Enterprise Java for Linux HOWTO

Table of Contents



  1. Introduction

     1.1 Background
     1.2 Audience
     1.3 New Versions
     1.4 Copyright and License
     1.5 Disclaimers
     1.6 Potential Future Sections
     1.7 Other Resources
     1.8 Feedback

  2. How to Setup the Java Development Kit

     2.1 Blackdown JDK
        2.1.1 Background
        2.1.2 Download
        2.1.3 Installation
        2.1.4 Setting up Your Environment
        2.1.5 Confirming Your Installation
        2.1.6 More Information
     2.2 IBM Java Developer Kit
        2.2.1 Background
        2.2.2 Download
        2.2.3 Installation
        2.2.4 Setting up Your Environment
        2.2.5 Confirming Your Installation
        2.2.6 More Information
     2.3 Kaffe
        2.3.1 Background
        2.3.2 Download and Installation
        2.3.3 Setting up Your Environment
        2.3.4 Confirming Your Installation
        2.3.5 More Information
     2.4 Sun J2SE
        2.4.1 Background
        2.4.2 Download
        2.4.3 Installation
        2.4.4 Setting up Your Environment
        2.4.5 Confirming Your Installation
        2.4.6 More Information

  3. How to Setup the Web Server

     3.1 Apache
        3.1.1 Background
        3.1.2 Download, Installation, and Setting up Your Environment
        3.1.3 Confirming Your Installation
     3.2 IBM Domino
     3.3 IBM HTTP Server
        3.3.1 Background
        3.3.2 Download
        3.3.3 Installation
        3.3.4 Setting up Your Environment
        3.3.5 Confirming Your Installation
        3.3.6 More Information
     3.4 Jetty HTTP Server and Servlet Container
        3.4.1 Background
        3.4.2 Download
        3.4.3 Installation

  4. How to Setup Java Servlet Support

     4.1 Allaire JRun
     4.2 Apache Tomcat
        4.2.1 Background
        4.2.2 Download
        4.2.3 Installation
        4.2.4 Setting up Your Environment
        4.2.5 Confirming Your Installation
        4.2.6 More Information
     4.3 BEA WebLogic
     4.4 Enhydra
     4.5 IBM WebSphere
     4.6 Locomotive
     4.7 Jetty

  5. How to Setup Java Server Pages (JSP) Support

     5.1 Apache Jakarta
     5.2 Caucho Resin
     5.3 Jetty

  6. How to Setup JDBC Support

     6.1 IBM DB2
     6.2 MiniSQL
     6.3 MySQL
     6.4 Oracle
     6.5 PostgreSQL
        6.5.1 Background
        6.5.2 Download and Installation
        6.5.3 Confirming Your Installation
        6.5.4 More Information
     6.6 Sybase
        6.6.1 Background
        6.6.2 Download
        6.6.3 Installation
        6.6.4 Confirming Your Installation
        6.6.5 More Information

  7. How to Setup Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) Support

     7.1 BEA WebLogic
     7.2 EJBoss
        7.2.1 Background
        7.2.2 Download
        7.2.3 Installation
        7.2.4 Setting up Your Environment
        7.2.5 Confiming Your Installation
     7.3 Bullsoft JOnAS EJB


  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction



  1.1.  Background

  This document was started January, 1999 by Gary Meyer (
  gary@meyer.net) after several weeks of installing various open source
  and proprietary Enterprise Java products for Linux.  "Enterprise Java"
  is defined as using the Java Enterprise APIs.

  Some updates were added by Greg Wilkins (gregw@mortbay.org) in
  November 2001 however parts of the document are still out of date.



  1.2.  Audience

  This HOWTO is intended to benefit software professionals who are
  interested in evaluating, developing, or deploying Enterprise Java on
  Linux.  Limited knowledge or experience in either Linux or Java is
  assumed.


  1.3.  New Versions

  The newest version of this document can be found at the Linux
  Documentation Project website at:
  http://linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Enterprise-Java-for-Linux-HOWTO.html



  1.4.  Copyright and License

  This document is Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Gary Meyer and Greg
  Wilkins.  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
  document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
  Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
  Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and
  with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available at
  http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html


  1.5.  Disclaimers


  The suggestions in this document are provided to help you get a
  Enterprise Java environment on Linux up and running as quickly as
  possible.  The suggestions are not product  recommendations or
  endorsements.  As you become familiar with the options available, you
  can do you own product evaluations and determine what options are best
  for your particular purpose.

  For the purpose of this HOWTO, "Enterprise Java" is defined as using
  the Java Enterprise APIs. This HOWTO does not address scalability,
  availability, manageability, and other such aspects of software that
  are often associated with the word "enterprise."

  1.6.  Potential Future Sections


  This HOW has focused on the most popular aspects of Enterprise Java.
  The following sections may be added to this HOWTO.

  ·  Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) that Support Enterprise
     Java for Linux

  ·  Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) Support

  ·  Java Mail API (JMAPI) Support

  ·  Java Transaction Service (JTS) Support

  ·  Java Interface Definition Language (JIDL) Support

  ·  Java Messaging Service (JMS) Support

  ·  Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Support

  Interested in authoring a section?


  Please contact the author, Gary Meyer, at ( gary@meyer.net).

  1.7.  Other Resources


  The App-Serv Center website at http://www.app-serv.com/.

  Java Enterprise in a Nutshell by David Flanagan et al at
  http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/jentnut/.

  1.8.  Feedback


  Please submit all additions and corrections to the author, Gary Meyer,
  at (gary@meyer.net).

