The Linux System Administrator's Guide

Table of Contents
About This Book
    1. Acknowledgments
    2. Revision History
    3. Source and pre-formatted versions available
    4. Typographical Conventions
   
   
1. Introduction
    1.1. Linux or GNU/Linux, that is the question.
    1.2. Trademarks
   
   
2. Overview of a Linux System
    2.1. Various parts of an operating system
    2.2. Important parts of the kernel
    2.3. Major services in a UNIX system
   
   
3. Overview of the Directory Tree
    3.1. Background
    3.2. The root filesystem
    3.3. The /etc directory
    3.4. The /dev directory
    3.5. The /usr filesystem.
    3.6. The /var filesystem
    3.7. The /proc filesystem
   
   
4. Hardware, Devices, and Tools
    4.1. Hardware Utilities
    4.2. Kernel Modules
   
   
5. Using Disks and Other Storage Media
    5.1. Two kinds of devices
    5.2. Hard disks
    5.3. Storage Area Networks - Draft
    5.4. Network Attached Storage - Draft
    5.5. Floppies
    5.6. CD-ROMs
    5.7. Tapes
    5.8. Formatting
    5.9. Partitions
    5.10. Filesystems
    5.11. Disks without filesystems
    5.12. Allocating disk space
   
   
6. Memory Management
    6.1. What is virtual memory?
    6.2. Creating a swap space
    6.3. Using a swap space
    6.4. Sharing swap spaces with other operating systems
    6.5. Allocating swap space
    6.6. The buffer cache
   
   
7. System Monitoring
    7.1. System Resources
    7.2. Filesystem Usage
    7.3. Monitoring Users
   
   
8. Boots And Shutdowns
    8.1. An overview of boots and shutdowns
    8.2. The boot process in closer look
    8.3. More about shutdowns
    8.4. Rebooting
    8.5. Single user mode
    8.6. Emergency boot floppies
   
   
9. init
    9.1. init comes first
    9.2. Configuring init to start getty: the /etc/inittab file
    9.3. Run levels
    9.4. Special configuration in /etc/inittab
    9.5. Booting in single user mode
   
   
10. Logging In And Out
    10.1. Logins via terminals
    10.2. Logins via the network
    10.3. What login does
    10.4. X and xdm
    10.5. Access control
    10.6. Shell startup
   
   
11. Managing user accounts
    11.1. What's an account?
    11.2. Creating a user
    11.3. Changing user properties
    11.4. Removing a user
    11.5. Disabling a user temporarily
   
   
12. Backups
    12.1. On the importance of being backed up
    12.2. Selecting the backup medium
    12.3. Selecting the backup tool
    12.4. Simple backups
    12.5. Multilevel backups
    12.6. What to back up
    12.7. Compressed backups
   
   
13. Task Automation --To Be Added
14. Keeping Time
    14.1. The concept of localtime
    14.2. The hardware and software clocks
    14.3. Showing and setting time
    14.4. When the clock is wrong
    14.5. NTP - Network Time Protocol
    14.6. Basic NTP configuration
    14.7. NTP Toolkit
    14.8. Some known NTP servers
    14.9. NTP Links
   
   
15. System Logs --To Be Added
16. System Updates --To Be Added
17. The Linux Kernel Source
18. Finding Help
    18.1. Newsgroups and Mailing Lists
    18.2. IRC
   
   
A. GNU Free Documentation License
    A.1. PREAMBLE
    A.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    A.3. VERBATIM COPYING
    A.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    A.5. MODIFICATIONS
    A.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    A.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    A.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    A.9. TRANSLATION
    A.10. TERMINATION
    A.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    A.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
   
   
Glossary (DRAFT, but not for long hopefully)
Index-Draft

List of Tables
5-1. Comparing Filesystem Features
5-2. Sizes
5-3. My Partitions
9-1. Run level numbers
12-1. Efficient backup scheme using many backup levels

List of Figures
2-1. Some of the more important parts of the Linux kernel
3-1. Parts of a Unix directory tree. Dashed lines indicate partition limits.
5-1. A schematic picture of a hard disk.
5-2. A sample hard disk partitioning.
5-3. Three separate filesystems.
5-4. /home and /usr have been mounted.
10-1. Logins via terminals: the interaction of init, getty, login, and the
    shell.
12-1. A sample multilevel backup schedule.

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About This Book

    "Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm
    not sure about the former." Albert Einstein
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Acknowledgments

1.1. Joanna's acknowledgments

Many people have helped me with this book, directly or indirectly. I would
like to especially thank Matt Welsh for inspiration and LDP leadership, Andy
Oram for getting me to work again with much-valued feedback, Olaf Kirch for
showing me that it can be done, and Adam Richter at Yggdrasil and others for
showing me that other people can find it interesting as well.

Stephen Tweedie, H. Peter Anvin, Remy Card, Theodore Ts'o, and Stephen
Tweedie have let me borrow their work (and thus make the book look thicker
and much more impressive): a comparison between the xia and ext2 filesystems,
the device list and a description of the ext2 filesystem. These aren't part
of the book any more. I am most grateful for this, and very apologetic for
the earlier versions that sometimes lacked proper attribution.

In addition, I would like to thank Mark Komarinski for sending his material
in 1993 and the many system administration columns in Linux Journal. They are
quite informative and inspirational.

Many useful comments have been sent by a large number of people. My miniature
black hole of an archive doesn't let me find all their names, but some of
them are, in alphabetical order: Paul Caprioli, Ales Cepek, Marie-France
Declerfayt, Dave Dobson, Olaf Flebbe, Helmut Geyer, Larry Greenfield and his
father, Stephen Harris, Jyrki Havia, Jim Haynes, York Lam, Timothy Andrew
Lister, Jim Lynch, Michael J. Micek, Jacob Navia, Dan Poirier, Daniel
Quinlan, Jouni K Seppänen, Philippe Steindl, G.B. Stotte. My apologies to
anyone I have forgotten.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Stephen's acknowledgments

I would like to thank Lars and Joanna for their hard work on the guide.

In a guide like this one there are likely to be at least some minor
inaccuracies. And there are almost certainly going to be sections that become
out of date from time to time. If you notice any of this then please let me
know by sending me an email to: <bagpuss@debian.org.NOSPAM>. I will take
virtually any form of input (diffs, just plain text, html, whatever), I am in
no way above allowing others to help me maintain such a large text as this :)

Many thanks to Helen Topping Shaw for getting the red pen out and making the
text far better than it would otherwise have been. Also thanks are due just
for being wonderful.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Alex's Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Lars, Joanna, and Stephen for all the great work that
they have done on this document over the years. I only hope that my
contribution will be worthy of continuing the work they started.

Like the previous maintainers, I openly welcome any comments, suggestions,
complains, corrections, or any other form of feedback you may have. This
document can only benefit from the suggestions of those who use it.

There have been many people who have helped me on my journey through the
"Windows-Free" world, the person I feel I need to thank the most is my first
true UN*X mentor, Mike Velasco. Back in a time before SCO became a "dirty
word", Mike helped me on the path of tar's, cpio's, and many, many man pages.
Thanks Mike! You are the 'Sofa King'.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Revision History

Revision History                                                             
Revision 0.7            2001-12-03             Revised by: SS                
Revision 0.8            2003-11-18             Revised by: AW                
                                                                             
 1. Added a section on NTP                                                   
 2. Cleaned some SGML                                                        
 3. Added ext3 to the filesystem section                                     
                                                                             
Revision 0.9                                   Revised by: AW                
                                                                             
 1. Cleaned some SGML code, changed doctype to lds.dsl, and added id tags    
 2. Updated section on filesystem types, and Filesystem comparison           
 3. Updated partition type section                                           
 4. Updated section on creating partitions                                   
 5. Wrote section on Logical Volume Manager (LVM)                            
 6. Updated section on space allocation                                      
 7. Added chapter on System Monitoring                                       
 8. Added more command line utilities                                        
 9. Verified Device list                                                     
10. Modified email address for Authors                                       
11. Added references to more in-depth documents where applicable             
12. Added notes on upcoming sections                                         
13. Indexed chapters 1 - 4, & part of 5                                      
14. Updated Misc Information throughout the book                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Source and pre-formatted versions available

The source code and other machine readable formats of this book can be found
on the Internet via anonymous FTP at the Linux Documentation Project home
page [http://www.tldp.org/] http://www.tldp.org/, or at the home page of this
book at [http://www.draxeman.com/sag.html] http://www.draxeman/sag.html. This
book is available in at least it's SGML source, as well as, HTML and PDF
formats. Other formats may be available.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Typographical Conventions

Throughout this book, I have tried to use uniform typographical conventions.
Hopefully they aid readability. If you can suggest any improvements please
contact me.

Filenames are expressed as: /usr/share/doc/foo.

Command names are expressed as: fsck

Email addresses are expressed as: <user@domain.com>

URLs are expressed as: [http://www.tldp.org] http://www.tldp.org

I will add to this section as things come up whilst editing. If you notice
anything that should be added then please let me know.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 1. Introduction

    "In the beginning, the file was without form, and void; and emptiness was
    upon the face of the bits. And the Fingers of the Author moved upon the
    face of the keyboard. And the Author said, Let there be words, and there
    were words."
   
The Linux System Administrator's Guide, describes the system administration
aspects of using Linux. It is intended for people who know next to nothing
about system administration (those saying ``what is it?''), but who have
already mastered at least the basics of normal usage. This manual doesn't
tell you how to install Linux; that is described in the Installation and
Getting Started document. See below for more information about Linux manuals.

System administration covers all the things that you have to do to keep a
computer system in usable order. It includes things like backing up files
(and restoring them if necessary), installing new programs, creating accounts
for users (and deleting them when no longer needed), making certain that the
filesystem is not corrupted, and so on. If a computer were, say, a house,
system administration would be called maintenance, and would include
cleaning, fixing broken windows, and other such things.

The structure of this manual is such that many of the chapters should be
usable independently, so if you need information about backups, for example,
you can read just that chapter. However, this manual is first and foremost a
tutorial and can be read sequentially or as a whole.

This manual is not intended to be used completely independently. Plenty of
the rest of the Linux documentation is also important for system
administrators. After all, a system administrator is just a user with special
privileges and duties. Very useful resources are the manual pages, which
should always be consulted when you are not familiar with a command. If you
do not know which command you need, then the apropos command can be used.
Consult its manual page for more details.

While this manual is targeted at Linux, a general principle has been that it
should be useful with other UNIX based operating systems as well.
Unfortunately, since there is so much variance between different versions of
UNIX in general, and in system administration in particular, there is little
hope to cover all variants. Even covering all possibilities for Linux is
difficult, due to the nature of its development.

There is no one official Linux distribution, so different people have
different setups and many people have a setup they have built up themselves.
This book is not targeted at any one distribution. Distributions can and do
vary considerably. When possible, differences have been noted and
alternatives given. For a list of distributions and some of their differences
see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Linux_distributions] http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Linux_distributions.

In trying to describe how things work, rather than just listing ``five easy
steps'' for each task, there is much information here that is not necessary
for everyone, but those parts are marked as such and can be skipped if you
use a preconfigured system. Reading everything will, naturally, increase your
understanding of the system and should make using and administering it more
productive.

Understanding is the key to success with Linux. This book could just provide
recipes, but what would you do when confronted by a problem this book had no
recipe for? If the book can provide understanding, then recipes are not
required. The answers will be self evident.

Like all other Linux related development, the work to write this manual was
done on a volunteer basis: I did it because I thought it might be fun and
because I felt it should be done. However, like all volunteer work, there is
a limit to how much time, knowledge and experience people have. This means
that the manual is not necessarily as good as it would be if a wizard had
been paid handsomely to write it and had spent millennia to perfect it. Be
warned.

One particular point where corners have been cut is that many things that are
already well documented in other freely available manuals are not always
covered here. This applies especially to program specific documentation, such
as all the details of using mkfs. Only the purpose of the program and as much
of its usage as is necessary for the purposes of this manual is described.
For further information, consult these other manuals. Usually, all of the
referred to documentation is part of the full Linux documentation set.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. Linux or GNU/Linux, that is the question.

Many people feel that Linux should really be called GNU/Linux. This is
because Linux is only the kernel, not the applications that run on it. Most
of the basic command line utilities were written by the Free Software
Foundation while developing their GNU operating system. Among those utilities
are some of the most basic commands like cp, mv lsof, and dd.

In a nutshell, what happened was, the FSF started developing GNU by writing
things like compliers, C libraries, and basic command line utilities before
the kernel. Linus Torvalds, started Linux by writing the Linux kernel first
and using applications written for GNU.

I do not feel that this is the proper forum to debate what name people should
use when referring to Linux. I mention it here, because I feel it is
important to understand the relationship between GNU and Linux, and to also
explain why some Linux is sometimes referred to as GNU/Linux. The document
will be simply referring to it as Linux.

GNU's side of the issue is discussed on their website:

The relationship - [http://www.gnu.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html] http://
www.gnu.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html

Why Linux should be GNU/Linux - [http://www.gnu.org/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html]
http://www.gnu.org/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html

GNU/Linux FAQ's - [http://www.gnu.org/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html] http://
www.gnu.org/gnu/gnu-linux-faq.html

Here are some Alternate views:

[http://librenix.com/?inode=2312] http://librenix.com/?inode=2312

[http://www.topology.org/linux/lingl.html] http://www.topology.org/linux/
lingl.html

[http://atulchitnis.net/writings/gnulinux.php] http://atulchitnis.net/
writings/gnulinux.php
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Trademarks

Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP are trademarks
and/or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

Red Hat is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc., in the United States and other
countries.

SuSE is a trademark of Novell.

Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries,
licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Ltd.

GNU is a registered trademark of the Free Software Foundation.

Other product names mentioned herein may be trademarks and/or registered
trademarks of their respective companies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2. Overview of a Linux System

    "God saw everything that he had made, and saw that it was very good. " --
    Bible King James Version. Genesis 1:31
   
This chapter gives an overview of a Linux system. First, the major services
provided by the operating system are described. Then, the programs that
implement these services are described with a considerable lack of detail.
The purpose of this chapter is to give an understanding of the system as a
whole, so that each part is described in detail elsewhere.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. Various parts of an operating system

UNIX and 'UNIX-like' operating systems (such as Linux) consist of a kernel
and some system programs. There are also some application programs for doing
work. The kernel is the heart of the operating system. In fact, it is often
mistakenly considered to be the operating system itself, but it is not. An
operating system provides provides many more services than a plain kernel.

It keeps track of files on the disk, starts programs and runs them
concurrently, assigns memory and other resources to various processes,
receives packets from and sends packets to the network, and so on. The kernel
does very little by itself, but it provides tools with which all services can
be built. It also prevents anyone from accessing the hardware directly,
forcing everyone to use the tools it provides. This way the kernel provides
some protection for users from each other. The tools provided by the kernel
are used via system calls. See manual page section 2 for more information on
these.

The system programs use the tools provided by the kernel to implement the
various services required from an operating system. System programs, and all
other programs, run `on top of the kernel', in what is called the user mode.
The difference between system and application programs is one of intent:
applications are intended for getting useful things done (or for playing, if
it happens to be a game), whereas system programs are needed to get the
system working. A word processor is an application; mount is a system
program. The difference is often somewhat blurry, however, and is important
only to compulsive categorizers.

An operating system can also contain compilers and their corresponding
libraries (GCC and the C library in particular under Linux), although not all
programming languages need be part of the operating system. Documentation,
and sometimes even games, can also be part of it. Traditionally, the
operating system has been defined by the contents of the installation tape or
disks; with Linux it is not as clear since it is spread all over the FTP
sites of the world.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Important parts of the kernel

The Linux kernel consists of several important parts: process management,
memory management, hardware device drivers, filesystem drivers, network
management, and various other bits and pieces. Figure 2-1 shows some of them.


Figure 2-1. Some of the more important parts of the Linux kernel

[overview-kernel]

Probably the most important parts of the kernel (nothing else works without
them) are memory management and process management. Memory management takes
care of assigning memory areas and swap space areas to processes, parts of
the kernel, and for the buffer cache. Process management creates processes,
and implements multitasking by switching the active process on the processor.

At the lowest level, the kernel contains a hardware device driver for each
kind of hardware it supports. Since the world is full of different kinds of
hardware, the number of hardware device drivers is large. There are often
many otherwise similar pieces of hardware that differ in how they are
controlled by software. The similarities make it possible to have general
classes of drivers that support similar operations; each member of the class
has the same interface to the rest of the kernel but differs in what it needs
to do to implement them. For example, all disk drivers look alike to the rest
of the kernel, i.e., they all have operations like `initialize the drive',
`read sector N', and `write sector N'.

Some software services provided by the kernel itself have similar properties,
and can therefore be abstracted into classes. For example, the various
network protocols have been abstracted into one programming interface, the
BSD socket library. Another example is the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer
that abstracts the filesystem operations away from their implementation. Each
filesystem type provides an implementation of each filesystem operation. When
some entity tries to use a filesystem, the request goes via the VFS, which
routes the request to the proper filesystem driver.

A more in-depth discussion of kernel internals can be found at [http://
www.tldp.org/LDP/lki/index.html] http://www.tldp.org/LDP/lki/index.html. This
document was written for the 2.4 kernel. When I find one for the 2.6 kernel,
I will list it here.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. Major services in a UNIX system

This section describes some of the more important UNIX services, but without
much detail. They are described more thoroughly in later chapters.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.1. init

The single most important service in a UNIX system is provided by init init
is started as the first process of every UNIX system, as the last thing the
kernel does when it boots. When init starts, it continues the boot process by
doing various startup chores (checking and mounting filesystems, starting
daemons, etc).

The exact list of things that init does depends on which flavor it is; there
are several to choose from. init usually provides the concept of single user
mode, in which no one can log in and root uses a shell at the console; the
usual mode is called multiuser mode. Some flavors generalize this as run
levels; single and multiuser modes are considered to be two run levels, and
there can be additional ones as well, for example, to run X on the console.

Linux allows for up to 10 runlevels, 0-9, but usually only some of these are
defined by default. Runlevel 0 is defined as ``system halt''. Runlevel 1 is
defined as ``single user mode''. Runlevel 3 is defined as "multi user"
because it is the runlevel that the system boot into under normal day to day
conditions. Runlevel 5 is typically the same as 3 except that a GUI gets
started also. Runlevel 6 is defined as ``system reboot''. Other runlevels are
dependent on how your particular distribution has defined them, and they vary
significantly between distributions. Looking at the contents of /etc/inittab
usually will give some hint what the predefined runlevels are and what they
have been defined as.

In normal operation, init makes sure getty is working (to allow users to log
in) and to adopt orphan processes (processes whose parent has died; in UNIX 
all processes must be in a single tree, so orphans must be adopted).

When the system is shut down, it is init that is in charge of killing all
other processes, unmounting all filesystems and stopping the processor, along
with anything else it has been configured to do.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.2. Logins from terminals

Logins from terminals (via serial lines) and the console (when not running X)
are provided by the getty program. init starts a separate instance of getty
for each terminal upon which logins are to be allowed. getty reads the
username and runs the loginprogram, which reads the password. If the username
and password are correct, login runs the shell. When the shell terminates,
i.e., the user logs out, or when login terminated because the username and
password didn't match, init notices this and starts a new instance of getty.
The kernel has no notion of logins, this is all handled by the system
programs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.3. Syslog

The kernel and many system programs produce error, warning, and other
messages. It is often important that these messages can be viewed later, even
much later, so they should be written to a file. The program doing this is 
syslog . It can be configured to sort the messages to different files
according to writer or degree of importance. For example, kernel messages are
often directed to a separate file from the others, since kernel messages are
often more important and need to be read regularly to spot problems.

Chapter 15 will provide more on this.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.4. Periodic command execution: cron and at

Both users and system administrators often need to run commands periodically.
For example, the system administrator might want to run a command to clean
the directories with temporary files (/tmp and /var/tmp) from old files, to
keep the disks from filling up, since not all programs clean up after
themselves correctly.

The cron service is set up to do this. Each user can have a crontab file,
where she lists the commands she wishes to execute and the times they should
be executed. The cron daemon takes care of starting the commands when
specified.

The at service is similar to cron, but it is once only: the command is
executed at the given time, but it is not repeated.

We will go more into this later. See the manual pages cron(1), crontab(1),
crontab(5), at(1) and atd(8) for more in depth information.

Chapter 13 will cover this.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.5. Graphical user interface

  UNIX and Linux don't incorporate the user interface into the kernel;
instead, they let it be implemented by user level programs. This applies for
both text mode and graphical environments.

This arrangement makes the system more flexible, but has the disadvantage
that it is simple to implement a different user interface for each program,
making the system harder to learn.

The graphical environment primarily used with Linux is called the X Window
System (X for short). X also does not implement a user interface; it only
implements a window system, i.e., tools with which a graphical user interface
can be implemented. Some popular window managers are: fvwm , icewm , blackbox
, and windowmaker . There are also two popular desktop managers, KDE and
Gnome.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.6. Networking

Networking is the act of connecting two or more computers so that they can
communicate with each other. The actual methods of connecting and
communicating are slightly complicated, but the end result is very useful.

UNIX operating systems have many networking features. Most basic services
(filesystems, printing, backups, etc) can be done over the network. This can
make system administration easier, since it allows centralized
administration, while still reaping in the benefits of microcomputing and
distributed computing, such as lower costs and better fault tolerance.

However, this book merely glances at networking; see the Linux Network
Administrators' Guide [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/nag2/index.html] http://
www.tldp.org/LDP/nag2/index.html for more information, including a basic
description of how networks operate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.7. Network logins

Network logins work a little differently than normal logins. For each person
logging in via the network there is a separate virtual network connection,
and there can be any number of these depending on the available bandwidth. It
is therefore not possible to run a separate getty for each possible virtual
connection. There are also several different ways to log in via a network, 
telnet and ssh being the major ones in TCP/IP networks.

These days many Linux system administrators consider telnet and rlogin to be
insecure and prefer ssh, the ``secure shell'', which encrypts traffic going
over the network, thereby making it far less likely that the malicious can
``sniff'' your connection and gain sensitive data like usernames and
passwords. It is highly recommended you use ssh rather than telnet or rlogin.

Network logins have, instead of a herd of gettys, a single daemon per way of
logging in (telnet and ssh have separate daemons) that listens for all
incoming login attempts. When it notices one, it starts a new instance of
itself to handle that single attempt; the original instance continues to
listen for other attempts. The new instance works similarly to getty.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.8. Network file systems

One of the more useful things that can be done with networking services is
sharing files via a network file system. Depending on your network this could
be done over the Network File System (NFS), or over the Common Internet File
System (CIFS). NFS is typically a 'UNIX' based service. In Linux, NFS is
supported by the kernel. CIFS however is not. In Linux, CIFS is supported by
Samba [http://www.samba.org] http://www.samba.org.

With a network file system any file operations done by a program on one
machine are sent over the network to another computer. This fools the program
to think that all the files on the other computer are actually on the
computer the program is running on. This makes information sharing extremely
simple, since it requires no modifications to programs.

This will be covered in more detail in Section 5.4.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.9. Mail

Electronic mail is the most popularly used method for communicating via
computer. An electronic letter is stored in a file using a special format,
and special mail programs are used to send and read the letters.

Each user has an incoming mailbox (a file in the special format), where all
new mail is stored. When someone sends mail, the mail program locates the
receiver's mailbox and appends the letter to the mailbox file. If the
receiver's mailbox is in another machine, the letter is sent to the other
machine, which delivers it to the mailbox as it best sees fit.

The mail system consists of many programs. The delivery of mail to local or
remote mailboxes is done by one program (the mail transfer agent (MTA) ,
e.g., sendmail or postfix ), while the programs users use are many and varied
(mail user agent (MUA) , e.g., pine , or evolution . The mailboxes are
usually stored in /var/spool/mail until the user's MUA retrieves them.

For more information on setting up and running mail services you can read the
Mail Administrator HOWTO at [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
Mail-Administrator-HOWTO.html] http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
Mail-Administrator-HOWTO.html, or visit the sendmail or postfix's website.
[http://www.sendmail.org/] http://www.sendmail.org/, or http://
www.postfix.org/ .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.10. Printing

Only one person can use a printer at one time, but it is uneconomical not to
share printers between users. The printer is therefore managed by software
that implements a print queue: all print jobs are put into a queue and
whenever the printer is done with one job, the next one is sent to it
automatically. This relieves the users from organizing the print queue and
fighting over control of the printer. Instead, they form a new queue at the
printer, waiting for their printouts, since no one ever seems to be able to
get the queue software to know exactly when anyone's printout is really
finished. This is a great boost to intra-office social relations.

The print queue software also spools the printouts on disk, i.e., the text is
kept in a file while the job is in the queue. This allows an application
program to spit out the print jobs quickly to the print queue software; the
application does not have to wait until the job is actually printed to
continue. This is really convenient, since it allows one to print out one
version, and not have to wait for it to be printed before one can make a
completely revised new version.

You can refer to the Printing-HOWTO located at [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
Printing-HOWTO/index.html] http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Printing-HOWTO/
index.html for more help in setting up printers.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.11. The filesystem layout

The filesystem is divided into many parts; usually along the lines of a root
filesystem with /bin , /lib , /etc , /dev , and a few others; a /usr
filesystem with programs and unchanging data; /var filesystem with changing
data (such as log files); and a /home for everyone's personal files.
Depending on the hardware configuration and the decisions of the system
administrator, the division can be different; it can even be all in one
filesystem.

Chapter 3 describes the filesystem layout in some little detail; the
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard . covers it in somewhat more detail. This can
be found on the web at: [http://www.pathname.com/fhs/] http://
www.pathname.com/fhs/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 3. Overview of the Directory Tree

    " Two days later, there was Pooh, sitting on his branch, dangling his
    legs, and there, beside him, were four pots of honey..." (A.A. Milne)
   
This chapter describes the important parts of a standard Linux directory
tree, based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard . It outlines the normal way
of breaking the directory tree into separate filesystems with different
purposes and gives the motivation behind this particular split. Not all Linux
distributions follow this standard slavishly, but it is generic enough to
give you an overview.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Background

This chapter is loosely based on the Filesystems Hierarchy Standard (FHS).
version 2.1, which attempts to set a standard for how the directory tree in a
Linux system is organized. Such a standard has the advantage that it will be
easier to write or port software for Linux, and to administer Linux machines,
since everything should be in standardized places. There is no authority
behind the standard that forces anyone to comply with it, but it has gained
the support of many Linux distributions. It is not a good idea to break with
the FHS without very compelling reasons. The FHS attempts to follow Unix
tradition and current trends, making Linux systems familiar to those with
experience with other Unix systems, and vice versa.

