoid Kernel but also comes with a
        number of recent string kernels as e.g.  the Locality Improved
        [4], Fischer [5], TOP [6], Spectrum [7], Weighted Degree Kernel
        (with shifts) [8] [9] [10]. For the latter the efficient LINADD
        [10] optimizations are implemented. Also SHOGUN offers the
        freedom of working with custom pre-computed kernels. One of its
        key features is the combined kernel which can be constructed by
        a weighted linear combination of a number of sub-kernels, each
        of which not necessarily working on the same domain. An optimal
        sub-kernel weighting can be learned using Multiple Kernel
        Learning [11] [12] [16]. Currently SVM 2-class classification
        and regression problems can be dealt with.  However SHOGUN also
        implements a number of linear methods like Linear Discriminant
        Analysis (LDA), Linear Programming Machine (LPM), (Kernel)
        Perceptrons and features algorithms to train hidden markov
        models. The input feature-objects can be dense, sparse or
        strings and of type int/short/double/char and can be converted
        into different feature types. Chains of preprocessors (e.g.
        substracting the mean) can be attached to each feature object
        allowing for on-the-fly pre-processing.

        SHOGUN is implemented in C++ and interfaces to Matlab(tm), R,
        Octave and Python.



     SPASS

        В·  Web site: spass.mpi-sb.mpg.de

        SPASS: An Automated Theorem Prover for First-Order Logic with
        Equality

        If you are interested in first-order logic theorem proving, the
        formal analysis of software, systems, protocols, formal
        approaches to AI planning, decision procedures, modal logic
        theorem proving, SPASS may offer you the right functionality.



     ThoughtTreasure

        В·  Web site: www.signiform.com/tt/htm/tt.htm

        ThoughtTreasure is a project to create a database of commonsense
        rules for use in any application. It consists of a database of a
        little over 100K rules and a C API to integrate it with your
        applications. Python, Perl, Java and TCL wrappers are already
        available.


     Torch

        В·  Web site: www.torch.ch

        Torch is a machine-learning library, written in C++.  Its aim is
        to provide the state-of-the-art of the best algorithms.  It is,
        and it will be, in development forever.


        В·  Many gradient-based methods, including multi-layered
           perceptrons, radial basis functions, and mixtures of experts.
           Many small "modules" (Linear module, Tanh module, SoftMax
           module, ...)  can be plugged together.


        В·  Support Vector Machine, for classification and regression.


        В·  Distribution package, includes Kmeans, Gaussian Mixture
           Models, Hidden Markov Models, and Bayes Classifier, and
           classes for speech recognition with embedded training.


        В·  Ensemble models such as Bagging and Adaboost.

        В·  Non-parametric models such as K-nearest-neighbors, Parzen
           Regression and Parzen Density Estimator.


        В·

        Torch is an open library whose authors encourage everybody to
        develop new packages to be included in future versions on the
        official website.



  2.2.  AI software kits, applications, etc.


  These are various applications, software kits, etc. meant for research
  in the field of artificial intelligence. Their ease of use will vary,
  as they were designed to meet some particular research interest more
  than as an easy to use commercial package.



     ASA - Adaptive Simulated Annealing

        В·  Web site: www.ingber.com/#ASA-CODE

        В·  FTP site: ftp.ingber.com/


        ASA (Adaptive Simulated Annealing) is a powerful global
        optimization C-code algorithm especially useful for nonlinear
        and/or stochastic systems.


        ASA is developed to statistically find the best global fit of a
        nonlinear non-convex cost-function over a D-dimensional space.
        This algorithm permits an annealing schedule for 'temperature' T
        decreasing exponentially in annealing-time k, T = T_0 exp(-c
        k^1/D).  The introduction of re-annealing also permits
        adaptation to changing sensitivities in the multi-dimensional
        parameter-space. This annealing schedule is faster than fast
        Cauchy annealing, where T = T_0/k, and much faster than
        Boltzmann annealing, where T = T_0/ln k.



     Babylon

        В·  Archive:

        В·  (Dead) FTP site:

        BABYLON is a modular, configurable, hybrid environment for
        developing expert systems. Its features include objects, rules
        with forward and backward chaining, logic (Prolog) and
        constraints. BABYLON is implemented and embedded in Common Lisp.



     cfengine

        В·  Web site: www.iu.hio.no/cfengine/

        Cfengine, or the configuration engine is a very high level
        language for building expert systems which administrate and
        configure large computer networks. Cfengine uses the idea of
        classes and a primitive form of intelligence to define and
        automate the configuration of large systems in the most
        economical way possible. Cfengine is design to be a part of
        computer immune systems.



     CLEARS

        В·  Web site: ???? (anyone know where to find this anymore)

        The CLEARS system is an interactive graphical environment for
        computational semantics. The tool allows exploration and
        comparison of different semantic formalisms, and their
        interaction with syntax. This enables the user to get an idea of
        the range of possibilities of semantic construction, and also
        where there is real convergence between theories.



     CLIPS

        В·  Web site: www.ghg.net/clips/CLIPS.html

        CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system
        tool which provides a complete environment for the construction
        of rule and/or object based expert systems.


        CLIPS provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of
        knowledge with support for three different programming
        paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented and procedural.  Rule-
        based programming allows knowledge to be represented as
        heuristics, or "rules of thumb," which specify a set of actions
        to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented
        programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular
        components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or
        to create new components).  The procedural programming
        capabilities provided by CLIPS are similar to capabilities found
        in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP.



     Eprover

        В·  Web site: http://www.eprover.org/

        В·  Web site: http://www4.informatik.tu-
           muenchen.de/~schulz/WORK/eprover.html

        The E Equational Theorem Prover is a purely equational theorem
        prover.  The core proof procedure operates on formulas in clause
        normal form, using a calculus that combines superposition (with
        selection of negative literals) and rewriting. No special rules
        for non-equational literals have been implemented, i.e.,
        resolution is simulated via paramodulation and equality
        resolution. The basic calculus is extended with rules for AC
        redundancy elemination, some contextual simplification, and
        pseudo-splitting. The latest version of E also supports
        simultaneous paramodulation, either for all inferences or for
        selected inferences.

        E is based on the DISCOUNT-loop variant of the given-clause
        algorithm, i.e. a strict separation of active and passive facts.
        Proof search in E is primarily controlled by a literal selection
        strategy, a clause evaluation heuristic, and a simplification
        ordering. The prover supports a large number of preprogrammed
        literal selection strategies, many of which are only
        experimental. Clause evaluation heuristics can be constructed on
        the fly by combining various parameterized primitive evaluation
        functions, or can be selected from a set of predefined
        heuristics. Supported term orderings are several parameterized
        instances of Knuth-Bendix-Ordering (KBO) and Lexicographic Path
        Ordering (LPO).



     FOOL & FOX

        В·  Web site: rhaug.de/fool/

        В·  FTP site: ftp.informatik.uni-oldenburg.de/pub/fool/


        FOOL stands for the Fuzzy Organizer OLdenburg. It is a result
        from a project at the University of Oldenburg. FOOL is a
        graphical user interface to develop fuzzy rulebases.  FOOL will
        help you to invent and maintain a database that specifies the
        behavior of a fuzzy-controller or something like that.


        FOX is a small but powerful fuzzy engine which reads this
        database, reads some input values and calculates the new control
        value.



     FUF and SURGE

        В·  Web site: www.cs.bgu.ac.il/research/projects/surge/index.htm

        В·  FTP site: ftp.cs.bgu.ac.il/pub/fuf/

        FUF is an extended implementation of the formalism of functional
        unification grammars (FUGs) introduced by Martin Kay specialized
        to the task of natural language generation. It adds the
        following features to the base formalism:

        В·  Types and inheritance.

        В·  Extended control facilities (goal freezing, intelligent
           backtracking).

        В·  Modular syntax.

        These extensions allow the development of large grammars which
        can be processed efficiently and can be maintained and under-
        stood more easily.  SURGE is a large syntactic realization gram-
        mar of English written in FUF. SURGE is developed to serve as a
        black box syntactic generation component in a larger generation
        system that encapsulates a rich knowledge of English syntax.
        SURGE can also be used as a platform for exploration of grammar
        writing with a generation perspective.



     GATE

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Alt site:

        GATE (General Architecture for Text Engineering) is an
        architecture, framework and development environment for
        developing, evaluating and embedding Human Language Technology.

        GATE is made up of three elements:

        В·  An architecture describing how language processing systems
           are made up of components.

        В·  A framework (or class library, or SDK), written in Java and
           tested on Linux, Windoze and Solaris.

        В·  A graphical development environment built on the framework.



     The Grammar Workbench

        В·  Web site: ??? www.cs.kun.nl/agfl/

        Seems to be obsolete??? Its gone from the site, though its
        parent project is still ongoing.

        The Grammar Workbench, or GWB for short, is an environment for
        the comfortable development of Affix Grammars in the AGFL-
        formalism. Its purposes are:

        В·  to allow the user to input, inspect and modify a grammar;

        В·  to perform consistency checks on the grammar;

        В·  to compute grammar properties;

        В·  to generate example sentences;

        В·  to assist in performing grammar transformations.



     GSM Suite

        В·  Alt site: www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/apps/graphics/draw/

        The GSM Suite is a set of programs for using Finite State
        Machines in a graphical fashion. The suite consists of programs
        that edit, compile, and print state machines. Included in the
        suite is an editor program, gsmedit, a compiler, gsm2cc, that
        produces a C++ implementation of a state machine, a PostScript
        generator, gsm2ps, and two other minor programs. GSM is licensed
        under the GNU Public License and so is free for your use under
        the terms of that license.



     Isabelle

        В·  Web site: isabelle.in.tum.de

        Isabelle is a popular generic theorem prover developed at
        Cambridge University and TU Munich. Existing logics like
        Isabelle/HOL provide a theorem proving environment ready to use
        for sizable applications.  Isabelle may also serve as framework
        for rapid prototyping of deductive systems. It comes with a
        large library including Isabelle/HOL (classical higher-order
        logic), Isabelle/HOLCF (Scott's Logic for Computable Functions
        with HOL), Isabelle/FOL (classical and intuitionistic first-
        order logic), and Isabelle/ZF (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory on
        top of FOL).



     Jess, the Java Expert System Shell

        В·  Web site: herzberg.ca.sandia.gov/jess/

        Jess is a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written
        entirely in Java. With Jess, you can conveniently give your
        applets the ability to 'reason'. Jess is compatible with all
        versions of Java starting with version 1.0.2. Jess implements
        the following constructs from CLIPS: defrules, deffunctions,
        defglobals, deffacts, and deftemplates.



     learn

        В·  Web site: www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/apps/cai/

        Learn is a vocable learning program with memory model.



     LISA

        В·  Web site: lisa.sourceforge.net

        LISA (Lisp-based Intelligent Software Agents) is a production-
        rule system heavily influenced by JESS (Java Expert System
        Shell). It has at its core a reasoning engine based on the Rete
        pattern matching algorithm. LISA also provides the ability to
        reason over ordinary CLOS objects.



     Livingstone2

        В·  Web site:

        Livingstone2 (L2) is a reusable artificial intelligence (AI)
        software system designed to assist spacecraft, life support
        systems, chemical plants or other complex systems in operating
        robustly with minimal human supervision, even in the face of
        hardware failures or unexpected events.



     NICOLE

        В·  Web site: nicole.sourceforge.net

        NICOLE (Nearly Intelligent Computer Operated Language Examiner)
        is a theory or experiment that if a computer is given enough
        combinations of how words, phrases and sentences are related to
        one another, it could talk back to you. It is an attempt to
        simulate a conversation by learning how words are related to
        other words. A human communicates with NICOLE via the keyboard
        and NICOLE responds back with its own sentences which are
        automatically generated, based on what NICOLE has stored in it's
        database. Each new sentence that has been typed in, and NICOLE
        doesn't know about, is included into NICOLE's database, thus
        extending the knowledge base of NICOLE.



     NLTK

        В·  Web site: nltk.sourceforge.net

        NLTK, the Natural Language Toolkit, is a suite of Python
        libraries and programs for symbolic and statistical natural
        language processing.  NLTK includes graphical demonstrations and
        sample data. It is accompanied by extensive documentation,
        including tutorials that explain the underlying concepts behind
        the language processing tasks supported by the toolkit.


        NLTK is ideally suited to students who are learning NLP (natural
        language processing) or conducting research in NLP or closely
        related areas, including empirical linguistics, cognitive
        science, artificial intelligence, information retrieval, and
        machine learning. NLTK has been used successfully as a teaching
        tool, as an individual study tool, and as a platform for
        prototyping and building research systems.



     Otter: An Automated Deduction System

        В·  Web site: www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/AR/otter/

        Our current automated deduction system  Otter is designed to
        prove theorems stated in first-order logic with equality.
        Otter's inference rules are based on resolution and
        paramodulation, and it includes facilities for term rewriting,
        term orderings, Knuth-Bendix completion, weighting, and
        strategies for directing and restricting searches for proofs.
        Otter can also be used as a symbolic calculator and has an
        embedded equational programming system.



     PVS

        В·  Web site: pvs.csl.sri.com/

        PVS is a verification system: that is, a specification language
        integrated with support tools and a theorem prover. It is
        intended to capture the state-of-the-art in mechanized formal
        methods and to be sufficiently rugged that it can be used for
        significant applications. PVS is a research prototype: it
        evolves and improves as we develop or apply new capabilities,
        and as the stress of real use exposes new requirements.



     SNePS

        В·  Web site: www.cse.buffalo.edu/sneps/

        The long-term goal of The SNePS Research Group is the design and
        construction of a natural-language-using computerized cognitive
        agent, and carrying out the research in artificial intelligence,
        computational linguistics, and cognitive science necessary for
        that endeavor. The three-part focus of the group is on knowledge
        representation, reasoning, and natural-language understanding
        and generation. The group is widely known for its development of
        the SNePS knowledge representation/reasoning system, and Cassie,
        its computerized cognitive agent.



     Soar

        В·  Web site: sitemaker.umich.edu/soar


        Soar has been developed to be a general cognitive architecture.
        We intend ultimately to enable the Soar architecture to:

        В·  work on the full range of tasks expected of an intelligent
           agent, from highly routine to extremely difficult, open-ended
           problems

        В·  represent and use appropriate forms of knowledge, such as
           procedural, declarative, episodic, and possibly iconic

        В·  employ the full range of problem solving methods

        В·  interact with the outside world and

        В·  learn about all aspects of the tasks and its performance on
           them.

        In other words, our intention is for Soar to support all the
        capabilities required of a general intelligent agent.


     TCM

        В·  Web site: wwwhome.cs.utwente.nl/~tcm/

        В·  FTP site: ftp.cs.utwente.nl/pub/tcm/

        TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) is our suite of graphical
        editors. TCM contains graphical editors for Entity-Relationship
        diagrams, Class-Relationship diagrams, Data and Event Flow
        diagrams, State Transition diagrams, Jackson Process Structure
        diagrams and System Network diagrams, Function Refinement trees
        and various table editors, such as a Function-Entity table
        editor and a Function Decomposition table editor.  TCM is easy
        to use and performs numerous consistency checks, some of them
        immediately, some of them upon request.



     Yale

        В·  Web site: yale.sf.net/

        В·  Alt Web site: rapid-i.com/

        YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment) is an environment for
        machine learning experiments. Experiments can be made up of a
        large number of arbitrarily nestable operators and their setup
        is described by XML files which can easily created with a
        graphical user interface.  Applications of YALE cover both
        research and real-world learning tasks.



     WEKA

        В·  Web site: lucy.cs.waikato.ac.nz/~ml/


        WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) is an state-
        of-the-art facility for applying machine learning techniques to
        practical problems. It is a comprehensive software "workbench"
        that allows people to analyse real-world data. It integrates
        different machine learning tools within a common framework and a
        uniform user interface. It is designed to support a "simplicity-
        first" methodology, which allows users to experiment
        interactively with simple machine learning tools before looking
        for more complex solutions.



  3.  Connectionism

  Connectionism is a technical term for a group of related techniques.
  These techniques include areas such as Artificial Neural Networks,
  Semantic Networks and a few other similar ideas. My present focus is
  on neural networks (though I am looking for resources on the other
  techniques). Neural networks are programs designed to simulate the
  workings of the brain. They consist of a network of small
  mathematical-based nodes, which work together to form patterns of
  information.  They have tremendous potential and currently seem to be
  having a great deal of success with image processing and robot
  control.



  3.1.  Connectionist class/code libraries


  These are libraries of code or classes for use in programming within
  the Connectionist field.  They are not meant as stand alone
  applications, but rather as tools for building your own applications.



     Software for Flexible Bayesian Modeling

        В·  Web site: www.cs.utoronto.ca/~radford/fbm.software.html

        This software implements flexible Bayesian models for regression
        and classification applications that are based on multilayer
        perceptron neural networks or on Gaussian processes.  The
        implementation uses Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.  Software
        modules that support Markov chain sampling are included in the
        distribution, and may be useful in other applications.