  2.  How to Setup the Java Development Kit


  There are several Java Development Kits available for Linux.  These
  include:


  ·  ``Blackdown JDK''

  ·  ``IBM Java Developer Kit ''

  ·  ``Sun J2SE ''

  ·  ``Kaffe ''

  If you are going to try just one JDK, I suggest you initially try the
  Sun J2SE, unless you are recommended otherwise by specific software
  you are using or want to use. Additionally, if you are interested in
  an open source implementation, you will need to use Kaffe.

  2.1.  Blackdown JDK


  2.1.1.  Background


  The Blackdown JDK is a port of Sun JDK to Linux.  As of the time of
  this writing, the Blackdown JDK is current with JDK 1.2.2 on the Intel
  architecture and 1.1.8 on the PowerPC.

  In December 1999, Sun announced availability of the Java 2 Platform,
  Standard Endition (J2SE) on Linux.  This Sun release has significant
  impact on Blackdown because Blackdown is a port. In a press release,
  Sun states, "This week's announcement would not have been possible
  without the  collaboration of Blackdown, a group of developers and
  enthusiasts around the globe.  Since its inception, Blackdown has been
  a provider of Java technology for the Linux platform.  Their dedicated
  effort over a number of years has laid the foundation for this release
  of the Java 2 platform port to Linux; in particular their effort was
  critical to the success of this release."

  Additionally, the Sun press release continues, "Blackdown.org
  continues to be a valuable source for Java technology for Linux,
  including JDK 1.1.x releases."

  2.1.2.  Download


  The Blackdown JDK can be obtained from http://www.blackdown.org.

  >From the Blackdown home page, select download and a mirror site.

  Select the version of the JDK you want.  If other software that you
  are wanting to use does not recommend a specific version, I suggest
  the most current, which is at the time of this writing, JDK 1.2.2.

  Select the machine architecture you are installing on.  For Intel
  architecture, select i386.

  Select the release candidate you want.  If other software that you are
  wanting to use does not recommend a specific release candidate, I
  suggest the most recent or final version if available.

  For the Blackdown JDK, there are possibly a number of different files
  available in different packaging formats.  Additionally you have to be
  sure you get support for the right libc for your Linux distribution.

  The files available include:

  ·  jdk - The Java Development Kit contains everything you need to
     compile, run, and debug Java.  It does not contain international
     character converters.


  ·  jre - The Java Runtime Environment, including international
     character converters.


  ·  rt - A minimal Java Runtime Environment that does not include
     international character converters.

  ·  i18n - The internationalization font mappings and a JAR containing
     the international character converters.

  ·  native - Additional binaries providing native thread support.

  I suggest downloading only the jdk for Java development in English.

  When downloading the Blackdown files, you may need to select between
  libc5 and glibc as well as potentially a specific version of glibc.
  The libc options include:

  ·  libc5 - The older, and still most common, Linux libc is libc5.

  ·  glibc - The new Linux libc.

  If you are using a newer distribution of Linux, you will most likely
  have glibc. I suggest initially trying glibc.

  2.1.3.  Installation


  I suggest installing files in the /usr/local directory. After
  downloading the files, run:

  mkdir /usr/local/blackdown
  mv jdk* /usr/local/blackdown



  If you downloaded the tarball format, run:

  tar zxvf [filename].tar.gz



  Where [filename] is the name of the file.

  Under the /usr/local/blackdown directory, you now should see a
  directory such as jdk1.2.2.

  The above example shows JDK 1.2.2 release candidate 3 for the Intel
  architecture.  Substitute the file name, version number, release
  candidate number, and architecture as appropriate.  You will need to
  open each distribution package file in the above manner.

  2.1.4.  Setting up Your Environment


  The environment variables to set up are:

  ·  JAVA_HOME

  ·  PATH

  ·  CLASSPATH

  The JAVA_HOME environment variable references the home directory of
  your JDK installation.  Set your JAVA_HOME environment variable to the
  directory into which you just installed a version of the Blackdown
  JDK.

  export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/blackdown/jdk1.2.2



  The $JAVA_HOME/bin directory has the Java compiler (javac) and the
  Java Virtual Machine (java) as well as other necessary programs for
  development.  Add $JAVA_HOME/bin to your PATH.

  export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH



  Note that $JAVA_HOME/bin was added to the front of the PATH so that
  the installed JDK will be used rather than any JDK that might have
  come with your Linux distribution.

  To confirm that your PATH is correctly set up, check which Java
  compiler and JVM will be used.

  which javac
  which java



  The output should reference javac and java in your $JAVA_HOME/bin
  directory.

  The CLASSPATH environment variable references all JARs and directories
  that you will need to compile and run Java programs.

  For JDK 1.2.2, you don't need to initially add any JARs to your
  CLASSPATH.  JARs can be packaged in either .jar or .zip files.

  export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:.



  2.1.5.  Confirming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple application.  Create the
  following program.

  class HelloWorld {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      System.out.println("Hello, World!");
    }
  }



  Compile the program with the Java compiler.

  javac HelloWorld.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Run the program with the JVM.

  java HelloWorld



  If the JVM produces errors, confirm your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  You should see the following output:

  Hello, World!



  Congratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested the Blackdown JDK on Linux.

  2.1.6.  More Information


  For more information on the Blackdown JDK, see the Blackdown website
  at http://www.blackdown.org.  There is an excellent FAQ available.

  2.2.  IBM Java Developer Kit


  2.2.1.  Background


  The IBM Java Developer Kit and Runtime Environment pass Sun's Java
  compatibility test and include the latest maintenance.  (From the IBM
  website.)

  As of the time of this writing, the IBM Java Developer Kit is current
  with JDK 1.1.8 and is available only on the Intel architecture.

  2.2.2.  Download


  The IBM Java Developer Kit can be obtained from
  http://www.ibm.com/java/jdk/118/linux.