This chapter is not as detailed as the FHS. A system administrator should
also read the full FHS for a complete understanding.

This chapter does not explain all files in detail. The intention is not to
describe every file, but to give an overview of the system from a filesystem
point of view. Further information on each file is available elsewhere in
this manual or in the Linux manual pages.

The full directory tree is intended to be breakable into smaller parts, each
capable of being on its own disk or partition, to accommodate to disk size
limits and to ease backup and other system administration tasks. The major
parts are the root (/ ), /usr , /var , and /home filesystems (see Figure 3-1
). Each part has a different purpose. The directory tree has been designed so
that it works well in a network of Linux machines which may share some parts
of the filesystems over a read-only device (e.g., a CD-ROM), or over the
network with NFS.


Figure 3-1. Parts of a Unix directory tree. Dashed lines indicate partition
limits.

[fstree]

The roles of the different parts of the directory tree are described below.

  * The root filesystem is specific for each machine (it is generally stored
    on a local disk, although it could be a ramdisk or network drive as well)
    and contains the files that are necessary for booting the system up, and
    to bring it up to such a state that the other filesystems may be mounted.
    The contents of the root filesystem will therefore be sufficient for the
    single user state. It will also contain tools for fixing a broken system,
    and for recovering lost files from backups.
   
  * The /usr filesystem contains all commands, libraries, manual pages, and
    other unchanging files needed during normal operation. No files in /usr
    should be specific for any given machine, nor should they be modified
    during normal use. This allows the files to be shared over the network,
    which can be cost-effective since it saves disk space (there can easily
    be hundreds of megabytes, increasingly multiple gigabytes in /usr). It
    can make administration easier (only the master /usr needs to be changed
    when updating an application, not each machine separately) to have /usr
    network mounted. Even if the filesystem is on a local disk, it could be
    mounted read-only, to lessen the chance of filesystem corruption during a
    crash.
   
  * The /var filesystem contains files that change, such as spool directories
    (for mail, news, printers, etc), log files, formatted manual pages, and
    temporary files. Traditionally everything in /var has been somewhere
    below /usr , but that made it impossible to mount /usr read-only.
   
   
  * The /home filesystem contains the users' home directories, i.e., all the
    real data on the system. Separating home directories to their own
    directory tree or filesystem makes backups easier; the other parts often
    do not have to be backed up, or at least not as often as they seldom
    change. A big /home might have to be broken across several filesystems,
    which requires adding an extra naming level below /home, for example /
    home/students and /home/staff.
   

Although the different parts have been called filesystems above, there is no
requirement that they actually be on separate filesystems. They could easily
be kept in a single one if the system is a small single-user system and the
user wants to keep things simple. The directory tree might also be divided
into filesystems differently, depending on how large the disks are, and how
space is allocated for various purposes. The important part, though, is that
all the standard names work; even if, say, /var and /usr are actually on the
same partition, the names /usr/lib/libc.a and /var/log/messages must work,
for example by moving files below /var into /usr/var, and making /var a
symlink to /usr/var.

The Unix filesystem structure groups files according to purpose, i.e., all
commands are in one place, all data files in another, documentation in a
third, and so on. An alternative would be to group files files according to
the program they belong to, i.e., all Emacs files would be in one directory,
all TeX in another, and so on. The problem with the latter approach is that
it makes it difficult to share files (the program directory often contains
both static and sharable and changing and non-sharable files), and sometimes
to even find the files (e.g., manual pages in a huge number of places, and
making the manual page programs find all of them is a maintenance nightmare).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. The root filesystem

The root filesystem should generally be small, since it contains very
critical files and a small, infrequently modified filesystem has a better
chance of not getting corrupted. A corrupted root filesystem will generally
mean that the system becomes unbootable except with special measures (e.g.,
from a floppy), so you don't want to risk it.

The root directory generally doesn't contain any files, except perhaps on
older systems where the standard boot image for the system, usually called /
vmlinuz was kept there. (Most distributions have moved those files the the /
boot directory. Otherwise, all files are kept in subdirectories under the
root filesystem:

/bin
    Commands needed during bootup that might be used by normal users
    (probably after bootup).
   
/sbin
    Like /bin, but the commands are not intended for normal users, although
    they may use them if necessary and allowed. /sbin is not usually in the
    default path of normal users, but will be in root's default path.
   
/etc
    Configuration files specific to the machine.
   
/root
    The home directory for user root. This is usually not accessible to other
    users on the system
   
/lib
    Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root filesystem.
   
/lib/modules
    Loadable kernel modules, especially those that are needed to boot the
    system when recovering from disasters (e.g., network and filesystem
    drivers).
   
/dev
    Device files. These are special files that help the user interface with
    the various devices on the system.
   
/tmp
    Temporary files. As the name suggests, programs running often store
    temporary files in here.
   
/boot
    Files used by the bootstrap loader, e.g., LILO or GRUB. Kernel images are
    often kept here instead of in the root directory. If there are many
    kernel images, the directory can easily grow rather big, and it might be
    better to keep it in a separate filesystem. Another reason would be to
    make sure the kernel images are within the first 1024 cylinders of an IDE
    disk. This 1024 cylinder limit is no longer true in most cases. With
    modern BIOSes and later versions of LILO (the LInux LOader) the 1024
    cylinder limit can be passed with logical block addressing (LBA). See the
    lilo manual page for more details.
   
/mnt
    Mount point for temporary mounts by the system administrator. Programs
    aren't supposed to mount on /mnt automatically. /mnt might be divided
    into subdirectories (e.g., /mnt/dosa might be the floppy drive using an
    MS-DOS filesystem, and /mnt/exta might be the same with an ext2
    filesystem).
   
/proc, /usr, /var, /home
    Mount points for the other filesystems. Although /proc does not reside on
    any disk in reality it is still mentioned here. See the section about /
    proc later in the chapter.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.3. The /etc directory

The /etc maintains a lot of files. Some of them are described below. For
others, you should determine which program they belong to and read the manual
page for that program. Many networking configuration files are in /etc as
well, and are described in the Networking Administrators' Guide.

/etc/rc or /etc/rc.d or /etc/rc?.d
    Scripts or directories of scripts to run at startup or when changing the
    run level. See Section 2.3.1 for further information.
   
/etc/passwd
    The user database, with fields giving the username, real name, home
    directory, and other information about each user. The format is
    documented in the passwd manual page.
   
/etc/shadow
    /etc/shadow is an encrypted file the holds user passwords.
   
/etc/fdprm
    Floppy disk parameter table. Describes what different floppy disk formats
    look like. Used by setfdprm . See the setfdprm manual page for more
    information.
   
/etc/fstab
    Lists the filesystems mounted automatically at startup by the mount -a
    command (in /etc/rc or equivalent startup file). Under Linux, also
    contains information about swap areas used automatically by swapon -a .
    See Section 5.10.7 and the mount manual page for more information. Also
    fstab usually has its own manual page in section 5.
   
/etc/group
    Similar to /etc/passwd, but describes groups instead of users. See the
    group manual page in section 5 for more information.
   
/etc/inittab
    Configuration file for init.
   
/etc/issue
    Output by getty before the login prompt. Usually contains a short
    description or welcoming message to the system. The contents are up to
    the system administrator.
   
/etc/magic
    The configuration file for file. Contains the descriptions of various
    file formats based on which file guesses the type of the file. See the
    magic and file manual pages for more information.
   
/etc/motd
    The message of the day, automatically output after a successful login.
    Contents are up to the system administrator. Often used for getting
    information to every user, such as warnings about planned downtimes.
   
/etc/mtab
    List of currently mounted filesystems. Initially set up by the bootup
    scripts, and updated automatically by the mount command. Used when a list
    of mounted filesystems is needed, e.g., by the df command.
   
/etc/login.defs
    Configuration file for the login command. The login.defs file usually has
    a manual page in section 5.
   
/etc/printcap
    Like /etc/termcap /etc/printcap , but intended for printers. However it
    uses different syntax. The printcap has a manual page in section 5.
   
/etc/profile, /etc/bash.rc, /etc/csh.cshrc
    Files executed at login or startup time by the Bourne, BASH , or C
    shells. These allow the system administrator to set global defaults for
    all users. Users can also create individual copies of these in their home
    directory to personalize their environment. See the manual pages for the
    respective shells.
   
/etc/securetty
    Identifies secure terminals, i.e., the terminals from which root is
    allowed to log in. Typically only the virtual consoles are listed, so
    that it becomes impossible (or at least harder) to gain superuser
    privileges by breaking into a system over a modem or a network. Do not
    allow root logins over a network. Prefer to log in as an unprivileged
    user and use su or sudo to gain root privileges.
   
/etc/shells
    Lists trusted shells. The chsh command allows users to change their login
    shell only to shells listed in this file. ftpd, is the server process
    that provides FTP services for a machine, will check that the user's
    shell is listed in /etc/shells and will not let people log in unless the
    shell is listed there.
   
/etc/termcap
    The terminal capability database. Describes by what ``escape sequences''
    various terminals can be controlled. Programs are written so that instead
    of directly outputting an escape sequence that only works on a particular
    brand of terminal, they look up the correct sequence to do whatever it is
    they want to do in /etc/termcap. As a result most programs work with most
    kinds of terminals. See the termcap, curs_termcap, and terminfo manual
    pages for more information.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.4. The /dev directory

The /dev directory contains the special device files for all the devices. The
device files are created during installation, and later with the /dev/MAKEDEV
script. The /dev/MAKEDEV.local is a script written by the system
administrator that creates local-only device files or links (i.e. those that
are not part of the standard MAKEDEV, such as device files for some
non-standard device driver).

This list which follows is by no means exhaustive or as detailed as it could
be. Many of these device files will need support compiled into your kernel
for the hardware. Read the kernel documentation to find details of any
particular device.

If you think there are other devices which should be included here but aren't
then let me know. I will try to include them in the next revision.

/dev/dsp
    Digital Signal Processor. Basically this forms the interface between
    software which produces sound and your soundcard. It is a character
    device on major node 14 and minor 3.
   
/dev/fd0
    The first floppy drive. If you are lucky enough to have several drives
    then they will be numbered sequentially. It is a character device on
    major node 2 and minor 0.
   
/dev/fb0
    The first framebuffer device. A framebuffer is an abstraction layer
    between software and graphics hardware. This means that applications do
    not need to know about what kind of hardware you have but merely how to
    communicate with the framebuffer driver's API (Application Programming
    Interface) which is well defined and standardized. The framebuffer is a
    character device and is on major node 29 and minor 0.
   
/dev/hda
    /dev/hda is the master IDE drive on the primary IDE controller. /dev/hdb
    the slave drive on the primary controller. /dev/hdc , and /dev/hdd are
    the master and slave devices on the secondary controller respectively.
    Each disk is divided into partitions. Partitions 1-4 are primary
    partitions and partitions 5 and above are logical partitions inside
    extended partitions. Therefore the device file which references each
    partition is made up of several parts. For example /dev/hdc9 references
    partition 9 (a logical partition inside an extended partition type) on
    the master IDE drive on the secondary IDE controller. The major and minor
    node numbers are somewhat complex. For the first IDE controller all
    partitions are block devices on major node 3. The master drive hda is at
    minor 0 and the slave drive hdb is at minor 64. For each partition inside
    the drive add the partition number to the minor minor node number for the
    drive. For example /dev/hdb5 is major 3, minor 69 (64 + 5 = 69). Drives
    on the secondary interface are handled the same way, but with major node
    22.
   
/dev/ht0
    The first IDE tape drive. Subsequent drives are numbered ht1 etc. They
    are character devices on major node 37 and start at minor node 0 for ht0
    1 for ht1 etc.
   
/dev/js0
    The first analogue joystick. Subsequent joysticks are numbered js1, js2
    etc. Digital joysticks are called djs0, djs1 and so on. They are
    character devices on major node 15. The analogue joysticks start at minor
    node 0 and go up to 127 (more than enough for even the most fanatic
    gamer). Digital joysticks start at minor node 128.
   
/dev/lp0
    The first parallel printer device. Subsequent printers are numbered lp1,
    lp2 etc. They are character devices on major mode 6 and minor nodes
    starting at 0 and numbered sequentially.
   
/dev/loop0
    The first loopback device. Loopback devices are used for mounting
    filesystems which are not located on other block devices such as disks.
    For example if you wish to mount an iso9660 CD ROM image without burning
    it to CD then you need to use a loopback device to do so. This is usually
    transparent to the user and is handled by the mount command. Refer to the
    manual pages for mount and losetup. The loopback devices are block
    devices on major node 7 and with minor nodes starting at 0 and numbered
    sequentially.
   
/dev/md0
    First metadisk group. Metadisks are related to RAID (Redundant Array of
    Independent Disks) devices. Please refer to the most current RAID HOWTO
    at the LDP for more details. This can be found at [http://www.tldp.org/
    HOWTO/Software-RAID-HOWTO.html] http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
    Software-RAID-HOWTO.html. Metadisk devices are block devices on major
    node 9 with minor nodes starting at 0 and numbered sequentially.
   
/dev/mixer
    This is part of the OSS (Open Sound System) driver. Refer to the OSS
    documentation at [http://www.opensound.com] http://www.opensound.com for
    more details. It is a character device on major node 14, minor node 0.
   
/dev/null
    The bit bucket. A black hole where you can send data for it never to be
    seen again. Anything sent to /dev/null will disappear. This can be useful
    if, for example, you wish to run a command but not have any feedback
    appear on the terminal. It is a character device on major node 1 and
    minor node 3.
   
/dev/psaux
    The PS/2 mouse port. This is a character device on major node 10, minor
    node 1.
   
/dev/pda
    Parallel port IDE disks. These are named similarly to disks on the
    internal IDE controllers (/dev/hd*). They are block devices on major node
    45. Minor nodes need slightly more explanation here. The first device is
    /dev/pda and it is on minor node 0. Partitions on this device are found
    by adding the partition number to the minor number for the device. Each
    device is limited to 15 partitions each rather than 63 (the limit for
    internal IDE disks). /dev/pdb minor nodes start at 16, /dev/pdc at 32 and
    /dev/pdd at 48. So for example the minor node number for /dev/pdc6 would
    be 38 (32 + 6 = 38). This scheme limits you to 4 parallel disks of 15
    partitions each.
   
/dev/pcd0
    Parallel port CD ROM drives. These are numbered from 0 onwards. All are
    block devices on major node 46. /dev/pcd0 is on minor node 0 with
    subsequent drives being on minor nodes 1, 2, 3 etc.
   
/dev/pt0
    Parallel port tape devices. Tapes do not have partitions so these are
    just numbered sequentially. They are character devices on major node 96.
    The minor node numbers start from 0 for /dev/pt0, 1 for /dev/pt1, and so
    on.
   
/dev/parport0
    The raw parallel ports. Most devices which are attached to parallel ports
    have their own drivers. This is a device to access the port directly. It
    is a character device on major node 99 with minor node 0. Subsequent
    devices after the first are numbered sequentially incrementing the minor
    node.
   
/dev/random or /dev/urandom
    These are kernel random number generators. /dev/random is a
    non-deterministic generator which means that the value of the next number
    cannot be guessed from the preceding ones. It uses the entropy of the
    system hardware to generate numbers. When it has no more entropy to use
    then it must wait until it has collected more before it will allow any
    more numbers to be read from it. /dev/urandom works similarly. Initially
    it also uses the entropy of the system hardware, but when there is no
    more entropy to use it will continue to return numbers using a pseudo
    random number generating formula. This is considered to be less secure
    for vital purposes such as cryptographic key pair generation. If security
    is your overriding concern then use /dev/random, if speed is more
    important then /dev/urandom works fine. They are character devices on
    major node 1 with minor nodes 8 for /dev/random and 9 for /dev/urandom.
   
/dev/sda
    The first SCSI drive on the first SCSI bus. The following drives are
    named similar to IDE drives. /dev/sdb is the second SCSI drive, /dev/sdc
    is the third SCSI drive, and so forth.
   
/dev/ttyS0
    The first serial port. Many times this it the port used to connect an
    external modem to your system.
   
/dev/zero
    This is a simple way of getting many 0s. Every time you read from this
    device it will return 0. This can be useful sometimes, for example when
    you want a file of fixed length but don't really care what it contains.
    It is a character device on major node 1 and minor node 5.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.5. The /usr filesystem.

The /usr filesystem is often large, since all programs are installed there.
All files in /usr usually come from a Linux distribution; locally installed
programs and other stuff goes below /usr/local. This makes it possible to
update the system from a new version of the distribution, or even a
completely new distribution, without having to install all programs again.
Some of the subdirectories of /usr are listed below (some of the less
important directories have been dropped; see the FSSTND for more
information).

/usr/X11R6.
    The X Window System, all files. To simplify the development and
    installation of X, the X files have not been integrated into the rest of
    the system. There is a directory tree below /usr/X11R6 similar to that
    below /usr itself.
   
/usr/bin.
    Almost all user commands. Some commands are in /bin or in /usr/local/bin.
   
/usr/sbin
    System administration commands that are not needed on the root
    filesystem, e.g., most server programs.
   
/usr/share/man, /usr/share/info, /usr/share/doc
    Manual pages, GNU Info documents, and miscellaneous other documentation
    files, respectively.
   
/usr/include
    Header files for the C programming language. This should actually be
    below /usr/lib for consistency, but the tradition is overwhelmingly in
    support for this name.
   
/usr/lib
    Unchanging data files for programs and subsystems, including some
    site-wide configuration files. The name lib comes from library;
    originally libraries of programming subroutines were stored in /usr/lib.
   
/usr/local
    The place for locally installed software and other files. Distributions
    may not install anything in here. It is reserved solely for the use of
    the local administrator. This way he can be absolutely certain that no
    updates or upgrades to his distribution will overwrite any extra software
    he has installed locally.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.6. The /var filesystem

The /var contains data that is changed when the system is running normally.
It is specific for each system, i.e., not shared over the network with other
computers.

/var/cache/man
    A cache for man pages that are formatted on demand. The source for manual
    pages is usually stored in /usr/share/man/man?/ (where ? is the manual
    section. See the manual page for man in section 7); some manual pages
    might come with a pre-formatted version, which might be stored in /usr/
    share/man/cat* . Other manual pages need to be formatted when they are
    first viewed; the formatted version is then stored in /var/cache/man so
    that the next person to view the same page won't have to wait for it to
    be formatted.
   
/var/games
    Any variable data belonging to games in /usr should be placed here. This
    is in case /usr is mounted read only.
   
/var/lib
    Files that change while the system is running normally.
   
/var/local
    Variable data for programs that are installed in /usr/local (i.e.,
    programs that have been installed by the system administrator). Note that
    even locally installed programs should use the other /var directories if
    they are appropriate, e.g., /var/lock.
   
/var/lock
    Lock files. Many programs follow a convention to create a lock file in /
    var/lock to indicate that they are using a particular device or file.
    Other programs will notice the lock file and won't attempt to use the
    device or file.
   
/var/log
    Log files from various programs, especially login(/var/log/wtmp, which
    logs all logins and logouts into the system) and syslog(/var/log/
    messages, where all kernel and system program message are usually
    stored). Files in /var/log can often grow indefinitely, and may require
    cleaning at regular intervals.
   
/var/mail
    This is the FHS approved location for user mailbox files. Depending on
    how far your distribution has gone towards FHS compliance, these files
    may still be held in /var/spool/mail.
   
/var/run
    Files that contain information about the system that is valid until the
    system is next booted. For example, /var/run/utmp contains information
    about people currently logged in.
   
/var/spool
    Directories for news, printer queues, and other queued work. Each
    different spool has its own subdirectory below /var/spool, e.g., the news
    spool is in /var/spool/news . Note that some installations which are not
    fully compliant with the latest version of the FHS may have user
    mailboxes under /var/spool/mail.
   
/var/tmp
    Temporary files that are large or that need to exist for a longer time
    than what is allowed for /tmp . (Although the system administrator might
    not allow very old files in /var/tmp either.)
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.7. The /proc filesystem

The /proc filesystem contains a illusionary filesystem. It does not exist on
a disk. Instead, the kernel creates it in memory. It is used to provide
information about the system (originally about processes, hence the name).
Some of the more important files and directories are explained below. The /
proc filesystem is described in more detail in the proc manual page.

/proc/1
    A directory with information about process number 1. Each process has a
    directory below /proc with the name being its process identification
    number.
   
/proc/cpuinfo
    Information about the processor, such as its type, make, model, and
    performance.
   
/proc/devices
    List of device drivers configured into the currently running kernel.
   
/proc/dma
    Shows which DMA channels are being used at the moment.
   
/proc/filesystems
    Filesystems configured into the kernel.
   
/proc/interrupts
    Shows which interrupts are in use, and how many of each there have been.
   
/proc/ioports
    Which I/O ports are in use at the moment.
   
/proc/kcore
    An image of the physical memory of the system. This is exactly the same
    size as your physical memory, but does not really take up that much
    memory; it is generated on the fly as programs access it. (Remember:
    unless you copy it elsewhere, nothing under /proc takes up any disk space
    at all.)
   
/proc/kmsg
    Messages output by the kernel. These are also routed to syslog.
   
/proc/ksyms
    Symbol table for the kernel.
   
/proc/loadavg
    The `load average' of the system; three meaningless indicators of how
    much work the system has to do at the moment.
   
/proc/meminfo
    Information about memory usage, both physical and swap.
   
/proc/modules
    Which kernel modules are loaded at the moment.
   
/proc/net
    Status information about network protocols.
   
/proc/self
    A symbolic link to the process directory of the program that is looking
    at /proc. When two processes look at /proc, they get different links.
    This is mainly a convenience to make it easier for programs to get at
    their process directory.
   
/proc/stat
    Various statistics about the system, such as the number of page faults
    since the system was booted.
   
/proc/uptime
    The time the system has been up.
   
/proc/version
    The kernel version.
   

Note that while the above files tend to be easily readable text files, they
can sometimes be formatted in a way that is not easily digestible. There are
many commands that do little more than read the above files and format them
for easier understanding. For example, the freeprogram reads /proc/meminfo
converts the amounts given in bytes to kilobytes (and adds a little more
information, as well).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 4. Hardware, Devices, and Tools

    "Knowledge speaks, but wisdom listens." Jimi Hendrix
   
This chapter gives an overview of what a device file is, and how to create
one. The canonical list of device files is /usr/src/linux/Documentation/
devices.txt if you have the Linux kernel source code installed on your
system. The devices listed here are correct as of kernel version 2.6.8.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Hardware Utilities

4.1.1. The MAKEDEV Script

Most device files will already be created and will be there ready to use
after you install your Linux system. If by some chance you need to create one
which is not provided then you should first try to use the MAKEDEV script.
This script is usually located in /dev/MAKEDEV but might also have a copy (or
a symbolic link) in /sbin/MAKEDEV. If it turns out not to be in your path
then you will need to specify the path to it explicitly.

In general the command is used as:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # /dev/MAKEDEV -v ttyS0                                            |
|        create ttyS0   c 4 64 root:dialout 0660                            |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This will create the device file /dev/ttyS0 with major node 4 and minor node
64 as a character device with access permissions 0660 with owner root and
group dialout.

ttyS0 is a serial port. The major and minor node numbers are numbers
understood by the kernel. The kernel refers to hardware devices as numbers,
this would be very difficult for us to remember, so we use filenames. Access
permissions of 0660 means read and write permission for the owner (root in
this case) and read and write permission for members of the group (dialout in
this case) with no access for anyone else.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.2. The mknod command

MAKEDEV is the preferred way of creating device files which are not present.
However sometimes the MAKEDEV script will not know about the device file you
wish to create. This is where the mknod command comes in. In order to use 
mknod you need to know the major and minor node numbers for the device you
wish to create. The devices.txt file in the kernel source documentation is
the canonical source of this information.

To take an example, let us suppose that our version of the MAKEDEV script
does not know how to create the /dev/ttyS0 device file. We need to use mknod
to create it. We know from looking at the devices.txt that it should be a
character device with major number 4 and minor number 64. So we now know all
we need to create the file.
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # mknod /dev/ttyS0 c 4 64                                              |
|        # chown root.dialout /dev/ttyS0                                        |
|        # chmod 0644 /dev/ttyS0                                                |
|        # ls -l /dev/ttyS0                                                     |
|                crw-rw----   1 root dialout    4,   64 Oct 23 18:23 /dev/ttyS0 |
|                                                                               |
|                                                                               |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
As you can see, many more steps are required to create the file. In this
example you can see the process required however. It is unlikely in the
extreme that the ttyS0 file would not be provided by the MAKEDEV script, but
it suffices to illustrate the point.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.3. The lspci command

lspci

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.4. The lsdev command

lsdev

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.5. The lsusb command

lsusb

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.6. The lsraid command

lsraid

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.7. The hdparm command

hdparm

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.8. More Hardware Resources

More information on what hardware resources the kernel is using can be found
in the /proc directory. Refer to Section 3.7 in chapter 3.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Kernel Modules

This section will discuss kernel modules.

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.1. lsmod

lsmod

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.2. insmod

insmod

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.3. depmod

depmod

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.4. rmmod

rmmod

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.5. modprobe

modprobe

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 5. Using Disks and Other Storage Media

    "On a clear disk you can seek forever. "
   
When you install or upgrade your system, you need to do a fair amount of work
on your disks. You have to make filesystems on your disks so that files can
be stored on them and reserve space for the different parts of your system.

This chapter explains all these initial activities. Usually, once you get
your system set up, you won't have to go through the work again, except for
using floppies. You'll need to come back to this chapter if you add a new
disk or want to fine-tune your disk usage.

 

The basic tasks in administering disks are:

  * Format your disk. This does various things to prepare it for use, such as
    checking for bad sectors. (Formatting is nowadays not necessary for most
    hard disks.)
   
  * Partition a hard disk, if you want to use it for several activities that
    aren't supposed to interfere with one another. One reason for
    partitioning is to store different operating systems on the same disk.
    Another reason is to keep user files separate from system files, which
    simplifies back-ups and helps protect the system files from corruption.
   
  * Make a filesystem (of a suitable type) on each disk or partition. The
    disk means nothing to Linux until you make a filesystem; then files can
    be created and accessed on it.
   
  * Mount different filesystems to form a single tree structure, either
    automatically, or manually as needed. (Manually mounted filesystems
    usually need to be unmounted manually as well.)
   