     BELIEF

        В·  Web site: www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/ai-
           repository/ai/areas/reasonng/probabl/belief/


        BELIEF is a Common Lisp implementation of the Dempster and Kong
        fusion and propagation algorithm for Graphical Belief Function
        Models and the Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter algorithm for
        Graphical Probabilistic Models. It includes code for
        manipulating graphical belief models such as Bayes Nets and
        Relevance Diagrams (a subset of Influence Diagrams) using both
        belief functions and probabilities as basic representations of
        uncertainty. It uses the Shenoy and Shafer version of the
        algorithm, so one of its unique features is that it supports
        both probability distributions and belief functions.  It also
        has limited support for second order models (probability
        distributions on parameters).


     bpnn.py

        В·  Web site: http://arctrix.com/nas/python/bpnn.py

        A simple back-propogation ANN in Python.



     CNNs

        В·  Web site:


        В·  Newer Version:

        В·  Old Page:

        Cellular Neural Networks (CNN)  is a massive parallel computing
        paradigm defined in discrete N-dimensional spaces. A visualizing
        CNN Simulator which allows to track the way in which the state
        trajectories evolve, thus gaining an insight into the behavior
        of  CNN dynamics.  This may be useful for forming an idea how a
        CNN 'works', especially for those people who are not experienced
        in CNN theory.



     CONICAL

        В·  Web site: strout.net/conical/

        CONICAL is a C++ class library for building simulations common
        in computational neuroscience. Currently its focus is on
        compartmental modeling, with capabilities similar to GENESIS and
        NEURON. A model neuron is built out of compartments, usually
        with a cylindrical shape. When small enough, these open-ended
        cylinders can approximate nearly any geometry. Future classes
        may support reaction-diffusion kinetics and more. A key feature
        of CONICAL is its cross-platform compatibility; it has been
        fully co-developed and tested under Unix, DOS, and Mac OS.



     ffnet

        В·  Web site:

        ffnet is a fast and easy-to-use feed-forward neural network
        training solution for python. Many nice features are
        implemented: arbitrary network connectivity, automatic data
        normalization, very efficient training tools, network export to
        fortran code.



     Joone

        В·  Web site: www.jooneworld.com

        Joone is a neural net framework to create, train and test neural
        nets.  The aim is to create a distributed environment based on
        JavaSpaces both for enthusiastic and professional users, based
        on the newest Java technologies.  Joone is composed of a central
        engine that is the fulcrum of all applications that already
        exist or will be developed.  The neural engine is modular,
        scalable, multitasking and tensile.  Everyone can write new
        modules to implement new algorithms or new architectures
        starting from the simple components distributed with the core
        engine.  The main idea is to create the basis to promote a
        zillion of AI applications that revolve around the core
        framework.



     Matrix Class

        В·  FTP site: ftp.cs.ucla.edu/pub/

        A simple, fast, efficient C++ Matrix class designed for
        scientists and engineers. The Matrix class is well suited for
        applications with complex math algorithms. As an demonstration
        of the Matrix class, it was used to implement the backward error
        propagation algorithm for a multi-layer feed-forward artificial
        neural network.



     Neural Networks at your Fingertips

        В·  Web site: www.neural-networks-at-your-fingertips.com

        A set of ANSI C packages that illustrate Adaline networks, back-
        propagation, the Hopfield model, BAM, Boltzman, CPN, SOM, and
        ART1. Coded in portable, self-contained ANSI C. With complete
        example applications from a variety of well-known application
        domains.



     NEAT

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Web site:

        Many neuroevolution methods evolve fixed-topology networks. Some
        methods evolve topologies in addition to weights, but these
        usually have a bound on the complexity of networks that can be
        evolved and begin evolution with random topologies. This project
        is based on a neuroevolution method called NeuroEvolution of
        Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) that can evolve networks of
        unbounded complexity from a minimal starting point.

        The research as a broader goal of showing that evolving
        topologies is necessary to achieve 3 major goals of
        neuroevolution: (1) Continual coevolution: Successful
        competitive coevolution can use the evolution of topologies to
        continuously elaborate strategies. (2) Evolution of Adaptive
        Networks: The evolution of topologies allows neuroevolution to
        evolve adaptive networks with plastic synapses by designating
        which connections should be adaptive and in what ways. (3)
        Combining Expert Networks: Separate expert neural networks can
        be fused through the evolution of connecting neurons between
        them.



     NEURObjects

        В·  Web site: www.disi.unige.it/person/ValentiniG/NEURObjects/

        NEURObjects is  a set   of C++ library   classes for neural
        networks development.  The main goal of  the library consists in
        supporting researchers and practitioners in developing new
        neural network methods and applications, exploiting the
        potentialities  of object-oriented design and  programming.
        NEURObjects provides also general purpose applications for
        classification problems and can be used for fast prototyping  of
        inductive  machine learning applications.



     NuPIC


        В·  Web site:

        The Numenta Platform for Intelligent Computing (NuPIC) is built
        around HTM networds (Hierarchical Temporal Memory). Based on
        Jeff Hawkins idea as laid out in his On Intelligence book. NuPIC
        consists of the Numenta Tools Framework and the Numenta Runtime
        Engine.

        Free for non-commercial use.



     Pulcinella

        В·  Web site: iridia.ulb.ac.be/pulcinella/

        Pulcinella is written in CommonLisp, and appears as a library of
        Lisp functions for creating, modifying and evaluating valuation
        systems. Alternatively, the user can choose to interact with
        Pulcinella via a graphical interface (only available in Allegro
        CL). Pulcinella provides primitives to build and evaluate
        uncertainty models according to several uncertainty calculi,
        including probability theory, possibility theory, and Dempster-
        Shafer's theory of belief functions; and the possibility theory
        by Zadeh, Dubois and Prade's. A User's Manual is available on
        request.



     scnANNlib

        В·  Web site: www.sentinelchicken.org/projects/scnANNlib/

        SCN Artificial Neural Network Library provides a programmer with
        a simple object-oriented API for constructing ANNs. Currently,
        the library supports non-recursive networks with an arbitrary
        number of layers, each with an arbitrary number of nodes.
        Facilities exist for training with momentum, and there are plans
        to gracefully extend the functionality of the library in later
        releases.



     UTCS Neural Nets Research Group Software

        В·  Web site:

        A bit different from the other entries, this is a reference to a
        collection of software rather than one application. It was all
        developed by the UTCS         Neural Net Research Group. Here's
        a summary of some of the packages available:


        В·  Natural Language Processing

           В·  MIR - Tcl/Tk-based rapid prototyping for sentence
              processing

           В·  SPEC - Parsing complex sentences

           В·  DISCERN - Processing script-based stories, including

              В·  PROC - Parsing, generation, question answering

              В·  HFM - Episodic memory organization

              В·  DISLEX - Lexical processing

              В·  DISCERN - The full integrated model

           В·  FGREPNET - Learning distributed representations

        В·  Self-Organization

           В·  LISSOM - Maps with self-organizing lateral connections.

           В·  FM - Generic Self-Organizing Maps

        В·  Neuroevolution

           В·  Enforced Sub-Populations (ESP) for sequential decision
              tasks

              В·  Non-Markov Double Pole Balancing

           В·  Symbiotic, Adaptive NeuroEvolution (SANE; predecessor of
              ESP)

              В·  JavaSANE - Java software package for applying SANE to
                 new tasks

              В·  SANE-C - C version, predecessor of JavaSANE

              В·  Pole Balancing - Neuron-level SANE on the Pole
                 Balancing task

           В·  NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) software
              for evolving neural networks using structure



     Various (C++) Neural Networks

        В·  Web site: www.dontveter.com/nnsoft/nnsoft.html

        Example neural net codes from the book, The       Pattern
        Recognition Basics of AI.  These are simple example codes of
        these various neural nets. They work well as a good starting
        point for simple experimentation and for learning what the code
        is like behind the simulators. The types of networks available
        on this site are: (implemented in C++)



        В·  The Backprop Package

        В·  The Nearest Neighbor Algorithms

        В·  The Interactive Activation Algorithm

        В·  The Hopfield and Boltzman machine Algorithms

        В·  The Linear Pattern Classifier

        В·  ART I

        В·  Bi-Directional Associative Memory

        В·  The Feedforward Counter-Propagation Network



  3.2.  Connectionist software kits/applications


  These are various applications, software kits, etc. meant for research
  in the field of Connectionism. Their ease of use will vary, as they
  were designed to meet some particular research interest more than as
  an easy to use commercial package.



     Aspirin - MIGRAINES
        (am6.tar.Z on ftp site)

        В·  FTP site: sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/computer-
           science/neural-networks/programs/Aspirin/


        The software that we are releasing now is for creating, and
        evaluating, feed-forward networks such as those used with the
        backpropagation learning algorithm. The software is aimed both
        at the expert programmer/neural network researcher who may wish
        to tailor significant portions of the system to his/her precise
        needs, as well as at casual users who will wish to use the
        system with an absolute minimum of effort.



     DDLab

        В·  Web site: www.santafe.edu/~wuensch/ddlab.html

        В·  FTP site: ftp.santafe.edu/pub/wuensch/

        DDLab is an interactive graphics program for research into the
        dynamics of finite binary networks, relevant to the study of
        complexity, emergent phenomena, neural networks, and aspects of
        theoretical biology such as gene regulatory networks. A network
        can be set up with any architecture between regular CA (1d or
        2d) and "random Boolean networks" (networks with arbitrary
        connections and heterogeneous rules). The network may also have
        heterogeneous neighborhood sizes.



     GENESIS

        В·  Web site: www.genesis-sim.org/GENESIS/

        В·  FTP site: genesis-sim.org/pub/genesis/


        GENESIS (short for GEneral NEural SImulation System) is a
        general purpose simulation platform which was developed to
        support the simulation of neural systems ranging from complex
        models of single neurons to simulations of large networks made
        up of more abstract neuronal components. GENESIS has provided
        the basis for laboratory courses in neural simulation at both
        Caltech and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA,
        as well as several other institutions. Most current GENESIS
        applications involve realistic simulations of biological neural
        systems. Although the software can also model more abstract
        networks, other simulators are more suitable for backpropagation
        and similar connectionist modeling.


     JavaBayes

        В·  Web site: www.cs.cmu.edu/People/javabayes/index.html/


        The JavaBayes system is a set of tools, containing a graphical
        editor, a core inference engine and a parser.  JavaBayes can
        produce:

        В·  the marginal distribution for any variable in a network.

        В·  the expectations for univariate functions (for example,
           expected value for variables).

        В·  configurations with maximum a posteriori probability.

        В·  configurations with maximum a posteriori expectation for
           univariate functions.



     Jbpe

        В·  Web site: cs.felk.cvut.cz/~koutnij/studium/jbpe.html

        Jbpe is a back-propagation neural network editor/simulator.

        Features

        В·  Standart back-propagation networks creation.

        В·  Saving network as a text file, which can be edited and loaded
           back.

        В·  Saving/loading binary file

        В·  Learning from a text file (with structure specified below),
           number of learning periods / desired network energy can be
           specified as a criterion.

        В·  Network recall



     Neural Network Generator

        В·  FTP site: ftp.idsia.ch/pub/rafal

        The Neural Network Generator is a genetic algorithm for the
        topological optimization of feedforward neural networks. It
        implements the Semantic Changing Genetic Algorithm and the Unit-
        Cluster Model. The Semantic Changing Genetic Algorithm is an
        extended genetic algorithm that allows fast dynamic adaptation
        of the genetic coding through population analysis. The Unit-
        Cluster Model is an approach to the construction of modular
        feedforward networks with a ''backbone'' structure.

        NOTE: To compile this on Linux requires one change in the
        Makefiles.  You will need to change '-ltermlib' to '-ltermcap'.



     Neureka ANS (nn/xnn)


        В·  FTP site: ftp.ii.uib.no/pub/neureka/


        nn is a high-level neural network specification language. The
        current version is best suited for feed-forward nets, but
        recurrent models can and have been implemented, e.g. Hopfield
        nets, Jordan/Elman nets, etc.  In nn, it is easy to change
        network dynamics. The nn compiler can generate C code or
        executable programs (so there must be a C compiler available),
        with a powerful command line interface (but everything may also
        be controlled via the graphical interface, xnn). It is possible
        for the user to write C routines that can be called from inside
        the nn specification, and to use the nn specification as a
        function that is called from a C program. Please note that no
        programming is necessary in order to use the network models that
        come with the system (`netpack').


        xnn is a graphical front end to networks generated by the nn
        compiler, and to the compiler itself. The xnn graphical
        interface is intuitive and easy to use for beginners, yet
        powerful, with many possibilities for visualizing network data.


        NOTE: You have to run the install program that comes with this
        to get the license key installed. It gets put (by default) in
        /usr/lib. If you (like myself) want to install the package
        somewhere other than in the /usr directory structure (the
        install program gives you this option) you will have to set up
        some environmental variables (NNLIBDIR & NNINCLUDEDIR are
        required). You can read about these (and a few other optional
        variables) in appendix A of the documentation (pg 113).



     NEURON

        В·  Web site: www.neuron.yale.edu/

        NEURON is an extensible nerve modeling and simulation program.
        It allows you to create complex nerve models by connecting
        multiple one-dimensional sections together to form arbitrary
        cell morphologies, and allows you to insert multiple membrane
        properties into these sections (including channels, synapses,
        ionic concentrations, and counters). The interface was designed
        to present the neural modeler with a intuitive environment and
        hide the details of the numerical methods used in the
        simulation.



     PDP++

        В·  Web site: www.cnbc.cmu.edu/Resources/PDP++/

        В·  FTP site (US): cnbc.cmu.edu/pub/pdp++/

        В·  FTP mirror (US): grey.colorado.edu/pub/oreilly/pdp++/

        As the field of Connectionist modeling has grown, so has the
        need for a comprehensive simulation environment for the
        development and testing of Connectionist models. Our goal in
        developing PDP++ has been to integrate several powerful software
        development and user interface tools into a general purpose
        simulation environment that is both user friendly and user
        extensible. The simulator is built in the C++ programming
        language, and incorporates a state of the art script interpreter
        with the full expressive power of C++. The graphical user
        interface is built with the Interviews toolkit, and allows full
        access to the data structures and processing modules out of
        which the simulator is built. We have constructed several useful
        graphical modules for easy interaction with the structure and
        the contents of neural networks, and we've made it possible to
        change and adapt many things. At the programming level, we have
        set things up in such a way as to make user extensions as
        painless as possible. The programmer creates new C++ objects,
        which might be new kinds of units or new kinds of processes;
        once compiled and linked into the simulator, these new objects
        can then be accessed and used like any other.



     RNS

        В·  Web site: www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/ai-
           repository/ai/areas/neural/systems/rns/

        RNS (Recurrent Network Simulator) is a simulator for recurrent
        neural networks. Regular neural networks are also supported. The
        program uses a derivative of the back-propagation algorithm, but
        also includes other (not that well tested) algorithms.

        Features include

        В·  freely choosable connections, no restrictions besides memory
           or CPU constraints

        В·  delayed links for recurrent networks

        В·  fixed values or thresholds can be specified for weights

        В·  (recurrent) back-propagation, Hebb, differential Hebb,
           simulated annealing and more

        В·  patterns can be specified with bits, floats, characters,
           numbers, and random bit patterns with Hamming distances can
           be chosen for you

        В·  user definable error functions

        В·  output results can be used without modification as input



     Semantic Networks in Python

        В·  Web site: strout.net/info/coding/python/ai/index.html


        The semnet.py module defines several simple classes for building
        and using semantic networks.  A semantic network is a way of
        representing knowledge, and it enables the program to do simple
        reasoning with very little effort on the part of the programmer.


        The following classes are defined:

        В·  Entity: This class represents a noun; it is something which
           can be related to other things, and about which you can store
           facts.
        В·  Relation: A Relation is a type of relationship which may
           exist between two entities.  One special relation, "IS_A", is
           predefined because it has special meaning (a sort of logical
           inheritance).

        В·  Fact: A Fact is an assertion that a relationship exists
           between two entities.


        With these three object types, you can very quickly define
        knowledge about a set of objects, and query them for logical
        conclusions.



     SNNS

        В·  Web site: www-ra.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/SNNS/

        В·  FTP site: ftp.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de/pub/SNNS/

        Stuttgart Neural Net Simulator (version 4.1).  An awesome neural
        net simulator. Better than any commercial simulator I've seen.
        The simulator kernel is written in C (it's fast!). It supports
        over 20 different network architectures, has 2D and 3D X-based
        graphical representations, the 2D GUI has an integrated network
        editor, and can generate a separate NN program in C. SNNS is
        very powerful, though a bit difficult to learn at first. To help
        with this it comes with example networks and tutorials for many
        of the architectures.  ENZO, a supplementary system allows you
        to evolve your networks with genetic algorithms.



     SPRLIB/ANNLIB

        В·  Web site: www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/~sprlib/


        SPRLIB (Statistical Pattern Recognition Library) was developed
        to support the easy construction and simulation of pattern
        classifiers. It consist of a library of functions (written in C)
        that can be called from your own program. Most of the well-known
        classifiers are present (k-nn, Fisher, Parzen, ....), as well as
        error estimation and dataset generation routines.