  In order to download, you will have to register with the IBM website
  and agree to the license online.

  The files available include:

  ·  ibm-jdk-l118-linux-x86.tgz - The Java Development Kit contains
     everything you need to compile, run, and debug Java.

  ·  ibm-jre-l118-linux-x86.tgz - The Java Runtime Environment contains
     everything you need to run Java.

  Since you will be doing Java development, I suggest downloading the
  ibm-jdk tarball file.

  2.2.3.  Installation


  I suggest installing files in the /usr/local directory. After
  downloading the files, run:

  mkdir /usr/local/ibm
  mv ibm-jdk-l118-linux-x86.tgz /usr/local/ibm



  You can now open the distribution package.  To do this, type:

  tar zxvf ibm-jdk-l118-linux-x86.tgz



  Under the /usr/local/ibm directory, you now should see  the jdk118
  directory.


  The above example shows JDK 1.1.8 for the Intel architecture.
  Substitute the filenames as appropriate.

  2.2.4.  Setting up Your Environment


  The environment variables to set up are:

  ·  JAVA_HOME

  ·  PATH

  ·  CLASSPATH

  The JAVA_HOME environment variable references the home directory of
  your JDK installation.  Set your JAVA_HOME environment variable to the
  directory into which you just installed a version of the IBM Java
  Developer Kit.

  export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/ibm/jdk118



  The $JAVA_HOME/bin directory has the Java compiler (javac) and the
  Java Virtual Machine (java) as well as other necessary programs for
  development.  Add $JAVA_HOME/bin to your PATH.

  export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH



  Note that $JAVA_HOME/bin was added to the front of the PATH so that
  the installed JDK will be used rather than any JDK that might have
  come with your Linux distribution.

  To confirm that your PATH is correctly set up, check which Java
  compiler and JVM will be used.

  which javac
  which java



  The output should reference javac and java in your $JAVA_HOME/bin
  directory.

  The CLASSPATH environment variable references all JARs and directories
  that you will need to compile and run Java programs.

  Initially I suggest adding the following JARs to your CLASSPATH. JARs
  can be packaged in either .jar or .zip files.

  For instance:

  export CLASSPATH=$JAVA_HOME/lib/classes.zip
  export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:.



  2.2.5.  Confirming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple application.  Create the
  following program.

  class HelloWorld {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      System.out.println("Hello, World!");
    }
  }



  Compile the program with the Java compiler.

  javac HelloWorld.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Run the program with the JVM.

  java HelloWorld



  If the JVM produces errors, confirm your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  You should see the following output:

  Hello, World!



  Congratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested the IBM Java Developer Kit on Linux.

  2.2.6.  More Information


  For more information on the IBM Java Developer Kit, see the IBM Java
  website at http://www.ibm.com/java.


  2.3.  Kaffe


  2.3.1.  Background


  Kaffe is a cleanroom, open source implmentation of a Java Virtual
  Machine and class libraries.  As of the time of this writing, Kaffe
  "mostly complies with JDK 1.1, except for a few missing parts."  And
  "parts of it are already JDK 1.2 (Java 2) compatible."  (From the
  Kaffe website.)


  Kaffe may have already been shipped with your Linux distribution
  because of its open source license.

  2.3.2.  Download and Installation


  Rather than downloading from Kaffe, I suggest you initially try the
  Kaffe that most likely came with your Linux distribution.

  Alternatively, Kaffe can be obtained from http://www.kaffe.org.

  >From the Kaffe home page, select the current release.  At the time of
  this writing, the current release is 1.0.5. The Kaffe version number
  has no relationship to JDK specification version numbers.

  2.3.3.  Setting up Your Environment


  The environment variables to set up are:

  ·  PATH

  ·  CLASSPATH

  To confirm that your PATH is correctly set up, check which Java
  compiler and JVM will be used.

  which javac
  which java



  The CLASSPATH environment variable references all JARs and directories
  that you will need to compile and run Java programs.

  Initially I suggest you add the following JARs to your CLASSPATH. JARs
  can be packaged in either .jar or .zip files.

  For instance:

  export CLASSPATH=/usr/local/share/kaffe/Klasses.zip
  export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:.

  2.3.4.  Confirming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple application.  Create the
  following program.

  class HelloWorld {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      System.out.println("Hello, World!");
    }
  }



  Compile the program with the Java compiler.

  javac HelloWorld.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Run the program with the JVM.

  java HelloWorld



  If the JVM produces errors, confirm your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  You should see the following output:

  Hello, World!



  Congratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested Kaffe on Linux.

  2.3.5.  More Information


  For more information on Kaffe, see the Kaffe website at
  http://www.kaffe.org.

  2.4.  Sun J2SE


  2.4.1.  Background


  The Sun Java 2, Standard Edition (J2SE) is Sun's production release of
  the Java 2 Platform for the Linux operating system. As of the time of
  this writing, J2SE is current with JDK 1.2.2 on the Intel
  architecture.

  2.4.2.  Download


  J2SE can be obtained from
  http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/earlyAccess/j2sdk122.


  You will need to register with Sun and agree to the license online
  before downloading.
  2.4.3.  Installation


  I suggest installing files in the /usr/local directory. After
  downloading the files, run:

  mkdir /usr/local/sun
  mv jdk1_2_2rc1-linux-i386.tar.gz /usr/local/sun



  You can now open the distribution package.  To do this, type:

  tar zxvf jdk1_2_2rc1-linux-i386.tar.gz



  Under the /usr/local/sun directory, you now should see  the jdk1.2.2
  directory.


  The above example shows JDK 1.2.2 release candidate 1 for the Intel
  architecture.  Substitute the filenames as appropriate.