Chapter 6 contains information about virtual memory and disk caching, of
which you also need to be aware when using disks.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. Two kinds of devices

UNIX, and therefore Linux, recognizes two different kinds of device:
random-access block devices (such as disks), and character devices (such as
tapes and serial lines) , some of which may be serial, and some
random-access. Each supported device is represented in the filesystem as a
device file. When you read or write a device file, the data comes from or
goes to the device it represents. This way no special programs (and no
special application programming methodology, such as catching interrupts or
polling a serial port) are necessary to access devices; for example, to send
a file to the printer, one could just say
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ cat filename > /dev/lp1                                                  |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
and the contents of the file are printed (the file must, of course, be in a
form that the printer understands). However, since it is not a good idea to
have several people cat their files to the printer at the same time, one
usually uses a special program to send the files to be printed (usually lpr
). This program makes sure that only one file is being printed at a time, and
will automatically send files to the printer as soon as it finishes with the
previous file. Something similar is needed for most devices. In fact, one
seldom needs to worry about device files at all.

Since devices show up as files in the filesystem (in the /dev directory), it
is easy to see just what device files exist, using ls or another suitable
command. In the output of ls -l, the first column contains the type of the
file and its permissions. For example, inspecting a serial device might give
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ ls -l /dev/ttyS0                                                         |
|                crw-rw-r--    1 root     dialout    4,  64 Aug 19 18:56 /dev/ttyS0 |
|                                                                                   |
|        $                                                                          |
|                                                                                   |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The first character in the first column, i.e., `c' in crw-rw-rw- above, tells
an informed user the type of the file, in this case a character device. For
ordinary files, the first character is `-', for directories it is `d', and
for block devices `b'; see the ls man page for further information.

Note that usually all device files exist even though the device itself might
be not be installed. So just because you have a file /dev/sda, it doesn't
mean that you really do have an SCSI hard disk. Having all the device files
makes the installation programs simpler, and makes it easier to add new
hardware (there is no need to find out the correct parameters for and create
the device files for the new device).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. Hard disks

This subsection introduces terminology related to hard disks. If you already
know the terms and concepts, you can skip this subsection.

See Figure 5-1 for a schematic picture of the important parts in a hard disk.
A hard disk consists of one or more circular aluminum platters\ , of which
either or both surfaces are coated with a magnetic substance used for
recording the data. For each surface, there is a read-write head that
examines or alters the recorded data. The platters rotate on a common axis;
typical rotation speed is 5400 or 7200 rotations per minute, although
high-performance hard disks have higher speeds and older disks may have lower
speeds. The heads move along the radius of the platters; this movement
combined with the rotation of the platters allows the head to access all
parts of the surfaces.

The processor (CPU) and the actual disk communicate through a disk controller
. This relieves the rest of the computer from knowing how to use the drive,
since the controllers for different types of disks can be made to use the
same interface towards the rest of the computer. Therefore, the computer can
say just ``hey disk, give me what I want'', instead of a long and complex
series of electric signals to move the head to the proper location and
waiting for the correct position to come under the head and doing all the
other unpleasant stuff necessary. (In reality, the interface to the
controller is still complex, but much less so than it would otherwise be.)
The controller may also do other things, such as caching, or automatic bad
sector replacement.

The above is usually all one needs to understand about the hardware. There
are also other things, such as the motor that rotates the platters and moves
the heads, and the electronics that control the operation of the mechanical
parts, but they are mostly not relevant for understanding the working
principles of a hard disk.

The surfaces are usually divided into concentric rings, called tracks, and
these in turn are divided into sectors. This division is used to specify
locations on the hard disk and to allocate disk space to files. To find a
given place on the hard disk, one might say ``surface 3, track 5, sector 7''.
Usually the number of sectors is the same for all tracks, but some hard disks
put more sectors in outer tracks (all sectors are of the same physical size,
so more of them fit in the longer outer tracks). Typically, a sector will
hold 512 bytes of data. The disk itself can't handle smaller amounts of data
than one sector.


Figure 5-1. A schematic picture of a hard disk.

[hd-schematic]

Each surface is divided into tracks (and sectors) in the same way. This means
that when the head for one surface is on a track, the heads for the other
surfaces are also on the corresponding tracks. All the corresponding tracks
taken together are called a cylinder. It takes time to move the heads from
one track (cylinder) to another, so by placing the data that is often
accessed together (say, a file) so that it is within one cylinder, it is not
necessary to move the heads to read all of it. This improves performance. It
is not always possible to place files like this; files that are stored in
several places on the disk are called fragmented.

The number of surfaces (or heads, which is the same thing), cylinders, and
sectors vary a lot; the specification of the number of each is called the
geometry of a hard disk. The geometry is usually stored in a special,
battery-powered memory location called the CMOS RAM , from where the
operating system can fetch it during bootup or driver initialization.

Unfortunately, the BIOS has a design limitation, which makes it impossible to
specify a track number that is larger than 1024 in the CMOS RAM, which is too
little for a large hard disk. To overcome this, the hard disk controller lies
about the geometry, and translates the addresses given by the computer into
something that fits reality. For example, a hard disk might have 8 heads,
2048 tracks, and 35 sectors per track. Its controller could lie to the
computer and claim that it has 16 heads, 1024 tracks, and 35 sectors per
track, thus not exceeding the limit on tracks, and translates the address
that the computer gives it by halving the head number, and doubling the track
number. The mathematics can be more complicated in reality, because the
numbers are not as nice as here (but again, the details are not relevant for
understanding the principle). This translation distorts the operating
system's view of how the disk is organized, thus making it impractical to use
the all-data-on-one-cylinder trick to boost performance.

The translation is only a problem for IDE disks. SCSI disks use a sequential
sector number (i.e., the controller translates a sequential sector number to
a head, cylinder, and sector triplet), and a completely different method for
the CPU to talk with the controller, so they are insulated from the problem.
Note, however, that the computer might not know the real geometry of an SCSI
disk either.

Since Linux often will not know the real geometry of a disk, its filesystems
don't even try to keep files within a single cylinder. Instead, it tries to
assign sequentially numbered sectors to files, which almost always gives
similar performance. The issue is further complicated by on-controller
caches, and automatic prefetches done by the controller.

Each hard disk is represented by a separate device file. There can (usually)
be only two or four IDE hard disks. These are known as /dev/hda, /dev/hdb, /
dev/hdc, and /dev/hdd, respectively. SCSI hard disks are known as /dev/sda, /
dev/sdb, and so on. Similar naming conventions exist for other hard disk
types; see Chapter 4 for more information. Note that the device files for the
hard disks give access to the entire disk, with no regard to partitions
(which will be discussed below), and it's easy to mess up the partitions or
the data in them if you aren't careful. The disks' device files are usually
used only to get access to the master boot record (which will also be
discussed below).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. Storage Area Networks - Draft

A SAN is a dedicated storage network that provides block level access to
LUNs. A LUN, or logical unit number, is a virtual disk provided by the SAN.
The system administrator the same access and rights to the LUN as if it were
a disk directly attached to it. The administrator can partition, and format
the disk in any means he or she chooses.

Two networking protocols commonly used in a SAN are fibre channel and iSCSI .
A fibre channel network is very fast and is not burdened by the other network
traffic in a company's LAN. However, it's very expensive. Fibre channel cards
cost around $1000.00 USD each. They also require special fibre channel
switches.

iSCSI is a newer technology that sends SCSI commands over a TCP/IP network.
While this method may not be as fast as a Fibre Channel network, it does save
money by using less expensive network hardware.

More To Be Added
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.4. Network Attached Storage - Draft

A NAS uses your companies existing Ethernet network to allow access to shared
disks. This is filesystem level access. The system administrator does not
have the ability to partition or format the disks since they are potentially
shared by multiple computers. This technology is commonly used to provide
multiple workstations access to the same data.

Similar to a SAN, a NAS need to make use of a protocol to allow access to
it's disks. With a NAS this is either CIFS/Samba , or NFS.

Traditionally CIFS was used with Microsoft Windows networks, and NFS was used
with UNIX & Linux networks. However, with Samba, Linux machines can also make
use of CIFS shares.

Does this mean that your Windows 2003 server or your Linux box are NAS
servers because they provide access to shared drives over your network? Yes,
they are. You could also purchase a NAS device from a number of
manufacturers. These devices are specifically designed to provide high speed
access to data.

More To Be Added
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.4.1. NFS

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.4.2. CIFS

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.5. Floppies

A floppy disk consists of a flexible membrane covered on one or both sides
with similar magnetic substance as a hard disk. The floppy disk itself
doesn't have a read-write head, that is included in the drive. A floppy
corresponds to one platter in a hard disk, but is removable and one drive can
be used to access different floppies, and the same floppy can be read by many
drives, whereas the hard disk is one indivisible unit.

Like a hard disk, a floppy is divided into tracks and sectors (and the two
corresponding tracks on either side of a floppy form a cylinder), but there
are many fewer of them than on a hard disk.

A floppy drive can usually use several different types of disks; for example,
a 3.5 inch drive can use both 720 KB and 1.44 MB disks. Since the drive has
to operate a bit differently and the operating system must know how big the
disk is, there are many device files for floppy drives, one per combination
of drive and disk type. Therefore, /dev/fd0H1440 is the first floppy drive
(fd0), which must be a 3.5 inch drive, using a 3.5 inch, high density disk
(H) of size 1440 KB (1440), i.e., a normal 3.5 inch HD floppy.

The names for floppy drives are complex, however, and Linux therefore has a
special floppy device type that automatically detects the type of the disk in
the drive. It works by trying to read the first sector of a newly inserted
floppy using different floppy types until it finds the correct one. This
naturally requires that the floppy is formatted first. The automatic devices
are called /dev/fd0, /dev/fd1, and so on.

The parameters the automatic device uses to access a disk can also be set
using the program setfdprm . This can be useful if you need to use disks that
do not follow any usual floppy sizes, e.g., if they have an unusual number of
sectors, or if the autodetecting for some reason fails and the proper device
file is missing.

Linux can handle many nonstandard floppy disk formats in addition to all the
standard ones. Some of these require using special formatting programs. We'll
skip these disk types for now, but in the mean time you can examine the /etc/
fdprm file. It specifies the settings that setfdprm recognizes.

The operating system must know when a disk has been changed in a floppy
drive, for example, in order to avoid using cached data from the previous
disk. Unfortunately, the signal line that is used for this is sometimes
broken, and worse, this won't always be noticeable when using the drive from
within MS-DOS. If you are experiencing weird problems using floppies, this
might be the reason. The only way to correct it is to repair the floppy
drive.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.6. CD-ROMs

A CD-ROM drive uses an optically read, plastic coated disk. The information
is recorded on the surface of the disk in small `holes' aligned along a
spiral from the center to the edge. The drive directs a laser beam along the
spiral to read the disk. When the laser hits a hole, the laser is reflected
in one way; when it hits smooth surface, it is reflected in another way. This
makes it easy to code bits, and therefore information. The rest is easy, mere
mechanics.

CD-ROM drives are slow compared to hard disks. Whereas a typical hard disk
will have an average seek time less than 15 milliseconds, a fast CD-ROM drive
can use tenths of a second for seeks. The actual data transfer rate is fairly
high at hundreds of kilobytes per second. The slowness means that CD-ROM
drives are not as pleasant to use as hard disks (some Linux distributions
provide `live' filesystems on CD-ROMs, making it unnecessary to copy the
files to the hard disk, making installation easier and saving a lot of hard
disk space), although it is still possible. For installing new software,
CD-ROMs are very good, since maximum speed is not essential during
installation.

There are several ways to arrange data on a CD-ROM. The most popular one is
specified by the international standard ISO 9660 . This standard specifies a
very minimal filesystem, which is even more crude than the one MS-DOS uses.
On the other hand, it is so minimal that every operating system should be
able to map it to its native system.

For normal UNIX use, the ISO 9660 filesystem is not usable, so an extension
to the standard has been developed, called the Rock Ridge extension. Rock
Ridge allows longer filenames, symbolic links, and a lot of other goodies,
making a CD-ROM look more or less like any contemporary UNIX filesystem. Even
better, a Rock Ridge filesystem is still a valid ISO 9660 filesystem, making
it usable by non-UNIX systems as well. Linux supports both ISO 9660 and the
Rock Ridge extensions; the extensions are recognized and used automatically.

The filesystem is only half the battle, however. Most CD-ROMs contain data
that requires a special program to access, and most of these programs do not
run under Linux (except, possibly, under dosemu, the Linux MS-DOS emulator,
or wine, the Windows emulator.

Ironically perhaps, wine actually stands for ``Wine Is Not an Emulator''.
Wine, more strictly, is an API (Application Program Interface) replacement.
Please see the wine documentation at [http://www.winehq.com] http://
www.winehq.com for more information.

There is also VMWare, a commercial product, which emulates an entire x86
machine in software. See the VMWare website, [http://www.vmware.com] http://
www.vmware.com for more information.

A CD-ROM drive is accessed via the corresponding device file. There are
several ways to connect a CD-ROM drive to the computer: via SCSI, via a sound
card, or via EIDE. The hardware hacking needed to do this is outside the
scope of this book, but the type of connection decides the device file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.7. Tapes

A tape drive uses a tape, similar to cassettes used for music. A tape is
serial in nature, which means that in order to get to any given part of it,
you first have to go through all the parts in between. A disk can be accessed
randomly, i.e., you can jump directly to any place on the disk. The serial
access of tapes makes them slow.

On the other hand, tapes are relatively cheap to make, since they do not need
to be fast. They can also easily be made quite long, and can therefore
contain a large amount of data. This makes tapes very suitable for things
like archiving and backups, which do not require large speeds, but benefit
from low costs and large storage capacities.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.8. Formatting

Formatting is the process of writing marks on the magnetic media that are
used to mark tracks and sectors. Before a disk is formatted, its magnetic
surface is a complete mess of magnetic signals. When it is formatted, some
order is brought into the chaos by essentially drawing lines where the tracks
go, and where they are divided into sectors. The actual details are not quite
exactly like this, but that is irrelevant. What is important is that a disk
cannot be used unless it has been formatted.

The terminology is a bit confusing here: in MS-DOS and MS Windows, the word
formatting is used to cover also the process of creating a filesystem (which
will be discussed below). There, the two processes are often combined,
especially for floppies. When the distinction needs to be made, the real
formatting is called low-level formatting, while making the filesystem is
called high-level formatting . In UNIX circles, the two are called formatting
and making a filesystem, so that's what is used in this book as well.

For IDE and some SCSI disks the formatting is actually done at the factory
and doesn't need to be repeated; hence most people rarely need to worry about
it. In fact, formatting a hard disk can cause it to work less well, for
example because a disk might need to be formatted in some very special way to
allow automatic bad sector replacement to work.

Disks that need to be or can be formatted often require a special program
anyway, because the interface to the formatting logic inside the drive is
different from drive to drive. The formatting program is often either on the
controller BIOS, or is supplied as an MS-DOS program; neither of these can
easily be used from within Linux.

During formatting one might encounter bad spots on the disk, called bad
blocks or bad sectors. These are sometimes handled by the drive itself, but
even then, if more of them develop, something needs to be done to avoid using
those parts of the disk. The logic to do this is built into the filesystem;
how to add the information into the filesystem is described below.
Alternatively, one might create a small partition that covers just the bad
part of the disk; this approach might be a good idea if the bad spot is very
large, since filesystems can sometimes have trouble with very large bad
areas.

Floppies are formatted with fdformat . The floppy device file to use is given
as the parameter. For example, the following command would format a high
density, 3.5 inch floppy in the first floppy drive:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ fdformat /dev/fd0H1440                                           |
|        Double-sided, 80 tracks, 18 sec/track. Total capacity              |
|        1440 kB.                                                           |
|        Formatting ... done                                                |
|        Verifying ... done                                                 |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Note that if you want to use an autodetecting device (e.g., /dev/fd0), you 
must set the parameters of the device with setfdprm first. To achieve the
same effect as above, one would have to do the following:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ setfdprm /dev/fd0 1440/1440                                      |
|        $ fdformat /dev/fd0                                                |
|        Double-sided, 80 tracks, 18 sec/track. Total capacity              |
|        1440 KB.                                                           |
|        Formatting ... done                                                |
|        Verifying ... done                                                 |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
It is usually more convenient to choose the correct device file that matches
the type of the floppy. Note that it is unwise to format floppies to contain
more information than what they are designed for.

fdformatalso validate the floppy, i.e., check it for bad blocks. It will try
a bad block several times (you can usually hear this, the drive noise changes
dramatically). If the floppy is only marginally bad (due to dirt on the read/
write head, some errors are false signals), fdformat won't complain, but a
real error will abort the validation process. The kernel will print log
messages for each I/O error it finds; these will go to the console or, if 
syslog is being used, to the file /var/log/messages. fdformat itself won't
tell where the error is (one usually doesn't care, floppies are cheap enough
that a bad one is automatically thrown away).
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ fdformat /dev/fd0H1440                                           |
|        Double-sided, 80 tracks, 18 sec/track. Total capacity              |
|        1440 KB.                                                           |
|        Formatting ... done                                                |
|        Verifying ... read: Unknown error                                  |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The badblocks command can be used to search any disk or partition for bad
blocks (including a floppy). It does not format the disk, so it can be used
to check even existing filesystems. The example below checks a 3.5 inch
floppy with two bad blocks.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ badblocks /dev/fd0H1440 1440                                     |
|        718                                                                |
|        719                                                                |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
badblocks outputs the block numbers of the bad blocks it finds. Most
filesystems can avoid such bad blocks. They maintain a list of known bad
blocks, which is initialized when the filesystem is made, and can be modified
later. The initial search for bad blocks can be done by the mkfs command
(which initializes the filesystem), but later checks should be done with 
badblocks and the new blocks should be added with fsck. We'll describe mkfs
and fsck later.

Many modern disks automatically notice bad blocks, and attempt to fix them by
using a special, reserved good block instead. This is invisible to the
operating system. This feature should be documented in the disk's manual, if
you're curious if it is happening. Even such disks can fail, if the number of
bad blocks grows too large, although chances are that by then the disk will
be so rotten as to be unusable.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.9. Partitions

A hard disk can be divided into several partitions. Each partition functions
as if it were a separate hard disk. The idea is that if you have one hard
disk, and want to have, say, two operating systems on it, you can divide the
disk into two partitions. Each operating system uses its partition as it
wishes and doesn't touch the other ones. This way the two operating systems
can co-exist peacefully on the same hard disk. Without partitions one would
have to buy a hard disk for each operating system.

Floppies are not usually partitioned. There is no technical reason against
this, but since they're so small, partitions would be useful only very
rarely. CD-ROMs are usually also not partitioned, since it's easier to use
them as one big disk, and there is seldom a need to have several operating
systems on one.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.9.1. The MBR, boot sectors and partition table

The information about how a hard disk has been partitioned is stored in its
first sector (that is, the first sector of the first track on the first disk
surface). The first sector is the master boot record (MBR) of the disk; this
is the sector that the BIOS reads in and starts when the machine is first
booted. The master boot record contains a small program that reads the
partition table, checks which partition is active (that is, marked bootable),
and reads the first sector of that partition, the partition's boot sector
(the MBR is also a boot sector, but it has a special status and therefore a
special name). This boot sector contains another small program that reads the
first part of the operating system stored on that partition (assuming it is
bootable), and then starts it.

The partitioning scheme is not built into the hardware, or even into the
BIOS. It is only a convention that many operating systems follow. Not all
operating systems do follow it, but they are the exceptions. Some operating
systems support partitions, but they occupy one partition on the hard disk,
and use their internal partitioning method within that partition. The latter
type exists peacefully with other operating systems (including Linux), and
does not require any special measures, but an operating system that doesn't
support partitions cannot co-exist on the same disk with any other operating
system.

As a safety precaution, it is a good idea to write down the partition table
on a piece of paper, so that if it ever corrupts you don't have to lose all
your files. (A bad partition table can be fixed with fdisk). The relevant
information is given by the fdisk -l command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ fdisk -l /dev/hda                                                |
|                                                                           |
|        Disk /dev/hda: 15 heads, 57 sectors, 790 cylinders                 |
|        Units = cylinders of 855 * 512 bytes                               |
|                                                                           |
|           Device Boot  Begin   Start     End  Blocks   Id  System         |
|        /dev/hda1           1       1      24   10231+  82  Linux swap     |
|        /dev/hda2          25      25      48   10260   83  Linux native   |
|        /dev/hda3          49      49     408  153900   83  Linux native   |
|        /dev/hda4         409     409     790  163305    5  Extended       |
|        /dev/hda5         409     409     744  143611+  83  Linux native   |
|        /dev/hda6         745     745     790   19636+  83  Linux native   |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.9.2. Extended and logical partitions

The original partitioning scheme for PC hard disks allowed only four
partitions. This quickly turned out to be too little in real life, partly
because some people want more than four operating systems (Linux, MS-DOS, OS/
2, Minix, FreeBSD, NetBSD, or Windows/NT, to name a few), but primarily
because sometimes it is a good idea to have several partitions for one
operating system. For example, swap space is usually best put in its own
partition for Linux instead of in the main Linux partition for reasons of
speed (see below).

To overcome this design problem, extended partitions were invented. This
trick allows partitioning a primary partition into sub-partitions. The
primary partition thus subdivided is the extended partition; the
sub-partitions are logical partitions. They behave like primary partitions,
but are created differently. There is no speed difference between them. By
using an extended partition you can now have up to 15 partitions per disk.

The partition structure of a hard disk might look like that in Figure 5-2.
The disk is divided into three primary partitions, the second of which is
divided into two logical partitions. Part of the disk is not partitioned at
all. The disk as a whole and each primary partition has a boot sector.


Figure 5-2. A sample hard disk partitioning.

[hd-layout]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.9.3. Partition types

The partition tables (the one in the MBR, and the ones for extended
partitions) contain one byte per partition that identifies the type of that
partition. This attempts to identify the operating system that uses the
partition, or what it uses it for. The purpose is to make it possible to
avoid having two operating systems accidentally using the same partition.
However, in reality, operating systems do not really care about the partition
type byte; e.g., Linux doesn't care at all what it is. Worse, some of them
use it incorrectly; e.g., at least some versions of DR-DOS ignore the most
significant bit of the byte, while others don't.

There is no standardization agency to specify what each byte value means, but
as far as Linux is concerned, here is a list of partition types as per the 
fdisk program.
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 0  Empty           1c  Hidden Win95 FA 70  DiskSecure Mult bb  Boot Wizard hid |
| 1  FAT12           1e  Hidden Win95 FA 75  PC/IX           be  Solaris boot    |
| 2  XENIX root      24  NEC DOS         80  Old Minix       c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT- |
| 3  XENIX usr       39  Plan 9          81  Minix / old Lin c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT- |
| 4  FAT16 <32M      3c  PartitionMagic  82  Linux swap      c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT- |
| 5  Extended        40  Venix 80286     83  Linux           c7  Syrinx          |
| 6  FAT16           41  PPC PReP Boot   84  OS/2 hidden C:  da  Non-FS data     |
| 7  HPFS/NTFS       42  SFS             85  Linux extended  db  CP/M / CTOS / . |
| 8  AIX             4d  QNX4.x          86  NTFS volume set de  Dell Utility    |
| 9  AIX bootable    4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 87  NTFS volume set df  BootIt          |
| a  OS/2 Boot Manag 4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       e1  DOS access      |
| b  Win95 FAT32     50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e3  DOS R/O         |
| c  Win95 FAT32 (LB 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e4  SpeedStor       |
| e  Win95 FAT16 (LB 52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          eb  BeOS fs         |
| f  Win95 Ext'd (LB 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi ee  EFI GPT         |
|10  OPUS            54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/ |
|11  Hidden FAT12    55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         f0  Linux/PA-RISC b |
|12  Compaq diagnost 56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f1  SpeedStor       |
|14  Hidden FAT16 <3 5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f4  SpeedStor       |
|16  Hidden FAT16    61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f2  DOS secondary   |
|17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     fd  Linux raid auto |
|18  AST SmartSleep  64  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fe  LANstep         |
|1b  Hidden Win95 FA 65  Novell Netware  b8  BSDI swap       ff  BBT             |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.9.4. Partitioning a hard disk

There are many programs for creating and removing partitions. Most operating
systems have their own, and it can be a good idea to use each operating
system's own, just in case it does something unusual that the others can't.
Many of the programs are called fdisk, including the Linux one, or variations
thereof. Details on using the Linux fdisk given on its man page. The cfdisk
command is similar to fdisk, but has a nicer (full screen) user interface.

When using IDE disks, the boot partition (the partition with the bootable
kernel image files) must be completely within the first 1024 cylinders. This
is because the disk is used via the BIOS during boot (before the system goes
into protected mode), and BIOS can't handle more than 1024 cylinders. It is
sometimes possible to use a boot partition that is only partly within the
first 1024 cylinders. This works as long as all the files that are read with
the BIOS are within the first 1024 cylinders. Since this is difficult to
arrange, it is a very bad idea to do it; you never know when a kernel update
or disk defragmentation will result in an unbootable system. Therefore, make
sure your boot partition is completely within the first 1024 cylinders.

However, this may no longer be true with newer versions of LILO that support
LBA (Logical Block Addressing). Consult the documentation for your
distribution to see if it has a version of LILO where LBA is supported.

Some newer versions of the BIOS and IDE disks can, in fact, handle disks with
more than 1024 cylinders. If you have such a system, you can forget about the
problem; if you aren't quite sure of it, put it within the first 1024
cylinders.

Each partition should have an even number of sectors, since the Linux
filesystems use a 1 kilobyte block size, i.e., two sectors. An odd number of
sectors will result in the last sector being unused. This won't result in any
problems, but it is ugly, and some versions of fdisk will warn about it.

Changing a partition's size usually requires first backing up everything you
want to save from that partition (preferably the whole disk, just in case),
deleting the partition, creating new partition, then restoring everything to
the new partition. If the partition is growing, you may need to adjust the
sizes (and backup and restore) of the adjoining partitions as well.

Since changing partition sizes is painful, it is preferable to get the
partitions right the first time, or have an effective and easy to use backup
system. If you're installing from a media that does not require much human
intervention (say, from CD-ROM, as opposed to floppies), it is often easy to
play with different configuration at first. Since you don't already have data
to back up, it is not so painful to modify partition sizes several times.

There is a program for MS-DOS, called fips , which resizes an MS-DOS
partition without requiring the backup and restore, but for other filesystems
it is still necessary.