        ANNLIB (Artificial Neural Networks Library) is a neural network
        simulation library based on the data architecture laid down by
        SPRLIB. The library contains numerous functions for creating,
        training and testing feed-forward networks.  Training algorithms
        include back-propagation, pseudo-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt,
        conjugate gradient descent, BFGS.... Furthermore, it is possible
        - due to the datastructures' general applicability - to build
        Kohonen maps and other more exotic network architectures using
        the same data types.



     TOOLDIAG

        В·  Web site: www.inf.ufes.br/~thomas/home/soft.html

        В·  Alt site: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/ai-
           repository/ai/areas/neural/systems/tooldiag/0.html

        TOOLDIAG is a collection of methods for statistical pattern
        recognition. The main area of application is classification. The
        application area is limited to multidimensional continuous
        features, without any missing values. No symbolic features
        (attributes) are allowed. The program in implemented in the 'C'
        programming language and was tested in several computing
        environments.



     XNBC

        В·  Web site: www.b3e.jussieu.fr/xnbc/

        XNBC v8 is a simulation tool for the neuroscientists interested
        in simulating biological neural networks using a user friendly
        tool.

        XNBC is a software package for simulating biological neural
        networks.

        Four neuron models are available, three phenomenologic models
        (xnbc, leaky integrator and conditional burster) and an ion-
        conductance based model. Inputs to the simulated neurons can be
        provided by experimental data stored in files, allowing the
        creation of `hybrid'' networks.



  4.  Evolutionary Computing

  Evolutionary computing is actually a broad term for a vast array of
  programming techniques, including genetic algorithms, complex adaptive
  systems, evolutionary programming, etc.  The main thrust of all these
  techniques is the idea of evolution. The idea that a program can be
  written that will evolve toward a certain goal.  This goal can be
  anything from solving some engineering problem to winning a game.



  4.1.  EC class/code libraries


  These are libraries of code or classes for use in programming within
  the evolutionary computation field.  They are not meant as stand alone
  applications, but rather as tools for building your own applications.



     ANNEvolve

        В·  Web site: annevolve.sourceforge.net

        A collection of programs using evolved artificial neural
        networks to solve a series of problems. The long term goal of
        the project is to advance our level of understanding about
        simulated evolution as a means to configure and optimize
        Artificial Neural Nets (ANNs). The medium term goal is to apply
        our methods to a series of interesting problems such as sail
        boat piloting and playing the game NIM.

        A secondary goal is educational in nature. We attempt to write
        our software with ample explanation, not just for the user, but
        for the engineer/programmer/scientist who wants to understand
        the innermost detail. All of the source code is freely available
        to anyone to use without restriction.

        All of the ANNEvolve software is implemented in C and Python.



     daga

        В·  Web site: garage.cps.msu.edu/software/daga3.2/


        daga is an experimental release of a 2-level genetic algorithm
        compatible with the GALOPPS GA software. It is a meta-GA which
        dynamically evolves a population of GAs to solve a problem
        presented to the lower-level GAs. When multiple GAs (with
        different operators, parameter settings, etc.) are
        simultaneously applied to the same problem, the ones showing
        better performance have a higher probability of surviving and
        "breeding" to the next macro-generation (i.e., spawning new
        "daughter"-GAs with characteristics inherited from the parental
        GA or GAs.  In this way, we try to encourage good problem-
        solving strategies to spread to the whole population of GAs.



     dgpf

        В·  Web site: dgpf.sourceforge.net

        The Distributed Genetic Programming Framework (DGPF) is a
        scalable Java environment for heuristic, simulation-based search
        algorithms of any kind and Genetic Algorithms in special. We use
        the broad foundation of a search algorithms layer to provide a
        Genetic Programming system which is able to create Turing-
        complete code.

        It's under the LGPL license. It allows you to use heuristic
        searches like GA and randomized Hill Climbing for any problem
        space you like to with just minimal programming effort. Also,
        you may distribute all these searches over a network, using the
        client/server, the peer-to-peer, or even a client/server+ peer-
        to-peer hybrid distribution scheme. You also can construct
        heterogeneous search algorithms where GA cooperates with Hill
        Climbing without changing any code.



     Ease

        В·  Web site: www.sprave.com/Ease/Ease.html

        Ease - Evolutionary Algorithms Scripting Evironment - is an
        extension to the Tcl scripting language, providing commands to
        create, modify, and evaluate populations of individuals
        represented by real number vectors and/or bit strings.



     EO

        В·  Web site: eodev.sourceforge.net

        EO is a templates-based, ANSI-C++ compliant evolutionary
        computation library. It contains classes for any kind of
        evolutionary computation (specially genetic algorithms) you
        might come up to. It is component-based, so that if you don't
        find the class you need in it, it is very easy to subclass
        existing abstract or concrete class.



     FORTRAN GA

        В·  Web site: cuaerospace.com/carroll/ga.html


        This program is a FORTRAN version of a genetic algorithm driver.
        This code initializes a random sample of individuals with
        different parameters to be optimized using the genetic algorithm
        approach, i.e.  evolution via survival of the fittest.  The
        selection scheme used is tournament selection with a shuffling
        technique for choosing random pairs for mating.  The routine
        includes binary coding for the individuals, jump mutation, creep
        mutation, and the option for single-point or uniform crossover.
        Niching (sharing) and an option for the number of children per
        pair of parents has been added.  More recently, an option for
        the use of a micro-GA has been added.



     GAlib: Matthew's Genetic Algorithms Library

        В·  Web Site: lancet.mit.edu/ga/

        В·  Download: lancet.mit.edu/ga/dist/

        В·  Register GAlib at: lancet.mit.edu/ga/Register.html


        GAlib contains a set of C++ genetic algorithm objects.  The
        library includes tools for using genetic algorithms to do
        optimization in any C++ program using any representation and
        genetic operators.  The documentation includes an extensive
        overview of how to implement a genetic algorithm as well as
        examples illustrating customizations to the GAlib classes.



     GALOPPS

        В·  Web site:

        В·  FTP site:


        GALOPPS is a flexible, generic GA, in 'C'.  It was based upon
        Goldberg's Simple Genetic Algorithm (SGA) architecture, in order
        to make it easier for users to learn to use and extend.


        GALOPPS extends the SGA capabilities several fold:

        В·  (optional) A new Graphical User Interface, based on TCL/TK,
           for Unix users, allowing easy running of GALOPPS 3.2 (single
           or multiple subpopulations) on one or more processors.  GUI
           writes/reads "standard" GALOPPS input and master files, and
           displays graphical output (during or after run) of user-
           selected variables.

        В·  5 selection methods: roulette wheel, stochastic remainder
           sampling, tournament selection, stochastic universal
           sampling, linear-ranking-then-SUS.

        В·  Random or superuniform initialization of "ordinary" (non-
           permutation) binary or non-binary chromosomes; random
           initialization of permutation-based chromosomes; or user-
           supplied initialization of arbitrary types of chromosomes.

        В·  Binary or non-binary alphabetic fields on value-based
           chromosomes, including different user-definable field sizes.

        В·  3 crossovers for value-based representations: 1-pt, 2-pt, and
           uniform, all of which operate at field boundaries if a non-
           binary alphabet is used.

        В·  4 crossovers for order-based reps: PMX, order-based, uniform
           order-based, and cycle.

        В·  4 mutations: fast bitwise, multiple-field, swap and random
           sublist scramble.

        В·  Fitness scaling: linear scaling, Boltzmann scaling, sigma
           truncation, window scaling, ranking.

        В·  Plus a whole lot more....



     GAS

        В·  Web site: starship.skyport.net/crew/gandalf


        GAS means "Genetic Algorithms Stuff".

        GAS is freeware.

        Purpose of GAS is to explore and exploit artificial evolutions.
        Primary implementation language of GAS is Python.  The GAS
        software package is meant to be a Python framework for applying
        genetic algorithms. It contains an example application where it
        is tried to breed Python program strings.  This special problem
        falls into the category of Genetic Programming (GP), and/or
        Automatic Programming.  Nevertheless, GAS tries to be useful for
        other applications of Genetic Algorithms as well.



     GAUL

        В·  Web site: gaul.sourceforge.net

        В·  SF project site: sourceforge.net/projects/gaul/

        The Genetic Algorithm Utility Library (GAUL) is a flexible
        programming library designed to aid development of applications
        that require the use of genetic algorithms.  Features include:

        В·  Darwinian, Lamarckian or Baldwinian evolutionary schemes.

        В·  Both steady-state and generation-based GAs included.

        В·  The island model of evolution is available.

        В·  Chromosome datatype agnostic. A selection of common
           chromosome types are built-in.

        В·  Allows user-defined crossover, mutation, selection,
           adaptation and replacement operators.

        В·  Support for multiple, simultaneously evolved,populations.

        В·  Choice of high-level or low-level interface functions.

        В·  Additional, non-GA, optimisation algorithms are built-in for
           local optimisation or comparative purposes.

        В·  Trivial to extend using external code via the built-in code
           hooks.

        В·  May be driven by, or extended by, powerful S-Lang scripts.

        В·  Support for multiprocessor calculations.

        В·  Written using highly portable C code.



     GECO

        В·  FTP site: common-lisp.net/project/geco/


        GECO (Genetic Evolution through Combination of Objects), an
        extendible object-oriented tool-box for constructing genetic
        algorithms (in Lisp).  It provides a set of extensible classes
        and methods designed for generality. Some simple examples are
        also provided to illustrate the intended use.



     Genetic

        В·  Web site: ???

        В·  You can get it from the debian repository:
           packages.qa.debian.org/g/genetic.html

        This is a package for genetic algorythms and AI in Python.

        Genetic can typically solve ANY problem that consists to
        minimize a function.

        It also includes several demos / examples, like the TSP
        (traveling saleman problem).



     GPdata

        В·  FTP site: ftp.cs.bham.ac.uk/pub/authors/W.B.Langdon/gp-code/

        В·  Documentation (GPdata-icga-95.ps):
           cs.ucl.ac.uk/genetic/papers/
        GPdata-3.0.tar.gz (C++) contains a version of Andy Singleton's
        GP-Quick version 2.1 which has been extensively altered to
        support:

        В·  Indexed memory operation (cf. teller)

        В·  multi tree programs

        В·  Adfs

        В·  parameter changes without recompilation

        В·  populations partitioned into demes

        В·  (A version of) pareto fitness

        This ftp site also contains a small C++ program (ntrees.cc) to
        calculate the number of different there are of a given length
        and given function and terminal set.



     gpjpp Genetic Programming in Java

        В·  The code can be found in the tarball linked from "GP and
           Othello Java code and READMEs" on this page:
           http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/~evs/ml/hw4.html

        gpjpp is a Java package I wrote for doing research in genetic
        programming. It is a port of the gpc++ kernel written by Adam
        Fraser and Thomas Weinbrenner. Included in the package are four
        of Koza's standard examples: the artificial ant, the hopping
        lawnmower, symbolic regression, and the boolean multiplexer.
        Here is a partial list of its features:

        В·  graphic output of expression trees

        В·  efficient diversity checking

        В·  Koza's greedy over-selection option for large populations

        В·  extensible GPRun class that encapsulates most details of a
           genetic programming test

        В·  more robust and efficient streaming code, with automatic
           checkpoint and restart built into the GPRun class

        В·  an explicit complexity limit that can be set on each GP

        В·  additional configuration variables to allow more testing
           without recompilation

        В·  support for automatically defined functions (ADFs)

        В·  tournament and fitness proportionate selection

        В·  demetic grouping

        В·  optional steady state population

        В·  subtree crossover

        В·  swap and shrink mutation



     jaga

        В·  Web site: cs.felk.cvut.cz/~koutnij/studium/jaga/jaga.html

        Simple genetic algorithm package written in Java.



     JGAP

        В·  Web site:

        JGAP (pronounced "jay-gap") is a Genetic Algorithms and Genetic
        Programming component provided as a Java framework. It provides
        basic genetic mechanisms that can be easily used to apply
        evolutionary principles to problem solutions.

        JGAP was designed to be very easy to use "out of the box", while
        also designed to be highly modular so that more adventurous
        users can easily plug-in custom genetic operators and other sub-
        components.



     lil-gp

        В·  Web site:

        В·  FTP site:


     patched lil-gp *

        В·  Web site:

        lil-gp is a generic 'C' genetic programming tool. It was written
        with a number of goals in mind: speed, ease of use and support
        for a number of options including:

        В·  Generic 'C' program that runs on UNIX workstations

        В·  Support for multiple population experiments, using arbitrary
           and user settable topologies for exchange, for a single
           processor (i.e., you can do multiple population gp
           experiments on your PC).

        В·  lil-gp manipulates trees of function pointers which are
           allocated in single, large memory blocks for speed and to
           avoid swapping.

        * The patched lil-gp kernel is strongly-typed, with modifica-
        tions on multithreading, coevolution, and other tweaks and fea-
        tures.



     Lithos

        В·  Web site: www.esatclear.ie/~rwallace/lithos.html

        Lithos is a stack based evolutionary computation system. Unlike
        most EC systems, its representation language is computationally
        complete, while also being faster and more compact than the S-
        expressions used in genetic programming. The version presented
        here applies the system to the game of Go, but can be changed to
        other problems by simply plugging in a different evaluation
        function. ANSI C source code is provided.



     Open BEAGLE

        В·  Web site: beagle.gel.ulaval.ca

        Open BEAGLE is a C++ evolutionary computation framework. It
        provides a high-level software environment to do any kind of
        evolutionary computation, with support for tree-based genetic
        programming, bit string and real-valued genetic algorithms,
        evolution strategy, co-evolution, and evolutionary multi-
        objective optimization.



     PGAPack
        Parallel Genetic Algorithm Library

        В·  Web site: www-
           fp.mcs.anl.gov/CCST/research/reports_pre1998/comp_bio/stalk/pgapack.html

        В·  FTP site: ftp.mcs.anl.gov/pub/pgapack/

        PGAPack is a general-purpose, data-structure-neutral, parallel
        genetic algorithm library. It is intended to provide most
        capabilities desired in a genetic algorithm library, in an
        integrated, seamless, and portable manner. Key features are in
        PGAPack V1.0 include:

        В·  Callable from Fortran or C.

        В·  Runs on uniprocessors, parallel computers, and workstation
           networks.

        В·  Binary-, integer-, real-, and character-valued native data
           types.

        В·  Full extensibility to support custom operators and new data
           types.

        В·  Easy-to-use interface for novice and application users.

        В·  Multiple levels of access for expert users.

        В·  Parameterized population replacement.

        В·  Multiple crossover, mutation, and selection operators.

        В·  Easy integration of hill-climbing heuristics.

        В·  Extensive debugging facilities.

        В·  Large set of example problems.

        В·  Detailed users guide.



     PIPE

        В·  FTP site: ftp.idsia.ch/pub/rafal

        Probabilistic Incremental Program Evolution (PIPE) is a novel
        technique for automatic program synthesis. The software is
        written in C.  It ...


        В·  is easy to install (comes with an automatic installation
           tool).

        В·  is easy to use: setting up PIPE_V1.0 for different problems
           requires a minimal amount of programming. User-written,
           application-independent program parts can easily be reused.

        В·  is efficient: PIPE_V1.0 has been tuned to speed up
           performance.

        В·  is portable: comes with source code (optimized for SunOS
           5.5.1).

        В·  is extensively documented(!) and contains three example
           applications.

        В·  supports statistical evaluations: it facilitates running
           multiple experiments and collecting results in output files.

        В·  includes testing tool for testing generalization of evolved
           programs.

        В·  supports floating point and integer arithmetic.

        В·  has extensive output features.

        В·  For lil-gp users: Problems  set up for lil-gp 1.0 can be
           easily ported to PIPE_v1.0. The testing tool can also be used
           to process programs evolved by lil-gp 1.0.



     pygene

        В·  Web site: www.freenet.org.nz/python/pygene/

        pygene is a simple and easily understandable library for genetic
        algorithms and genetic programming in python. Includes examples
        such as the travelling salesman problem.



     pygp

        В·  Web site: pygp.sourceforge.net/

        Your basic genetic algorithm package for python.



     tinygp

        В·  Web site:

        Small genetic programming library in C++ and ActionScript 3
        (Javascript engine embedded in Flash) with flash demos.

        This GP library uses the standard Koza expression tree program
        representation. It uses the 'grow' algorithm to generate random
        expressions. Mutation is performed by selecting a random
        subexpression in an expression tree, and replacing it with a new
        random expression (which satisfies the maximum tree depth
        constraint). Crossover (mating) between two expressions is
        performed by selecting a random subexpression in each parent,
        then exchanging them (although it only makes on child, not two).

        In addition to the core code for creating, mutating, mating and
        evaluating expressions, the library includes a steady-state
        genetic algorithm with tournament selection, and a worst-out,
        elitist replacement policy (i.e. when a new child is created, it
        replaces the worse member of the population, only if it is
        better).



  4.2.  EC software kits/applications


  These are various applications, software kits, etc. meant for research
  in the field of evolutionary computing. Their ease of use will vary,
  as they were designed to meet some particular research interest more
  than as an easy to use commercial package.