  2.4.4.  Setting up Your Environment


  The environment variables to set up are:

  ·  JAVA_HOME

  ·  PATH

  ·  CLASSPATH

  The JAVA_HOME environment variable references the home directory of
  your JDK installation.  Set your JAVA_HOME environment variable to the
  directory into which you just installed a version of J2SE.

  export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/sun/jdk1.2.2



  The $JAVA_HOME/bin directory has the Java compiler (javac) and the
  Java Virtual Machine (java) as well as other necessary programs for
  development.  Add $JAVA_HOME/bin to your PATH.

  export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH



  Note that $JAVA_HOME/bin was added to the front of the PATH so that
  the installed JDK will be used rather than any JDK that might have
  come with your Linux distribution.

  To confirm that your PATH is correctly set up, check which Java
  compiler and JVM will be used.

  which javac
  which java



  The output should reference javac and java in your $JAVA_HOME/bin
  directory.

  The CLASSPATH environment variable references all JARs and directories
  that you will need to compile and run Java programs.

  For JDK 1.2.2, you don't need to initially add any JARs to your
  CLASSPATH.  JARs can be packaged in either .jar or .zip files.

  export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:.



  2.4.5.  Confirming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple application.  Create the
  following program.

  class HelloWorld {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      System.out.println("Hello, World!");
    }
  }



  Compile the program with the Java compiler.

  javac HelloWorld.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Run the program with the JVM.

  java HelloWorld



  If the JVM produces errors, confirm your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  You should see the following output:

  Hello, World!



  Congratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested the Sun J2SE for Linux.

  2.4.6.  More Information


  For more information on Sun J2SE, see the Sun Java website at
  http://java.sun.com. There are excellent discussion forums available
  where you might be able to find answers to various questions.

  3.  How to Setup the Web Server


  There are several Web Servers available for Linux.  These include:

  ·  ``Apache ''

  ·  ``IBM Domino ''

  ·  ``IBM HTTP Server ''

  ·  ``Jetty HTTP Server''

  If you are going to try just one Web Server, I suggest you initially
  try Apache, principally because it comes with most major Linux
  distributions and may already be installed, and perhaps running, on
  your system.

  3.1.  Apache


  3.1.1.  Background


  Apache is the most popular HTTP server on the Internet.  It was
  originally based upon the NCSA httpd and has since been completely
  rewritten.  It is Open Source licensed.  (From the Apache website.)

  3.1.2.  Download, Installation, and Setting up Your Environment


  Rather than downloading from Apache, I suggest you initially try the
  Apache that most likely came with your Linux distribution.

  Alternatively, Apache can be obtained from http://www.apache.org.

  3.1.3.  Confirming Your Installation


  To confirm that Apache is installed and running on your computer, open
  your web browser, and enter the URL: "http://127.0.0.1".  (127.0.0.1
  is the IP address for the localhost.)

  You should see a web page to the effect of "It Worked!"

  If it did not work, you can confirm that Apache is installed by typing
  the following on a RedHat Package Manager (RPM)-based Linux
  distribution.

  rpm -q | grep apache



  To start Apache, type:

  cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
  ./httpd start



  Note: The httpd script used at boot time may be in a different
  location on other Linux distributions.

  For more assistance, I suggest you look into the Apache FAQ at
  http://www.apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html.


  3.2.  IBM Domino


  To be written.

  See http://www.lotus.com/dominolinuxfor more information.


  3.3.  IBM HTTP Server


  3.3.1.  Background


  The IBM HTTP Server is an IBM repackaging of Apache.  You might
  consider using the IBM HTTP Server if you plan on working with IBM
  WebSphere.

  At the time of this writing, the most recent version is 1.3.6.1.

  3.3.2.  Download


  The IBM HTTP Server can be obtained from
  http://www-4.ibm.com/software/webservers/httpservers/download.html.


  Click on the download link and select 56-bit or 128-bit SSL
  encryption.


  You will need to register with IBM, fill out a marketing survey, and
  accept the license agreement before downloading. The IBM HTTP Server
  requires glibc either version 2.0 or 2.1. glibc is the new Linux libc.
  If you have an older distribution that is based upon libc5, you will
  not be able to use the IBM HTTP Server.

  On an RedHat Package Manager (RPM)-based Linux distribution, you can
  run:


  rpm -qa | grep libc



  You will see output such as:

  glibc-2.1.2-11
  libc-5.3.12-31



  This will show you which versions of libc5 and glibc you have
  installed on your Linux distribution.  In my above example I have both
  glibc and libc5 installed on my system.  glibc is version 2.1, so I
  would want to download the files for glibc2.1.

  I suggest downloading all of the tar files for the glib version of
  Linux that you have as they are relatively small.  However, minimally
  you will need the server file.  For RedHat 6.0 and distributions
  derived from  Redhat 6.0 you will also need the redhat60only.  For
  glibc2.0 based distributions you will also need the libstdc file.

  3.3.3.  Installation


  I suggest installing files in the /usr/local directory. After
  downloading the files, run:

  mkdir /usr/local/ibm
  mv HTTPServer.linux.* /usr/local/ibm



  You can now open the distribution package file or files.

  tar xvf [filename].tar



  Where [filename] is the name of the file.

  Under the /usr/local/ibm directory, you now should see the directory
  IHS.


  Use the RedHat Package Manager (RPM) to install the rpm files that the
  tar file produced.  If you needed the libstdc file, you will need to
  install that file first.  Then you would install the server RPM file
  such as:

  cd IHS
  rpm -i IBM_HTTP_Server-1.3.6-2.i386.rpm



  The above example shows version 1.3.6 for the Intel architecture.
  Substitute the filename as appropriate.