The fips program is included in most Linux distributions. The commercial
partition manager ``Partition Magic'' also has a similar facility but with a
nicer interface. Please do remember that partitioning is dangerous. Make sure
you have a recent backup of any important data before you try changing
partition sizes ``on the fly''. The program parted can resize other types of
partitions as well as MS-DOS, but sometimes in a limited manner. Consult the 
parted documentation before using it, better safe than sorry.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.9.5. Device files and partitions

Each partition and extended partition has its own device file. The naming
convention for these files is that a partition's number is appended after the
name of the whole disk, with the convention that 1-4 are primary partitions
(regardless of how many primary partitions there are) and number greater than
5 are logical partitions (regardless of within which primary partition they
reside). For example, /dev/hda1 is the first primary partition on the first
IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb7 is the third extended partition on the second
SCSI hard disk.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10. Filesystems

5.10.1. What are filesystems?

A filesystem is the methods and data structures that an operating system uses
to keep track of files on a disk or partition; that is, the way the files are
organized on the disk. The word is also used to refer to a partition or disk
that is used to store the files or the type of the filesystem. Thus, one
might say ``I have two filesystems'' meaning one has two partitions on which
one stores files, or that one is using the ``extended filesystem'', meaning
the type of the filesystem.

The difference between a disk or partition and the filesystem it contains is
important. A few programs (including, reasonably enough, programs that create
filesystems) operate directly on the raw sectors of a disk or partition; if
there is an existing file system there it will be destroyed or seriously
corrupted. Most programs operate on a filesystem, and therefore won't work on
a partition that doesn't contain one (or that contains one of the wrong
type).

Before a partition or disk can be used as a filesystem, it needs to be
initialized, and the bookkeeping data structures need to be written to the
disk. This process is called making a filesystem.

Most UNIX filesystem types have a similar general structure, although the
exact details vary quite a bit. The central concepts are superblock, inode ,
data block, directory block , and indirection block. The superblock contains
information about the filesystem as a whole, such as its size (the exact
information here depends on the filesystem). An inode contains all
information about a file, except its name. The name is stored in the
directory, together with the number of the inode. A directory entry consists
of a filename and the number of the inode which represents the file. The
inode contains the numbers of several data blocks, which are used to store
the data in the file. There is space only for a few data block numbers in the
inode, however, and if more are needed, more space for pointers to the data
blocks is allocated dynamically. These dynamically allocated blocks are
indirect blocks; the name indicates that in order to find the data block, one
has to find its number in the indirect block first.

UNIX filesystems usually allow one to create a hole in a file (this is done
with the lseek() system call; check the manual page), which means that the
filesystem just pretends that at a particular place in the file there is just
zero bytes, but no actual disk sectors are reserved for that place in the
file (this means that the file will use a bit less disk space). This happens
especially often for small binaries, Linux shared libraries, some databases,
and a few other special cases. (Holes are implemented by storing a special
value as the address of the data block in the indirect block or inode. This
special address means that no data block is allocated for that part of the
file, ergo, there is a hole in the file.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.2. Filesystems galore

Linux supports several types of filesystems. As of this writing the most
important ones are:

minix
    The oldest, presumed to be the most reliable, but quite limited in
    features (some time stamps are missing, at most 30 character filenames)
    and restricted in capabilities (at most 64 MB per filesystem).
   
xia
    A modified version of the minix filesystem that lifts the limits on the
    filenames and filesystem sizes, but does not otherwise introduce new
    features. It is not very popular, but is reported to work very well.
   
ext3
    The ext3 filesystem has all the features of the ext2 filesystem. The
    difference is, journaling has been added. This improves performance and
    recovery time in case of a system crash. This has become more popular
    than ext2.
   
ext2
    The most featureful of the native Linux filesystems. It is designed to be
    easily upwards compatible, so that new versions of the filesystem code do
    not require re-making the existing filesystems.
   
ext
    An older version of ext2 that wasn't upwards compatible. It is hardly
    ever used in new installations any more, and most people have converted
    to ext2.
   
reiserfs
    A more robust filesystem. Journaling is used which makes data loss less
    likely. Journaling is a mechanism whereby a record is kept of transaction
    which are to be performed, or which have been performed. This allows the
    filesystem to reconstruct itself fairly easily after damage caused by,
    for example, improper shutdowns.
   
jfs
    JFS is a journaled filesystem designed by IBM to to work in high
    performance environments>
   
xfs
    XFS was originally designed by Silicon Graphics to work as a 64-bit
    journaled filesystem. XFS was also designed to maintain high performance
    with large files and filesystems.
   

In addition, support for several foreign filesystems exists, to make it
easier to exchange files with other operating systems. These foreign
filesystems work just like native ones, except that they may be lacking in
some usual UNIX features, or have curious limitations, or other oddities.

msdos
    Compatibility with MS-DOS (and OS/2 and Windows NT) FAT filesystems.
   
umsdos
    Extends the msdos filesystem driver under Linux to get long filenames,
    owners, permissions, links, and device files. This allows a normal msdos
    filesystem to be used as if it were a Linux one, thus removing the need
    for a separate partition for Linux.
   
vfat
    This is an extension of the FAT filesystem known as FAT32. It supports
    larger disk sizes than FAT. Most MS Windows disks are vfat.
   
iso9660
    The standard CD-ROM filesystem; the popular Rock Ridge extension to the
    CD-ROM standard that allows longer file names is supported automatically.
   
nfs
    A networked filesystem that allows sharing a filesystem between many
    computers to allow easy access to the files from all of them.
   
smbfs
    A networks filesystem which allows sharing of a filesystem with an MS
    Windows computer. It is compatible with the Windows file sharing
    protocols.
   
hpfs
    The OS/2 filesystem.
   
sysv
    SystemV/386, Coherent, and Xenix filesystems.
   
NTFS
    The most advanced Microsoft journaled filesystem providing faster file
    access and stability over previous Microsoft filesystems.
   

The choice of filesystem to use depends on the situation. If compatibility or
other reasons make one of the non-native filesystems necessary, then that one
must be used. If one can choose freely, then it is probably wisest to use
ext3, since it has all the features of ext2, and is a journaled filesystem.
For more information on filesystems, see Section 5.10.6. You can also read
the Filesystems HOWTO located at [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
Filesystems-HOWTO.html] http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Filesystems-HOWTO.html

There is also the proc filesystem, usually accessible as the /proc directory,
which is not really a filesystem at all, even though it looks like one. The
proc filesystem makes it easy to access certain kernel data structures, such
as the process list (hence the name). It makes these data structures look
like a filesystem, and that filesystem can be manipulated with all the usual
file tools. For example, to get a listing of all processes one might use the
command
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ ls -l /proc                                                              |
|total 0                                                                    |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 1                   |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 liw      users           0 Jan 31 20:37 63                  |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 liw      users           0 Jan 31 20:37 94                  |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 liw      users           0 Jan 31 20:37 95                  |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 root     users           0 Jan 31 20:37 98                  |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 liw      users           0 Jan 31 20:37 99                  |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 devices             |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 dma                 |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 filesystems         |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 interrupts          |
|-r--------   1 root     root      8654848 Jan 31 20:37 kcore               |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 11:50 kmsg                |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 ksyms               |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 11:51 loadavg             |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 meminfo             |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 modules             |
|dr-xr-xr-x   2 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 net                 |
|dr-xr-xr-x   4 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 self                |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 stat                |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37 uptime              |
|-r--r--r--   1 root     root            0 Jan 31 20:37                     |
|version                                                                    |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
(There will be a few extra files that don't correspond to processes, though.
The above example has been shortened.)

Note that even though it is called a filesystem, no part of the proc
filesystem touches any disk. It exists only in the kernel's imagination.
Whenever anyone tries to look at any part of the proc filesystem, the kernel
makes it look as if the part existed somewhere, even though it doesn't. So,
even though there is a multi-megabyte /proc/kcore file, it doesn't take any
disk space.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.3. Which filesystem should be used?

There is usually little point in using many different filesystems. Currently,
ext3 is the most popular filesystem, because it is a journaled filesystem.
Currently it is probably the wisest choice. Reiserfs is another popular
choice because it to is journaled. Depending on the overhead for bookkeeping
structures, speed, (perceived) reliability, compatibility, and various other
reasons, it may be advisable to use another file system. This needs to be
decided on a case-by-case basis.

A filesystem that uses journaling is also called a journaled filesystem. A
journaled filesystem maintains a log, or journal, of what has happened on a
filesystem. In the event of a system crash, or if your 2 year old son hits
the power button like mine loves to do, a journaled filesystem is designed to
use the filesystem's logs to recreate unsaved and lost data. This makes data
loss much less likely and will likely become a standard feature in Linux
filesystems. However, do not get a false sense of security from this. Like
everything else, errors can arise. Always make sure to back up your data in
the event of an emergency.

See Section 5.10.6 for more details about the features of the different
filesystem types.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.4. Creating a filesystem

Filesystems are created, i.e., initialized, with the mkfs command. There is
actually a separate program for each filesystem type. mkfs is just a front
end that runs the appropriate program depending on the desired filesystem
type. The type is selected with the -t fstype option.

The programs called by mkfs have slightly different command line interfaces.
The common and most important options are summarized below; see the manual
pages for more.

-t fstype
    Select the type of the filesystem.
   
-c
    Search for bad blocks and initialize the bad block list accordingly.
   
-l filename
    Read the initial bad block list from the name file.
   

There are also many programs written to add specific options when creating a
specific filesystem. For example mkfs.ext3 adds a -b option to allow the
administrator to specify what block size should be used. Be sure to find out
if there is a specific program available for the filesystem type you want to
use. For more information on determining what block size to use please see 
Section 5.10.5.

To create an ext2 filesystem on a floppy, one would give the following
commands:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ fdformat -n /dev/fd0H1440                                                |
|Double-sided, 80 tracks, 18 sec/track. Total capacity                      |
|1440 KB.                                                                   |
|Formatting ... done                                                        |
|$ badblocks /dev/fd0H1440 1440 $>$                                         |
|bad-blocks                                                                 |
|$ mkfs.ext2 -l bad-blocks                                                  |
|/dev/fd0H1440                                                              |
|mke2fs 0.5a, 5-Apr-94 for EXT2 FS 0.5, 94/03/10                            |
|360 inodes, 1440 blocks                                                    |
|72 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user                              |
|First data block=1                                                         |
|Block size=1024 (log=0)                                                    |
|Fragment size=1024 (log=0)                                                 |
|1 block group                                                              |
|8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group                            |
|360 inodes per group                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|Writing inode tables: done                                                 |
|Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information:                 |
|done                                                                       |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
First, the floppy was formatted (the -n option prevents validation, i.e., bad
block checking). Then bad blocks were searched with badblocks, with the
output redirected to a file, bad-blocks. Finally, the filesystem was created,
with the bad block list initialized by whatever badblocks found.

The -c option could have been used with mkfs instead of badblocks and a
separate file. The example below does that.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ mkfs.ext2 -c                                                             |
|/dev/fd0H1440                                                              |
|mke2fs 0.5a, 5-Apr-94 for EXT2 FS 0.5, 94/03/10                            |
|360 inodes, 1440 blocks                                                    |
|72 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user                              |
|First data block=1                                                         |
|Block size=1024 (log=0)                                                    |
|Fragment size=1024 (log=0)                                                 |
|1 block group                                                              |
|8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group                            |
|360 inodes per group                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|Checking for bad blocks (read-only test): done                             |
|Writing inode tables: done                                                 |
|Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information:                 |
|done                                                                       |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The -c option is more convenient than a separate use of badblocks, but 
badblocks is necessary for checking after the filesystem has been created.

The process to prepare filesystems on hard disks or partitions is the same as
for floppies, except that the formatting isn't needed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.5. Filesystem block size

The block size specifies size that the filesystem will use to read and write
data. Larger block sizes will help improve disk I/O performance when using
large files, such as databases. This happens because the disk can read or
write data for a longer period of time before having to search for the next
block.

On the downside, if you are going to have a lot of smaller files on that
filesystem, like the /etc, there the potential for a lot of wasted disk
space.

For example, if you set your block size to 4096, or 4K, and you create a file
that is 256 bytes in size, it will still consume 4K of space on your
harddrive. For one file that may seem trivial, but when your filesystem
contains hundreds or thousands of files, this can add up.

Block size can also effect the maximum supported file size on some
filesystems. This is because many modern filesystem are limited not by block
size or file size, but by the number of blocks. Therefore you would be using
a "block size * max # of blocks = max block size" formula.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.6. Filesystem comparison

Table 5-1. Comparing Filesystem Features
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|FS Name    |Year        |Original OS|Max File    |Max FS Size |Journaling |
|           |Introduced  |           |Size        |            |           |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|FAT16      |1983        |MSDOS V2   |4GB         |16MB to 8GB |N          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|FAT32      |1997        |Windows 95 |4GB         |8GB to 2TB  |N          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|HPFS       |1988        |OS/2       |4GB         |2TB         |N          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|NTFS       |1993        |Windows NT |16EB        |16EB        |Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|HFS+       |1998        |Mac OS     |8EB         |?           |N          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|UFS2       |2002        |FreeBSD    |512GB to    |1YB         |N          |
|           |            |           |32PB        |            |           |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|ext2       |1993        |Linux      |16GB to 2TB4|2TB to 32TB |N          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|ext3       |1999        |Linux      |16GB to 2TB4|2TB to 32TB |Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|ReiserFS3  |2001        |Linux      |8TB8        |16TB        |Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|ReiserFS4  |2005        |Linux      |?           |?           |Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|XFS        |1994        |IRIX       |9EB         |9EB         |Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|JFS        |?           |AIX        |8EB         |512TB to 4PB|Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|VxFS       |1991        |SVR4.0     |16EB        |?           |Y          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+
|ZFS        |2004        |Solaris 10 |1YB         |16EB        |N          |
+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+------------+-----------+

Legend


Table 5-2. Sizes
+---------------+----------+
|Kilobyte - KB  |1024 Bytes|
+---------------+----------+
|Megabyte - MB  |1024 KBs  |
+---------------+----------+
|Gigabyte - GB  |1024 MBs  |
+---------------+----------+
|Terabyte - TB  |1024 GBs  |
+---------------+----------+
|Petabyte - PB  |1024 TBs  |
+---------------+----------+
|Exabyte - EB   |1024 PBs  |
+---------------+----------+
|Zettabyte - ZB |1024 EBs  |
+---------------+----------+
|Yottabyte - YB |1024 ZBs  |
+---------------+----------+

It should be noted that Exabytes, Zettabytes, and Yottabytes are rarely
encountered, if ever. There is a current estimate that the worlds printed
material is equal to 5 Exabytes. Therefore, some of these filesystem
limitations are considered by many as theoretical. However, the filesystem
software has been written with these capabilities.

For more detailed information you can visit [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Comparison_of_file_systems] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Comparison_of_file_systems.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.7. Mounting and unmounting

Before one can use a filesystem, it has to be mounted. The operating system
then does various bookkeeping things to make sure that everything works.
Since all files in UNIX are in a single directory tree, the mount operation
will make it look like the contents of the new filesystem are the contents of
an existing subdirectory in some already mounted filesystem.

For example, Figure 5-3 shows three separate filesystems, each with their own
root directory. When the last two filesystems are mounted below /home and /
usr, respectively, on the first filesystem, we can get a single directory
tree, as in Figure 5-4.


Figure 5-3. Three separate filesystems.

[hd-mount-separate]


Figure 5-4. /home and /usr have been mounted.

[hd-mount-mounted]

The mounts could be done as in the following example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ mount /dev/hda2 /home                                                    |
|$ mount /dev/hda3 /usr                                                     |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The mount command takes two arguments. The first one is the device file
corresponding to the disk or partition containing the filesystem. The second
one is the directory below which it will be mounted. After these commands the
contents of the two filesystems look just like the contents of the /home and
/usr directories, respectively. One would then say that /dev/hda2 is mounted
on /home'', and similarly for /usr. To look at either filesystem, one would
look at the contents of the directory on which it has been mounted, just as
if it were any other directory. Note the difference between the device file,
/dev/hda2, and the mounted-on directory, /home. The device file gives access
to the raw contents of the disk, the mounted-on directory gives access to the
files on the disk. The mounted-on directory is called the mount point.

Linux supports many filesystem types. mount tries to guess the type of the
filesystem. You can also use the -t fstype option to specify the type
directly; this is sometimes necessary, since the heuristics mount uses do not
always work. For example, to mount an MS-DOS floppy, you could use the
following command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ mount -t msdos /dev/fd0                                          |
|        /floppy                                                            |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The mounted-on directory need not be empty, although it must exist. Any files
in it, however, will be inaccessible by name while the filesystem is mounted.
(Any files that have already been opened will still be accessible. Files that
have hard links from other directories can be accessed using those names.)
There is no harm done with this, and it can even be useful. For instance,
some people like to have /tmp and /var/tmp synonymous, and make /tmp be a
symbolic link to /var/tmp. When the system is booted, before the /var
filesystem is mounted, a /var/tmp directory residing on the root filesystem
is used instead. When /var is mounted, it will make the /var/tmp directory on
the root filesystem inaccessible. If /var/tmp didn't exist on the root
filesystem, it would be impossible to use temporary files before mounting /
var.

If you don't intend to write anything to the filesystem, use the -r switch
for mount to do a read-only mount. This will make the kernel stop any
attempts at writing to the filesystem, and will also stop the kernel from
updating file access times in the inodes. Read-only mounts are necessary for
unwritable media, e.g., CD-ROMs.

The alert reader has already noticed a slight logistical problem. How is the
first filesystem (called the root filesystem, because it contains the root
directory) mounted, since it obviously can't be mounted on another
filesystem? Well, the answer is that it is done by magic. The root filesystem
is magically mounted at boot time, and one can rely on it to always be
mounted. If the root filesystem can't be mounted, the system does not boot.
The name of the filesystem that is magically mounted as root is either
compiled into the kernel, or set using LILO or rdev.

For more information, see the kernel source or the Kernel Hackers' Guide.

The root filesystem is usually first mounted read-only. The startup scripts
will then run fsck to verify its validity, and if there are no problems, they
will re-mount it so that writes will also be allowed. fsck must not be run on
a mounted filesystem, since any changes to the filesystem while fsck is
running will cause trouble. Since the root filesystem is mounted read-only
while it is being checked, fsck can fix any problems without worry, since the
remount operation will flush any metadata that the filesystem keeps in
memory.

On many systems there are other filesystems that should also be mounted
automatically at boot time. These are specified in the /etc/fstab file; see
the fstab man page for details on the format. The details of exactly when the
extra filesystems are mounted depend on many factors, and can be configured
by each administrator if need be; see Chapter 8.

When a filesystem no longer needs to be mounted, it can be unmounted with 
umount. umount takes one argument: either the device file or the mount point.
For example, to unmount the directories of the previous example, one could
use the commands
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ umount /dev/hda2                                                         |
|$ umount /usr                                                              |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

See the man page for further instructions on how to use the command. It is
imperative that you always unmount a mounted floppy. Don't just pop the
floppy out of the drive! Because of disk caching, the data is not necessarily
written to the floppy until you unmount it, so removing the floppy from the
drive too early might cause the contents to become garbled. If you only read
from the floppy, this is not very likely, but if you write, even
accidentally, the result may be catastrophic.

Mounting and unmounting requires super user privileges, i.e., only root can
do it. The reason for this is that if any user can mount a floppy on any
directory, then it is rather easy to create a floppy with, say, a Trojan
horse disguised as /bin/sh, or any other often used program. However, it is
often necessary to allow users to use floppies, and there are several ways to
do this:

  * Give the users the root password. This is obviously bad security, but is
    the easiest solution. It works well if there is no need for security
    anyway, which is the case on many non-networked, personal systems.
   
  * Use a program such as sudo to allow users to use mount. This is still bad
    security, but doesn't directly give super user privileges to everyone. It
    requires several seconds of hard thinking on the users' behalf.
    Furthermore sudo can be configured to only allow users to execute certain
    commands. See the sudo(8), sudoers(5), and visudo(8) manual pages.
   
  * Make the users use mtools, a package for manipulating MS-DOS filesystems,
    without mounting them. This works well if MS-DOS floppies are all that is
    needed, but is rather awkward otherwise.
   
  * List the floppy devices and their allowable mount points together with
    the suitable options in /etc/fstab.
   

The last alternative can be implemented by adding a line like the following
to the /etc/fstab file:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        /dev/fd0            /floppy      msdos   user,noauto      0     0  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The columns are: device file to mount, directory to mount on, filesystem
type, options, backup frequency (used by dump), and fsck pass number (to
specify the order in which filesystems should be checked upon boot; 0 means
no check).

The noauto option stops this mount to be done automatically when the system
is started (i.e., it stops mount -a from mounting it). The user option allows
any user to mount the filesystem, and, because of security reasons, disallows
execution of programs (normal or setuid) and interpretation of device files
from the mounted filesystem. After this, any user can mount a floppy with an
msdos filesystem with the following command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ mount /floppy                                                    |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The floppy can (and needs to, of course) be unmounted with the corresponding 
umount command.

If you want to provide access to several types of floppies, you need to give
several mount points. The settings can be different for each mount point. For
example, to give access to both MS-DOS and ext2 floppies, you could have the
following to lines in /etc/fstab:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        /dev/fd0    /mnt/dosfloppy    msdos   user,noauto  0  0            |
|        /dev/fd0    /mnt/ext2floppy   ext2    user,noauto  0  0            |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The alternative is to just add one line similar to the following:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        /dev/fd0    /mnt/floppy    auto   user,noauto  0  0                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The "auto" option in the filesystem type column allows the mount command to
query the filesystem and try to determine what type it is itself. This option
won't work on all filesystem types, but works fine on the more common ones.

For MS-DOS filesystems (not just floppies), you probably want to restrict
access to it by using the uid, gid, and umask filesystem options, described
in detail on the mount manual page. If you aren't careful, mounting an MS-DOS
filesystem gives everyone at least read access to the files in it, which is
not a good idea.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.8. Filesystem Security

TO BE ADDED

This section will describe mount options and how to use them in /etc/fstab to
provide additional system security.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.9. Checking filesystem integrity with fsck

Filesystems are complex creatures, and as such, they tend to be somewhat
error-prone. A filesystem's correctness and validity can be checked using the
fsck command. It can be instructed to repair any minor problems it finds, and
to alert the user if there any unrepairable problems. Fortunately, the code
to implement filesystems is debugged quite effectively, so there are seldom
any problems at all, and they are usually caused by power failures, failing
hardware, or operator errors; for example, by not shutting down the system
properly.

Most systems are setup to run fsck automatically at boot time, so that any
errors are detected (and hopefully corrected) before the system is used. Use
of a corrupted filesystem tends to make things worse: if the data structures
are messed up, using the filesystem will probably mess them up even more,
resulting in more data loss. However, fsck can take a while to run on big
filesystems, and since errors almost never occur if the system has been shut
down properly, a couple of tricks are used to avoid doing the checks in such
cases. The first is that if the file /etc/fastboot exists, no checks are
made. The second is that the ext2 filesystem has a special marker in its
superblock that tells whether the filesystem was unmounted properly after the
previous mount. This allows e2fsck (the version of fsck for the ext2
filesystem) to avoid checking the filesystem if the flag indicates that the
unmount was done (the assumption being that a proper unmount indicates no
problems). Whether the /etc/fastboot trick works on your system depends on
your startup scripts, but the ext2 trick works every time you use e2fsck. It
has to be explicitly bypassed with an option to e2fsck to be avoided. (See
the e2fsck man page for details on how.)

The automatic checking only works for the filesystems that are mounted
automatically at boot time. Use fsck manually to check other filesystems,
e.g., floppies.

If fsck finds unrepairable problems, you need either in-depth knowledge of
how filesystems work in general, and the type of the corrupt filesystem in
particular, or good backups. The latter is easy (although sometimes tedious)
to arrange, the former can sometimes be arranged via a friend, the Linux
newsgroups and mailing lists, or some other source of support, if you don't
have the know-how yourself. I'd like to tell you more about it, but my lack
of education and experience in this regard hinders me. The debugfs program by
Theodore Ts'o should be useful.

fsck must only be run on unmounted filesystems, never on mounted filesystems
(with the exception of the read-only root during startup). This is because it
accesses the raw disk, and can therefore modify the filesystem without the
operating system realizing it. There will be trouble, if the operating system
is confused.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.10. Checking for disk errors with badblocks

It can be a good idea to periodically check for bad blocks. This is done with
the badblocks command. It outputs a list of the numbers of all bad blocks it
can find. This list can be fed to fsck to be recorded in the filesystem data
structures so that the operating system won't try to use the bad blocks for
storing data. The following example will show how this could be done.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ badblocks /dev/fd0H1440 1440 >                                   |
|        bad-blocks                                                         |
|        $ fsck -t ext2 -l bad-blocks                                       |
|        /dev/fd0H1440                                                      |
|        Parallelizing fsck version 0.5a (5-Apr-94)                         |
|        e2fsck 0.5a, 5-Apr-94 for EXT2 FS 0.5, 94/03/10                    |
|        Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes                         |
|        Pass 2: Checking directory structure                               |
|        Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity                            |
|        Pass 4: Check reference counts.                                    |
|        Pass 5: Checking group summary information.                        |
|                                                                           |
|        /dev/fd0H1440: ***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED *****                |
|        /dev/fd0H1440: 11/360 files, 63/1440 blocks                        |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
If badblocks reports a block that was already used, e2fsck will try to move
the block to another place. If the block was really bad, not just marginal,
the contents of the file may be corrupted.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.11. Fighting fragmentation?

When a file is written to disk, it can't always be written in consecutive
blocks. A file that is not stored in consecutive blocks is fragmented. It
takes longer to read a fragmented file, since the disk's read-write head will
have to move more. It is desirable to avoid fragmentation, although it is
less of a problem in a system with a good buffer cache with read-ahead.

Modern Linux filesystem keep fragmentation at a minimum by keeping all blocks
in a file close together, even if they can't be stored in consecutive
sectors. Some filesystems, like ext3, effectively allocate the free block
that is nearest to other blocks in a file. Therefore it is not necessary to
worry about fragmentation in a Linux system.

In the earlier days of the ext2 filesystem, there was a concern over file
fragmentation that lead to the development of a defragmentation program
called, defrag. A copy of it can still be downloaded at [http://www.go.dlr.de
/linux/src/defrag-0.73.tar.gz] http://www.go.dlr.de/linux/src/
defrag-0.73.tar.gz. However, it is HIGHLY recommended that you NOT use it. It
was designed for and older version of ext2, and has not bee updated since
1998! I only mention it here for references purposes.