     ADATE

        В·  Web site: www-ia.hiof.no/~rolando/adate_intro.html

        ADATE (Automatic Design of Algorithms Through Evolution) is a
        system for automatic programming i.e., inductive inference of
        algorithms, which may be the best way to develop artificial and
        general intelligence.


        The ADATE system can automatically generate non-trivial and
        novel algorithms. Algorithms are generated through large scale
        combinatorial search that employs sophisticated program
        transformations and heuristics. The ADATE system is particularly
        good at synthesizing symbolic, functional programs and has
        several unique qualities.



     esep & xesep

        В·  Web site(esep): www.iit.edu/~elrad/esep.html

        В·  Web site(xesep): www.iit.edu/~elrad/xesep.html


        This is a new scheduler, called Evolution Scheduler, based on
        Genetic Algorithms and Evolutionary Programming. It lives with
        original Linux priority scheduler.This means you don't have to
        reboot to change the scheduling policy. You may simply use the
        manager program esep to switch between them at any time, and
        esep itself is an all-in-one for scheduling status, commands,
        and administration. We didn't intend to remove the original
        priority scheduler; instead, at least, esep provides you with
        another choice to use a more intelligent scheduler, which
        carries out natural competition in an easy and effective way.


        Xesep is a graphical user interface to the esep (Evolution
        Scheduling and Evolving Processes). It's intended to show users
        how to start, play, and feel the Evolution Scheduling and
        Evolving Processes, including sub-programs to display system
        status, evolving process status, queue status, and evolution
        scheduling status periodically in as small as one mini-second.



     Corewars

        В·  Web site: corewars.sourceforge.net/

        В·  SourceForge site: sourceforge.net/projects/corewars/

        Corewars is a game which simulates a virtual machine with a
        number of programs. Each program tries to crash the others. The
        program that lasts the longest time wins. A number of sample
        programs are provided and new programs can be written by the
        player. Screenshots are available at the Corewars homepage.



     Grany-3

        В·  Web site: zarb.org/~gc/html/grany.html

        Grany-3 is a full-featured cellular automaton simulator, made in
        C++ with Gtk--, flex++/bison++, doxygen and gettext, useful to
        granular media physicists.



     JCASim

        В·  Web site: www.jweimar.de/jcasim/

        JCASim is a general-purpose system for simulating cellular
        automata in Java. It includes a stand-alone application and an
        applet for web presentations. The cellular automata can be
        specified in Java, in CDL, or using an interactive dialogue. The
        system supports many different lattice geometries (1-D, 2-D
        square, hexagonal, triangular, 3-D), neighborhoods, boundary
        conditions, and can display the cells using colors, text, or
        icons.



     JGProg

        В·  Web site: jgprog.sourceforge.net

        Genetic Programming (JGProg) is an open-source Java
        implementation of a strongly-typed Genetic Programming
        experimentation platform. Two example "worlds" are provided, in
        which a population evolves and solves the problem.



  5.  Alife & Complex Systems



  Alife takes yet another approach to exploring the mysteries of
  intelligence.  It has many aspects similar to EC and Connectionism,
  but takes these ideas and gives them a meta-level twist. Alife
  emphasizes the development of intelligence through emergent behavior
  of complex adaptive systems.  Alife stresses the social or group based
  aspects of intelligence. It seeks to understand life and survival. By
  studying the behaviors of groups of 'beings' Alife seeks to discover
  the way intelligence or higher order activity emerges from seemingly
  simple individuals. Cellular Automata and Conway's Game of Life are
  probably the most commonly known applications of this field. Complex
  Systems (abbreviated CS) are very similar to alife in the way the are
  approached, just more general in definition (ie.  alife is a type of
  complex system).  Usually complex system software takes the form of a
  simulator.



  5.1.  Alife & CS class/code libraries



  These are libraries of code or classes for use in programming within
  the artificial life field.  They are not meant as stand alone
  applications, but rather as tools for building your own applications.



     AgentFarms

        В·  Web site: www.agentfarms.net

        Agent Farms is a system for modelling and simulation of complex,
        multi-agent based systems. The system can be used for:

        В·  Creating models of multi-agent systems

        В·  Interactive and distributed simulation

        В·  Observation and visualisation of the simulation

        В·  Population modification and migration



     Biome

        В·  Web site: sourceforge.net/projects/biome/

        Biome is a C++ library aimed at individual-based/agent-based
        simulations. It is somewhat similar to Swarm, EcoSim or Simex
        but tries to be more efficient and less monolithic without
        compromising object- oriented design. Currently there is an
        event based scheduling system, a C++ified Mersenne-Twister RNG,
        several general analysis classes, some Qt-based GUI classes, a
        very basic persistence/database framework (used also for
        parameter storage) and many other small useful things.



     CAGE

        В·  Web site: www.alcyone.com/software/cage/

        CAGE is a fairy generic and complete cellular automaton
        simulation engine in Python. It supports both 1D and 2D
        automata, a variety of prepackaged rules, and the concept of
        "agents" which can move about independently on the map for
        implementing agent behavior.



     Cellular

        В·  Web site:

        The Cellular automata programming system consists of a compiler
        for the Cellang cellular automata programming language, along
        with the corresponding documentation, viewer, and various tools.
        Postscript versions of the tutorial and language reference
        manual are available for those wanting more detailed
        information. The most important distinguishing features of
        Cellang, include support for:


        В·  any number of dimensions;

        В·  compile time specification of each dimensions size; cell
           neighborhoods of any size (though bounded at compile time)
           and shape;

        В·  positional and time dependent neighborhoods;

        В·  associating multiple values (fields), including arrays, with
           each cell;

        В·  associating a potentially unbounded number of mobile agents [
           Agents are mobile entities based on a mechanism of the same
           name in the Creatures system, developed by Ian Stephenson
           (ian@ohm.york.ac.uk).] with each cell; and

        В·  local interactions only, since it is impossible to construct
           automata that contain any global control or references to
           global variables.



     Integrating Modelling Toolkit

        В·  Web site: sourceforge.net/projects/imt/

        The Integrating Modelling Toolkit (IMT) is a generic,
        comprehensive, and extensible set of abstractions allowing
        definition and use of interoperable model components.  Modellers
        create an IMT "world" made of IMT "agents" that will perform
        each a particular phase of a modelling task.  The core set of
        IMT agents can describe generic, modular, distributed model
        components, either native to the IMT or integrating existing
        simulation toolkits, specialized for tasks that range from
        simple calculation of functions in an interpreted language to
        spatially explicit simulation, model optimization, GIS analysis,
        visualization and advanced statistical analysis.  IMT agents are
        designed to easily "glue" together in higher-level simulations
        integrating different modelling paradigms and toolkits.  The IMT
        can be easily extended by users and developers through a
        convenient plug-in mechanism



     Jet's Neural Architecture


        В·  Web site: www.voltar-confed.org/jneural/

        Jet's Neural Architecture is a C++ framework for doing neural
        net projects. The goals of this project were to make a fast,
        flexible neural architecture that isn't stuck to one kind of net
        and to make sure that end users could easily write useful
        applications. All the documentation is also easily readable.



     MAML

        В·  Web site: www.maml.hu

        The current version of MAML is basically an extension to
        Objective-C (using the Swarm libraries). It consists of a couple
        of remaining must be filled with pure swarm-code. A MAML-to-
        Swarm (named xmc) compiler is also being developed which
        compiles the source code into a swarm application.



     MASON

        В·  Web site: cs.gmu.edu/~eclab/projects/mason/

        MASON Stands for Multi-Agent Simulator Of Neighborhoods... or
        Networks... or something...

        MASON is a fast discrete-event multi-agent simulation library
        core in Java, designed to be the foundation for large custom-
        purpose Java simulations, and also to provide more than enough
        functionality for many lightweight simulation needs. MASON
        contains both a model library and an optional suite of
        visualization tools in 2D and 3D.



     SimWorld

        В·  Web site: www.nd.edu/~airolab/simworld/

        В·  New Web site?:

        SimWorld is a free artificial life simulation (based on the free
        ``'' toolkit developed by Aaron Sloman), which provides
        functionality for running different interacting agents and
        objects in a simulated, continuous environment.  The agents are
        controlled by rules written in the powerful rule interpreter.
        New behaviors of agents can be defined without any programming
        knowledge.



     Swarm

        В·  Web site: www.swarm.org/wiki/Swarm_main_page

        В·  FTP site: ftp.swarm.org/pub/swarm/


        The swarm Alife simulation kit. Swarm is a simulation
        environment which facilitates development and experimentation
        with simulations involving a large number of agents behaving and
        interacting within a dynamic environment.  It consists of a
        collection of classes and libraries written in Objective-C and
        allows great flexibility in creating simulations and analyzing
        their results.  It comes with three demos and good
        documentation.



  5.2.  Alife & CS software kits, applications, etc.


  These are various applications, software kits, etc. meant for research
  in the field of artificial life. Their ease of use will vary, as they
  were designed to meet some particular research interest more than as
  an easy to use commercial package.



     Achilles

        В·  Web site: achilles.sourceforge.net

        Achilles is an evolution simulation based on Larry Yaeger's
        PolyWorld.  It uses Hebbian neural networks, and an extremely
        simplified physical model that allows virtual organisms to
        interact freely in a simulated environment.



     AntWars

        В·  Web site:

        Ant Wars is a competition which pits clever programs against
        each other to do battle and compete for food in virtual worlds.
        Each contestant is a species of ant, which can visualize only
        the world immediately around him and pheromones left by fellow
        and enemy ants.  Using this information, the ant brain (a simple
        state machine) must guide the ant towards collecting food at his
        home ant hill, while fending off or attacking enemies.

        Clever use of pheromones and subtle behaviors can create large
        scale tactics such as raiding, defense, harvesting, and scouting
        when many ants cooperate.



     Avida

        В·  Web site: dllab.caltech.edu/avida/

        The computer program Avida is an auto-adaptive genetic system
        designed primarily for use as a platform in Artificial Life
        research. The Avida system is based on concepts similar to those
        employed by the Tierra program, that is to say it is a
        population of self-reproducing strings with a Turing-complete
        genetic basis subjected to Poisson-random mutations. The
        population adapts to the combination of an intrinsic fitness
        landscape (self-reproduction) and an externally imposed
        (extrinsic) fitness function provided by the researcher. By
        studying this system, one can examine evolutionary adaptation,
        general traits of living systems (such as self-organization),
        and other issues pertaining to theoretical or evolutionary
        biology and dynamic systems.
     breve

        В·  Web site: www.spiderland.org/breve/

        Breve is a free software package which makes it easy to build 3D
        simulations of decentralized systems and artificial life. Users
        define the behaviors of agents in a 3D world and observe how
        they interact.  Breve includes physical simulation and collision
        detection so you can simulate realistic creatures, and an OpenGL
        display engine so you can visualize your simulated worlds.



     BugsX

        В·  FTP site:
           http://surf.de.uu.net/zooland/download/packages/bugsx/


        Display and evolve biomorphs. It is a program which draws the
        biomorphs based on parametric plots of Fourier sine and cosine
        series and let's you play with them using the genetic algorithm.



     Creatures Docking Station

        В·  Linux info: sylv.inkwell.com.ru

        This is a free version of the Creatures3 ALife game. It has
        fewer species and a small 'space-station' world, but can connect
        to other worlds over the internet and (if you have the windows
        version of the game) can connect to your C3 world. The game
        itself revolves around breeding and training the alife
        creatures, 'Norns'. Its strikes a pretty nice balance between
        fun and science, or so I'm told.

        (summary written by Steve Grand included below)

        The eponymous creatures in this computer game are called Norns,
        and the world's population of them at one stage hovered around
        the five million mark, making them more common than many
        familiar natural species. Each norn is composed of thousands of
        tiny simulated biological components, such as neurons,
        biochemicals, chemoreceptors, chemoemitters and genes.  The
        norns' genes dictate how these components are assembled to make
        complete organisms, and the creatures' behaviour then emerges
        from the interactions of those parts, rather than being
        explicitly 'programmed in'.

        The norns are capable of learning about their environment,
        either by being shown things by their owners or through learning
        by their own mistakes. They must learn for themselves how to
        find food and how to interact with the many objects in their
        environment. They can interact with their owners, using simple
        language, and also with each other.  They can form relationships
        and produce offspring, which inherit their neural and
        biochemical structure from their parents and are capable of
        open-ended evolution over time. They can fall prey to a variety
        of diseases (as well as genetic defects) and can be treated with
        appropriate medicines.



     dblife & dblifelib

        В·  FTP site: ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/science/ai/life/

        dblife: Sources for a fancy Game of Life program for X11 (and
        curses).  It is not meant to be incredibly fast (use xlife for
        that:-).  But it IS meant to allow the easy editing and viewing
        of Life objects and has some powerful features.  The related
        dblifelib package is a library of Life objects to use with the
        program.

        dblifelib: This is a library of interesting Life objects,
        including oscillators, spaceships, puffers, and other weird
        things.  The related dblife package contains a Life program
        which can read the objects in the Library.



     Drone

        В·  Web site: www.cscs.umich.edu/Software/Drone/

        Drone is a tool for automatically running batch jobs of a
        simulation program. It allows sweeps over arbitrary sets of
        parameters, as well as multiple runs for each parameter set,
        with a separate random seed for each run. The runs may be
        executed either on a single computer or over the Internet on a
        set of remote hosts. Drone is written in Expect (an extension to
        the Tcl scripting language) and runs under Unix. It was
        originally designed for use with the Swarm agent-based
        simulation framework, but Drone can be used with any simulation
        program that reads parameters from the command line or from an
        input file.



     EcoLab

        В·  Web site: parallel.hpc.unsw.edu.au/rks/ecolab/

        EcoLab is a system that implements an abstract ecology model. It
        is written as a set of Tcl/Tk commands so that the model
        parameters can easily be changed on the fly by means of editing
        a script. The model itself is written in C++.



     Framsticks

        В·  Web site:

        Framsticks is a three-dimensional life simulation project. Both
        mechanical structures ("bodies") and control systems ("brains")
        of creatures are modeled. It is possible to design various kinds
        of experiments, including simple optimization (by evolutionary
        algorithms), co-evolution, open-ended and spontaneous evolution,
        distinct gene pools and populations, diverse genotype/phenotype
        mappings, and species/ecosystems modeling.



     Fluidiom

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Web site:

        Evolutionary based alife platform. Has a game like feel which
        makes it fun while still allowing for some interesting
        experimentation.

        It takes a minimalist approach to spatial structure to make a
        body, adds articulation in the form of muscles, and then lets
        evolution take over to see if these bodies can learn to walk,
        run, crawl, or slither from one place to the other.



     Game Of Life (GOL)

        В·  FTP site: ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/science/ai/life/

        GOL is a simulator for conway's game of life (a simple cellular
        automata), and other simple rule sets. The emphasis here is on
        speed and scale, in other words you can setup large and fast
        simulations.



     gant

        В·  Web site: gant.sourceforge.net

        This project is an ANSI C++ implementation of the Generalized
        Langton Ant, which lives on a torus.



     gLife

        В·  Web site: glife.sourceforge.net

        В·  SourceForge site: sourceforge.net/projects/glife/

        This program is similiar to "Conway's Game of Life" but yet it
        is very different. It takes "Conway's Game of Life" and applies
        it to a society (human society). This means there is a very
        different (and much larger) rule set than in the original game.
        Things need to be taken into account such as the terrain, age,
        sex, culture, movement, etc



     Golly

        В·  Web site: golly.sourceforge.net

        An open source, cross-platform implementation of John Conway's
        Game of Life with an unbounded universe and capable of running
        patterns faster and further than ever before. It has many
        features such as;


        В·  Reads RLE, Life 1.05/1.06, and macrocell formats.

        В·  Supports Wolfram's 1D rules.

        В·  Can paste in patterns from the clipboard.

        В·  Scriptable via Python.



     Langton's Ant

        В·  Web site: www.theory.org/software/ant/

        Langton's Ant is an example of a finite-state cellular automata.
        The ant (or ants) start out on a grid. Each cell is either black
        or white.  If the ant is on a black square, it turns right 90
        and moves forward one unit. If the ant is on a white square, it
        turns left 90 and moves forward one unit.  And when the ant
        leaves a square, it inverts the color. The neat thing about
        Langton's Ant is that no matter what pattern field you start it
        out on, it eventually builds a "road," which is a series of 117
        steps that repeat indefinitely, each time leaving the ant
        displaced one pixel vertically and horizontally.



     LEE

        В·  Web site: www.informatics.indiana.edu/fil/LEE/


        LEE (Latent Energy Environments) is both an Alife model and a
        software tool to be used for simulations within the framework of
        that model. We hope that LEE will help understand a broad range
        of issues in theoretical, behavioral, and evolutionary biology.
        The LEE tool described here consists of approximately 7,000
        lines of C code and runs in both Unix and Macintosh platforms.



     MATREM

        В·  Web site: www.phys.uu.nl/~romans/

        Matrem is a computer program that simulates life. It belongs to
        the emerging science of "artificial life", which studies
        evolution and complex systems in general by simulation. Matrem
        is also a game, where players compete to create the fittest life
        form. Their efforts are the driving force behind the program.