  After installing you can delete the rpm files as they can be easily
  recreated from the tar files.

  3.3.4.  Setting up Your Environment


  The environment variables to set up are:

  ·  PATH

  The IBM HTTP Server installed itself into /opt/IBMHTTPServer.  You
  need to add its bin directory to your PATH.

  export PATH=/opt/IBMHTTPServer/bin:$PATH



  Note that /opt/IBMHTTPServer/bin was added to the front of the PATH so
  that the installed Web Server will be used rather than any Web Server
  that might have come with your Linux distribution.

  To confirm that your PATH is correctly set up, check which Apache
  controller will be used.  Type:

  which apachectl



  The output should reference apachectl in the /opt/IBMHTTPServer/bin
  directory.


  Note: because the IBM HTTP Server is based upon Apache, it uses the
  Apache controller to start and stop it.  When you have both the IBM
  HTTP Server and Apache installed on a computer, take particular care
  to your PATH to make sure you are working with the correct server.

  You may need to modify the IBM HTTP Server configuration file.  The
  configuration file was installed in
  /opt/IBMHTTPServer/conf/httpd.conf.  The most common two entries that
  need to be changed are the ServerName and the Listen port number.
  Look for the key words "ServerName" and "Listen" in the httpd.conf
  file.  The ServerName should be set to either your hostname or IP
  address.  If your computer uses DHCP to acquire an IP address, the
  hostname is a better candidate.  However, in order to use your
  computer's hostname, your computer's hostname and IP address must be
  properly registered in DNS.


  Additionally if you are running another Web server on the computer you
  need to assign the IBM HTTP Server to another port so you can run both
  Web servers simultaneously if necessary.

  The following is an example entry in httpd.conf.

  ServerName 192.168.0.4
  Listen 3000



  3.3.5.  Confirming Your Installation


  To start the IBM HTTP Server, type the following:

  /opt/IBMHTTPServer/bin/apachectl start



  To confirm that the IBM HTTP Server is installed and running on your
  computer, open your web browser, and enter the URL:
  "http://192.168.0.4:3000" substituting the correct IP address and port
  number entered into httpd.conf.


  You should see a web page to the effect of "Welcome to the IBM HTTP
  Server". Contratulations, you have installed, set up an environment
  for, and tested the IBM HTTP Server for Linux.

  3.3.6.  More Information


  For more information, I suggest you look into the IBM HTTP Server
  Support page at
  http://www-4.ibm.com/software/webservers/httpservers/support.html.


  3.4.  Jetty HTTP Server and Servlet Container


  3.4.1.  Background

  Jetty is an Open Source HTTP Servlet Server written in 100% Java.  It
  is both a full featured HTTP/1.1 server and a Servlet Container.  It
  is designed to be light weight, high performance, embeddable,
  extensible and flexible, thus making it an ideal platform for serving
  dynamic HTTP requests from any Java application.

  Jetty can be used as a stand-alone HTTP server and servlet container
  or it can be embedded in another java application (eg. the JBoss EJB
  container is using Jetty as it's prefered server and container
  solution).

  As a combined server and servlet container, both these functions run
  efficiently in a single unix process. Installation and configuration
  is also simpler as a single application.

  3.4.2.  Download

  The Jetty HTTP Server and Servlet container may be downloaded via:

  http://jetty.mortbay.org.

  Jetty is distributed under the artistic license, full source is
  included and it can be used and distributed commercially.


  3.4.3.  Installation

  The package is distributed as a gzipped tar file, which can be
  unpacked with:

  gunzip < Jetty-x.x.x.tgz | tar xf -



  Which will create a Jetty-x.x.x directory where x.x.x is the version
  number.


  To run the demo server:

  export JETTY_HOME=<jetty install directory>
  export JAVA_HOME=<JRE install directory>
  $JETTY_HOME/bin/jetty.sh run


  Then to see the Jetty demo and tutorial point a browser at
  http://localhost:8080.

  Jetty can also be installed and run via JMX or as part of the JBoss
  distributions.  See http://jetty.mortbay.org or the README.TXT file
  for more details.


  4.  How to Setup Java Servlet Support


  There are several Web Server plug-ins and Application Servers
  available for Linux that provide support for Java Servlets.  These
  include:

  ·  ``Allaire JRun''

  ·  ``Apache Tomcat''

  ·  ``BEA WebLogic''

  ·  ``Enhydra''

  ·  ``Locomotive''

  ·  ``IBM Websphere ''

  ·  ``Jetty''


  4.1.  Allaire JRun


  To be written.


  See http://www.allaire.com/products/jrun/for more information.

  4.2.  Apache Tomcat


  4.2.1.  Background

  JServ has been replaced with Tomcat from the Apache Jakarta project:
  http://jakarta.apache.org/.  This section is still written for JServ
  and needs to be updated.

  Apache JServe is a 100% pure Java servlet engine fully compliant with
  the Java Servlet 2.0 specification.  Apache JServ is part of the Java
  Apache  Project. (From the Apache Java Project website).

  4.2.2.  Download


  Apache JServ can be obtained from
  http://java.apache.org/jserv/index.html.


  >From the Apache JServ Project home page, follow the Download Apache
  JServ link.

  Currently RPM distributions are available for RedHat Linux.  For other
  Linux distributions you will have to build from source.  The following
  example describes how install the RPM for RedHat 6x.

  As of the time of this writing, the current version is 1.1b3.

  4.2.3.  Installation


  I suggest installing files in the /usr/local directory. After
  downloading the files, run:

  mkdir /usr/local/apachejserv
  mv ApacheJServ*.rpm /usr/local/apachejserv



  For RedHat and RedHat-derived distributions, use the RedHat Package
  Manager (RPM) to install the rpm file such as:

  rpm -i ApacheJServ-1.1-b2_RH6x.i386.rpm



  The above example shows version 1.1-b2 for the RedHat 6x on the Intel
  architecture.