There are many MS-DOS defragmentation programs that move blocks around in the
filesystem to remove fragmentation. For other filesystems, defragmentation
must be done by backing up the filesystem, re-creating it, and restoring the
files from backups. Backing up a filesystem before defragmenting is a good
idea for all filesystems, since many things can go wrong during the
defragmentation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.12. Other tools for all filesystems

Some other tools are also useful for managing filesystems. df shows the free
disk space on one or more filesystems; du shows how much disk space a
directory and all its files contain. These can be used to hunt down disk
space wasters. Both have manual pages which detail the (many) options which
can be used.

sync forces all unwritten blocks in the buffer cache (see Section 6.6) to be
written to disk. It is seldom necessary to do this by hand; the daemon
process update does this automatically. It can be useful in catastrophes, for
example if update or its helper process bdflush dies, or if you must turn off
power now and can't wait for update to run. Again, there are manual pages.
The man is your very best friend in Linux. Its cousin apropos is also very
useful when you don't know what the name of the command you want is.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.10.13. Other tools for the ext2/ext3 filesystem

In addition to the filesystem creator (mke2fs) and checker (e2fsck)
accessible directly or via the filesystem type independent front ends, the
ext2 filesystem has some additional tools that can be useful.

tune2fs adjusts filesystem parameters. Some of the more interesting
parameters are:

  * A maximal mount count. e2fsck enforces a check when filesystem has been
    mounted too many times, even if the clean flag is set. For a system that
    is used for developing or testing the system, it might be a good idea to
    reduce this limit.
   
  * A maximal time between checks. e2fsck can also enforce a maximal time
    between two checks, even if the clean flag is set, and the filesystem
    hasn't been mounted very often. This can be disabled, however.
   
  * Number of blocks reserved for root. Ext2 reserves some blocks for root so
    that if the filesystem fills up, it is still possible to do system
    administration without having to delete anything. The reserved amount is
    by default 5 percent, which on most disks isn't enough to be wasteful.
    However, for floppies there is no point in reserving any blocks.
   

See the tune2fs manual page for more information.

dumpe2fs shows information about an ext2 or ext3 filesystem, mostly from the
superblock. Below is a sample output. Some of the information in the output
is technical and requires understanding of how the filesystem works, but much
of it is readily understandable even for lay-admins.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# dumpe2fs                                                                 |
|dumpe2fs 1.32 (09-Nov-2002)                                                |
|Filesystem volume name:   /                                                |
|Last mounted on:          not available                                    |
|Filesystem UUID:          51603f82-68f3-4ae7-a755-b777ff9dc739             |
|Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53                                           |
|Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)                                      |
|Filesystem features:      has_journal filetype needs_recovery sparse_super |
|Default mount options:    (none)                                           |
|Filesystem state:         clean                                            |
|Errors behavior:          Continue                                         |
|Filesystem OS type:       Linux                                            |
|Inode count:              3482976                                          |
|Block count:              6960153                                          |
|Reserved block count:     348007                                           |
|Free blocks:              3873525                                          |
|Free inodes:              3136573                                          |
|First block:              0                                                |
|Block size:               4096                                             |
|Fragment size:            4096                                             |
|Blocks per group:         32768                                            |
|Fragments per group:      32768                                            |
|Inodes per group:         16352                                            |
|Inode blocks per group:   511                                              |
|Filesystem created:       Tue Aug 26 08:11:55 2003                         |
|Last mount time:          Mon Dec 22 08:23:12 2003                         |
|Last write time:          Mon Dec 22 08:23:12 2003                         |
|Mount count:              3                                                |
|Maximum mount count:      -1                                               |
|Last checked:             Mon Nov  3 11:27:38 2003                         |
|Check interval:           0 (none)                                         |
|Reserved blocks uid:      0 (user root)                                    |
|Reserved blocks gid:      0 (group root)                                   |
|First inode:              11                                               |
|Inode size:               128                                              |
|Journal UUID:             none                                             |
|Journal inode:            8                                                |
|Journal device:           0x0000                                           |
|First orphan inode:       655612                                           |
|                                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|Group 0: (Blocks 0-32767)                                                  |
|  Primary superblock at 0, Group descriptors at 1-2                        |
|  Block bitmap at 3 (+3), Inode bitmap at 4 (+4)                           |
|  Block bitmap at 3 (+3), Inode bitmap at 4 (+4)                           |
|  Inode table at 5-515 (+5)                                                |
|  3734 free blocks, 16338 free inodes, 2 directories                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

debugfs is a filesystem debugger. It allows direct access to the filesystem
data structures stored on disk and can thus be used to repair a disk that is
so broken that fsck can't fix it automatically. It has also been known to be
used to recover deleted files. However, debugfs very much requires that you
understand what you're doing; a failure to understand can destroy all your
data.

dump and restore can be used to back up an ext2 filesystem. They are ext2
specific versions of the traditional UNIX backup tools. See Section 12.1 for
more information on backups.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.11. Disks without filesystems

Not all disks or partitions are used as filesystems. A swap partition, for
example, will not have a filesystem on it. Many floppies are used in a
tape-drive emulating fashion, so that a tar (tape archive) or other file is
written directly on the raw disk, without a filesystem. Linux boot floppies
don't contain a filesystem, only the raw kernel.

Avoiding a filesystem has the advantage of making more of the disk usable,
since a filesystem always has some bookkeeping overhead. It also makes the
disks more easily compatible with other systems: for example, the tar file
format is the same on all systems, while filesystems are different on most
systems. You will quickly get used to disks without filesystems if you need
them. Bootable Linux floppies also do not necessarily have a filesystem,
although they may.

One reason to use raw disks is to make image copies of them. For instance, if
the disk contains a partially damaged filesystem, it is a good idea to make
an exact copy of it before trying to fix it, since then you can start again
if your fixing breaks things even more. One way to do this is to use dd:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ dd if=/dev/fd0H1440                                              |
|        of=floppy-image                                                    |
|        2880+0 records in                                                  |
|        2880+0 records out                                                 |
|        $ dd if=floppy-image                                               |
|        of=/dev/fd0H1440                                                   |
|        2880+0 records in                                                  |
|        2880+0 records out                                                 |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The first dd makes an exact image of the floppy to the file floppy-image, the
second one writes the image to the floppy. (The user has presumably switched
the floppy before the second command. Otherwise the command pair is of
doubtful usefulness.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.12. Allocating disk space

5.12.1. Partitioning schemes

When it comes to partitioning your machine, there is no universally correct
way to do it. There are many factors that must be taken into account
depending on the purpose of the machine.

For a simple workstation with limited disk space, such as a laptop, you may
have as few a 3 partitions. A partition for /, /boot, and swap. However, for
most users this is not a recommended solution.

 

The traditional way is to have a (relatively) small root filesystem, and
separate partitions for filesystems such as /usr and /home>. Creating a
separate root filesystem if the root filesystem is small and not heavily
used, it is less likely to become corrupt when the system crashes, and
therefore make it easier to recover a crashed system. The reason is to
prevent having the root filesystem get filled and cause a system crash.

When creating your partitioning scheme, there are some things you need to
remember. You cannot create separate partitions for the following
directories: /bin, /etc, /dev, /initrd, /lib, and /sbin. The contents of
these directories are required at bootup and must always be part of the /
partition.

It is also recommended that you create separate partitions for /var and /tmp.
This is because both directories typically have data that is constantly
changing. Not creating separate partitions for these filesystems puts you at
risk of having log file fill up our / partition.

An example of a server partition is:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on                     |
|/dev/hda2             9.7G  1.3G  8.0G  14% /                              |
|/dev/hda1             128M   44M   82M  34% /boot                          |
|/dev/hda3             4.9G  4.0G  670M  86% /usr                           |
|/dev/hda5             4.9G  2.1G  2.5G  46% /var                           |
|/dev/hda7              31G   24G  5.6G  81% /home                          |
|/dev/hda8             4.9G  2.0G  670M  43% /opt                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The problem with having many partitions is that it splits the total amount of
free disk space into many small pieces. One way to avoid this problem is to
use to create Logical Volumes.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.12.2. Logical Volume Manager (LVM)

Using LVM allows administrators the flexibility to create logical disks that
can be expanded dynamically as more disk space is required.

This is done first by creating partitions with as an 0x8e Linux LVM partition
type. Then the Physical Partitions are added to a Volume Group and broken up
into chunks, or Physical Extents Volume Group. These extends can then be
grouped into Logical Volumes. These Logical Volumes then can be formatted
just like a physical partition. The big difference is that they can be
expanded by adding more extents to them.

Right now, a full discussion of LVM is beyond the scope of this guide.
However, and excellent resource for learning more about LVM can be found at
[http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO.html] http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
LVM-HOWTO.html.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.12.3. Space requirements

The Linux distribution you install will give some indication of how much disk
space you need for various configurations. Programs installed separately may
also do the same. This will help you plan your disk space usage, but you
should prepare for the future and reserve some extra space for things you
will notice later that you need.

The amount you need for user files depends on what your users wish to do.
Most people seem to need as much space for their files as possible, but the
amount they will live happily with varies a lot. Some people do only light
text processing and will survive nicely with a few megabytes, others do heavy
image processing and will need gigabytes.

By the way, when comparing file sizes given in kilobytes or megabytes and
disk space given in megabytes, it can be important to know that the two units
can be different. Some disk manufacturers like to pretend that a kilobyte is
1000 bytes and a megabyte is 1000 kilobytes, while all the rest of the
computing world uses 1024 for both factors. Therefore, a 345 MB hard disk is
really a 330 MB hard disk.

Swap space allocation is discussed in Section 6.5.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.12.4. Examples of hard disk allocation

I used to have a 10 GB hard disk. Now I am using a 30 GB hard disk. I'll
explain how and why I partitioned those disks.

First, I created a /boot partition at 128 MG. This is larger than I will
need, and big enough to give me space if I need it. I created a separate /
boot partition to ensure that this filesystem will never get filled up, and
therefore will be bootable. Then I created a 5 GB /var partition. Since the /
var filesystem is where log files and email is stored I wanted to isolate it
from my root partition. (I have had log files grow overnight and fill my root
filesystem in the past.) Next, I created a 15 GB /home partition. This is
handy in the event of a system crash. If I ever have to re-install Linux from
scratch, I can tell the installation program to not format this partition,
and instead remount it without the data being lost. Finally since I had 512
MG of RAM I created a 1024 MG (or 1 GB) swap partition. This left me with
roughly a 9 GB root filesystem. I using my old 10 GB hard drive, I created an
8 GB /usr partition and left 2 GB unused. This is incase I need more space in
the future.

In the end, my partition tables looked like this:


Table 5-3. My Partitions
+-----+------------------+
|9 GB |root filesystem   |
+-----+------------------+
|1 GB |swap partition    |
+-----+------------------+
|5 GB |/var filesystem   |
+-----+------------------+
|15 GB|/home filesystem  |
+-----+------------------+
|8 GB |/usr filesystem   |
+-----+------------------+
|2 GB |scratch partition |
+-----+------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.12.5. Adding more disk space for Linux

Adding more disk space for Linux is easy, at least after the hardware has
been properly installed (the hardware installation is outside the scope of
this book). You format it if necessary, then create the partitions and
filesystem as described above, and add the proper lines to /etc/fstab so that
it is mounted automatically.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.12.6. Tips for saving disk space

The best tip for saving disk space is to avoid installing unnecessary
programs. Most Linux distributions have an option to install only part of the
packages they contain, and by analyzing your needs you might notice that you
don't need most of them. This will help save a lot of disk space, since many
programs are quite large. Even if you do need a particular package or
program, you might not need all of it. For example, some on-line
documentation might be unnecessary, as might some of the Elisp files for GNU
Emacs, some of the fonts for X11, or some of the libraries for programming.

If you cannot uninstall packages, you might look into compression.
Compression programs such as gzip or zip will compress (and uncompress)
individual files or groups of files. The gzexe system will compress and
uncompress programs invisibly to the user (unused programs are compressed,
then uncompressed as they are used). The experimental DouBle system will
compress all files in a filesystem, invisibly to the programs that use them.
(If you are familiar with products such as Stacker for MS-DOS or DriveSpace
for Windows, the principle is the same.)

Another way to save space is to take special care when formatting you
partitions. Most modern filesystems will allow you to specify the block size.
The block size is chunk size that the filesystem will use to read and write
data. Larger block sizes will help disk I/O performance when using large
files, such as databases. This happens because the disk can read or write
data for a longer period of time before having to search for the next block.
The  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 6. Memory Management

    "Minnet, jag har tappat mitt minne, är jag svensk eller finne, kommer
    inte ihåg..." (Bosse Österberg)
   
    A Swedish drinking song, (rough) translation: ``Memory, I have lost my
    memory. Am I Swedish or Finnish? I can't remember''
   
This section describes the Linux memory management features, i.e., virtual
memory and the disk buffer cache. The purpose and workings and the things the
system administrator needs to take into consideration are described.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. What is virtual memory?

Linux supports virtual memory, that is, using a disk as an extension of RAM
so that the effective size of usable memory grows correspondingly. The kernel
will write the contents of a currently unused block of memory to the hard
disk so that the memory can be used for another purpose. When the original
contents are needed again, they are read back into memory. This is all made
completely transparent to the user; programs running under Linux only see the
larger amount of memory available and don't notice that parts of them reside
on the disk from time to time. Of course, reading and writing the hard disk
is slower (on the order of a thousand times slower) than using real memory,
so the programs don't run as fast. The part of the hard disk that is used as
virtual memory is called the swap space.

Linux can use either a normal file in the filesystem or a separate partition
for swap space. A swap partition is faster, but it is easier to change the
size of a swap file (there's no need to repartition the whole hard disk, and
possibly install everything from scratch). When you know how much swap space
you need, you should go for a swap partition, but if you are uncertain, you
can use a swap file first, use the system for a while so that you can get a
feel for how much swap you need, and then make a swap partition when you're
confident about its size.

You should also know that Linux allows one to use several swap partitions and
/or swap files at the same time. This means that if you only occasionally
need an unusual amount of swap space, you can set up an extra swap file at
such times, instead of keeping the whole amount allocated all the time.

A note on operating system terminology: computer science usually
distinguishes between swapping (writing the whole process out to swap space)
and paging (writing only fixed size parts, usually a few kilobytes, at a
time). Paging is usually more efficient, and that's what Linux does, but
traditional Linux terminology talks about swapping anyway.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Creating a swap space

A swap file is an ordinary file; it is in no way special to the kernel. The
only thing that matters to the kernel is that it has no holes, and that it is
prepared for use with mkswap. It must reside on a local disk, however; it
can't reside in a filesystem that has been mounted over NFS due to
implementation reasons.

The bit about holes is important. The swap file reserves the disk space so
that the kernel can quickly swap out a page without having to go through all
the things that are necessary when allocating a disk sector to a file. The
kernel merely uses any sectors that have already been allocated to the file.
Because a hole in a file means that there are no disk sectors allocated (for
that place in the file), it is not good for the kernel to try to use them.

One good way to create the swap file without holes is through the following
command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/extra-swap bs=1024                           |
|        count=1024                                                         |
|        1024+0 records in                                                  |
|        1024+0 records out                                                 |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
where /extra-swap is the name of the swap file and the size of is given after
the count=. It is best for the size to be a multiple of 4, because the kernel
writes out memory pages, which are 4 kilobytes in size. If the size is not a
multiple of 4, the last couple of kilobytes may be unused.

A swap partition is also not special in any way. You create it just like any
other partition; the only difference is that it is used as a raw partition,
that is, it will not contain any filesystem at all. It is a good idea to mark
swap partitions as type 82 (Linux swap); this will the make partition
listings clearer, even though it is not strictly necessary to the kernel.

After you have created a swap file or a swap partition, you need to write a
signature to its beginning; this contains some administrative information and
is used by the kernel. The command to do this is mkswap, used like this:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ mkswap /extra-swap 1024                                          |
|        Setting up swapspace, size = 1044480                               |
|        bytes                                                              |
|        $                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Note that the swap space is still not in use yet: it exists, but the kernel
does not use it to provide virtual memory.

You should be very careful when using mkswap, since it does not check that
the file or partition isn't used for anything else. You can easily overwrite
important files and partitions with mkswap! Fortunately, you should only need
to use mkswap when you install your system.

The Linux memory manager limits the size of each swap space to 2 GB. You can,
however, use up to 8 swap spaces simultaneously, for a total of 16GB.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3. Using a swap space

An initialized swap space is taken into use with swapon. This command tells
the kernel that the swap space can be used. The path to the swap space is
given as the argument, so to start swapping on a temporary swap file one
might use the following command.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ swapon /extra-swap                                                       |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Swap spaces can be used automatically by listing them in the /etc/fstab file.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|/dev/hda8        none        swap        sw     0     0                    |
|/swapfile        none        swap        sw     0     0                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The startup scripts will run the command swapon -a, which will start swapping
on all the swap spaces listed in /etc/fstab. Therefore, the swapon command is
usually used only when extra swap is needed.

You can monitor the use of swap spaces with free. It will tell the total
amount of swap space used.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ free                                                                     |
|             total       used       free     shared                        |
| buffers                                                                   |
|Mem:         15152      14896        256      12404       2528             |
|-/+ buffers:            12368       2784                                   |
|Swap:        32452       6684      25768                                   |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The first line of output (Mem:) shows the physical memory. The total column
does not show the physical memory used by the kernel, which is usually about
a megabyte. The used column shows the amount of memory used (the second line
does not count buffers). The free column shows completely unused memory. The
shared column shows the amount of memory shared by several processes; the
more, the merrier. The buffers column shows the current size of the disk
buffer cache.

That last line (Swap:) shows similar information for the swap spaces. If this
line is all zeroes, your swap space is not activated.

The same information is available via top, or using the proc filesystem in
file /proc/meminfo. It is currently difficult to get information on the use
of a specific swap space.

A swap space can be removed from use with swapoff. It is usually not
necessary to do it, except for temporary swap spaces. Any pages in use in the
swap space are swapped in first; if there is not sufficient physical memory
to hold them, they will then be swapped out (to some other swap space). If
there is not enough virtual memory to hold all of the pages Linux will start
to thrash; after a long while it should recover, but meanwhile the system is
unusable. You should check (e.g., with free) that there is enough free memory
before removing a swap space from use.

All the swap spaces that are used automatically with swapon -a can be removed
from use with swapoff -a; it looks at the file /etc/fstab to find what to
remove. Any manually used swap spaces will remain in use.

Sometimes a lot of swap space can be in use even though there is a lot of
free physical memory. This can happen for instance if at one point there is
need to swap, but later a big process that occupied much of the physical
memory terminates and frees the memory. The swapped-out data is not
automatically swapped in until it is needed, so the physical memory may
remain free for a long time. There is no need to worry about this, but it can
be comforting to know what is happening.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.4. Sharing swap spaces with other operating systems

Virtual memory is built into many operating systems. Since they each need it
only when they are running, i.e., never at the same time, the swap spaces of
all but the currently running one are being wasted. It would be more
efficient for them to share a single swap space. This is possible, but can
require a bit of hacking. The Tips-HOWTO at http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
Tips-HOWTO.html, which contains some advice on how to implement this.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.5. Allocating swap space

Some people will tell you that you should allocate twice as much swap space
as you have physical memory, but this is a bogus rule. Here's how to do it
properly:

  * Estimate your total memory needs. This is the largest amount of memory
    you'll probably need at a time, that is the sum of the memory
    requirements of all the programs you want to run at the same time. This
    can be done by running at the same time all the programs you are likely
    to ever be running at the same time.
   
    For instance, if you want to run X, you should allocate about 8 MB for
    it, gcc wants several megabytes (some files need an unusually large
    amount, up to tens of megabytes, but usually about four should do), and
    so on. The kernel will use about a megabyte by itself, and the usual
    shells and other small utilities perhaps a few hundred kilobytes (say a
    megabyte together). There is no need to try to be exact, rough estimates
    are fine, but you might want to be on the pessimistic side.
   
    Remember that if there are going to be several people using the system at
    the same time, they are all going to consume memory. However, if two
    people run the same program at the same time, the total memory
    consumption is usually not double, since code pages and shared libraries
    exist only once.
   
    The free and ps commands are useful for estimating the memory needs.
   
  * Add some security to the estimate in step 1. This is because estimates of
    program sizes will probably be wrong, because you'll probably forget some
    programs you want to run, and to make certain that you have some extra
    space just in case. A couple of megabytes should be fine. (It is better
    to allocate too much than too little swap space, but there's no need to
    over-do it and allocate the whole disk, since unused swap space is wasted
    space; see later about adding more swap.) Also, since it is nicer to deal
    with even numbers, you can round the value up to the next full megabyte.
   
  * Based on the computations above, you know how much memory you'll be
    needing in total. So, in order to allocate swap space, you just need to
    subtract the size of your physical memory from the total memory needed,
    and you know how much swap space you need. (On some versions of UNIX, you
    need to allocate space for an image of the physical memory as well, so
    the amount computed in step 2 is what you need and you shouldn't do the
    subtraction.)
   
  * If your calculated swap space is very much larger than your physical
    memory (more than a couple times larger), you should probably invest in
    more physical memory, otherwise performance will be too low.
   

It's a good idea to have at least some swap space, even if your calculations
indicate that you need none. Linux uses swap space somewhat aggressively, so
that as much physical memory as possible can be kept free. Linux will swap
out memory pages that have not been used, even if the memory is not yet
needed for anything. This avoids waiting for swapping when it is needed: the
swapping can be done earlier, when the disk is otherwise idle.

Swap space can be divided among several disks. This can sometimes improve
performance, depending on the relative speeds of the disks and the access
patterns of the disks. You might want to experiment with a few schemes, but
be aware that doing the experiments properly is quite difficult. You should
not believe claims that any one scheme is superior to any other, since it
won't always be true.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.6. The buffer cache

Reading from a disk is very slow compared to accessing (real) memory. In
addition, it is common to read the same part of a disk several times during
relatively short periods of time. For example, one might first read an e-mail
message, then read the letter into an editor when replying to it, then make
the mail program read it again when copying it to a folder. Or, consider how
often the command ls might be run on a system with many users. By reading the
information from disk only once and then keeping it in memory until no longer
needed, one can speed up all but the first read. This is called disk
buffering, and the memory used for the purpose is called the buffer cache.

Since memory is, unfortunately, a finite, nay, scarce resource, the buffer
cache usually cannot be big enough (it can't hold all the data one ever wants
to use). When the cache fills up, the data that has been unused for the
longest time is discarded and the memory thus freed is used for the new data.

Disk buffering works for writes as well. On the one hand, data that is
written is often soon read again (e.g., a source code file is saved to a
file, then read by the compiler), so putting data that is written in the
cache is a good idea. On the other hand, by only putting the data into the
cache, not writing it to disk at once, the program that writes runs quicker.
The writes can then be done in the background, without slowing down the other
programs.

Most operating systems have buffer caches (although they might be called
something else), but not all of them work according to the above principles.
Some are write-through: the data is written to disk at once (it is kept in
the cache as well, of course). The cache is called write-back if the writes
are done at a later time. Write-back is more efficient than write-through,
but also a bit more prone to errors: if the machine crashes, or the power is
cut at a bad moment, or the floppy is removed from the disk drive before the
data in the cache waiting to be written gets written, the changes in the
cache are usually lost. This might even mean that the filesystem (if there is
one) is not in full working order, perhaps because the unwritten data held
important changes to the bookkeeping information.

Because of this, you should never turn off the power without using a proper
shutdown procedure or remove a floppy from the disk drive until it has been
unmounted (if it was mounted) or after whatever program is using it has
signaled that it is finished and the floppy drive light doesn't shine
anymore. The sync command flushes the buffer, i.e., forces all unwritten data
to be written to disk, and can be used when one wants to be sure that
everything is safely written. In traditional UNIX systems, there is a program
called update running in the background which does a sync every 30 seconds,
so it is usually not necessary to use sync. Linux has an additional daemon, 
bdflush, which does a more imperfect sync more frequently to avoid the sudden
freeze due to heavy disk I/O that sync sometimes causes.

Under Linux, bdflush is started by update. There is usually no reason to
worry about it, but if bdflush happens to die for some reason, the kernel
will warn about this, and you should start it by hand (/sbin/update).

The cache does not actually buffer files, but blocks, which are the smallest
units of disk I/O (under Linux, they are usually 1 KB). This way, also
directories, super blocks, other filesystem bookkeeping data, and
non-filesystem disks are cached.

The effectiveness of a cache is primarily decided by its size. A small cache
is next to useless: it will hold so little data that all cached data is
flushed from the cache before it is reused. The critical size depends on how
much data is read and written, and how often the same data is accessed. The
only way to know is to experiment.

If the cache is of a fixed size, it is not very good to have it too big,
either, because that might make the free memory too small and cause swapping
(which is also slow). To make the most efficient use of real memory, Linux
automatically uses all free RAM for buffer cache, but also automatically
makes the cache smaller when programs need more memory.

Under Linux, you do not need to do anything to make use of the cache, it
happens completely automatically. Except for following the proper procedures
for shutdown and removing floppies, you do not need to worry about it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 7. System Monitoring

    "That's Hall Monitor to you!"Spongebob Squarepants
   
One of the most important responsibilities a system administrator has, is
monitoring their systems. As a system administrator you'll need the ability
to find out what is happening on your system at any given time. Whether it's
the percentage of system's resources currently used, what commands are being
run, or who is logged on. This chapter will cover how to monitor your system,
and in some cases, how to resolve problems that may arise.

When a performance issue arises, there are 4 main areas to consider: CPU,
Memory, Disk I/O, and Network. The ability to determine where the bottleneck
is can save you a lot of time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1. System Resources

Being able to monitor the performance of your system is essential. If system
resources become to low it can cause a lot of problems. System resources can
be taken up by individual users, or by services your system may host such as
email or web pages. The ability to know what is happening can help determine
whether system upgrades are needed, or if some services need to be moved to
another machine.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.1. The top command.