     Nanopond

        В·  Web site:

        Nanopond is a "corewar style" evolvable instruction set based
        virtual machine written in C. It is similar in design to Tierra
        and Avida but considerably smaller and simpler. Version 1.0
        weights in at only 840 lines of C code, the majority of which
        are comments! It is very highly optimized and supports simple
        color visualization using the SDL (Simple Directmedia Layer)
        library.

        More information can be learned by reading the Nanopond source
        code, which is very well commented.



     Noble Ape

        В·  Web site: www.nobleape.com/sim/

        The Noble Ape Simulation has been developed (as the Nervana
        Simulation) since 1996. The aim of the simulation is to create a
        detailed biological environment and a cognitive simulation. The
        Simulation is intended as a palette for open source development.
        It provides a stable means of simulating large scale
        environments and cognitive processes.

        It features a number of autonomous simulation components
        including a landscape simulation, biological simulation, weather
        simulation, sentient creature (Noble Ape) simulation and a
        simple intelligent-agent scripting language (ApeScript).

        The code is currently (2007) used by Apple Inc and by INTEL for
        processor optimization and performance tuning. Apple includes it
        with their CHUD performance and debugging developer tool set.


     Polyworld

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Web site:

        PolyWorld is a computational ecology that I developed to explore
        issues in Artificial Life. Simulated organisms reproduce
        sexually, fight and kill and eat each other, eat the food that
        grows throughout the world, and either develop successful
        strategies for survival or die. An organism's entire behavioral
        suite (move, turn, attack, eat, mate, light) is controlled by
        its neural network "brain". Each brain's architecture--it's
        neural wiring diagram--is determined from its genetic code, in
        terms of number, size, and composition of neural clusters
        (excitatory and inhibitory neurons) and the types of connections
        between those clusters (connection density and topological
        mapping). Synaptic efficacy is modulated via Hebbian learning,
        so, in principle, the organisms have the ability to learn during
        the course of their lifetimes. The organisms perceive their
        world through a sense of vision, provided by a computer graphic
        rendering of the world from each organism's point of view. The
        organisms' physiologies are also encoded genetically, so both
        brain and body, and thus all components of behavior, evolve over
        multiple generations. A variety of "species", with varying
        individual and group survival strategies have emerged in various
        simulations, displaying such complex ethological behaviors as
        swarming/flocking, foraging, and attack avoidance.



     POSES++

        В·  Web site:

        The POSES++ software tool supports the development and
        simulation of models.  Regarding the simulation technique models
        are suitable reproductions of real or planned systems for their
        simulative investigation.


        In all industrial sectors or branches POSES++ can model and
        simulate any arbitrary system which is based on a discrete and
        discontinuous behaviour. Also continuous systems can mostly be
        handled like discrete systems e.g., by quantity discretion and
        batch processing.



     Tierra

        В·  Web site:


        Tierra's written in the C programming language. This source code
        creates a virtual computer and its operating system, whose
        architecture has been designed in such a way that the executable
        machine codes are evolve-able. This means that the machine code
        can be mutated (by flipping bits at random) or recombined (by
        swapping segments of code between algorithms), and the resulting
        code remains functional enough of the time for natural (or
        presumably artificial) selection to be able to improve the code
        over time.



     Trend

        В·  Web site: www.complex.iastate.edu/download/Trend/

        Trend is a general purpose cellular automata simulation
        environment with an integrated high level language compiler, a
        beautiful graphical user interface, and a fast, three stage
        cached simulation engine. This is the simulation system that was
        used to discover the first emergent self-replicating cellular
        automata rule set, and the first problem solving self-
        replication loop.

        Since its simulator is very flexible with regard to cellular
        space sizes, cell structures, neighborhood structures and
        cellular automata rules, Trend can simulate almost all one or
        two-dimensional cellular automata models. It also has a smart
        backtracking feature which simplifies rule set development a lot
        by allowing users to go back to a previous stage of simulation!
        With other advanced features, Trend is probably the most easy to
        use 2-dimensional cellular automata simulator.

        Also available is jTrend. A Java version of Trend.



     XLIFE

        В·  FTP site: surf.de.uu.net/zooland/download/packages/xlife/


        This program will evolve patterns for John Horton Conway's game
        of Life.  It will also handle general cellular automata with the
        orthogonal neighborhood and up to 8 states (it's possible to
        recompile for more states, but very expensive in memory).
        Transition rules and sample patterns are provided for the
        8-state automaton of E. F. Codd, the Wireworld automaton, and a
        whole class of `Prisoner's Dilemma' games.



     Xtoys

        В·  Web site: thy.phy.bnl.gov/www/xtoys/xtoys.html

        xtoys contains a set of cellular automata simulators for X
        windows.  Programs included are:

        В·  xising --- a two dimensional Ising model simulator,

        В·  xpotts --- the two dimensional Potts model,

        В·  xautomalab ---  a totalistic cellular automaton simulator,

        В·  xsand --- for the Bak, Tang, Wiesenfeld sandpile model,

        В·  xwaves --- demonstrates three different wave equations,

        В·  schrodinger --- play with the Scrodinger equation in an
           adjustable potential.



  6.  Agents & Robotics



  Software brains for computers that do stuff. Everythin from fun and
  games to data mining to physical robotics. This is a great hobbiest
  area of AI with many areas of interest to pursue. I've broken it down
  loosely into 2 sections. AI for purely software based agents and that
  for embodied agents (even if only simulated).



  6.1.  Software Agents


  Also known as intelligent software agents or just agents, this area of
  AI research deals with simple applications of small programs that aid
  the user in his/her work. They can be mobile (able to stop their
  execution on one machine and resume it on another) or static (live in
  one machine). They are usually specific to the task (and therefore
  fairly simple) and meant to help the user much as an assistant would.



     3APL

        В·  Web site: www.cs.uu.nl/3apl/

        В·  Wikipedia entry: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3APL

        В·  Mobile version: www.cs.uu.nl/3apl-m/

        3APL is a programming language for implementing cognitive
        agents. It provides programming constructs for implementing
        agents' beliefs, goals, basic capabilities (such as belief
        updates, external actions, or communication actions) and a set
        of practical reasoning rules through which agents' goals can be
        updated or revised. The 3APL programs are executed on the 3APL
        platform. Each 3APL program is executed by means of an
        interpreter that deliberates on the cognitive attitudes of that
        agent.



     Agent

        В·  FTP site: www.cpan.org/modules/by-
           category/23_Miscellaneous_Modules/Agent/


        The Agent is a prototype for an Information Agent system. It is
        both platform and language independent, as it stores contained
        information in simple packed strings. It can be packed and
        shipped across any network with any format, as it freezes itself
        in its current state.



     agentTool

        В·  Web site: macr.cis.ksu.edu/projects/agentTool/agentool.htm

        В·  Download site:
           macr.cis.ksu.edu/projects/agentTool/registration.htm

        Another Java based agent development framework. Fairly unique in
        that it emphasizes the use of a GUI for designing the system
        which will "semi-automatically synthesize multiagent systems to
        meet those requirements". You need a java enabled browser to
        download. :P



     Aglets Workbench

        В·  Web site: www.trl.ibm.com/aglets/index_e.htm

        An aglet is a Java object that can move from one host on the
        Internet to another.  That is, an aglet that executes on one
        host can suddenly halt execution, dispatch to a remote host, and
        resume execution there. When the aglet moves, it takes along its
        program code as well as its state (data). A built-in security
        mechanism makes it safe for a computer to host untrusted aglets.
        The Java Aglet API (J-AAPI) is a proposed public standard for
        interfacing aglets and their environment. J-AAPI contains
        methods for initializing an aglet, message handling, and
        dispatching, retracting, deactivating/activating, cloning, and
        disposing of the aglet. J-AAPI is simple, flexible, and stable.
        Application developers can write platform-independent aglets and
        expect them to run on any host that supports J-AAPI.



     AJA

        В·  Web site: home.arcor.de/michal.badonsky/AJA/

        AJA (Adaptable Java Agents) consists of two programming
        languages.  HADL (Higher Agent Definition Language) is a higher-
        level language used for the description of the main agent parts.
        Java+ is the lower-level language used for the programming of
        the agent parts defined in HADL.  It is actually Java enriched
        with the constructs for accessing higher-level agent parts
        defined in HADL.



     A.L.I.C.E.

        В·  Web site: www.alicebot.org

        The ALICE software implements AIML (Artificial Intelligence
        Markup Language), a non-standard evolving markup language for
        creating chat robots. The primary design feature of AIML is
        minimalism. Compared with other chat robot languages, AIML is
        perhaps the simplest. The pattern matching language is very
        simple, for example permitting only one wild-card ('*') match
        character per pattern. AIML is an XML language, implying that it
        obeys certain grammatical meta-rules. The choice of XML syntax
        permits integration with other tools such as XML editors.
        Another motivation for XML is its familiar look and feel,
        especially to people with HTML experience.



     Ara

        В·  Web site: wwwagss.informatik.uni-
           kl.de/Projekte/Ara/index_e.html

        Ara is a platform for the portable and secure execution of
        mobile agents in heterogeneous networks. Mobile agents in this
        sense are programs with the ability to change their host machine
        during execution while preserving their internal state. This
        enables them to handle interactions locally which otherwise had
        to be performed remotely. Ara's specific aim in comparison to
        similar platforms is to provide full mobile agent functionality
        while retaining as much as possible of established programming
        models and languages.



     Bee-gent

        В·  Web site: www2.toshiba.co.jp/beegent/index.htm

        Bee-gent is a new type of development framework in that it is a
        100% pure agent system. As opposed to other systems which make
        only some use of agents, Bee-gent completely "Agentifies" the
        communication that takes place between software applications.
        The applications become agents, and all messages are carried by
        agents. Thus, Bee-gent allows developers to build flexible open
        distributed systems that make optimal use of existing
        applications.



     Bond

        В·  Web site: bond.cs.ucf.edu

        Yet another java agent system...

        Bond is a Java based distributed object system and agent
        framework. It implements a message based middleware and
        associated services like directory, persistence, monitoring and
        security. Bond allows to easily build multi agent, distributed
        applications. Another application of Bond will be a Virtual
        Laboratory supporting data annotation and metacomputing.



     Cougaar

        В·  Web site: www.cougaar.org/

        Cougaar is java-based architecture for the construction of
        large-scale distributed agent-based applications.  It is the
        product of a multi-year DARPA research project into large scale
        agent systems and includes not only the core architecture but
        also a variety of demonstration, visualization and management
        components to simplify the development of complex, distributed
        applications. [Yet another java based agent system -- ed.]



     D'Agent (was AGENT TCL)

        В·  Web site: agent.cs.dartmouth.edu/software/agent2.0/

        В·  FTP site: ftp.cs.dartmouth.edu/pub/agents/

        A transportable agent is a program that can migrate from machine
        to machine in a heterogeneous network.  The program chooses when
        and where to migrate.  It can suspend its execution at an
        arbitrary point, transport to another machine and resume
        execution on the new machine.  For example, an agent carrying a
        mail message migrates first to a router and then to the
        recipient's mailbox.  The agent can perform arbitrarily complex
        processing at each machine in order to ensure that the message
        reaches the intended recipient.



     DIET Agents

        В·  Web site: diet-agents.sourceforge.net

        DIET Agents is a lightweight, scalable and robust multi-agent
        platform in Java. It is especially suitable for rapidly
        developing P2P prototype applications and/or adaptive,
        distributed applications that use bottom-up, nature-inspired
        techniques.



     FishMarket

        В·  Web site: www.iiia.csic.es/Projects/fishmarket/

        FM - The FishMarket project conducted at the Artificial
        Intelligence Research Institute (IIIA-CSIC) attempts to
        contribute in that direction by developing FM, an agent-mediated
        electronic auction house which has been evolved into a test-bed
        for electronic auction markets. The framework, conceived and
        implemented as an extension of FM96.5 (a Java-based version of
        the Fishmarket auction house), allows to define trading
        scenarios based on fish market auctions (Dutch auctions). FM
        provides the framework wherein agent designers can perform
        controlled experimentation in such a way that a multitude of
        experimental market scenarios--that we regard as tournament
        scenarios due to the competitive nature of the domain-- of
        varying degrees of realism and complexity can be specified,
        activated, and recorded; and trading (buyer and seller)
        heterogeneous (human and software) agents compared, tuned and
        evaluated.



     Grasshopper

        В·  Web site: www.grasshopper.de/

        Another Java agent system. Full featured and actively developed.
        Commercial, but free. Historically targeted at embedded systems.



     Hive

        В·  Web site: hive.sourceforge.net

        Hive is a Java software platform for creating distributed
        applications.  Using Hive, programmers can easily create systems
        that connect and use data from all over the Internet. At its
        heart, Hive is an environment for distributed agents to live,
        communicating and moving to fulfill applications. We are trying
        to make the Internet alive.



     ICM

        В·  Web site (bad link?): www.nar.fujitsulabs.com/

        В·  SourceForge site: sourceforge.net/projects/networkagent/

        The Inter-Agent Communication Model (ICM) is a communication
        mechanism that can be used for sending messages between agents
        in an asynchronous fashion. Its intended application area is as
        a transportation mechanism for agent communication languages
        (ACLs), such as KQML and FIPA's ACL.



     Jacomma

        В·  Web site: jacomma.sourceforge.net

        В·  SourceForge site: sourceforge.net/projects/jacomma/

        Jacomma is an agent development platform/framework for
        developing distributed, mobile, and reactive information agents
        with heterogeneous communication capabilities, in Java and
        JPython.

        Jacomma provides a development framework and an execution
        environment, which sits on top of the Inter-Agent Communication
        Model infrastructure. The ICM defines a communication protocol,
        a store and forward messaging architecture, and low level
        communication infrastructure for message exchange.
        Communication is truly asynchronous, based on TCP sockets.

        ICM has an entry in this howto, or you can find it via a link
        off the site.



     Jade

        В·  Web site: sharon.cselt.it/projects/jade/

        JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework) is a software framework
        fully implemented in Java language. It simplifies the
        implementation of multi-agent systems through a middle-ware that
        claims to comply with the FIPA specifications and through a set
        of tools that supports the debugging and deployment phase. The
        agent platform can be distributed across machines (which not
        even need to share the same OS) and the configuration can be
        controlled via a remote GUI. The configuration can be even
        changed at run-time by moving agents from one machine to another
        one, as and when required.

     JAM Agent

        В·  Web site: www.marcush.net/IRS/irs_downloads.html

        JAM supports both top-down, goal-based reasoning and bottom-up
        data-driven reasoning. JAM selects goals and plans based on
        maximal priority if metalevel reasoning is not used, or user-
        developed metalevel reasoning plans if they exist. JAM's
        conceptualization of goals and goal achievement is more
        classically defined (UMPRS is more behavioral performance-based
        than truly goal-based) and makes the distinction between plans
        to achieve goals and plans that simply encode behaviors. Goal-
        types implemented include achievement (attain a specified world
        state), maintenance (re-attain a specified world state), and
        performance. Execution of multiple simultaneous goals are
        supported, with suspension and resumption capabilities for each
        goal (i.e., intention) thread. JAM plans have explicit
        precondition and runtime attributes that restrict their
        applicability, a postcondition attribute, and a plan attributes
        section for specifying plan/domain-specific plan features.
        Available plan constructs include: sequencing, iteration,
        subgoaling, atomic (i.e., non-interruptable) plan segments, n-
        branch deterministic and non-deterministic conditional
        execution, parallel execution of multiple plan segments, goal-
        based or world state-based synchronization, an explicit failure-
        handling section, and Java primitive function definition through
        building it into JAM as well as the invocation of predefined
        (i.e., legacy) class members via Java's reflection capabilities
        without having to build it into JAM.



     JASA

        В·  Web site: www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~sphelps/jasa

        В·  Alt Web site: sourceforge.net/projects/jasa/

        JASA is a high performance auction simulator suitable for
        conducting experiments in agent-based computational economics.
        It implements various auction mechanisms, trading strategies and
        experiments described in the computational economics literature,
        and as the software matures we hope that it will become a
        repository for reference implementations of commonly used
        mechanisms, strategies and learning algorithms.



     Jason

        В·  Web site: jason.sourceforge.net

        A Java-based interpreter for an extended version of AgentSpeak.
        Unlike other BDI (Beliefs-Desires-Intentions) agent tools, Jason
        implements the operational semantics of AgentSpeak, a BDI logic
        programming language extensively discussed in the literature. It
        is available as Open Source under GNU LGPL.



     JATLite

        В·  Web site: java.stanford.edu/

        JATLite is providing a set of java packages which makes easy to
        build multi-agent systems using Java. JATLite provides only
        light-weight, small set of packages so that the developers can
        handle all the packages with little efforts. For flexibility
        JATLite provides four different layers from abstract to Router
        implementation. A user can access any layer we are providing.
        Each layer has a different set of assumptions. The user can
        choose an appropriate layer according to the assumptions on the
        layer and user's application. The introduction page contains
        JATLite features and the set of assumptions for each layer.



     JATLiteBeans

        В·  Web site: waitaki.otago.ac.nz/JATLiteBean/


        В·  Improved, easier-to-use interface to JATLite features
           including KQML message parsing, receiving, and sending.