  4.2.4.  Setting up Your Environment


  You will need to stop, set your Java environment variables, and
  restart Apache to register Apache JServ.

  To stop Apache, type:

  cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
  ./httpd stop



  Note: The httpd script used at boot time may be in a different
  location on other Linux distributions

  To set you Java environment, see the How to Install the JDK section of
  this document, specifically for the JDK you intend to use.  You need
  to set several properties in the jserv.properties file installed in
  /etc/httpd/conf/jserv.  Specifically, look for:

  ·  wrapper.bin - to reference the JDK you installed

  ·  wrapper.classpath - to minimally include
     /usr/lib/apache/ApacheJServ.jar and
     /home/httpd/classes/servlet-2.0.jar

  ·  bindaddress=localhost

  ·  port=8007

  To restart Apache, type:

  cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
  ./httpd start



  4.2.5.  Confirming Your Installation


  To confirm that the Apache JServ is installed and running on your
  computer, open your web browser, and enter the URL:
  "http://127.0.0.1/servlet/IsItWorking" substituting the correct IP
  address if you are browsing from another machine.


  You should see a web page to the effect of "Yes, It's Working!".
  Contratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested the Apache JServ for Linux.

  For more assistance, I suggest you look into the Apache JServ website
  at

  http://java.apache.org/jserv/index.html.


  Now, to compile and run your own servlet.  Enter the following Java
  servlet program.

  import java.io.*;
  import javax.servlet.*;
  import javax.servlet.http.*;

  public class HelloWorldServlet extends HttpServlet {
    public void service (HttpServletRequest request,
      HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
    }
  }



  4.2.6.  More Information


  For more information, I suggest you look into the Java Apache Project
  website at http://java.apache.org/.


  4.3.  BEA WebLogic


  See ``BEA WegLogic ''below.

  4.4.  Enhydra


  To be written.

  See http://www.enhydra.orgfor more information.

  4.5.  IBM WebSphere


  To be written.

  See http://www-4.ibm.com/software/webservers/appserv/linux.htmlfor
  more information.

  4.6.  Locomotive


  To be written.

  See ://www.locomotive.org/for more information.


  4.7.  Jetty

  The Jetty HTTP server is a combined server and servlet container.
  Installation of the HTTP server (see above) provides servlet support.
  More information can be obtained via the demo server and tutorial
  installed with the HTTP server.



  5.  How to Setup Java Server Pages (JSP) Support


  To be written.

  5.1.  Apache Jakarta


  To be written.

  See ://jakarta.apache.com/for more information.

  5.2.  Caucho Resin


  To be written.

  See ://www.caucho.com/for more information.


  5.3.  Jetty

  The Jetty HTTP server comes with the Jasper JSP engine.  Installation
  of the HTTP server (see 3.4 above) provides JSP support.  More
  information can be obtained via the demo server and tutorial installed
  with the HTTP server.



  6.  How to Setup JDBC Support


  There are several databases that run on Linux that also support a JDBC
  interface.  These include:

  ·  ``IBM DB2 ''

  ·  ``MiniSQL ''

  ·  ``MySQL ''

  ·  ``Oracle ''

  ·  ``PostgreSQL ''

  ·  ``Sybase ''

  If you are going to try just one DBMS, I suggest you initially try
  PostgreSQL, principally because it comes with most major Linux
  distributions and may already be installed on your system.

  6.1.  IBM DB2


  To be written.

  See http://www-4.ibm.com/software/data/db2/linux/for more information.

  6.2.  MiniSQL


  To be written.

  See http://www.hughes.com.au/for more information.

  6.3.  MySQL


  To be written.

  See http://www.mysql.org/for more information.

  6.4.  Oracle


  To be written.

  See http://platforms.oracle.com/linux/

  6.5.  PostgreSQL


  6.5.1.  Background


  PostgreSQL is a sophisticated Object-Relational DBMS, supporting
  almost all SQL constructs, including subselects, transactions, and
  user-defined types and functions.  It is the most advanced open-source
  database available anywhere.  Commercial Support is also available
  from PostgreSQL, Inc.  The current version is 6.5.3 and is available
  at any of the many mirror sites or on CD.  (From the PostgreSQL
  website.)

  PostgreSQL may have already been shipped with your Linux distribution
  because of its open source license.
  6.5.2.  Download and Installation


  Rather than downloading from PostgreSQL, I suggest you initially try
  the PostgreSQL that most likely came with your Linux distribution.

  Alternatively, PostgreSQL can be obtained from
  http://www.postgresql.org.


  To confirm that PostgreSQL is installed on your computer, type:

  rpm -qa | grep postgresql



  or

  which postmaster
  which psql



  You need the postgresql, postgresql-server, and postgresql-java
  packages installed to use Java with PostgreSQL.

  Make sure PostgreSQL is running.  Type:

  ps -f -u postgres



  You should see postmaster, the PostgreSQL daemon, running.

  If postmaster is not running, there will probably be a Sys V Init
  script that you can use to start it.  In many distributions it is
  located in /etc/rc.d/init.d.  To start PostgreSQL, type:

  cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
  ./postgresql start



  You can use the above "ps" command to confirm that PostgreSQL is
  running.

  Note: To use JDBC, PostgreSQL needs to have been started with the '-i'
  parameter indicating support for TCP/IP connections rather than solely
  UNIX domain sockets.  Confirm that postmaster> was started with the
  '-i' paramter.