The most common of these commands is top. The top will display a continually
updating report of system resource usage.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# top                                                                            |
| 12:10:49  up 1 day,  3:47,  7 users,  load average: 0.23, 0.19, 0.10            |
|125 processes: 105 sleeping, 2 running, 18 zombie, 0 stopped                     |
|CPU states:   5.1% user   1.1% system   0.0% nice   0.0% iowait  93.6% idle      |
|Mem:   512716k av,  506176k used,    6540k free,       0k shrd,   21888k buff    |
|Swap: 1044216k av,  161672k used,  882544k free                  199388k cached  |
|                                                                                 |
|  PID USER     PRI  NI  SIZE  RSS SHARE STAT %CPU %MEM   TIME CPU COMMAND        |
| 2330 root      15   0  161M  70M  2132 S     4.9 14.0  1000m   0 X              |
| 2605 weeksa    15   0  8240 6340  3804 S     0.3  1.2   1:12   0 kdeinit        |
| 3413 weeksa    15   0  6668 5324  3216 R     0.3  1.0   0:20   0 kdeinit        |
|18734 root      15   0  1192 1192   868 R     0.3  0.2   0:00   0 top            |
| 1619 root      15   0   776  608   504 S     0.1  0.1   0:53   0 dhclient       |
|    1 root      15   0   480  448   424 S     0.0  0.0   0:03   0 init           |
|    2 root      15   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 keventd        |
|    3 root      15   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 kapmd          |
|    4 root      35  19     0    0     0 SWN   0.0  0.0   0:00   0 ksoftirqd_CPU0 |
|    9 root      25   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 bdflush        |
|    5 root      15   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 kswapd         |
|   10 root      15   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 kupdated       |
|   11 root      25   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 mdrecoveryd    |
|   15 root      15   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:01   0 kjournald      |
|   81 root      25   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 khubd          |
| 1188 root      15   0     0    0     0 SW    0.0  0.0   0:00   0 kjournald      |
| 1675 root      15   0   604  572   520 S     0.0  0.1   0:00   0 syslogd        |
| 1679 root      15   0   428  376   372 S     0.0  0.0   0:00   0 klogd          |
| 1707 rpc       15   0   516  440   436 S     0.0  0.0   0:00   0 portmap        |
| 1776 root      25   0   476  428   424 S     0.0  0.0   0:00   0 apmd           |
| 1813 root      25   0   752  528   524 S     0.0  0.1   0:00   0 sshd           |
| 1828 root      25   0   704  548   544 S     0.0  0.1   0:00   0 xinetd         |
| 1847 ntp       15   0  2396 2396  2160 S     0.0  0.4   0:00   0 ntpd           |
| 1930 root      24   0    76    4     0 S     0.0  0.0   0:00   0 rpc.rquotad    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The top portion of the report lists information such as the system time,
uptime, CPU usage, physical ans swap memory usage, and number of processes.
Below that is a list of the processes sorted by CPU utilization.

You can modify the output of top while is is running. If you hit an i, top
will no longer display idle processes. Hit i again to see them again. Hitting
M will sort by memory usage, S will sort by how long they processes have been
running, and P will sort by CPU usage again.

In addition to viewing options, you can also modify processes from within the
top command. You can use u to view processes owned by a specific user, k to
kill processes, and r to renice them.

For more in-depth information about processes you can look in the /proc
filesystem. In the /proc filesystem you will find a series of sub-directories
with numeric names. These directories are associated with the processes ids
of currently running processes. In each directory you will find a series of
files containing information about the process.

YOU MUST TAKE EXTREME CAUTION TO NOT MODIFY THESE FILES, DOING SO MAY CAUSE
SYSTEM PROBLEMS!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.2. The iostat command.

The iostat will display the current CPU load average and disk I/O
information. This is a great command to monitor your disk I/O usage.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# iostat                                                                   |
|Linux 2.4.20-24.9 (myhost)       12/23/2003                                |
|                                                                           |
|avg-cpu:  %user   %nice    %sys   %idle                                    |
|          62.09    0.32    2.97   34.62                                    |
|                                                                           |
|Device:            tps   Blk_read/s   Blk_wrtn/s   Blk_read   Blk_wrtn     |
|dev3-0            2.22        15.20        47.16    1546846    4799520     |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
For 2.4 kernels the devices is names using the device's major and minor
number. In this case the device listed is /dev/hda. To have iostat print this
out for you, use the -x.
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# iostat -x                                                                                   |
|Linux 2.4.20-24.9 (myhost)       12/23/2003                                                   |
|                                                                                              |
|avg-cpu:  %user   %nice    %sys   %idle                                                       |
|          62.01    0.32    2.97   34.71                                                       |
|                                                                                              |
|Device:  rrqm/s wrqm/s r/s  w/s rsec/s wsec/s rkB/s wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util |
|/dev/hdc   0.00   0.00 .00 0.00   0.00   0.00  0.00  0.00     0.00     2.35  0.00  0.00 14.71 |
|/dev/hda   1.13   4.50 .81 1.39  15.18  47.14  7.59 23.57    28.24     1.99 63.76 70.48 15.56 |
|/dev/hda1  1.08   3.98 .73 1.27  14.49  42.05  7.25 21.02    28.22     0.44 21.82  4.97  1.00 |
|/dev/hda2  0.00   0.51 .07 0.12   0.55   5.07  0.27  2.54    30.35     0.97 52.67 61.73  2.99 |
|/dev/hda3  0.05   0.01 .02 0.00   0.14   0.02  0.07  0.01     8.51     0.00 12.55  2.95  0.01 |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The iostat man page contains a detailed explanation of what each of these
columns mean.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.3. The ps command

The ps will provide you a list of processes currently running. There is a
wide variety of options that this command gives you.

A common use would be to list all processes currently running. To do this you
would use the ps -ef command. (Screen output from this command is too large
to include, the following is only a partial output.)
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|UID        PID  PPID  C STIME TTY          TIME CMD                                      |
|root         1     0  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:03 init                                     |
|root         2     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [keventd]                                |
|root         3     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [kapmd]                                  |
|root         4     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [ksoftirqd_CPU0]                         |
|root         9     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [bdflush]                                |
|root         5     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [kswapd]                                 |
|root         6     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [kscand/DMA]                             |
|root         7     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:01:28 [kscand/Normal]                          |
|root         8     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [kscand/HighMem]                         |
|root        10     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [kupdated]                               |
|root        11     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [mdrecoveryd]                            |
|root        15     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:01 [kjournald]                              |
|root        81     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [khubd]                                  |
|root      1188     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [kjournald]                              |
|root      1675     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 syslogd -m 0                             |
|root      1679     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 klogd -x                                 |
|rpc       1707     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 portmap                                  |
|root      1813     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/sshd                           |
|ntp       1847     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 ntpd -U ntp                              |
|root      1930     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 rpc.rquotad                              |
|root      1934     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]                                   |
|root      1942     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [lockd]                                  |
|root      1943     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 [rpciod]                                 |
|root      1949     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 rpc.mountd                               |
|root      1961     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/vsftpd /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf |
|root      2057     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/spamd -d -c -a                  |
|root      2066     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 gpm -t ps/2 -m /dev/psaux                |
|bin       2076     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/cannaserver -syslog -u bin     |
|root      2087     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 crond                                    |
|daemon    2195     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/atd                            |
|root      2215     1  0 Dec22 ?        00:00:11 /usr/sbin/rcd                            |
|weeksa    3414  3413  0 Dec22 pts/1    00:00:00 /bin/bash                                |
|weeksa    4342  3413  0 Dec22 pts/2    00:00:00 /bin/bash                                |
|weeksa   19121 18668  0 12:58 pts/2    00:00:00 ps -ef                                   |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The first column shows who owns the process. The second column is the process
ID. The Third column is the parent process ID. This is the process that
generated, or started, the process. The forth column is the CPU usage (in
percent). The fifth column is the start time, of date if the process has been
running long enough. The sixth column is the tty associated with the process,
if applicable. The seventh column is the cumulitive CPU usage (total amount
of CPU time is has used while running). The eighth column is the command
itself.

With this information you can see exacly what is running on your system and
kill run-away processes, or those that are causing problems.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.4. The vmstat command

The vmstat command will provide a report showing statistics for system
processes, memory, swap, I/O, and the CPU. These statistics are generated
using data from the last time the command was run to the present. In the case
of the command never being run, the data will be from the last reboot until
the present.

 
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# vmstat                                                                       |
|   procs                      memory      swap          io     system      cpu |
| r  b  w   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in    cs us sy id |
| 0  0  0 181604  17000  26296 201120    0    2     8    24  149     9 61  3 36 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The following was taken from the vmstat man page.

   
    FIELD DESCRIPTIONS
    Procs
        r: The number of processes waiting for run time.
        b: The number of processes in uninterruptable sleep.
        w: The number of processes swapped out but otherwise runnable.  This
           field is calculated, but Linux never desperation swaps.
   
    Memory
        swpd: the amount of virtual memory used (kB).
        free: the amount of idle memory (kB).
        buff: the amount of memory used as buffers (kB).
   
    Swap
        si: Amount of memory swapped in from disk (kB/s).
        so: Amount of memory swapped to disk (kB/s).
   
    IO
        bi: Blocks sent to a block device (blocks/s).
        bo: Blocks received from a block device (blocks/s).
   
    System
        in: The number of interrupts per second, including the clock.
        cs: The number of context switches per second.
   
    CPU
        These are percentages of total CPU time.
        us: user time
        sy: system time
        id: idle time
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.1.5. The lsof command

The lsof command will print out a list of every file that is in use. Since
Linux considers everythihng a file, this list can be very long. However, this
command can be useful in diagnosing problems. An example of this is if you
wish to unmount a filesystem, but you are being told that it is in use. You
could use this command and grep for the name of the filesystem to see who is
using it.

Or suppose you want to see all files in use by a particular process. To do
this you would use lsof -p -processid-.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.6. Finding More Utilities

To learn more about what command line tools are available, Chris Karakas has
wrote a reference guide titled GNU/Linux Command-Line Tools Summary. It's a
good resource for learning what tools are out there and how to do a number of
tasks.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Filesystem Usage

Many reports are currently talking about how cheap storage has gotten, but if
you're like most of us it isn't cheap enough. Most of us have a limited
amount of space, and need to be able to monitor it and control how it's used.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.1. The df command

The df is the simplest tool available to view disk usage. Simply type in df
and you'll be shown disk usage for all your mounted filesystems in 1K blocks
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> df                                                          |
|Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on         |
|/dev/hda3              5242904    759692   4483212  15% /                  |
|tmpfs                   127876         8    127868   1% /dev/shm           |
|/dev/hda1               127351     33047     87729  28% /boot              |
|/dev/hda9             10485816     33508  10452308   1% /home              |
|/dev/hda8              5242904    932468   4310436  18% /srv               |
|/dev/hda7              3145816     32964   3112852   2% /tmp               |
|/dev/hda5              5160416    474336   4423928  10% /usr               |
|/dev/hda6              3145816    412132   2733684  14% /var               |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You can also use the -h to see the output in "human-readable" format. This
will be in K, Megs, or Gigs depending on the size of the filesystem.
Alternately, you can also use the -B to specify block size.

In addition to space usage, you could use the -i option to view the number of
used and available inodes.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> df -i                                                       |
|Filesystem            Inodes   IUsed   IFree IUse% Mounted on              |
|/dev/hda3                  0       0       0    -  /                       |
|tmpfs                  31969       5   31964    1% /dev/shm                |
|/dev/hda1              32912      47   32865    1% /boot                   |
|/dev/hda9                  0       0       0    -  /home                   |
|/dev/hda8                  0       0       0    -  /srv                    |
|/dev/hda7                  0       0       0    -  /tmp                    |
|/dev/hda5             656640   26651  629989    5% /usr                    |
|/dev/hda6                  0       0       0    -  /var                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.2. The du command

Now that you know how much space has been used on a filesystem how can you
find out where that data is? To view usage by a directory or file you can use
du. Unless you specify a filename du will act recursively. For example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> du file.txt                                                 |
|1300    file.txt                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Or like the df I can use the -h and get the same output in "human-readable"
form.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> du -h file.txt                                              |
|1.3M     file.txt                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Unless you specify a filename du will act recursively.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> du -h /usr/local                                            |
|4.0K    /usr/local/games                                                   |
|16K     /usr/local/include/nessus/net                                      |
|180K    /usr/local/include/nessus                                          |
|208K    /usr/local/include                                                 |
|62M     /usr/local/lib/nessus/plugins/.desc                                |
|97M     /usr/local/lib/nessus/plugins                                      |
|164K    /usr/local/lib/nessus/plugins_factory                              |
|97M     /usr/local/lib/nessus                                              |
|12K     /usr/local/lib/pkgconfig                                           |
|2.7M    /usr/local/lib/ladspa                                              |
|104M    /usr/local/lib                                                     |
|112K    /usr/local/man/man1                                                |
|4.0K    /usr/local/man/man2                                                |
|4.0K    /usr/local/man/man3                                                |
|4.0K    /usr/local/man/man4                                                |
|16K     /usr/local/man/man5                                                |
|4.0K    /usr/local/man/man                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you just want a summary of that directory you can use the -s option.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> du -hs /usr/local                                           |
|210M    /usr/local                                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.3. Quotas

For more information about quotas you can read The Quota HOWTO .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Monitoring Users

    Just because you're paranoid doesn't mean they AREN'T out to get you...
    Source Unknown
   
From time to time there are going to be occasions where you will want to know
exactly what people are doing on your system. Maybe you notice that a lot of
RAM is being used, or a lot of CPU activity. You are going to want to see who
is on the system, what they are running, and what kind of resources they are
using.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3.1. The who command

The easiest way to see who is on the system is to do a who or w. The --> who
is a simple tool that lists out who is logged --> on the system and what port
or terminal they are logged on at.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~>  who                                                        |
|bjones   pts/0        May 23 09:33                                         |
|wally    pts/3        May 20 11:35                                         |
|aweeks   pts/1        May 22 11:03                                         |
|aweeks   pts/2        May 23 15:04                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3.2. The ps command -again!

In the previous section we can see that user aweeks is logged onto both pts/1
and pts/2, but what if we want to see what they are doing? We could to a ps
-u aweeks and get the following output
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> ps -u aweeks                                                |
|                                                                           |
|20876 pts/1    00:00:00 bash                                               |
|20904 pts/2    00:00:00 bash                                               |
|20951 pts/2    00:00:00 ssh                                                |
|21012 pts/1    00:00:00 ps                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
From this we can see that the user is doing a ps ssh.

This is a much more consolidated use of the ps than discussed previously.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.3.3. The w command

Even easier than using the who and ps -u commands is to use the w. w will
print out not only who is on the system, but also the commands they are
running.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|user@server:~> w                                                           |
|aweeks   :0        09:32   ?xdm?  30:09   0.02s -:0                        |
|aweeks   pts/0     09:33    5:49m  0.00s  0.82s kdeinit: kded              |
|aweeks   pts/2     09:35    8.00s  0.55s  0.36s vi sag-0.9.sgml            |
|aweeks   pts/1     15:03   59.00s  0.03s  0.03s /bin/bash                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

From this we can see that I have a kde session running, I'm working in this
document :-), and have another terminal open sitting idle at a bash prompt.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3.4. The skill command

To Be Added
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3.5. nice and renice

To Be Added
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 8. Boots And Shutdowns

    Start me up
    Ah... you've got to... you've got to
    Never, never never stop
    Start it up
    Ah... start it up, never, never, never
     You make a grown man cry,
      you make a grown man cry
    (Rolling Stones)
   
This section explains what goes on when a Linux system is brought up and
taken down, and how it should be done properly. If proper procedures are not
followed, files might be corrupted or lost.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1. An overview of boots and shutdowns

The act of turning on a computer system and causing its operating system to
be loaded is called booting. The name comes from an image of the computer
pulling itself up from its bootstraps, but the act itself slightly more
realistic.

During bootstrapping, the computer first loads a small piece of code called
the bootstrap loader, which in turn loads and starts the operating system.
The bootstrap loader is usually stored in a fixed location on a hard disk or
a floppy. The reason for this two step process is that the operating system
is big and complicated, but the first piece of code that the computer loads
must be very small (a few hundred bytes), to avoid making the firmware
unnecessarily complicated.

Different computers do the bootstrapping differently. For PCs, the computer
(its BIOS) reads in the first sector (called the boot sector) of a floppy or
hard disk. The bootstrap loader is contained within this sector. It loads the
operating system from elsewhere on the disk (or from some other place).

After Linux has been loaded, it initializes the hardware and device drivers,
and then runs init. init starts other processes to allow users to log in, and
do things. The details of this part will be discussed below.

In order to shut down a Linux system, first all processes are told to
terminate (this makes them close any files and do other necessary things to
keep things tidy), then filesystems and swap areas are unmounted, and finally
a message is printed to the console that the power can be turned off. If the
proper procedure is not followed, terrible things can and will happen; most
importantly, the filesystem buffer cache might not be flushed, which means
that all data in it is lost and the filesystem on disk is inconsistent, and
therefore possibly unusable.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2. The boot process in closer look

When a PC is booted, the BIOS will do various tests to check that everything
looks all right, and will then start the actual booting. This process is
called the power on self test , or POST for short. It will choose a disk
drive (typically the first floppy drive, if there is a floppy inserted,
otherwise the first hard disk, if one is installed in the computer; the order
might be configurable, however) and will then read its very first sector.
This is called the boot sector; for a hard disk, it is also called the master
boot record, since a hard disk can contain several partitions, each with
their own boot sectors.

The boot sector contains a small program (small enough to fit into one
sector) whose responsibility is to read the actual operating system from the
disk and start it. When booting Linux from a floppy disk, the boot sector
contains code that just reads the first few hundred blocks (depending on the
actual kernel size, of course) to a predetermined place in memory. On a Linux
boot floppy, there is no filesystem, the kernel is just stored in consecutive
sectors, since this simplifies the boot process. It is possible, however, to
boot from a floppy with a filesystem, by using LILO, the LInux LOader, or
GRUB, the GRand Unifying Bootloader.

When booting from the hard disk, the code in the master boot record will
examine the partition table (also in the master boot record), identify the
active partition (the partition that is marked to be bootable), read the boot
sector from that partition, and then start the code in that boot sector. The
code in the partition's boot sector does what a floppy disk's boot sector
does: it will read in the kernel from the partition and start it. The details
vary, however, since it is generally not useful to have a separate partition
for just the kernel image, so the code in the partition's boot sector can't
just read the disk in sequential order, it has to find the sectors wherever
the filesystem has put them. There are several ways around this problem, but
the most common way is to use a boot loader like LILO or GRUB. (The details
about how to do this are irrelevant for this discussion, however; see the
LILO or GRUB documentation for more information; it is most thorough.)

When booting, the bootloader will normally go right ahead and read in and
boot the default kernel. It is also possible to configure the boot loader to
be able to boot one of several kernels, or even other operating systems than
Linux, and it is possible for the user to choose which kernel or operating
system is to be booted at boot time. LILO, for example, can be configured so
that if one holds down the alt, shift, or ctrl key at boot time (when LILO is
loaded), LILO will ask what is to be booted and not boot the default right
away. Alternatively, the bootloader can be configured so that it will always
ask, with an optional timeout that will cause the default kernel to be
booted.

It is also possible to give a kernel command line argument, after the name of
the kernel or operating system. For a list of possible options you can read 
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/BootPrompt-HOWTO.html.

Booting from floppy and from hard disk have both their advantages, but
generally booting from the hard disk is nicer, since it avoids the hassle of
playing around with floppies. It is also faster. Most Linux distributions
will setup the bootloader for you during the install process.

After the Linux kernel has been read into the memory, by whatever means, and
is started for real, roughly the following things happen:

  * The Linux kernel is installed compressed, so it will first uncompress
    itself. The beginning of the kernel image contains a small program that
    does this.
   
  * If you have a super-VGA card that Linux recognizes and that has some
    special text modes (such as 100 columns by 40 rows), Linux asks you which
    mode you want to use. During the kernel compilation, it is possible to
    preset a video mode, so that this is never asked. This can also be done
    with LILO, GRUB or rdev.
   
  * After this, the kernel checks what other hardware there is (hard disks,
    floppies, network adapters, etc), and configures some of its device
    drivers appropriately; while it does this, it outputs messages about its
    findings. For example, when I boot, I it looks like this:
    +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
    |LILO boot:                                                            |
    |Loading linux.                                                        |
    |Console: colour EGA+ 80x25, 8 virtual consoles                        |
    |Serial driver version 3.94 with no serial options enabled             |
    |tty00 at 0x03f8 (irq = 4) is a 16450                                  |
    |tty01 at 0x02f8 (irq = 3) is a 16450                                  |
    |lp_init: lp1 exists (0), using polling driver                         |
    |Memory: 7332k/8192k available (300k kernel code, 384k reserved, 176k  |
    |data)                                                                 |
    |Floppy drive(s): fd0 is 1.44M, fd1 is 1.2M                            |
    |Loopback device init                                                  |
    |Warning WD8013 board not found at i/o = 280.                          |
    |Math coprocessor using irq13 error reporting.                         |
    |Partition check:                                                      |
    |  hda: hda1 hda2 hda3                                                 |
    |VFS: Mounted root (ext filesystem).                                   |
    |Linux version 0.99.pl9-1 (root@haven) 05/01/93 14:12:20               |
    +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
    The exact texts are different on different systems, depending on the
    hardware, the version of Linux being used, and how it has been
    configured.
   
  * Then the kernel will try to mount the root filesystem. The place is
    configurable at compilation time, or any time with rdev or the
    bootloader. The filesystem type is detected automatically. If the
    mounting of the root filesystem fails, for example because you didn't
    remember to include the corresponding filesystem driver in the kernel,
    the kernel panics and halts the system (there isn't much it can do,
    anyway).
   
    The root filesystem is usually mounted read-only (this can be set in the
    same way as the place). This makes it possible to check the filesystem
    while it is mounted; it is not a good idea to check a filesystem that is
    mounted read-write.
   
  * After this, the kernel starts the program init (located in /sbin/init) in
    the background (this will always become process number 1). init does
    various startup chores. The exact things it does depends on how it is
    configured; see Section 2.3.1 for more information (not yet written). It
    will at least start some essential background daemons.
   
  * init then switches to multi-user mode, and starts a getty for virtual
    consoles and serial lines. getty is the program which lets people log in
    via virtual consoles and serial terminals. init may also start some other
    programs, depending on how it is configured.
   
  * After this, the boot is complete, and the system is up and running
    normally.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.2.1. A Word About Bootloaders

TO BE ADDED

This section will give an overview of the difference between GRUB and LILO.

For more information on LILO, you can read [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
LILO.html] http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LILO.html

For more information on GRUB, you can visit [http://www.gnu.org/software/grub
/grub.html] http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub.html
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.3. More about shutdowns

It is important to follow the correct procedures when you shut down a Linux
system. If you fail do so, your filesystems probably will become trashed and
the files probably will become scrambled. This is because Linux has a disk
cache that won't write things to disk at once, but only at intervals. This
greatly improves performance but also means that if you just turn off the
power at a whim the cache may hold a lot of data and that what is on the disk
may not be a fully working filesystem (because only some things have been
written to the disk).

Another reason against just flipping the power switch is that in a
multi-tasking system there can be lots of things going on in the background,
and shutting the power can be quite disastrous. By using the proper shutdown
sequence, you ensure that all background processes can save their data.

The command for properly shutting down a Linux system is shutdown. It is
usually used in one of two ways.

If you are running a system where you are the only user, the usual way of
using shutdown is to quit all running programs, log out on all virtual
consoles, log in as root on one of them (or stay logged in as root if you
already are, but you should change to root's home directory or the root
directory, to avoid problems with unmounting), then give the command shutdown
-h now (substitute now with a plus sign and a number in minutes if you want a
delay, though you usually don't on a single user system).

Alternatively, if your system has many users, use the command shutdown -h
+time message, where time is the time in minutes until the system is halted,
and message is a short explanation of why the system is shutting down.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# shutdown -h +10 'We will install a new                                   |
|disk.  System should                                                       |
|> be back on-line in three hours.'                                         |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This will warn everybody that the system will shut down in ten minutes, and
that they'd better get lost or lose data. The warning is printed to every
terminal on which someone is logged in, including all xterms:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Broadcast message from root (ttyp0) Wed Aug  2 01:03:25 1995...            |
|                                                                           |
|We will install a new disk.  System should                                 |
|be back on-line in three hours.                                            |
|The system is going DOWN for system halt in 10 minutes !!                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The warning is automatically repeated a few times before the boot, with
shorter and shorter intervals as the time runs out.

When the real shutting down starts after any delays, all filesystems (except
the root one) are unmounted, user processes (if anybody is still logged in)
are killed, daemons are shut down, all filesystem are unmounted, and
generally everything settles down. When that is done, init prints out a
message that you can power down the machine. Then, and only then, should you
move your fingers towards the power switch.

Sometimes, although rarely on any good system, it is impossible to shut down
properly. For instance, if the kernel panics and crashes and burns and
generally misbehaves, it might be completely impossible to give any new
commands, hence shutting down properly is somewhat difficult, and just about
everything you can do is hope that nothing has been too severely damaged and
turn off the power. If the troubles are a bit less severe (say, somebody hit
your keyboard with an axe), and the kernel and the update program still run
normally, it is probably a good idea to wait a couple of minutes to give 
update a chance to flush the buffer cache, and only cut the power after that.

In the old days, some people like to shut down using the command sync three
times, waiting for the disk I/O to stop, then turn off the power. If there
are no running programs, this is equivalent to using shutdown. However, it
does not unmount any filesystems and this can lead to problems with the
ext2fs ``clean filesystem'' flag. The triple-sync method is not recommended.

(In case you're wondering: the reason for three syncs is that in the early
days of UNIX, when the commands were typed separately, that usually gave
sufficient time for most disk I/O to be finished.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.4. Rebooting

Rebooting means booting the system again. This can be accomplished by first
shutting it down completely, turning power off, and then turning it back on.
A simpler way is to ask shutdown to reboot the system, instead of merely
halting it. This is accomplished by using the -r option to shutdown, for
example, by giving the command shutdown -r now.

Most Linux systems run shutdown -r now when ctrl-alt-del is pressed on the
keyboard. This reboots the system. The action on ctrl-alt-del is
configurable, however, and it might be better to allow for some delay before
the reboot on a multiuser machine. Systems that are physically accessible to
anyone might even be configured to do nothing when ctrl-alt-del is pressed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.5. Single user mode

The shutdown command can also be used to bring the system down to single user
mode, in which no one can log in, but root can use the console. This is
useful for system administration tasks that can't be done while the system is
running normally.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.6. Emergency boot floppies

It is not always possible to boot a computer from the hard disk. For example,
if you make a mistake in configuring LILO, you might make your system
unbootable. For these situations, you need an alternative way of booting that
will always work (as long as the hardware works). For typical PCs, this means
booting from the floppy drive.