        В·  Extensible architecture for message handling and agent
           "thread of control" management


        В·  Useful functions for parsing of simple KQML message content


        В·  JATLiteBean supports automatic advertising of agent
           capabilities to facilitator agents


        В·  Automatic, optional, handling of the "forward" performative


        В·  Generic configuration file parser


        В·  KQML syntax checker



     Java(tm) Agent Template

        В·  Web site: www-cdr.stanford.edu/ABE/JavaAgent.html

        The JAT provides a fully functional template, written entirely
        in the Java language, for constructing software agents which
        communicate peer-to-peer with a community of other agents
        distributed over the Internet. Although portions of the code
        which define each agent are portable, JAT agents are not
        migratory but rather have a static existence on a single host.
        This behavior is in contrast to many other "agent" technologies.
        (However, using the Java RMI, JAT agents could dynamically
        migrate to a foreign host via an agent resident on that host).
        Currently, all agent messages use KQML as a top-level protocol
        or message wrapper. The JAT includes functionality for
        dynamically exchanging "Resources", which can include Java
        classes (e.g. new languages and interpreters, remote services,
        etc.), data files and information inlined into the KQML
        messages.



     lyntin

        В·  Web site: lyntin.sourceforge.net/

        Lyntin is an extensible Mud client and framework for the
        creation of autonomous agents, or bots, as well as mudding in
        general. Lyntin is centered around Python, a dynamic, object-
        oriented, and fun programming language and based on TinTin++ a
        lovely mud client.



     Mole

        В·  Web site: mole.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de/

        Mole is an agent system supporting mobile agents programmed in
        Java.  Mole's agents consist of a cluster of objects, which have
        no references to the outside, and as a whole work on tasks given
        by the user or another agent. They have the ability to roam a
        network of "locations" autonomously. These "locations" are an
        abstraction of real, existing nodes in the underlying network.
        They can use location-specific resources by communicating with
        dedicated agents representing these services. Agents are able to
        use services provided by other agents and to provide services as
        well.



     Narval

        В·  Web site: www.logilab.org

        Narval is the acronym of "Network Assistant Reasoning with a
        Validating Agent Language". It is a personal network assistant
        based on artificial intelligence and agent technologies. It
        executes recipes (sequences of actions) to perform tasks. It is
        easy to specify a new action using XML and to implement it using
        Python.  Recipes can be built and debugged using a graphical
        interface.



     NeL

        В·  Web site: www.nevrax.org

        NeL is actually a game development library (for massive multi-
        player games), but I'm including it here as it (will) include a
        fairly sizable AI library. Here's a blurb from the whitepaper:

        The purpose of the AI library is to provide a pragmatic approach
        to creating a distributed agents platform. Its focus is agents;
        individual entities that communicate regardless of location,
        using an action-reaction model.



     OAA

        В·  Web site: www.ai.sri.com/~oaa/

        The Open Agent Architecture is a framework in which a community
        of software agents running on distributed machines can work
        together on tasks assigned by human or non-human participants in
        the community.  Distributed cooperation and high-level
        communication are two ideas central to the foundation of the
        OAA.
        It defines an interagent communication language and supports
        multiple platforms and programming languages.



     OpenSteer

        В·  Web site: opensteer.sourceforge.net

        OpenSteer is a C++ library to help build steering behaviors for
        autonomous characters in games and animation. OpenSteer provides
        an app which displays predefined demos of steering behaviors.
        You can prototype, visualize and debug your own as a plug-in.



     OSCAR

        В·  Web site: oscarhome.soc-sci.arizona.edu/ftp/OSCAR-web-
           page/oscar.html

        The goal of the OSCAR project is the formulation of a general
        theory of rationality and its implementation in an artificial
        rational agent. The function of artificial agents is to draw
        conclusions and make decisions on the basis of information
        supplied to them. OSCAR is a fully implemented architecture for
        rational agents, based upon a general purpose defeasible
        reasoner.  OSCAR is written in Common Lisp and is free for
        educational and research purposes.



     Penguin!

        В·  FTP site: http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-
           category/23_Miscellaneous_Modules/Penguin/FSG/

        Penguin is a Perl 5 module. It provides you with a set of
        functions which allow you to:

        В·  send encrypted, digitally signed Perl code to a remote
           machine to be executed.

        В·  receive code and, depending on who signed it, execute it in
           an arbitrarily secure, limited compartment.

        The combination of these functions enable direct Perl coding of
        algorithms to handle safe internet commerce, mobile information-
        gathering agents, "live content" web browser helper apps, dis-
        tributed load-balanced computation, remote software update, dis-
        tance machine administration, content-based information propaga-
        tion, Internet-wide shared-data applications, network applica-
        tion builders, and so on.



     Ps-i

        В·  Web site: ps-i.sourceforge.net

        Ps-i is an environment for running agent-based simulations. It
        is cross-platform, with binaries available for Win32. Features
        include:



        В·  declarative language for model specification

        В·  industry standard Tcl/Tk scripting with built-in routine
           optimization, speculative evaluation and xf86 JIT compiler
           users can create complex models without sacrificing
           perfomance

        В·  user friendly interface

        В·  save and restore program runs

        В·  change model parameters on the fly

        В·  data visualization: field display with multiple agent shapes
           and color, statistics window, agent viewer, routine browser
           and highlight agents tool



     Pyro

        В·  Web site: http://pyrorobotics.org/

        Pyro is a library, environment, graphical user interface, and
        low-level drivers to explore AI and robotics using the Python
        language. It works with many real robotics platforms and
        simulators. Extensive algorithms including behavior-based,
        vision (motion tracking, blobs, etc.), learning (back-
        propagation, self-organizing maps, etc.), evolutionary, and
        more.



     Quackle

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Alt Web site:

        В·  Alt Web site:

        Quackle is a world-class crossword game artificial intelligence
        and analysis tool. It includes a move generator, simulator, and
        Qt-based user interface and can be used with any board layout,
        alphabet, lexicon, and tile distribution.



     Remembrance Agents

        В·  Web site: www.remem.org

        Remembrance Agents are a set of applications that watch over a
        user's shoulder and suggest information relevant to the current
        situation.  While query-based memory aids help with direct
        recall, remembrance agents are an augmented associative memory.
        For example, the word-processor version of the RA continuously
        updates a list of documents relevant to what's being typed or
        read in an emacs buffer.  These suggested documents can be any
        text files that might be relevant to what you are currently
        writing or reading.  They might be old emails related to the
        mail you are currently reading, or abstracts from papers and
        newspaper articles that discuss the topic of your writing.



     SimAgent

        В·  Web site:
           www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/poplog/packages/simagent.html

        The SimAgent toolkit provides a range of resources for research
        and teaching related to the development of interacting agents in
        environments of various degrees and kinds of complexity. It can
        be run as a pure simulation tool, or installed in a robot with a
        sufficiently powerful on-board computer, e.g. running linux. It
        was originally developed to support exploratory research on
        human-like intelligent agents, but has also been used for
        student projects developing a variety of interactive games and
        simulations.



     spyse

        В·  Web site: spyse.sf.net

        В·  Alt Web site: zope.org/Members/drapmeyer/spyse

        spyse is a development framework and platform for building
        multi-agent systems using the Python programming language. A
        multi-agent system (MAS) combines concepts from distributed
        computing and artificial intelligence.  Agents are autonomously
        reasoning software entities that can collaborate (or compete) in
        order to achieve a (common) goal. By cooperating they create
        emergent behaviour in the system (distributed artificial
        intelligence). The architecture of a MAS is specified in the
        FIPA standard.

        Spyse provides multiple means for reasoning (BDI logics, CLIPS
        expert shell, etc.) and communicating locally and remotely.

        Each agent has its own thread of control. Agents within and
        among instances of the platform communicate by exchanging
        messages based on ontologies. Spyse makes use of the Web
        Ontology Language (OWL) defined for the Semantic Web.



     TKQML

        В·  Web site: www.csee.umbc.edu/tkqml/

        TKQML is a KQML application/addition to Tcl/Tk, which allows Tcl
        based systems to communicate easily with a powerful agent
        communication language.



     The Tocoma Project

        В·  Web site: www.tacoma.cs.uit.no/

        An agent is a process that may migrate through a computer
        network in order to satisfy requests made by clients. Agents are
        an attractive way to describe network-wide computations.

        The TACOMA project focuses on operating system support for
        agents and how agents can be used to solve problems
        traditionally addressed by operating systems. We have
        implemented a series of prototype systems to support agents.

        TACOMA Version 1.2 is based on UNIX and TCP. The system supports
        agents written in C, Tcl/Tk, Perl, Python, and Scheme (Elk). It
        is implemented in C. This TACOMA version has been in public
        domain since April 1996.

        We are currently focusing on heterogeneity, fault-tolerance,
        security and management issues. Also, several TACOMA
        applications are under construction. We implemented StormCast
        4.0, a wide-area network weather monitoring system accessible
        over the internet, using TACOMA and Java. We are now in the
        process of evaluating this application, and plan to build a new
        StormCast version to be completed by June 1997.



     UMPRS Agent

        В·  Web site: http://www.marcush.net/IRS/

        UMPRS supports top-down, goal-based reasoning and selects goals
        and plans based on maximal priority. Execution of multiple
        simultaneous goals are supported, with suspension and resumption
        capabilities for each goal (i.e., intention) thread. UMPRS plans
        have an integrated precondition/runtime attribute that constrain
        their applicability.  Available plan constructs include:
        sequencing, iteration, subgoaling, atomic (i.e., non-
        interruptable) blocks, n-branch deterministic conditional
        execution, explicit failure-handling section, and C++ primitive
        function definition.



     Virtual Secretary Project (ViSe)
        (Tcl/Tk)

        В·  Web site: www.vise.cs.uit.no/vise/

        The motivation of the Virtual Secretary project is to construct
        user-model-based intelligent software agents, which could in
        most cases replace human for secretarial tasks, based on modern
        mobile computing and computer network. The project includes two
        different phases: the first phase (ViSe1) focuses on information
        filtering and process migration, its goal is to create a secure
        environment for software agents using the concept of user
        models; the second phase (ViSe2) concentrates on agents'
        intelligent and efficient cooperation in a distributed
        environment, its goal is to construct cooperative agents for
        achieving high intelligence. (Implemented in Tcl/TclX/Tix/Tk)



     WebMate

        В·  Web site:


        WebMate is a personal agent for World-Wide Web browsing and
        searching. It accompanies you when you travel on the internet
        and provides you what you want.

        Features include:

        В·  Searching enhancement, including parallel search, searching
           keywords refinement using our relevant keywords extraction
           technology, relevant feedback, etc.

        В·  Browsing assistant, including learning your current
           interesting, recommending you new URLs according to your
           profile and selected resources, monitoring bookmarks of
           Netscape or IE, sending the current browsing page to your
           friends, etc.

        В·  Offline browsing, including downloading the following pages
           from the current page for offline browsing.

        В·  Filtering HTTP header, including recording http header and
           all the transactions between your browser and WWW servers,
           etc.

        В·  Checking the HTML page to find the errors or dead links,
           etc.

        В·  Programming in Java, independent of operating system, runing
           in multi-thread.



     Zeus

        В·  Web site: more.btexact.com/projects/agents/zeus/

        The construction of multi-agent systems involves long
        development times and requires solutions to some considerable
        technical difficulties. This has motivated the development of
        the ZEUS toolkit, which provides a library of software
        components and tools that facilitate the rapid design,
        development and deployment of agent system



  6.2.  Robotics and Simulators


  From fun battling robot games to full robot control systems. The idea
  is physical agents in the real world, or at least their control
  programming.



     BattleBots

        В·  Web site: www.bluefire.nu/battlebots/

        AI programming game where you design the bot by selecting
        hardware and programming its CPU, then competing with other
        bots. Competitions can have teams and special rules for a game.

        The hardware for use in your bot includes weapons, engine,
        scanners, CPU, etc. The programming lauguage is dependent on the
        CPU type and is similar to an assembly language.



     Cadaver

        В·  Web site: www.erikyyy.de/cadaver/

        Cadaver is a simulated world of cyborgs and nature in realtime.
        The battlefield consists of forests, grain, water, grass,
        carcass (of course) and lots of other things. The game server
        manages the game and the rules.  You start a server and connect
        some clients.  The clients communicate with the server using a
        very primitive protocol.  They can order cyborgs to harvest
        grain, attack enemies or cut forest.  The game is not intended
        to be played by humans!  There is too much to control.  Only for
        die-hards: Just telnet to the server and you can enter commands
        by hand.  Instead the idea is that you write artificial
        intelligence clients to beat the other artificial intelligences.
        You can choose a language (and operating system) of your choice
        to do that task.  It is enough to write a program that
        communicates on standard input and standard output channels.
        Then you can use programs like "socket" to connect your clients
        to the server.  It is NOT needed to write TCP/IP code, although
        i did so :) The battle shall not be boring, and so there is the
        so called spyboss client that displays the action graphically on
        screen.



     CLARAty

        В·  Web site:

        CLARAty is an integrated framework for reusable robotic
        software. It defines interfaces for common robotic functionality
        and integrates multiple implementations of any given
        functionality. Examples of such capabilities include pose
        estimation, navigation, locomotion and planning. In addition to
        supporting multiple algorithms, it provides adaptations to
        multiple robotic platforms.

        This is a public release of the some of the code used in the
        Mars rover projects at NASA. It is under a free for non-
        commercial use licence and consists of large number of modules
        and algorithms along with extensive documentation.



     GNU Robots

        В·  Web site:

        GNU Robots is a game/diversion where you construct a program for
        a little robot, then watch him explore a world. The world is
        filled with baddies that can hurt you, objects that you can bump
        into, and food that you can eat. The goal of the game is to
        collect as many prizes as possible before are killed by a baddie
        or you run out of energy. Robots can be written in Guile scheme
        or using a GUI.



     Infon Battle Arena

        В·  Web site:

        Infon Battle Arena is a networked multiplayer real-time
        programming game featuring little creatures fighting for food.
        You upload your Creature Code (written in Lua) to a game server
        using a telnet Interface. The game server then runs your code.
        The graphical client can be used to watch running games or
        replay recorded games.


     Khepera Simulator

        В·  Web site: diwww.epfl.ch/lami/team/michel/khep-sim/

        Khepera Simulator is a public domain software package written by
        Olivier         MICHEL during the preparation of his Ph.D.
        thesis, at the Laboratoire I3S, URA 1376 of CNRS and University
        of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France.  It allows to write your own
        controller for the mobile robot Khepera using C or C++
        languages, to test them in a simulated environment and features
        a nice colorful X11 graphical interface. Moreover, if you own a
        Khepera robot, it can drive the real robot using the same
        control algorithm. It is mainly oriented toward to researchers
        studying autonomous agents.



     Nero

        В·  Web site:

        Neuro-Evolving Robotic Operatives, or NERO for short, is a
        unique computer game that lets you play with adapting
        intelligent agents hands-on. Evolve your own robot army by
        tuning their artificial brains for challenging tasks, then pit
        them against your friends' teams in online competitions!

        The goals of the project are (1) to demonstrate the power of
        state-of-the-art machine learning technology, (2) to create an
        engaging game based on it, and (3) to provide a robust and
        challenging development and benchmarking domain for AI
        researchers.

        Closed source but free to download. They are working on OpenNERO
        which will be open source and more intended as a research
        platform.


     Player

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Player wiki:

        Player is a device server that provides a powerful, flexible
        interface to a variety of sensors and actuators (e.g., robots).
        Because Player uses a TCP socket-based client/server model,
        robot control programs can be written in any programming
        language and can execute on any computer with network
        connectivity to the robot. In addition, Player supports multiple
        concurrent client connections to devices, creating new
        possibilities for distributed and collaborative sensing and
        control.



     RealTimeBattle

        В·  Web site:

        RealTimeBattle is a programming game, in which robots controlled
        by programs are fighting each other. The goal is to destroy the
        enemies, using the radar to examine the environment and the
        cannon to shoot.


        В·  Game progresses in real time, with the robot programs running
           as child processes to RealTimeBattle.

        В·  The robots communicate with the main program using the
           standard input and output.

        В·  Robots can be constructed in almost any programming language.

        В·  Maximum number of robots can compete simultaneously.

        В·  A simple messaging language is used for communication, which
           makes it easy to start constructing robots.

        В·  Robots behave like real physical object.

        В·  You can create your own arenas.

        В·  Highly configurable.



     Robocode

        В·  Web site: robocode.sourceforge.net

        A java based robot combat programming game. It provides a simple
        API and class framework. It is designed as a means of learning
        Java and is easy to start using while not constraining the
        programmer from more advanced techniques. It has a built in
        security manager for running other peoples robots in a safe way.



     Robodeb

        В·  Web site:

        Robodeb is a complete robotics simulation environment for
        teaching concurrency and parallelism. It provides a unique
        environment for exploring concurrency and robotics. It provides
        a complete IDE for the occam-pi programming language, and
        leverages the Transterpreter, our portable and flexible runtime
        for the language. This combination is critical, as it provides a
        principled interface to the Player/Stage API, a set of widely
        used libraries for controlling the Pioneer3 robotics platform.