  Create a test database by typing:

  su - postgres
  createdb javatest



  You should see no error messages.

  Create a test table with one test row.  First, log in to the
  interactive PostgreSQL tool and connect to the javatest database you
  just created by typing (as the postgres user):


  psql javatest



  You should see confirmation that you are connected to the database:
  javatest.


  Then, create the test table by typing (within psql):

  create table test (col1 varchar(255));



  You should see the "CREATE" confirmation message.

  Next, insert one row by typing (within psql):

  insert into test (col1) values ('Hello, from PostgreSQL!');



  You should see the "INSERT" confirmation message.

  Finally, confirm that the row is there by typing (within psql):

  select col1 from test;



  You should see the row you just created.

  You can exit psql by typing "\ q".

  For more assistance on working with PostgreSQL, I suggest you look
  into the Database-SQL-RDBMS HOW-TO document for Linux (PostgreSQL
  Object Relational Database System) at
  http://metalab.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/PostgreSQL-HOWTO.html.


  You will need to add the appropriate JAR to your CLASSPATH.  The
  PostgreSQL JARs come in the postgresql-jdbc package.

  export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:/usr/lib/pgsql/jdbc6.5-1.2.jar



  You may need to substitute the path depending you where PostgreSQL is
  installed on your system.

  6.5.3.  Confirming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple JDBC application that
  uses PostgreSQL.  Create the following program.



  import java.sql.*;

  class PostgreSQLTest {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      try {
        Driver driver = (Driver)
          Class.forName("postgresql.Driver").newInstance();
        DriverManager.registerDriver(driver);

        String     url = "jdbc:postgresql:javatest";
        Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "postgres", "");
        Statement  stm = con.createStatement();

        stm.setQueryTimeout(10);
        ResultSet  rs  = stm.executeQuery("select col1 from test");

        rs.next();

        System.out.println(rs.getString(1));

      } catch (SQLException e) {

        System.out.println("Exception!");
        System.out.println(e.toString());
    }
  }



  Compile the program with the Java compiler.

  javac PostgreSQLTest.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Run the program with the JVM.

  java PostgreSQLTest



  If the JVM produces errors, confirm your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  You should see the following output:

  Hello, from PostgreSQL!



  Congratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested a JDBC interface to PostgreSQL.

  6.5.4.  More Information


  For more information, I suggest you look into the PostgreSQL website
  at

  http://www.postgresql.org/.



  6.6.  Sybase


  6.6.1.  Background


  Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise is a commericial RDBMS that is
  available for the Linux operating system.  While Sybase has recently
  released version 12.0, version 11.9.2 is available for Linux.

  According to the Sybase website, "By porting ASE to Linux, Sybase
  provides the Linux development community with the first highly
  scalable, high-performance database engine available for the platform.
  The package includes the standard features of Adaptive Server
  Enterprise and all related connectivity components.  Adaptive Server
  Enterprise 11.9.2 is offered FREE for development."


  6.6.2.  Download


  The Sybase ASE can be obtained from
  http://www.sybase.com/products/databaseservers/linux/linux1192_reg.html.


  In order to download, you will have to register with the Sybase
  website and agree to the license online.

  The Sybase JDBC driver can be obtained from
  http://www.sybase.com/products/internet/jconnect/.


  Select download jConnect 4.2/5.2.

  If you have access to a Sybase server on the network, you only need to
  download and install the JDBC driver.

  6.6.3.  Installation


  Installation of Sybase is beyond the scope of this HOWTO.  This HOWTO
  will assume that Sybase has been correctly installed and configured
  and that you can get to Sybase using isql.

  Log into isql as sa and create a test user and test database by
  typing:


  create database javatest
  go
  sp_addlogin javatest, javatest, javatest
  go
  use javatest
  go
  sp_dbowner javatest
  go



  You should see no error messages.

  Create a test table with one test row.  First, log in to isql as the
  javatest user and type:



  create table test (col1 varchar(255))
  go



  You should see no error messages.

  Next, insert one row by typing:

  insert into test (col1) values ('Hello, from Sybase!')
  go



  You should see no error messages.

  Finally, confirm that the row is there by typing:

  select col1 from test
  go



  You should see the row you just created.

  You can exit isql by typing "exit".

  For more assistance on working with Sybase, review the documentation
  that can be downloaded with Sybase.

  You will need to add the appropriate JAR to your CLASSPATH.

  export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:/usr/local/sybase/jConnect-5_2/classes/jconn2.jar



  You may need to substitute the path depending you where jConnect is
  installed on your system.

  6.6.4.  Confirming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple JDBC application that
  uses Sybase.  Create the following program.



  import java.sql.*;

  class SybaseTest {
    public static void main (String[] args) {
      try {
        Driver driver = (Driver)
          Class.forName("com.sybase.jdbc2.jdbc.SybDriver").newInstance();
        DriverManager.registerDriver(driver);

        String     host = "127.0.0.1";
        String     port = "4100";

        String     url = "jdbc:sybase:Tds:" + host + ":" + port;
        Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url, "javatest", "javatest");
        Statement  stm = con.createStatement();

        stm.setQueryTimeout(10);
        ResultSet  rs  = stm.executeQuery("select col1 from test");

        rs.next();

        System.out.println(rs.getString(1));

      } catch (SQLException e) {

        System.out.println("Exception!");
        System.out.println(e.toString());
    }
  }



  You will need to substitute the host and port number of you Sybase
  server as appropriate.  See $SYBASE/interfaces and the $DSQUERY entry
  for what values to use for the host and port number.

  Compile the program with the Java compiler.

  javac SybaseTest.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Run the program with the JVM.

  java SybaseTest



  If the JVM produces errors, confirm your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  You should see the following output:

  Hello, from Sybase!