Most Linux distributions allow one to create an emergency boot floppy during
installation. It is a good idea to do this. However, some such boot disks
contain only the kernel, and assume you will be using the programs on the
distribution's installation disks to fix whatever problem you have. Sometimes
those programs aren't enough; for example, you might have to restore some
files from backups made with software not on the installation disks.

Thus, it might be necessary to create a custom root floppy as well. The
Bootdisk HOWTO by Graham Chapman contains instructions for doing this. You
can find this HOWTO at [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/index.html]
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/index.html. You must, of course,
remember to keep your emergency boot and root floppies up to date.

You can't use the floppy drive you use to mount the root floppy for anything
else. This can be inconvenient if you only have one floppy drive. However, if
you have enough memory, you can configure your boot floppy to load the root
disk to a ramdisk (the boot floppy's kernel needs to be specially configured
for this). Once the root floppy has been loaded into the ramdisk, the floppy
drive is free to mount other disks.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 9. init

    "Uuno on numero yksi" (Slogan for a series of Finnish movies.)
   
This chapter describes the init process, which is the first user level
process started by the kernel. init has many important duties, such as
starting getty (so that users can log in), implementing run levels, and
taking care of orphaned processes. This chapter explains how init is
configured and how you can make use of the different run levels.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.1. init comes first

init is one of those programs that are absolutely essential to the operation
of a Linux system, but that you still can mostly ignore. A good Linux
distribution will come with a configuration for init that will work for most
systems, and on these systems there is nothing you need to do about init.
Usually, you only need to worry about init if you hook up serial terminals,
dial-in (not dial-out) modems, or if you want to change the default run
level.

When the kernel has started itself (has been loaded into memory, has started
running, and has initialized all device drivers and data structures and
such), it finishes its own part of the boot process by starting a user level
program, init. Thus, init is always the first process (its process number is
always 1).

The kernel looks for init in a few locations that have been historically used
for it, but the proper location for it (on a Linux system) is /sbin/init. If
the kernel can't find init, it tries to run /bin/sh, and if that also fails,
the startup of the system fails.

When init starts, it finishes the boot process by doing a number of
administrative tasks, such as checking filesystems, cleaning up /tmp,
starting various services, and starting a getty for each terminal and virtual
console where users should be able to log in (see Chapter 10).

After the system is properly up, init restarts getty for each terminal after
a user has logged out (so that the next user can log in). init also adopts
orphan processes: when a process starts a child process and dies before its
child, the child immediately becomes a child of init. This is important for
various technical reasons, but it is good to know it, since it makes it
easier to understand process lists and process tree graphs. There are a few
variants of init available. Most Linux distributions use sysvinit (written by
Miquel van Smoorenburg), which is based on the System V init design. The BSD
versions of Unix have a different init. The primary difference is run levels:
System V has them, BSD does not (at least traditionally). This difference is
not essential. We'll look at sysvinit only.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2. Configuring init to start getty: the /etc/inittab file

When it starts up, init reads the /etc/inittab configuration file. While the
system is running, it will re-read it, if sent the HUP signal (kill -HUP 1);
this feature makes it unnecessary to boot the system to make changes to the 
init configuration take effect.

The /etc/inittab file is a bit complicated. We'll start with the simple case
of configuring getty lines. Lines in /etc/inittab consist of four
colon-delimited fields:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|id:runlevels:action:process                                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The fields are described below. In addition, /etc/inittab can contain empty
lines, and lines that begin with a number sign (`#'); these are both ignored.

id
    This identifies the line in the file. For getty lines, it specifies the
    terminal it runs on (the characters after /dev/tty in the device file
    name). For other lines, it doesn't matter (except for length
    restrictions), but it should be unique.
   
runlevels
    The run levels the line should be considered for. The run levels are
    given as single digits, without delimiters. (Run levels are described in
    the next section.)
   
action
    What action should be taken by the line, e.g., respawn to run the command
    in the next field again, when it exits, or once to run it just once.
   
process
    The command to run.
   

To start a getty on the first virtual terminal (/dev/tty1), in all the normal
multi-user run levels (2-5), one would write the following line:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 9600 tty1                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The first field says that this is the line for /dev/tty1. The second field
says that it applies to run levels 2, 3, 4, and 5. The third field means that
the command should be run again, after it exits (so that one can log in, log
out, and then log in again). The last field is the command that runs getty on
the first virtual terminal.

Different versions of getty are run differently. Consult your manual page,
and make sure it is the correct manual page.

If you wanted to add terminals or dial-in modem lines to a system, you'd add
more lines to /etc/inittab, one for each terminal or dial-in line. For more
details, see the manual pages init, inittab, and getty.

If a command fails when it starts, and init is configured to restart it, it
will use a lot of system resources: init starts it, it fails, init starts it,
it fails, init starts it, it fails, and so on, ad infinitum. To prevent this,
init will keep track of how often it restarts a command, and if the frequency
grows to high, it will delay for five minutes before restarting again.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.3. Run levels

A run level is a state of init and the whole system that defines what system
services are operating. Run levels are identified by numbers. Some system
administrators use run levels to define which subsystems are working, e.g.,
whether X is running, whether the network is operational, and so on. Others
have all subsystems always running or start and stop them individually,
without changing run levels, since run levels are too coarse for controlling
their systems. You need to decide for yourself, but it might be easiest to
follow the way your Linux distribution does things.

The following table defines how most Linux Distributions define the different
run levels. However, run-levels 2 through 5 can be modified to suit your own
tastes.


Table 9-1. Run level numbers
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|0|Halt the system.                                                      |
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|1|Single-user mode (for special administration).                        |
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|2|Local Multiuser with Networking but without network service (like NFS)|
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|3|Full Multiuser with Networking                                        |
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|4|Not Used                                                              |
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|5|Full Multiuser with Networking and X Windows(GUI)                     |
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|6|Reboot.                                                               |
+-+----------------------------------------------------------------------+

Services that get started at a certain runtime are determined by the contents
of the various rcN.d directories. Most distributions locate these directories
either at /etc/init.d/rcN.d or /etc/rcN.d. (Replace the N with the run-level
number.)

In each run-level you will find a series of if links pointing to start-up
scripts located in /etc/init.d. The names of these links all start as either
K or S, followed by a number. If the name of the link starts with an S, then
that indicates the service will be started when you go into that run level.
If the name of the link starts with a K, the service will be killed (if
running).

The number following the K or S indicates the order the scripts will be run.
Here is a sample of what an /etc/init.d/rc3.d may look like.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ls -l /etc/init.d/rc3.d                                                  |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 10 2004-11-29 22:09 K12nfsboot -> ../nfsboot       |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  6 2005-03-29 13:42 K15xdm -> ../xdm               |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  9 2004-11-29 22:08 S01pcmcia -> ../pcmcia         |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  9 2004-11-29 22:06 S01random -> ../random         |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 11 2005-03-01 11:56 S02firewall -> ../firewall     |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 10 2004-11-29 22:34 S05network -> ../network       |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  9 2004-11-29 22:07 S06syslog -> ../syslog         |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 10 2004-11-29 22:09 S08portmap -> ../portmap       |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  9 2004-11-29 22:07 S08resmgr -> ../resmgr         |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  6 2004-11-29 22:09 S10nfs -> ../nfs               |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 12 2004-11-29 22:40 S12alsasound -> ../alsasound   |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  8 2004-11-29 22:09 S12fbset -> ../fbset           |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  7 2004-11-29 22:10 S12sshd -> ../sshd             |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  8 2005-02-01 09:24 S12xntpd -> ../xntpd           |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  7 2004-12-02 20:34 S13cups -> ../cups             |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  6 2004-11-29 22:09 S13kbd -> ../kbd               |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 13 2004-11-29 22:10 S13powersaved -> ../powersaved |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  9 2004-11-29 22:09 S14hwscan -> ../hwscan         |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  7 2004-11-29 22:10 S14nscd -> ../nscd             |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root 10 2004-11-29 22:10 S14postfix -> ../postfix       |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  6 2005-02-04 13:27 S14smb -> ../smb               |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  7 2004-11-29 22:10 S15cron -> ../cron             |
|lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  8 2004-12-22 20:35 S15smbfs -> ../smbfs           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

How run levels start are configured in /etc/inittab by lines like the
following:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|l2:2:wait:/etc/init.d/rc 2                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The first field is an arbitrary label, the second one means that this applies
for run level 2. The third field means that init should run the command in
the fourth field once, when the run level is entered, and that init should
wait for it to complete. The /etc/init.d/rc command runs whatever commands
are necessary to start and stop services to enter run level 2.

The command in the fourth field does all the hard work of setting up a run
level. It starts services that aren't already running, and stops services
that shouldn't be running in the new run level any more. Exactly what the
command is, and how run levels are configured, depends on the Linux
distribution.

When init starts, it looks for a line in /etc/inittab that specifies the
default run level:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|id:2:initdefault:                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
You can ask init to go to a non-default run level at startup by giving the
kernel a command line argument of single or emergency. Kernel command line
arguments can be given via LILO, for example. This allows you to choose the
single user mode (run level 1).

While the system is running, the telinit command can change the run level.
When the run level is changed, init runs the relevant command from /etc/
inittab.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.4. Special configuration in /etc/inittab

The /etc/inittab has some special features that allow init to react to
special circumstances. These special features are marked by special keywords
in the third field. Some examples:

powerwait
    Allows init to shut the system down, when the power fails. This assumes
    the use of a UPS, and software that watches the UPS and informs init that
    the power is off.
   
ctrlaltdel
    Allows init to reboot the system, when the user presses ctrl-alt-del on
    the console keyboard. Note that the system administrator can configure
    the reaction to ctrl-alt-del to be something else instead, e.g., to be
    ignored, if the system is in a public location. (Or to start nethack.)
   
sysinit
    Command to be run when the system is booted. This command usually cleans
    up /tmp, for example.
   

The list above is not exhaustive. See your inittab manual page for all
possibilities, and for details on how to use the above ones.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.5. Booting in single user mode

An important run level is single user mode (run level 1), in which only the
system administrator is using the machine and as few system services,
including logins, as possible are running. Single user mode is necessary for
a few administrative tasks, such as running fsck on a /usr partition, since
this requires that the partition be unmounted, and that can't happen, unless
just about all system services are killed.

A running system can be taken to single user mode by using telinit to request
run level 1. At bootup, it can be entered by giving the word single or
emergency on the kernel command line: the kernel gives the command line to 
init as well, and init understands from that word that it shouldn't use the
default run level. (The kernel command line is entered in a way that depends
on how you boot the system.)

Booting into single user mode is sometimes necessary so that one can run fsck
by hand, before anything mounts or otherwise touches a broken /usr partition
(any activity on a broken filesystem is likely to break it more, so fsck
should be run as soon as possible).

The bootup scripts init runs will automatically enter single user mode, if
the automatic fsck at bootup fails. This is an attempt to prevent the system
from using a filesystem that is so broken that fsck can't fix it
automatically. Such breakage is relatively rare, and usually involves a
broken hard disk or an experimental kernel release, but it's good to be
prepared.

As a security measure, a properly configured system will ask for the root
password before starting the shell in single user mode. Otherwise, it would
be simple to just enter a suitable line to LILO to get in as root. (This will
break if /etc/passwd has been broken by filesystem problems, of course, and
in that case you'd better have a boot floppy handy.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 10. Logging In And Out

    "I don't care to belong to a club that accepts people like me as a
    member." (Groucho Marx)
   
This section describes what happens when a user logs in or out. The various
interactions of background processes, log files, configuration files, and so
on are described in some detail.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.1. Logins via terminals

Section 2.3.2 shows how logins happen via terminals. First, init makes sure
there is a getty program for the terminal connection (or console). getty
listens at the terminal and waits for the user to notify that he is ready to
login in (this usually means that the user must type something). When it
notices a user, getty outputs a welcome message (stored in /etc/issue), and
prompts for the username, and finally runs the login program. login gets the
username as a parameter, and prompts the user for the password. If these
match, login starts the shell configured for the user; else it just exits and
terminates the process (perhaps after giving the user another chance at
entering the username and password). init notices that the process
terminated, and starts a new getty for the terminal.


Figure 10-1. Logins via terminals: the interaction of init, getty, login, and
the shell.

[logins-via-terminals]

Note that the only new process is the one created by init (using the fork
system call); getty and login only replace the program running in the process
(using the exec system call).

A separate program, for noticing the user, is needed for serial lines, since
it can be (and traditionally was) complicated to notice when a terminal
becomes active. getty also adapts to the speed and other settings of the
connection, which is important especially for dial-in connections, where
these parameters may change from call to call.

There are several versions of getty and init in use, all with their good and
bad points. It is a good idea to learn about the versions on your system, and
also about the other versions (you could use the Linux Software Map to search
them). If you don't have dial-ins, you probably don't have to worry about 
getty, but init is still important.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2. Logins via the network

Two computers in the same network are usually linked via a single physical
cable. When they communicate over the network, the programs in each computer
that take part in the communication are linked via a virtual connection, a
sort of imaginary cable. As far as the programs at either end of the virtual
connection are concerned, they have a monopoly on their own cable. However,
since the cable is not real, only imaginary, the operating systems of both
computers can have several virtual connections share the same physical cable.
This way, using just a single cable, several programs can communicate without
having to know of or care about the other communications. It is even possible
to have several computers use the same cable; the virtual connections exist
between two computers, and the other computers ignore those connections that
they don't take part in.

That's a complicated and over-abstracted description of the reality. It
might, however, be good enough to understand the important reason why network
logins are somewhat different from normal logins. The virtual connections are
established when there are two programs on different computers that wish to
communicate. Since it is in principle possible to login from any computer in
a network to any other computer, there is a huge number of potential virtual
communications. Because of this, it is not practical to start a getty for
each potential login.

There is a single process inetd (corresponding to getty) that handles all
network logins. When it notices an incoming network login (i.e., it notices
that it gets a new virtual connection to some other computer), it starts a
new process to handle that single login. The original process remains and
continues to listen for new logins.

To make things a bit more complicated, there is more than one communication
protocol for network logins. The two most important ones are telnet and 
rlogin. In addition to logins, there are many other virtual connections that
may be made (for FTP, Gopher, HTTP, and other network services). It would be
ineffective to have a separate process listening for a particular type of
connection, so instead there is only one listener that can recognize the type
of the connection and can start the correct type of program to provide the
service. This single listener is called inetd; see the Linux Network
Administrators' Guide for more information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.3. What login does

The login program takes care of authenticating the user (making sure that the
username and password match), and of setting up an initial environment for
the user by setting permissions for the serial line and starting the shell.

Part of the initial setup is outputting the contents of the file /etc/motd
(short for message of the day) and checking for electronic mail. These can be
disabled by creating a file called .hushlogin in the user's home directory.

If the file /etc/nologin exists, logins are disabled. That file is typically
created by shutdown and relatives. login checks for this file, and will
refuse to accept a login if it exists. If it does exist, login outputs its
contents to the terminal before it quits.

login logs all failed login attempts in a system log file (via syslog). It
also logs all logins by root. Both of these can be useful when tracking down
intruders.

Currently logged in people are listed in /var/run/utmp. This file is valid
only until the system is next rebooted or shut down; it is cleared when the
system is booted. It lists each user and the terminal (or network connection)
he is using, along with some other useful information. The who, w, and other
similar commands look in utmp to see who are logged in.

All successful logins are recorded into /var/log/wtmp. This file will grow
without limit, so it must be cleaned regularly, for example by having a
weekly cron job to clear it. The last command browses wtmp.

Both utmp and wtmp are in a binary format (see the utmp manual page); it is
unfortunately not convenient to examine them without special programs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.4. X and xdm

XXX X implements logins via xdm; also: xterm -ls

TO BE ADDED
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.5. Access control

The user database is traditionally contained in the /etc/passwd file. Some
systems use shadow passwords, and have moved the passwords to /etc/shadow.
Sites with many computers that share the accounts use NIS or some other
method to store the user database; they might also automatically copy the
database from one central location to all other computers.

The user database contains not only the passwords, but also some additional
information about the users, such as their real names, home directories, and
login shells. This other information needs to be public, so that anyone can
read it. Therefore the password is stored encrypted. This does have the
drawback that anyone with access to the encrypted password can use various
cryptographic methods to guess it, without trying to actually log into the
computer. Shadow passwords try to avoid this by moving the password into
another file, which only root can read (the password is still stored
encrypted). However, installing shadow passwords later onto a system that did
not support them can be difficult.

With or without passwords, it is important to make sure that all passwords in
a system are good, i.e., not easily guessed. The crack program can be used to
crack passwords; any password it can find is by definition not a good one.
While crack can be run by intruders, it can also be run by the system
administrator to avoid bad passwords. Good passwords can also be enforced by
the passwd program; this is in fact more effective in CPU cycles, since
cracking passwords requires quite a lot of computation.

The user group database is kept in /etc/group; for systems with shadow
passwords, there can be a /etc/shadow.group.

root usually can't login via most terminals or the network, only via
terminals listed in the /etc/securetty file. This makes it necessary to get
physical access to one of these terminals. It is, however, possible to log in
via any terminal as any other user, and use the su command to become root.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.6. Shell startup

When an interactive login shell starts, it automatically executes one or more
pre-defined files. Different shells execute different files; see the
documentation of each shell for further information.

Most shells first run some global file, for example, the Bourne shell (/bin/
sh) and its derivatives execute /etc/profile; in addition, they execute
.profile in the user's home directory. /etc/profile allows the system
administrator to have set up a common user environment, especially by setting
the PATH to include local command directories in addition to the normal ones.
On the other hand, .profile allows the user to customize the environment to
his own tastes by overriding, if necessary, the default environment.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 11. Managing user accounts

    "The similarities of sysadmins and drug dealers: both measure stuff in
    Ks, and both have users." (Old, tired computer joke.)
   
This chapter explains how to create new user accounts, how to modify the
properties of those accounts, and how to remove the accounts. Different Linux
systems have different tools for doing this.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.1. What's an account?

When a computer is used by many people it is usually necessary to
differentiate between the users, for example, so that their private files can
be kept private. This is important even if the computer can only be used by a
single person at a time, as with most microcomputers. Thus, each user is
given a unique username, and that name is used to log in.

There's more to a user than just a name, however. An account is all the
files, resources, and information belonging to one user. The term hints at
banks, and in a commercial system each account usually has some money
attached to it, and that money vanishes at different speeds depending on how
much the user stresses the system. For example, disk space might have a price
per megabyte and day, and processing time might have a price per second.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2. Creating a user

The Linux kernel itself treats users are mere numbers. Each user is
identified by a unique integer, the user id or uid, because numbers are
faster and easier for a computer to process than textual names. A separate
database outside the kernel assigns a textual name, the username, to each
user id. The database contains additional information as well.

To create a user, you need to add information about the user to the user
database, and create a home directory for him. It may also be necessary to
educate the user, and set up a suitable initial environment for him.

Most Linux distributions come with a program for creating accounts. There are
several such programs available. Two command line alternatives are adduser
and useradd; there may be a GUI tool as well. Whatever the program, the
result is that there is little if any manual work to be done. Even if the
details are many and intricate, these programs make everything seem trivial.
However, Section 11.2.4 describes how to do it by hand.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2.1. /etc/passwd and other informative files

The basic user database in a Unix system is the text file, /etc/passwd
(called the password file), which lists all valid usernames and their
associated information. The file has one line per username, and is divided
into seven colon-delimited fields:

  * Username.
   
  * Previously this was where the user's password was stored.
   
  * Numeric user id.
   
  * Numeric group id.
   
  * Full name or other description of account.
   
  * Home directory.
   
  * Login shell (program to run at login).
   

The format is explained in more detail on the passwd manual page.

Most Linux systems use shadow passwords. As mentioned, previously passwords
were stored in the /etc/passwd file. This newer method of storing the
password: the encrypted password is stored in a separate file, /etc/shadow,
which only root can read. The /etc/passwd file only contains a special marker
in the second field. Any program that needs to verify a user is setuid, and
can therefore access the shadow password file. Normal programs, which only
use the other fields in the password file, can't get at the password.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2.2. Picking numeric user and group ids

On most systems it doesn't matter what the numeric user and group ids are,
but if you use the Network filesystem (NFS), you need to have the same uid
and gid on all systems. This is because NFS also identifies users with the
numeric uids. If you aren't using NFS, you can let your account creation tool
pick them automatically.

If you are using NFS, you'll have to be invent a mechanism for synchronizing
account information. One alternative is to the NIS system (see XXX
network-admin-guide).

However, you should try to avoid re-using numeric uids (and textual
usernames), because the new owner of the uid (or username) may get access to
the old owner's files (or mail, or whatever).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2.3. Initial environment: /etc/skel

When the home directory for a new user is created, it is initialized with
files from the /etc/skel directory. The system administrator can create files
in /etc/skel that will provide a nice default environment for users. For
example, he might create a /etc/skel/.profile that sets the EDITOR
environment variable to some editor that is friendly towards new users.

However, it is usually best to try to keep /etc/skel as small as possible,
since it will be next to impossible to update existing users' files. For
example, if the name of the friendly editor changes, all existing users would
have to edit their .profile. The system administrator could try to do it
automatically, with a script, but that is almost certain going to break
someone's file.

Whenever possible, it is better to put global configuration into global
files, such as /etc/profile. This way it is possible to update it without
breaking users' own setups.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2.4. Creating a user by hand

To create a new account manually, follow these steps:

  * Edit /etc/passwd with vipw and add a new line for the new account. Be
    careful with the syntax. Do not edit directly with an editor! vipw locks
    the file, so that other commands won't try to update it at the same time.
    You should make the password field be `*', so that it is impossible to
    log in.
   
  * Similarly, edit /etc/group with vigr, if you need to create a new group
    as well.
   
  * Create the home directory of the user with mkdir.
   
  * Copy the files from /etc/skel to the new home directory.
   
  * Fix ownerships and permissions with chown and chmod. The -R option is
    most useful. The correct permissions vary a little from one site to
    another, but usually the following commands do the right thing:
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |cd /home/newusername                                           |
    |chown -R username.group .                                      |
    |chmod -R go=u,go-w .                                           |
    |chmod go= .                                                    |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   
  * Set the password with passwd.
   

After you set the password in the last step, the account will work. You
shouldn't set it until everything else has been done, otherwise the user may
inadvertently log in while you're still copying the files.

It is sometimes necessary to create dummy accounts that are not used by
people. For example, to set up an anonymous FTP server (so that anyone can
download files from it, without having to get an account first), you need to
create an account called ftp. In such cases, it is usually not necessary to
set the password (last step above). Indeed, it is better not to, so that
no-one can use the account, unless they first become root, since root can
become any user.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.3. Changing user properties

There are a few commands for changing various properties of an account (i.e.,
the relevant field in /etc/passwd):

chfn
    Change the full name field.
   
chsh
    Change the login shell.
   
passwd
    Change the password.
   

The super-user may use these commands to change the properties of any
account. Normal users can only change the properties of their own account. It
may sometimes be necessary to disable these commands (with chmod) for normal
users, for example in an environment with many novice users.

Other tasks need to be done by hand. For example, to change the username, you
need to edit /etc/passwd directly (with vipw, remember). Likewise, to add or
remove the user to more groups, you need to edit /etc/group (with vigr). Such
tasks tend to be rare, however, and should be done with caution: for example,
if you change the username, e-mail will no longer reach the user, unless you
also create a mail alias.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.4. Removing a user

To remove a user, you first remove all his files, mailboxes, mail aliases,
print jobs, cron and at jobs, and all other references to the user. Then you
remove the relevant lines from /etc/passwd and /etc/group (remember to remove
the username from all groups it's been added to). It may be a good idea to
first disable the account (see below), before you start removing stuff, to
prevent the user from using the account while it is being removed.

Remember that users may have files outside their home directory. The find
command can find them:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|find / -user username                                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
However, note that the above command will take a long time, if you have large
disks. If you mount network disks, you need to be careful so that you won't
trash the network or the server.

Some Linux distributions come with special commands to do this; look for 
deluser or userdel. However, it is easy to do it by hand as well, and the
commands might not do everything.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.5. Disabling a user temporarily

It is sometimes necessary to temporarily disable an account, without removing
it. For example, the user might not have paid his fees, or the system
administrator may suspect that a cracker has got the password of that
account.

The best way to disable an account is to change its shell into a special
program that just prints a message. This way, whoever tries to log into the
account, will fail, and will know why. The message can tell the user to
contact the system administrator so that any problems may be dealt with.

It would also be possible to change the username or password to something
else, but then the user won't know what is going on. Confused users mean more
work.

A simple way to create the special programs is to write `tail scripts':
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#!/usr/bin/tail +2                                                         |
|This account has been closed due to a security breach.                     |
|Please call 555-1234 and wait for the men in black to arrive.              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The first two characters (`#!') tell the kernel that the rest of the line is
a command that needs to be run to interpret this file. The tail command in
this case outputs everything except the first line to the standard output.

If user billg is suspected of a security breach, the system administrator
would do something like this:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# chsh -s                                                                  |
|/usr/local/lib/no-login/security billg                                     |
|# su - tester                                                              |
|This account has been closed due to a security breach.                     |
|Please call 555-1234 and wait for the men in black to arrive.              |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The purpose of the su is to test that the change worked, of course.

Tail scripts should be kept in a separate directory, so that their names
don't interfere with normal user commands.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 12. Backups

    Hardware is indeterministically reliable. 
    Software is deterministically unreliable.
    People are indeterministically unreliable.
    Nature is deterministically reliable.
   
This chapter explains about why, how, and when to make backups, and how to
restore things from backups.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.1. On the importance of being backed up

Your data is valuable. It will cost you time and effort re-create it, and
that costs money or at least personal grief and tears; sometimes it can't
even be re-created, e.g., if it is the results of some experiments. Since it
is an investment, you should protect it and take steps to avoid losing it.

There are basically four reasons why you might lose data: hardware failures,
software bugs, human action, or natural disasters. Although modern hardware
tends to be quite reliable, it can still break seemingly spontaneously. The
most critical piece of hardware for storing data is the hard disk, which
relies on tiny magnetic fields remaining intact in a world filled with
electromagnetic noise. Modern software doesn't even tend to be reliable; a
rock solid program is an exception, not a rule. Humans are quite unreliable,
they will either make a mistake, or they will be malicious and destroy data
on purpose. Nature might not be evil, but it can wreak havoc even when being
good. All in all, it is a small miracle that anything works at all.