     RobotFlow

        В·  Web site:

        RobotFlow is a mobile robotics tookit based on the FlowDesigner
        project. FlowDesigner is a data-flow oriented architecture,
        similar to Simulink (Matlab) or Labview that is free (LGPL) and
        versatile. The visual programming interface provided in the
        FlowDesigner project will help people to better visualize &
        understand what is really happening in the robot's control
        loops, sensors, actuators, by using graphical probes and
        debugging in real-time.



     RoboTournament


        В·  Web site:

        RoboTournament is a RoboRally inspired game where players
        program their robots to vanquish their opponents. RoboTournament
        features: Multiple Game Types: Death Match, Rally, and Capture
        The Flag. Multi-Player through TCP/IP, Six weapons including
        BFG, Map Editor, and a wide variety of board elements.



     Simbad

        В·  Web site:

        Simbad is a Java 3d robot simulator for scientific and
        educationnal purposes.  It is mainly dedicated to
        researchers/programmers who want a simple basis for studying
        Situated Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and more
        generally AI algorithms, in the context of Autonomous Robotics
        and  Autonomous Agents. It is not intented to provide a real
        world simulation and is kept voluntarily readable and simple.

        Simbad enables programmers to write their own robot controller,
        modify the environment and use the available sensors. Don't
        think of it as a finite product but merely as an opened
        framework to test your own ideas.



     SimRobot

        В·  Web site: www.informatik.uni-bremen.de/~simrobot/

        В·  FTP site: ftp.uni-bremen.de/pub/ZKW/INFORM/simrobot/

        SimRobot is a program for simulation of sensor based robots in a
        3D environment. It is written in C++, runs under UNIX and X11
        and needs the graphics toolkit XView.

        В·  Simulation of robot kinematics

        В·  Hierarchically built scene definition via a simple definition
           language

        В·  Various sensors built in: camera, facette eye, distance
           measurement, light sensor, etc.

        В·  Objects defined as polyeders

        В·  Emitter abstractly defined; can be interpreted e.g. as light
           or sound

        В·  Camera images computed according to the raytracing or Z-
           buffer algorithms known from computer graphics

        В·  Specific sensor/motor software interface for communicating
           with the simulation

        В·  Texture mapping onto the object surfaces: bitmaps in various
           formats

        В·  Comprehensive visualization of the scene: wire frame w/o
           hidden lines, sensor and actor values

        В·  Interactive as well as batch driven control of the agents and
           operation in the environment
        В·  Collision detection

        В·  Extendability with user defined object types

        В·  Possible socket communication to e.g. the Khoros image
           processing software



     TclRobots

        В·  Web site: www.nyx.net/~tpoindex/

        TclRobots is a programming game, similar to 'Core War'.  To play
        TclRobots, you must write a Tcl program that controls a robot.
        The robot's mission is to survive a battle with other robots.
        Two, three, or four robots compete during a battle, each running
        different programs (or possibly the same program in different
        robots.)  Each robot is equipped with a scanner, cannon, drive
        mechanism.  A single match continues until one robot is left
        running.  Robots may compete individually, or combine in a team
        oriented battle.  A tournament can be run with any number of
        robot programs, each robot playing every other in a round-robin
        fashion, one-on-one.  A battle simulator is available to help
        debug robot programs.

        The TclRobots program provides a physical environment, imposing
        certain game parameters to which all robots must adhere.
        TclRobots also provides a view on a battle, and a controlling
        user interface.  TclRobots requirements: a wish interpreter
        built from Tcl 7.4 and Tk 4.0.



     URBI

        В·  Web site:

        URBI is a Universal Real-time Behavior Interface and gives you a
        simple but powerful way to control any robot or complex system
        like a video game, using a convenient and easy to use scripting
        language that can be interfaced with several popular programming
        languages (C++, Java, Matlab,...) and OS (Windows, Mac OSX,
        Linux). URBI is based on a client/server architecture, which
        give a great deal of flexibility.  URBI includes powerful
        features compared to existing scripting solutions: parallel
        execution of commands, event programming, command tagging,
        dynamic variables,... Currently, URBI is used as well by
        academic research labs, the industry and by hobbyists.



     VWORLD

        В·  Web site: zhar.net/projects/vworld/


        Vworld is a simulated environment for research with autonomous
        agents written in prolog. It is currently in something of an
        beta stage. It works well with SWI-prolog, but should work with
        Quitnus-prolog with only a few changes.  It is being designed to
        serve as an educational tool for class projects dealing with
        prolog and autonomous agents. It comes with three demo worlds or
        environments, along with sample agents for them. There are two
        versions now. One written for SWI-prolog and one written for
        LPA-prolog. Documentation is roughly done (with a
        student/professor framework in mind).



     Yampa

        В·  Web site: http://www.haskell.org/yampa/

        FRP system with robotics library and graphical interactive
        robotics simulator.

        Functional reactive programming, or FRP, is a paradigm for
        programming hybrid systems  i.e., systems containing a
        combination of both continuous and discrete components  in a
        high-level, declarative way.  The key ideas in FRP are its
        notions of continuous, time-varying values, and time-ordered
        sequences of discrete events. Yampa is an instantiation of FRP
        as a domain-specific language embedded in Haskell.



  7.  Programming languages


  While any programming language can be used for artificial
  intelligence/life research, these are programming languages which are
  used extensively for, if not specifically made for, artificial
  intelligence programming.



     Alloy

        В·  Web site:

        The Alloy Analyzer is a tool for analyzing models written in
        Alloy, a simple structural modeling language based on first-
        order logic. The tool can generate instances of invariants,
        simulate the execution of operations (even those defined
        implicitly), and check user-specified properties of a model.
        Alloy and its analyzer have been used primarily to explore
        abstract software designs. Its use in analyzing code for
        conformance to a specification and as an automatic test case
        generator are being investigated in ongoing research projects.



     APRIL

        В·  Web site: sourceforge.net/projects/networkagent/

        APRIL is a symbolic programming language that is designed for
        writing mobile, distributed and agent-based systems especially
        in an Internet environment. It has advanced features such as a
        macro sub-language, asynchronous message sending and receiving,
        code mobility, pattern matching, higher-order functions and
        strong typing. The language is compiled to byte-code which is
        then interpreted by the APRIL runtime-engine.  APRIL now
        requires the InterAgent Communications Model (ICM) to be
        installed before it can be installed. [Ed. ICM can be found at
        the same web site]
     Ciao Prolog

        В·  Web site: www.clip.dia.fi.upm.es/Software/Ciao/

        Ciao is a complete Prolog system subsuming ISO-Prolog with a
        novel modular design which allows both restricting and extending
        the language. Ciao extensions currently include feature terms
        (records), higher-order, functions, constraints, objects,
        persistent predicates, a good base for distributed execution
        (agents), and concurrency.  Libraries also support WWW
        programming, sockets, and external interfaces (C, Java, TCL/Tk,
        relational databases, etc.). An Emacs-based environment, a
        stand-alone compiler, and a toplevel shell are also provided.



     Curry

        В·  Web site:

        Curry is a universal programming language aiming to amalgamate
        the most important declarative programming paradigms, namely
        functional programming and logic programming. Moreover, it also
        covers the most important operational principles developed in
        the area of integrated functional logic languages: "residuation"
        and "narrowing" (there is an older survey and a newer survey on
        functional logic programming).

        Curry combines in a seamless way features from functional
        programming (nested expressions, higher-order functions, lazy
        evaluation), logic programming (logical variables, partial data
        structures, built-in search), and concurrent programming
        (concurrent evaluation of expressions with synchronization on
        logical variables). Moreover, Curry provides additional features
        in comparison to the pure languages (compared to functional
        programming: search, computing with partial information;
        compared to logic programming: more efficient evaluation due to
        the deterministic and demand-driven evaluation of functions).



     DHARMI

        В·  Web site: http://megazone.bigpanda.com/~wolf/DHARMI/

        DHARMI is a high level spatial, tinker-toy like language who's
        components are transparently administered by a background
        process called the Habitat. As the name suggests, the language
        was designed to make modelling prototypes and handle living
        data. Programs can be modified while running. This is
        accomplished by blurring the distinction between source code,
        program, and data.



     ECLiPSe

        В·  Web site: eclipse.crosscoreop.com/eclipse/

        ECLiPSe is a software system for the cost-effective development
        and deployment of constraint programming applications, e.g. in
        the areas of planning, scheduling, resource allocation,
        timetabling, transport etc.  It is also ideal for teaching most
        aspects of combinatorial problem solving, e.g.  problem
        modelling, constraint programming, mathematical programming, and
        search techniques. It contains several constraint solver
        libraries, a high-level modelling and control language,
        interfaces to third-party solvers, an integrated development
        environment and interfaces for embedding into host environments.



     ECoLisp

        В·  Web site (???): www.di.unipi.it/~attardi/software.html


        ECoLisp (Embeddable Common Lisp) is an implementation of Common
        Lisp designed for being embeddable into C based applications.
        ECL uses standard C calling conventions for Lisp compiled
        functions, which allows C programs to easily call Lisp functions
        and viceversa. No foreign function interface is required: data
        can be exchanged between C and Lisp with no need for conversion.
        ECL is based on a Common Runtime Support (CRS) which provides
        basic facilities for memory managment, dynamic loading and
        dumping of binary images, support for multiple threads of
        execution. The CRS is built into a library that can be linked
        with the code of the application. ECL is modular: main modules
        are the program development tools (top level, debugger, trace,
        stepper), the compiler, and CLOS. A native implementation of
        CLOS is available in ECL: one can configure ECL with or without
        CLOS. A runtime version of ECL can be built with just the
        modules which are required by the application. The ECL compiler
        compiles from Lisp to C, and then invokes the GCC compiler to
        produce binaries.



     ESTEREL

        В·  Web site: www-sop.inria.fr/meije/esterel/

        Esterel is both a programming language, dedicated to programming
        reactive systems, and a compiler which translates Esterel
        programs into finite-state machines. It is particularly well-
        suited to programming reactive systems, including real-time
        systems and control automata.

        Only the binary is available for the language compiler. :P



     G

        В·  Web page: www.cs.bris.ac.uk/~bowers/goedel.html

        G is a declarative, general-purpose programming language in the
        family of logic programming languages.  It is a strongly typed
        language, the type system being based on many-sorted logic with
        parametric polymorphism.  It has a module system.  G supports
        infinite precision integers, infinite precision rationals, and
        also floating-point numbers.  It can solve constraints over
        finite domains of integers and also linear rational constraints.
        It supports processing of finite sets.  It also has a flexible
        computation rule and a pruning operator which generalizes the
        commit of the concurrent logic programming languages.
        Considerable emphasis is placed on G's meta- logical facilities
        which provide significant support for meta-programs that do
        analysis, transformation, compilation, verification, debugging,
        and so on.


     CLisp (Lisp)

        В·  Web page: clisp.sourceforge.net

        В·  Alt Web site: clisp.cons.org

        CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and
        Michael Stoll.  It mostly supports the Lisp described by Common
        LISP: The Language (2nd edition) and the ANSI Common Lisp
        standard.  CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a
        large subset of CLOS (Object-Oriented Lisp) , a foreign language
        interface and, for some machines, a screen editor.

        The user interface language (English, German, French) is chosen
        at run time.  Major packages that run in CLISP include CLX &
        Garnet.  CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory.



     CMU Common Lisp

        В·  Web page: www.cons.org/cmucl/

        В·  Linux Installation: www.telent.net/lisp/howto.html


        CMU Common Lisp is a public domain "industrial strength" Common
        Lisp programming environment. Many of the X3j13 changes have
        been incorporated into CMU CL. Wherever possible, this has been
        done so as to transparently allow the use of either CLtL1 or
        proposed ANSI CL. Probably the new features most interesting to
        users are SETF functions, LOOP and the WITH-COMPILATION-UNIT
        macro.



     GCL (Lisp)

        В·  FTP site: ftp.ma.utexas.edu/pub/gcl/

        GNU Common Lisp (GCL) has a compiler and interpreter for Common
        Lisp.  It used to be known as Kyoto Common Lisp.  It is very
        portable and extremely efficient on a wide class of
        applications.  It compares favorably in performance with
        commercial Lisps on several large theorem-prover and symbolic
        algebra systems. It supports the CLtL1 specification but is
        moving towards the proposed ANSI definition.  GCL compiles to C
        and then uses the native optimizing C compilers (e.g., GCC).  A
        function with a fixed number of args and one value turns into a
        C function of the same number of args, returning one value, so
        GCL is maximally efficient on such calls.  It has a conservative
        garbage collector which allows great freedom for the C compiler
        to put Lisp values in arbitrary registers.


        It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code, with
        display of source code in an Emacs window.  Its profiling tools
        (based on the C profiling tools) count function calls and the
        time spent in each function.



     GNU Prolog

        В·  Web site: gnu-prolog.inria.fr

        В·  Web site: pauillac.inria.fr/~diaz/gnu-prolog/


        GNU Prolog is a free Prolog compiler with constraint solving
        over finite domains developed by Daniel Diaz.

        GNU Prolog accepts Prolog+constraint programs and produces
        native binaries (like gcc does from a C source). The obtained
        executable is then stand-alone. The size of this executable can
        be quite small since GNU Prolog can avoid to link the code of
        most unused built-in predicates. The performances of GNU Prolog
        are very encouraging (comparable to commercial systems).

        Beside the native-code compilation, GNU Prolog offers a
        classical interactive interpreter (top-level) with a debugger.

        The Prolog part conforms to the ISO standard for Prolog with
        many extensions very useful in practice (global variables, OS
        interface, sockets,...).

        GNU Prolog also includes an efficient constraint solver over
        Finite Domains (FD). This opens contraint logic pogramming to
        the user combining the power of constraint programming to the
        declarativity of logic programming.



     IBAL

        В·  Web site: www.eecs.harvard.edu/~avi/IBAL/

        IBAL (pronounced "eyeball") is a general-purpose language for
        probabilistic modeling, parameter estimation and decision
        making. It generalizes Bayesian networks, hidden Markov models,
        stochastic context free grammars, Markov decision processes, and
        allows many new possibilities. It also provides a convenient
        programming-language framework with libraries, automatic type
        checking and so on.



     lush

        В·  Web site: lush.sourceforge.net

        Lush is an object-oriented programming language designed for
        researchers, experimenters, and engineers interested in large-
        scale numerical and graphic applications. Lush is designed to be
        used in situations where one would want to combine the
        flexibility of a high-level, weakly-typed interpreted language,
        with the efficiency of a strongly-typed, natively-compiled
        language, and with the easy integration of code written in C,
        C++, or other languages.



     Maude

        В·  Web site: maude.cs.uiuc.edu

        Maude is a high-performance reflective language and system
        supporting both equational and rewriting logic specification and
        programming for a wide range of applications. Maude has been
        influenced in important ways by the OBJ3 language, which can be
        regarded as an equational logic sublanguage. Besides supporting
        equational specification and programming, Maude also supports
        rewriting logic computation.



     Mercury

        В·  Web page:

        Mercury is a new, purely declarative logic programming language.
        Like Prolog and other existing logic programming languages, it
        is a very high-level language that allows programmers to
        concentrate on the problem rather than the low-level details
        such as memory management.  Unlike Prolog, which is oriented
        towards exploratory programming, Mercury is designed for the
        construction of large, reliable, efficient software systems by
        teams of programmers. As a consequence, programming in Mercury
        has a different flavor than programming in Prolog.



     Mozart

        В·  Web page:

        The Mozart system provides state-of-the-art support in two
        areas: open distributed computing and constraint-based
        inference. Mozart implements Oz, a concurrent object-oriented
        language with dataflow synchronization.  Oz combines concurrent
        and distributed programming with logical constraint-based
        inference, making it a unique choice for developing multi-agent
        systems. Mozart is an ideal platform for both general-purpose
        distributed applications as well as for hard problems requiring
        sophisticated optimization and inferencing abilities. We have
        developed applications in scheduling and time-tabling, in
        placement and configuration, in natural language and knowledge
        representation, multi-agent systems and sophisticated
        collaborative tools.



     SWI Prolog

        В·  Web page:

        SWI is a free version of prolog in the Edinburgh Prolog family.
        It is licensed under the LGPL with many nice features for an AI
        researcher, such as; a large library of built-in predicates, a
        module system, garbage collection, a two-way interface with the
        C/C++ language, coroutines, multi-threading, multiple constraint
        library, the XPCE graphics toolkit, plus many more.



     Push

        В·  Web site: hampshire.edu/lspector/push.html

        Push is a programming language intended primarily for use in
        evolutionary computation systems (such as genetic programming
        systems), as the language in which evolving programs are
        expressed. Push has an unusually simple syntax, which
        facilitates the development (or evolution) of mutation and
        recombination operators that generate and manipulate programs.
        Despite this simple syntax, Push provides more expressive power
        than most other program representations that are used for
        program evolution.
        Includes several libraries/systems for working with GP (all info
        on the Push page). PushGP is a genetic programming system that
        evolves programs in the Push programming language. Pushpop is an
        "autoconstructive evolution" system that also evolves Push
        programs.  SwarmEvolve 2.0 is an autoconstuctive evolution
        system in which flying agents, controlled by Push programs,
        evolve in a 3D environment.