  Congratulations, you have installed, set up an environment for, and
  tested a JDBC interface to Sybase.

  6.6.5.  More Information



  For more information, I suggest you look into the Sybase jConnect
  website at http://www.sybase.com/products/internet/jconnect/.


  7.  How to Setup Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) Support


  To be written.

  7.1.  BEA WebLogic


  To be written.

  See http://www.beasys.com/linux/for more information.


  7.2.  EJBoss


  7.2.1.  Background

  EJBoss has been renamed JBoss and is well advanced with stable J2EE
  compliant releases at http://www.jboss.org/.

  This section was written when it was still EJBoss 0.95 and needs to be
  updated.


  7.2.2.  Download


  JBoss can be downloaded from the JBoss website at
  http://www.jboss.org/.


  7.2.3.  Installation


  I suggest installing files in the /usr/local directory. After
  downloading, run:

  mkdir /usr/local/ejboss
  mv ejboss* /usr/local/ejboss



  Unjar the file:

  jar xvf ejboss095_jdk122.jar



  You should see various files and directories created under
  /usr/local/ejboss.

  The above example shows EJBoss 0.95 for JDK 1.2.2. Substitute the file
  names as appropriate.

  7.2.4.  Setting up Your Environment


  The environment variables to set up are:

  ·  CLASSPATH

  The CLASSPATH environment variable references all JARs and directories
  that you will need to compile and run Java programs.

  Include the EJBoss JAR and the beans/generated directory in your
  CLASSPATH.

  export CLASSPATH=/usr/local/ejboss/lib/ejboss095_jdk122.jar:/usr/local/ejboss/beans/generated:$CLASSPATH



  7.2.5.  Confiming Your Installation


  You are now ready to compile and run a simple EJB application. Create
  the following three source files for the server.

  First, the business interface.

  // EJBTest.java

  import javax.ejb.*;
  import java.rmi.RemoteException;

  public
   interface EJBTest extends EJBObject {
    public String greet() throws
   RemoteException;

  }



  Second, the home interface.

  // EJBTestHome.java

  import javax.ejb.*;
  import java.rmi.RemoteException;

  public
   interface EJBTestHome extends EJBHome {

    public EJBTest create() throws

     CreateException, RemoteException;
  }



  Third, the bean implementation class.



  // EJBTestBean.java

  import javax.ejb.*;
  import java.rmi.RemoteException;

  public
   interface EJBTestBean implements SessionBean {

    private SessionContext
   mContext = null;

    public void ejbPassivate() {
      System.out.println("EJBTestBean
   passivated.");
  }

    public void ejbActivate() {
      System.out.println("EJBTestBean
   activated.");
  }

    public void ejbCreate() {
      System.out.println("EJBTestBean
   created.");
  }

    public void ejbRemove() {
      System.out.println("EJBTestBean
   removed.");
  }

    public void setSessionContext() {
      System.out.println("EJBTestBean
   context set.");
      mContext = context;
  }

    public String greet()
   {
      return "Hello, I'm an EJB!";
  }

  }



  Compile the server source files with the Java compiler:

  javac EJBTest*.java



  If the compiler produces errors, double check the syntax and confirm
  your PATH and CLASSPATH.

  Now that you have successfully written and compiled the server source
  files, you need to deploy your bean to EJBoss. Deploying a bean to
  EJBoss requires several steps that must be performed exactly.

  First, create the file ejb-jar.xml.

  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="Cp1252"?>



  <ejb-jar ID="">



       <description></description>



       <display-name></display-name>



       <small-icon></small-icon>



       <large-icon></large-icon>



       <ejb-client-jar></ejb-client-jar>



       <enterprise-beans>



         <session>



           <description>Nextgen bean</description>



           <ejb-name>nextgen.EJBTest</ejb-name>



           <home>EJBTestHome</home>



           <remote>EJBTest</remote>



           <ejb-class>EJBTestBean</ejb-class>



           <session-type>Stateful</session-type>



           <transaction-type>Bean</transaction-type>



           <env-entry>



             <description></description>

             <env-entry-name></env-entry-name>



             <env-entry-type>java.lang.String</env-entry-type>



             <env-entry-value></env-entry-value>



           </env-entry>



           <resource-ref>



             <description></description>



             <res-ref-name></res-ref-name>



             <res-type></res-type>



             <res-auth>Container</res-auth>



           </resource-ref>



         </session>



       </enterprise-beans>



       <assembly-descriptor />



     </ejb-jar>



  The above file, which must be named ejb-jar.xml identifies the
  interface and class names of files that you just created as well as a
  name for the object.

  Second, relative to the directory of the three class files you just
  created, create a META-INF directory.

  mkdir META-INF
  mv ejb-jar.xml META-INF

  Third, package all four files into a jar.

  jar cvf EJBTest.jar EJBTest*.class META-INF/ejb-jar.xml



  You should see that it added the manifest as well as the three class
  files and the XML deployment descriptor file.

  Fourth, put the JAR you just created in the EJBoss beans directory.

  mv EJBTest.jar /usr/local/ejboss/beans



  Fifth, move the class files you created to the EJBoss beans/generated
  directory.

  mv EJBTest*.class /usr/local/ejboss/beans/generated



  (This fifth step is redudant due to a bug in EJBoss 0.95. )

  You are now ready to start the EJBoss server.

  cd /usr/local/ejboss

  sh server.sh

  You should see the proxy files compile automatically and confirmation
  that your EJB is deployed.

  You are now ready to write, compile and test the simple client
  applicaiton.

  7.3.  Bullsoft JOnAS EJB


  To be written.

  See http://www.bullsoft.com/ejb/for more information.