     Kali Scheme

        В·  Web site: http://community.schemewiki.org/kali-scheme/

        Kali Scheme is a distributed implementation of Scheme that
        permits efficient transmission of higher-order objects such as
        closures and continuations. The integration of distributed
        communication facilities within a higher-order programming
        language engenders a number of new abstractions and paradigms
        for distributed computing. Among these are user-specified load-
        balancing and migration policies for threads, incrementally-
        linked distributed computations, agents, and parameterized
        client-server applications. Kali Scheme supports concurrency and
        communication using first-class procedures and continuations. It
        integrates procedures and continuations into a message-based
        distributed framework that allows any Scheme object (including
        code vectors) to be sent and received in a message.



     RScheme

        В·  Web site:www.rscheme.org

        RScheme is an object-oriented, extended version of the Scheme
        dialect of Lisp. RScheme is freely redistributable, and offers
        reasonable performance despite being extraordinarily portable.
        RScheme can be compiled to C, and the C can then compiled with a
        normal C compiler to generate machine code. By default, however,
        RScheme compiles to bytecodes which are interpreted by a
        (runtime) virtual machine. This ensures that compilation is fast
        and keeps code size down. In general, we recommend using the
        (default) bytecode code generation system, and only compiling
        your time-critical code to machine code. This allows a nice
        adjustment of space/time tradeoffs.  (see web site for details)



     Scheme 48

        В·  Web site:

        Scheme 48 is a Scheme implementation based on a virtual machine
        architecture. Scheme 48 is designed to be straightforward,
        flexible, reliable, and fast. It should be easily portable to
        32-bit byte-addressed machines that have POSIX and ANSI C
        support.  In addition to the usual Scheme built-in procedures
        and a development environment, library software includes support
        for hygienic macros (as described in the Revised^4 Scheme
        report), multitasking, records, exception handling, hash tables,
        arrays, weak pointers, and FORMAT.  Scheme 48 implements and
        exploits an experimental module system loosely derived from
        Standard ML and Scheme Xerox.  The development environment
        supports interactive changes to modules and interfaces.


     SCM (Scheme)

        В·  Web site: www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/SCM.html

        SCM conforms to the Revised^4 Report on the Algorithmic Language
        Scheme and the IEEE P1178 specification. Scm is written in C. It
        uses the following utilities (all available at the ftp site).

        В·  SLIB (Standard Scheme Library) is a portable Scheme library
           which is intended to provide compatibility and utility
           functions for all standard Scheme implementations, including
           SCM, Chez, Elk, Gambit, MacScheme, MITScheme, scheme->C,
           Scheme48, T3.1, and VSCM, and is available as the file
           slib2c0.tar.gz. Written by Aubrey Jaffer.

        В·  JACAL is a symbolic math system written in Scheme, and is
           available as the file jacal1a7.tar.gz.

        В·  Interfaces to standard libraries including REGEX string
           regular expression matching and the CURSES screen management
           package.

        В·  Available add-on packages including an interactive debugger,
           database, X-window graphics, BGI graphics, Motif, and Open-
           Windows packages.

        В·  A compiler (HOBBIT, available separately) and dynamic linking
           of compiled modules.



     Shift

        В·  Web site:

        Shift is a programming language for describing dynamic networks
        of hybrid automata.  Such systems consist of components which
        can be created, interconnected and destroyed as the system
        evolves. Components exhibit hybrid behavior, consisting of
        continuous-time phases separated by discrete-event transitions.
        Components may evolve independently, or they may interact
        through their inputs, outputs and exported events. The
        interaction network itself may evolve.



     STELLA

        В·  Web site:

        STELLA is a strongly typed, object-oriented, Lisp-like language,
        designed to facilitate symbolic programming tasks in artificial
        intelligence applications. STELLA preserves those features of
        Common Lisp deemed essential for symbolic programming such as
        built-in support for dynamic data structures, heterogeneous
        collections, first-class symbols, powerful iteration constructs,
        name spaces, an object-oriented type system with a meta-object
        protocol, exception handling, and language extensibility through
        macros, but without compromising execution speed,
        interoperability with non-STELLA programs, and platform
        independence. STELLA programs are translated into a target
        language such as C++, Common Lisp, or Java, and then compiled
        with the native target language compiler to generate executable
        code. The language constructs of STELLA are restricted to those
        that can be translated directly into native constructs of the
        intended target languages, thus enabling the generation of
        highly efficient as well as readable code.



     YAP Prolog

        В·  Web site:

        В·  Sourceforge site:

        YAP is a high-performance Prolog compiler developed at
        LIACC/Universidade do Porto. Its Prolog engine is based in the
        WAM (Warren Abstract Machine), with several optimizations for
        better performance. YAP follows the Edinburgh tradition, and is
        largely compatible with DEC-10 Prolog, Quintus Prolog, and
        especially with C-Prolog. Work on the more recent version of YAP
        strives at several goals:


        В·  Portability: The whole system is now written in C. YAP
           compiles in popular 32 bit machines, such as Suns and Linux
           PCs, and in a 64 bit machines, the Alphas running OSF Unix
           and Linux.

        В·  Performance: We have optimised the emulator to obtain
           performance comparable to or better than well-known Prolog
           systems. In fact, the current version of YAP performs better
           than the original one, written in assembly language.

        В·  Robustness: We have tested the system with a large array of
           Prolog applications.

        В·  Extensibility: YAP was designed internally from the beginning
           to encapsulate manipulation of terms. These principles were
           used, for example, to implement a simple and powerful C-
           interface. The new version of YAP extends these principles to
           accomodate extensions to the unification algorithm, that we
           believe will be useful to implement extensions such as
           constraint programming.

        В·  Completeness: YAP has for a long time provided most builtins
           expected from a Edinburgh Prolog implementation.  These
           include I/O functionality, data-base operations, and modules.
           Work on YAP aims now at being compatible with the Prolog
           standard.

        В·  Openess: We would like to make new development of YAP open to
           the user community.

        В·  Research: YAP has been a vehicle for research within and
           outside our group. Currently research is going on on
           parallelisation and tabulation, and we have started work to
           support constraint handling.



  8.  Missing & Dead


  This is my area for old or bad entries. The MIA section is for entires
  for which I no longer have a valid home page. If you have any
  information regarding where I can find these now please let me know.
  The Dead section is for projects that seem dead. Moving them here
  allows me to keep my the main sections clean while allowing for
  interested parties to correct me in which case I can just move it
  back.


  8.1.  MIA - Projects missing linkage.



     CASE

        В·  Web site: www.iu.hio.no/~cell/

        В·  FTP site: ftp.iu.hio.no/pub/

        CASE (Cellular Automaton Simulation Environment) is a C++
        toolkit for visualizing discrete models in two dimensions: so-
        called cellular automata. The aim of this project is to create
        an integrated framework for creating generalized cellular
        automata using the best, standardized technology of the day.



     CLIG

        В·  Web site: www.ags.uni-sb.de/~konrad/clig.html

        CLIG is an interactive, extendible grapher for visualizing
        linguistic data structures like trees, feature structures,
        Discourse Representation Structures (DRS), logical formulas etc.
        All of these can be freely mixed and embedded into each other.
        The grapher has been designed both to be stand-alone and to be
        used as an add-on for linguistic applications which display
        their output in a graphical manner.



     Corewar VM

        В·  Web site: www.jedi.claranet.fr/

        This is a virtual machine written in Java (so it is a virtual
        machine for another virtual machine !) for a Corewar game.



     DAI

        В·  Web site: starship.python.net/crew/gandalf/DNET/AI/

        A library for the Python programming language that provides an
        object oriented interface to the CLIPS expert system tool. It
        includes an interface to COOL (CLIPS Object Oriented Language)
        that allows:

        В·  Investigate COOL classes

        В·  Create and manipulate with COOL instances

        В·  Manipulate with COOL message-handler's

        В·  Manipulate with Modules



     Dunce

        В·  Web site: www.boswa.com/boswabits/

        Dunce is a simple chatterbot (conversational AI) and a language
        for programming such chatterbots. It uses a basic regex pattern
        matching and a semi-neural rule/response firing mechanism (with
        excitement/decay cycles).

        Dunce is listed about halfway down the page.



     EcoSim

        В·  Web site: www.offis.de/projekte/projekt.php?id=140

        NOTE: the above web site has info on EcoSim but no code to
        download.


        In EcoSim an ecosystem is described by all static and dynamic
        properties of the individuals involved in the system as well as
        time varying properties of the environment. Individuals change
        their state over time or due to internal and external events.
        The environment is also defined via dynamic objects which can
        change. Supports on the fly analysis and animation of generated
        data. It is a C++ class library designed to support individual-
        oriented modelling and simulation of ecological systems.



     Evo

        В·  Web site: omicrongroup.org/evo/

        Evo is a software development framework that allows developers
        to build complex alife simulations. Using Evo, researchers can
        easily build systems of independent agents interacting with one
        another and with their environment. Evo implements biological
        operators such as genetic recombination and mutation to evolve
        the behavior of agents so that they are more adapted to their
        environment.



     IDEAL

        В·  Web site: yoda.cis.temple.edu:8080/ideal/

        IDEAL is a test bed for work in influence diagrams and Bayesian
        networks. It contains various inference algorithms for belief
        networks and evaluation algorithms for influence diagrams. It
        contains facilities for creating and editing influence diagrams
        and belief networks.

        IDEAL is written in pure Common Lisp and so it will run in
        Common Lisp on any platform. The emphasis in writing IDEAL has
        been on code clarity and providing high level programming
        abstractions. It thus is very suitable for experimental
        implementations which need or extend belief network technology.

        At the highest level, IDEAL can be used as a subroutine library
        which provides belief network inference and influence diagram
        evaluation as a package. The code is documented in a detailed
        manual and so it is also possible to work at a lower level on
        extensions of belief network methods.

        IDEAL comes with an optional graphic interface written in CLIM.
        If your Common Lisp also has CLIM, you can run the graphic
        interface.



     Illuminator

        В·  Web site:
           documents.cfar.umd.edu/resources/source/illuminator.html

        Illuminator is a toolset for developing OCR and Image
        Understanding applications.  Illuminator has two major parts: a
        library for representing, storing and retrieving OCR
        information, heretofore called dafslib, and an X-Windows "DAFS"
        file viewer, called illum. Illuminator and DAFS lib were
        designed to supplant existing OCR formats and become a standard
        in the industry. They particularly are extensible to handle more
        than just English.

        The features of this release:

        В·  5 magnification levels for images

        В·  flagged characters and words

        В·  unicode support -- American, British, French, German, Greek,
           Italian, MICR, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish,
           keyboards

        В·  reads DAFS, TIFF's, PDA's (image only)

        В·  save to DAFS, ASCII/UTF or Unicode

        В·  Entity Viewer - shows properties, character choices, bounding
           boxes image fragment for a selected entity, change type,
           change content, hierarchy mode



     PAI

        В·  Web site: utenti.quipo.it/claudioscordino/pai.html

        AI (Programmable Artificial Intelligence) is a program capable
        of having a conversation in its mother tongue, English. Written
        in C++.



     Simple Neural Net (in Python)

        В·  Web site: http://www.amk.ca/python/unmaintained/

        Simple neural network code, which implements a class for 3-level
        networks (input, hidden, and output layers). The only learning
        rule implemented is simple backpropagation. No documentation (or
        even comments) at all, because this is simply code that I use to
        experiment with. Includes modules containing sample datasets
        from Carl G. Looney's NN book. Requires the Numeric extensions.



     QUANT1


        В·  Web site: linux.irk.ru/projects/QUANT/

        This project seems to have gone proprietary. The only trace I
        can find via google is at .

        QUANT/1 stands for type QUANTifier. It aims to be an alternative
        to Prolog-like (Resulutional-like) systems. Main features
        include a lack of necessity for eliminating Quantifiers,
        scolemisation, ease of comprehension, large scale formulae
        operation, acceptance of nonHorn formulaes, and Iterative
        deeping. The actual library implemented in this project is
        called ATPPCF (Automatic Theorem Prover in calculus of
        Positively Constructed Formulae).

        ATPPCF will be a library (inference engine) and an extension of
        the Predicate Calculus Language as a new logical language. The
        library will be incorporable in another software such as TCL,
        Python, Perl. The engine's primary inference method will be the
        "search of inference in language of Positively Constructed
        Formulas (PCFs)" (a subset of Predicate Calculus well translated
        in both directions). The language will be used as scripting
        language to the engine. But there will be possibility to replace
        it with extensions languages of main software.



     SCNN

        В·  Web site: www.uni-frankfurt.de/fb13/iap/e_ag_rt/SCNN/

        SCNN is an universal simulating system for Cellular Neural
        Networks (CNN).  CNN are analog processing neural networks with
        regular and local interconnections, governed by a set of
        nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Due to their local
        connectivity, CNN are realized as VLSI chips, which operates at
        very high speed.



     Symbolic Probabilistic Inference (SPI)

        В·  FTP site: ftp.engr.orst.edu/pub/dambrosi/spi/

        В·  Paper (ijar-94.ps): ftp.engr.orst.edu/pub/dambrosi/


        Contains Common Lisp function libraries to implement SPI type
        baysean nets. Documentation is very limited.  Features:

        В·  Probabilities, Local Expression Language Utilities,
           Explanation, Dynamic Models, and a TCL/TK based GUI.



     Sugal

        В·  Web site: www.trajan-software.demon.co.uk/sugal.htm

        Sugal [soo-gall] is the SUnderland Genetic ALgorithm system.
        The aim of Sugal is to support research and implementation in
        Genetic Algorithms on a common software platform. As such, Sugal
        supports a large number of variants of Genetic Algorithms, and
        has extensive features to support customization and extension.



     TIN

        В·  Web site: www.jetlag.demon.nl

        This program simulates primitive life-forms, equipped with some
        basic instincts and abilities, in a 2D environment consisting of
        cells.  By mutation new generations can prove their success, and
        thus passing on "good family values".

        The brain of a TIN can be seen as a collection of processes,
        each representing drives or impulses to behave a certain way,
        depending on the state/perception of the environment ( e.g.
        presence of food, walls, neighbors, scent traces) These behavior
        process currently are : eating, moving, mating, relaxing,
        tracing others, gathering food and killing. The process with the
        highest impulse value takes control, or in other words: the tin
        will act according to its most urgent need.



     Ummon

        В·  Web site: www.spacetide.com/projects/ummon/

        Ummon is an advanced Open Source chatterbot. The main principle
        of the bot is that it has no initial knowledge of either words
        or grammar; it learns everything "on the fly." Numerous AI
        techniques will be explored in the development of Ummon to
        achieve realistic "human" communication with support for
        different, customizable personalities.



  8.2.  Dead projects.



     EMA-XPS - A Hybrid Graphic Expert System Shell

        В·  Web site: www.iai.uni-wuppertal.de/EMA-XPS/


        EMA-XPS is a hybrid graphic expert system shell based on the
        ASCII-oriented shell Babylon 2.3 of the German National Research
        Center for Computer Sciences (GMD). In addition to Babylon's AI-
        power (object oriented data representation, forward and backward
        chained rules - collectible into sets, horn clauses, and
        constraint networks) a graphic interface based on the X11 Window
        System and the OSF/Motif Widget Library has been provided.



     FIPA-OS

        В·  Web site:

        FIPA-OS is an open source implementation of the mandatory
        elements contained within the FIPA specification for agent
        interoperability. In addition to supporting the FIPA
        interoperability concepts, FIPA-OS also provides a component
        based architecture to enable the development of domain specific
        agents which can utilise the services of the FIPA Platform
        agents. It is implemented in Java.
     PDKB

        В·  Web site: lynx.eaze.net/~pdkb/web/

        В·  SourceForge site: sourceforge.net/projects/pdkb

        Public Domain Knowledge Bank (PDKB) is an Artificial
        Intelligence Knowledge Bank of common sense rules and facts. It
        is based on the Cyc Upper Ontology and the MELD language.



     RobocodeNG

        В·  Web site: robocodeng.sourceforge.net

        Merged together with original ``'' as of version 1.1.

        Extension of Robocode, the battling bot AI programming game.
        Like its parent, it is written in Java and meant as a learning
        environment.



     Sulawesi

        В·  Web site: wearables.essex.ac.uk/sulawesi/

        A framework called Sulawesi has been designed and implemented to
        tackle what has been considered to be important challenges in a
        wearable user interface. The ability to accept input from any
        number of modalities, and perform if necessary a translation to
        any number of modal outputs. It does this primarily through a
        set of proactive agents to act on the input.



     TresBel

        В·  Abstract: iridia.ulb.ac.be/Projects/imple.html

        В·  Direct Download:
           ftp://iridia.ulb.ac.be/pub/hongxu/software/TresBel.tar.Z

        This project seems to have been superseded by ``''.

        Libraries containing (Allegro) Common Lisp code for Belief
        Functions (aka. Dempster-Shafer evidential reasoning) as a
        representation of uncertainty. Very little documentation. Has a
        limited GUI.