Backups are a way to protect the investment in data. By having several copies
of the data, it does not matter as much if one is destroyed (the cost is only
that of the restoration of the lost data from the backup).

It is important to do backups properly. Like everything else that is related
to the physical world, backups will fail sooner or later. Part of doing
backups well is to make sure they work; you don't want to notice that your
backups didn't work. Adding insult to injury, you might have a bad crash just
as you're making the backup; if you have only one backup medium, it might
destroyed as well, leaving you with the smoking ashes of hard work. Or you
might notice, when trying to restore, that you forgot to back up something
important, like the user database on a 15000 user site. Best of all, all your
backups might be working perfectly, but the last known tape drive reading the
kind of tapes you used was the one that now has a bucketful of water in it.

When it comes to backups, paranoia is in the job description.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.2. Selecting the backup medium

The most important decision regarding backups is the choice of backup medium.
You need to consider cost, reliability, speed, availability, and usability.

Cost is important, since you should preferably have several times more backup
storage than what you need for the data. A cheap medium is usually a must.

Reliability is extremely important, since a broken backup can make a grown
man cry. A backup medium must be able to hold data without corruption for
years. The way you use the medium affects it reliability as a backup medium.
A hard disk is typically very reliable, but as a backup medium it is not very
reliable, if it is in the same computer as the disk you are backing up.

Speed is usually not very important, if backups can be done without
interaction. It doesn't matter if a backup takes two hours, as long as it
needs no supervision. On the other hand, if the backup can't be done when the
computer would otherwise be idle, then speed is an issue.

Availability is obviously necessary, since you can't use a backup medium if
it doesn't exist. Less obvious is the need for the medium to be available
even in the future, and on computers other than your own. Otherwise you may
not be able to restore your backups after a disaster.

Usability is a large factor in how often backups are made. The easier it is
to make backups, the better. A backup medium mustn't be hard or boring to
use.

The typical alternatives are floppies and tapes. Floppies are very cheap,
fairly reliable, not very fast, very available, but not very usable for large
amounts of data. Tapes are cheap to somewhat expensive, fairly reliable,
fairly fast, quite available, and, depending on the size of the tape, quite
comfortable.

There are other alternatives. They are usually not very good on availability,
but if that is not a problem, they can be better in other ways. For example,
magneto-optical disks can have good sides of both floppies (they're random
access, making restoration of a single file quick) and tapes (contain a lot
of data).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.3. Selecting the backup tool

There are many tools that can be used to make backups. The traditional UNIX
tools used for backups are tar, cpio, and dump. In addition, there are large
number of third party packages (both freeware and commercial) that can be
used. The choice of backup medium can affect the choice of tool.

tar and cpio are similar, and mostly equivalent from a backup point of view.
Both are capable of storing files on tapes, and retrieving files from them.
Both are capable of using almost any media, since the kernel device drivers
take care of the low level device handling and the devices all tend to look
alike to user level programs. Some UNIX versions of tar and cpio may have
problems with unusual files (symbolic links, device files, files with very
long pathnames, and so on), but the Linux versions should handle all files
correctly.

dump is different in that it reads the filesystem directly and not via the
filesystem. It is also written specifically for backups; tar and cpio are
really for archiving files, although they work for backups as well.

Reading the filesystem directly has some advantages. It makes it possible to
back files up without affecting their time stamps; for tar and cpio, you
would have to mount the filesystem read-only first. Directly reading the
filesystem is also more effective, if everything needs to be backed up, since
it can be done with much less disk head movement. The major disadvantage is
that it makes the backup program specific to one filesystem type; the Linux 
dump program understands the ext2 filesystem only.

dump also directly supports backup levels (which we'll be discussing below);
with tar and cpio this has to be implemented with other tools.

A comparison of the third party backup tools is beyond the scope of this
book. The Linux Software Map lists many of the freeware ones.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.4. Simple backups

A simple backup scheme is to back up everything once, then back up everything
that has been modified since the previous backup. The first backup is called
a full backup, the subsequent ones are incremental backups. A full backup is
often more laborious than incremental ones, since there is more data to write
to the tape and a full backup might not fit onto one tape (or floppy).
Restoring from incremental backups can be many times more work than from a
full one. Restoration can be optimized so that you always back up everything
since the previous full backup; this way, backups are a bit more work, but
there should never be a need to restore more than a full backup and an
incremental backup.

If you want to make backups every day and have six tapes, you could use tape
1 for the first full backup (say, on a Friday), and tapes 2 to 5 for the
incremental backups (Monday through Thursday). Then you make a new full
backup on tape 6 (second Friday), and start doing incremental ones with tapes
2 to 5 again. You don't want to overwrite tape 1 until you've got a new full
backup, lest something happens while you're making the full backup. After
you've made a full backup to tape 6, you want to keep tape 1 somewhere else,
so that when your other backup tapes are destroyed in the fire, you still
have at least something left. When you need to make the next full backup, you
fetch tape 1 and leave tape 6 in its place.

If you have more than six tapes, you can use the extra ones for full backups.
Each time you make a full backup, you use the oldest tape. This way you can
have full backups from several previous weeks, which is good if you want to
find an old, now deleted file, or an old version of a file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.4.1. Making backups with tar

A full backup can easily be made with tar:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar --create --file /dev/ftape                                           |
|/usr/src                                                                   |
|tar: Removing leading / from absolute path names in                        |
|the archive                                                                |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The example above uses the GNU version of tar and its long option names. The
traditional version of tar only understands single character options. The GNU
version can also handle backups that don't fit on one tape or floppy, and
also very long paths; not all traditional versions can do these things.
(Linux only uses GNU tar.)

If your backup doesn't fit on one tape, you need to use the --multi-volume
(-M) option:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar -cMf /dev/fd0H1440                                                   |
|/usr/src                                                                   |
|tar: Removing leading / from absolute path names in                        |
|the archive                                                                |
|Prepare volume #2 for /dev/fd0H1440 and hit return:                        |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Note that you should format the floppies before you begin the backup, or else
use another window or virtual terminal and do it when tar asks for a new
floppy.

After you've made a backup, you should check that it is OK, using the
--compare (-d) option:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar --compare --verbose -f                                               |
|/dev/ftape                                                                 |
|usr/src/                                                                   |
|usr/src/linux                                                              |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/                                             |
|....                                                                       |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Failing to check a backup means that you will not notice that your backups
aren't working until after you've lost the original data.

An incremental backup can be done with tar using the --newer (-N) option:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar --create --newer '8 Sep 1995'                                        |
|--file /dev/ftape /usr/src                                                 |
|--verbose                                                                  |
|tar: Removing leading / from absolute path names in                        |
|the archive                                                                |
|usr/src/                                                                   |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/                                             |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/                                     |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/                               |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/modules/                       |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/asm-generic/                         |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/asm-i386/                            |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/asm-mips/                            |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/asm-alpha/                           |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/asm-m68k/                            |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/asm-sparc/                           |
|usr/src/patch-1.2.11.gz                                                    |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Unfortunately, tar can't notice when a file's inode information has changed,
for example, that its permission bits have been changed, or when its name has
been changed. This can be worked around using find and comparing current
filesystem state with lists of files that have been previously backed up.
Scripts and programs for doing this can be found on Linux ftp sites.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.4.2. Restoring files with tar

The --extract (-x) option for tar extracts files:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar --extract --same-permissions                                         |
|--verbose --file                                                           |
|/dev/fd0H1440                                                              |
|usr/src/                                                                   |
|usr/src/linux                                                              |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/                                             |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/                                     |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/                               |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/hdreg.h                        |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/kernel.h                       |
|...                                                                        |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
You also extract only specific files or directories (which includes all their
files and subdirectories) by naming on the command line:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar xpvf /dev/fd0H1440                                                   |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/hdreg.h                        |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/hdreg.h                        |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Use the --list (-t) option, if you just want to see what files are on a
backup volume:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# tar --list --file                                                        |
|/dev/fd0H1440                                                              |
|usr/src/                                                                   |
|usr/src/linux                                                              |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/                                             |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/                                     |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/                               |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/hdreg.h                        |
|usr/src/linux-1.2.10-includes/include/linux/kernel.h                       |
|...                                                                        |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Note that tar always reads the backup volume sequentially, so for large
volumes it is rather slow. It is not possible, however, to use random access
database techniques when using a tape drive or some other sequential medium.

tar doesn't handle deleted files properly. If you need to restore a
filesystem from a full and an incremental backup, and you have deleted a file
between the two backups, it will exist again after you have done the restore.
This can be a big problem, if the file has sensitive data that should no
longer be available.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.5. Multilevel backups

The simple backup method outlined in the previous section is often quite
adequate for personal use or small sites. For more heavy duty use, multilevel
backups are more appropriate.

The simple method has two backup levels: full and incremental backups. This
can be generalized to any number of levels. A full backup would be level 0,
and the different levels of incremental backups levels 1, 2, 3, etc. At each
incremental backup level you back up everything that has changed since the
previous backup at the same or a previous level.

The purpose for doing this is that it allows a longer backup history cheaply.
In the example in the previous section, the backup history went back to the
previous full backup. This could be extended by having more tapes, but only a
week per new tape, which might be too expensive. A longer backup history is
useful, since deleted or corrupted files are often not noticed for a long
time. Even a version of a file that is not very up to date is better than no
file at all.

With multiple levels the backup history can be extended more cheaply. For
example, if we buy ten tapes, we could use tapes 1 and 2 for monthly backups
(first Friday each month), tapes 3 to 6 for weekly backups (other Fridays;
note that there can be five Fridays in one month, so we need four more
tapes), and tapes 7 to 10 for daily backups (Monday to Thursday). With only
four more tapes, we've been able to extend the backup history from two weeks
(after all daily tapes have been used) to two months. It is true that we
can't restore every version of each file during those two months, but what we
can restore is often good enough.

Figure 12-1 shows which backup level is used each day, and which backups can
be restored from at the end of the month.


Figure 12-1. A sample multilevel backup schedule.

[backup-timeline]

Backup levels can also be used to keep filesystem restoration time to a
minimum. If you have many incremental backups with monotonously growing level
numbers, you need to restore all of them if you need to rebuild the whole
filesystem. Instead you can use level numbers that aren't monotonous, and
keep down the number of backups to restore.

To minimize the number of tapes needed to restore, you could use a smaller
level for each incremental tape. However, then the time to make the backups
increases (each backup copies everything since the previous full backup). A
better scheme is suggested by the dump manual page and described by the table
XX (efficient-backup-levels). Use the following succession of backup levels:
3, 2, 5, 4, 7, 6, 9, 8, 9, etc. This keeps both the backup and restore times
low. The most you have to backup is two day's worth of work. The number of
tapes for a restore depends on how long you keep between full backups, but it
is less than in the simple schemes.


Table 12-1. Efficient backup scheme using many backup levels
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|Tape|Level|Backup (days) |Restore tapes              |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|1   |0    |n/a           |1                          |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|2   |3    |1             |1, 2                       |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|3   |2    |2             |1, 3                       |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|4   |5    |1             |1, 2, 4                    |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|5   |4    |2             |1, 2, 5                    |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|6   |7    |1             |1, 2, 5, 6                 |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|7   |6    |2             |1, 2, 5, 7                 |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|8   |9    |1             |1, 2, 5, 7, 8              |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|9   |8    |2             |1, 2, 5, 7, 9              |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|10  |9    |1             |1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10          |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|11  |9    |1             |1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11      |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+
|... |9    |1             |1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, ... |
+----+-----+--------------+---------------------------+

A fancy scheme can reduce the amount of labor needed, but it does mean there
are more things to keep track of. You must decide if it is worth it.

dump has built-in support for backup levels. For tar and cpio it must be
implemented with shell scripts.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.6. What to back up

You want to back up as much as possible. The major exception is software that
can be easily reinstalled, but even they may have configuration files that it
is important to back up, lest you need to do all the work to configure them
all over again. Another major exception is the /proc filesystem; since that
only contains data that the kernel always generates automatically, it is
never a good idea to back it up. Especially the /proc/kcore file is
unnecessary, since it is just an image of your current physical memory; it's
pretty large as well.

Gray areas include the news spool, log files, and many other things in /var.
You must decide what you consider important.

The obvious things to back up are user files (/home) and system configuration
files (/etc, but possibly other things scattered all over the filesystem).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.7. Compressed backups

Backups take a lot of space, which can cost quite a lot of money. To reduce
the space needed, the backups can be compressed. There are several ways of
doing this. Some programs have support for for compression built in; for
example, the --gzip (-z) option for GNU tar pipes the whole backup through
the gzip compression program, before writing it to the backup medium.

Unfortunately, compressed backups can cause trouble. Due to the nature of how
compression works, if a single bit is wrong, all the rest of the compressed
data will be unusable. Some backup programs have some built in error
correction, but no method can handle a large number of errors. This means
that if the backup is compressed the way GNU tar does it, with the whole
output compressed as a unit, a single error makes all the rest of the backup
lost. Backups must be reliable, and this method of compression is not a good
idea.

An alternative way is to compress each file separately. This still means that
the one file is lost, but all other files are unharmed. The lost file would
have been corrupted anyway, so this situation is not much worse than not
using compression at all. The afio program (a variant of cpio) can do this.

Compression takes some time, which may make the backup program unable to
write data fast enough for a tape drive. This can be avoided by buffering the
output (either internally, if the backup program if smart enough, or by using
another program), but even that might not work well enough. This should only
be a problem on slow computers.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 13. Task Automation --To Be Added

    "Never put off until tomorrow what you can do the day after tomorrow.
    'Mark Twain'"
   
       
        Basic discussion on scripting, cron & at - refer to other HOWTO's for
        details. Discuss non-crontab cron jobs such at those in the /etc
        directory.
       
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 14. Keeping Time

    "Time is an illusion. Lunchtime double so." (Douglas Adams.)
   
This chapter explains how a Linux system keeps time, and what you need to do
to avoid causing trouble. Usually, you don't need to do anything about time,
but it is good to understand it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.1. The concept of localtime

Time measurement is based on mostly regular natural phenomena, such as
alternating light and dark periods caused by the rotation of the planet. The
total time taken by two successive periods is constant, but the lengths of
the light and dark period vary. One simple constant is noon.

Noon is the time of the day when the Sun is at its highest position. Since
(according to recent research) the Earth is round, noon happens at different
times in different places. This leads to the concept of local time. Humans
measure time in many units, most of which are tied to natural phenomena like
noon. As long as you stay in the same place, it doesn't matter that local
times differ.

As soon as you need to communicate with distant places, you'll notice the
need for a common time. In modern times, most of the places in the world
communicate with most other places in the world, so a global standard for
measuring time has been defined. This time is called universal time (UT or
UTC, formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time or GMT, since it used to be local
time in Greenwich, England). When people with different local times need to
communicate, they can express times in universal time, so that there is no
confusion about when things should happen.

Each local time is called a time zone. While geography would allow all places
that have noon at the same time have the same time zone, politics makes it
difficult. For various reasons, many countries use daylight savings time,
that is, they move their clocks to have more natural light while they work,
and then move the clocks back during winter. Other countries do not do this.
Those that do, do not agree when the clocks should be moved, and they change
the rules from year to year. This makes time zone conversions definitely
non-trivial.

Time zones are best named by the location or by telling the difference
between local and universal time. In the US and some other countries, the
local time zones have a name and a three letter abbreviation. The
abbreviations are not unique, however, and should not be used unless the
country is also named. It is better to talk about the local time in, say,
Helsinki, than about East European time, since not all countries in Eastern
Europe follow the same rules.

Linux has a time zone package that knows about all existing time zones, and
that can easily be updated when the rules change. All the system
administrator needs to do is to select the appropriate time zone. Also, each
user can set his own time zone; this is important since many people work with
computers in different countries over the Internet. When the rules for
daylight savings time change in your local time zone, make sure you'll
upgrade at least that part of your Linux system. Other than setting the
system time zone and upgrading the time zone data files, there is little need
to bother about time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.2. The hardware and software clocks

A personal computer has a battery driven hardware clock. The battery ensures
that the clock will work even if the rest of the computer is without
electricity. The hardware clock can be set from the BIOS setup screen or from
whatever operating system is running.

The Linux kernel keeps track of time independently from the hardware clock.
During the boot, Linux sets its own clock to the same time as the hardware
clock. After this, both clocks run independently. Linux maintains its own
clock because looking at the hardware is slow and complicated.

The kernel clock always shows universal time. This way, the kernel does not
need to know about time zones at all. The simplicity results in higher
reliability and makes it easier to update the time zone information. Each
process handles time zone conversions itself (using standard tools that are
part of the time zone package).

The hardware clock can be in local time or in universal time. It is usually
better to have it in universal time, because then you don't need to change
the hardware clock when daylight savings time begins or ends (UTC does not
have DST). Unfortunately, some PC operating systems, including MS-DOS,
Windows, and OS/2, assume the hardware clock shows local time. Linux can
handle either, but if the hardware clock shows local time, then it must be
modified when daylight savings time begins or ends (otherwise it wouldn't
show local time).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.3. Showing and setting time

In Linux, the system time zone is determined by the symbolic link /etc/
localtime. This link points to a time zone data file that describes the local
time zone. The time zone data files are located at either /usr/lib/zoneinfo
or /usr/share/zoneinfo depending on what distribution of Linux you use.

For example, on a SuSE system located in New Jersey the /etc/localtime link
would point to /usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Eastern. On a Debian system the /etc/
localtime link would point to /usr/lib/zoneinfo/US/Eastern.

If you fail to find the zoneinfo directory in either the /usr/lib or /usr/
share directories, either do a find /usr -print | grep zoneinfo or consult
your distribution's documentation.

What happens when you have a users located in a different timezone? A user
can change his private time zone by setting the TZ environment variable. If
it is unset, the system time zone is assumed. The syntax of the TZ variable
is described in the tzset manual page.

The date command shows the current date and time. For example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ date                                                                     |
|Sun Jul 14 21:53:41 EET DST 1996                                           |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
That time is Sunday, 14th of July, 1996, at about ten before ten at the
evening, in the time zone called ``EET DST'' (which might be East European
Daylight Savings Time). date can also show the universal time:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ date -u                                                                  |
|Sun Jul 14 18:53:42 UTC 1996                                               |
|$                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
date is also used to set the kernel's software clock:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# date 07142157                                                            |
|Sun Jul 14 21:57:00 EET DST 1996                                           |
|# date                                                                     |
|Sun Jul 14 21:57:02 EET DST 1996                                           |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
See the date manual page for more details; the syntax is a bit arcane. Only
root can set the time. While each user can have his own time zone, the clock
is the same for everyone.

Beware of the time command. This is not used to get the system time. Instead
it's used to time how long something takes. Refer the the time man page.

date only shows or sets the software clock. The clock commands synchronizes
the hardware and software clocks. It is used when the system boots, to read
the hardware clock and set the software clock. If you need to set both
clocks, you first set the software clock with date, and then the hardware
clock with clock -w.

The -u option to clock tells it that the hardware clock is in universal time.
You must use the -u option correctly. If you don't, your computer will be
quite confused about what the time is.

The clocks should be changed with care. Many parts of a Unix system require
the clocks to work correctly. For example, the cron daemon runs commands
periodically. If you change the clock, it can be confused of whether it needs
to run the commands or not. On one early Unix system, someone set the clock
twenty years into the future, and cron wanted to run all the periodic
commands for twenty years all at once. Current versions of cron can handle
this correctly, but you should still be careful. Big jumps or backward jumps
are more dangerous than smaller or forward ones.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.4. When the clock is wrong

The Linux software clock is not always accurate. It is kept running by a
periodic timer interrupt generated by PC hardware. If the system has too many
processes running, it may take too long to service the timer interrupt, and
the software clock starts slipping behind. The hardware clock runs
independently and is usually more accurate. If you boot your computer often
(as is the case for most systems that aren't servers), it will usually keep
fairly accurate time.

If you need to adjust the hardware clock, it is usually simplest to reboot,
go into the BIOS setup screen, and do it from there. This avoids all trouble
that changing system time might cause. If doing it via BIOS is not an option,
set the new time with date and clock (in that order), but be prepared to
reboot, if some part of the system starts acting funny.

Another method would be to use either hwclock -w or hwclock --systohc to sync
the hardware clock to the software clock. If you want to sync your software
clock to your hardware clock then you would use hwclock -s or hwclock
--hwtosys. For more information on this command read man hwclock.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.5. NTP - Network Time Protocol

A networked computer (even if just over a modem) can check its own clock
automatically by comparing it to the time on another computer known to keep
accurate time. Network Time Protocol (or NTP) does exactly that. It is a
method of verifying and correcting your computer's time by synchronizing it
with a another system. With NTP your system's time can be maintained to
within milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time. Visit [http://www.time.gov
/about.html/] http://www.time.gov/about.html for more info.

For more casual Linux users, this is just a nice luxury. At my home all our
clocks are set based upon what my Linux system says the time is. For larger
organizations this "luxury" can become essential. Being able to search log
files for events based upon time can make life a lot easier and take a lot of
the "guess work" out of debugging.

Another example of how important NTP can be is with a SAN. Some SAN's require
NTP be configured and running properly to allow for proper synchronization
over filesystem usage, and proper timestamp control. Some SANs (and some
applications) can become confused when dealing with files that have
timestamps that are in the future.

Most Linux distributions come with a NTP package of some kind, either a .deb
or .rpm package. You can use that to install NTP, or you can download the
source files from [http://www.ntp.org/downloads.html] http://www.ntp.org/
downloads.html and compile it yourself. Either way, the basic configuration
is the same.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.6. Basic NTP configuration

The NTP program is configured using either the /etc/ntp.conf or /etc/
xntp.conf file depending on what distribution of Linux you have. I won't go
into too much detail on how to configure NTP. Instead I'll just cover the
basics.

An example of a basic ntp.conf file would look like:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# --- GENERAL CONFIGURATION ---                                            |
|server  aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd                                                    |
|server  127.127.1.0                                                        |
|fudge   127.127.1.0 stratum 10                                             |
|                                                                           |
|# Drift file.                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|driftfile /etc/ntp/drift                                                   |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The most basic ntp.conf file will simply list 2 servers, one that it wishes
to synchronize with, and a pseudo IP address for itself (in this case
127.127.1.0). The pseudo IP is used in case of network problems or if the
remote NTP server goes down. NTP will synchronize against itself until the it
can start synchronizing with the remote server again. It is recommended that
you list at least 2 remote servers that you can synchronize against. One will
act as a primary server and the other as a backup.

You should also list a location for a drift file. Over time NTP will "learn"
the system clock's error rate and automatically adjust for it.

The restrict option can be used to provide better control and security over
what NTP can do, and who can effect it. For example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# Prohibit general access to this service.                                 |
|restrict default ignore                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|# Permit systems on this network to synchronize with this                  |
|# time service. But not modify our time.                                   |
|restrict aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd nomodify                                          |
|                                                                           |
|# Allow the following unrestricted access to ntpd                          |
|                                                                           |
|restrict aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd                                                   |
|restrict 127.0.0.1                                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
It is advised that you wait until you have NTP working properly before adding
the restrict option. You can accidental restrict yourself from synchronizing
and waste time debugging why.

NTP slowly corrects your systems time. Be patient! A simple test is to change
your system clock by 10 minutes before you go to bed and then check it when
you get up. The time should be correct.

Many people get the idea that instead of running the NTP daemon, they should
just setup a cron job job to periodically run the ntpdate command. There are
2 main disadvantages of using using this method.

The first is that ntpdate does a "brute force" method of changing the time.
So if your computer's time is off my 5 minutes, it immediately corrects it.
In some environments, this can cause problems if time drastically changes.
For example, if you are using time sensitive security software, you can
inadvertently kill someones access. The NTP daemon slowly changes the time to
avoid causing this kind of disruption.

The other reason is that the NTP daemon can be configured to try to learn
your systems time drift and then automatically adjust for it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.7. NTP Toolkit

There are a number of utilities available to check if NTP is doing it's job.
The ntpq -p command will print out your system's current time status.
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntpq -p                                                                      |
|     remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter |
|============================================================================== |
|*cudns.cit.corne ntp0.usno.navy.  2 u  832 1024  377   43.208    0.361   2.646 |
| LOCAL(0)        LOCAL(0)        10 l   13   64  377    0.000    0.000   0.008 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The ntpdc -c loopinfo will display how far off the system time is in seconds,
based upon the last time the remote server was contacted.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntpdc -c loopinfo                                                        |
|offset:               -0.004479 s                                          |
|frequency:            133.625 ppm                                          |
|poll adjust:          30                                                   |
|watchdog timer:       404 s                                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

ntpdc -c kerninfo will display the current remaining correction.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntpdc -c kerninfo                                                        |
|pll offset:           -0.003917 s                                          |
|pll frequency:        133.625 ppm                                          |
|maximum error:        0.391414 s                                           |
|estimated error:      0.003676 s                                           |
|status:               0001  pll                                            |
|pll time constant:    6                                                    |
|precision:            1e-06 s                                              |
|frequency tolerance:  512 ppm                                              |
|pps frequency:        0.000 ppm                                            |
|pps stability:        512.000 ppm                                          |
|pps jitter:           0.0002 s                                             |
|calibration interval: 4 s                                                  |
|calibration cycles:   0                                                    |
|jitter exceeded:      0                                                    |
|stability exceeded:   0                                                    |
|calibration errors:   0                                                    |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

A slightly more different version of ntpdc -c kerninfo is ntptime
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntptime                                                                  |
|ntp_gettime() returns code 0 (OK)                                          |
|  time c35e2cc7.879ba000  Thu, Nov 13 2003 11:16:07.529, (.529718),        |
|  maximum error 425206 us, estimated error 3676 us                         |
|ntp_adjtime() returns code 0 (OK)                                          |
|  modes 0x0 (),                                                            |
|  offset -3854.000 us, frequency 133.625 ppm, interval 4 s,                |
|  maximum error 425206 us, estimated error 3676 us,                        |
|  status 0x1 (PLL),                                                        |
|  time constant 6, precision 1.000 us, tolerance 512 ppm,                  |
|  pps frequency 0.000 ppm, stability 512.000 ppm, jitter 200.000 us,       |
|  intervals 0, jitter exceeded 0, stability exceeded 0, errors 0.          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Yet another way to see how well NTP is working is with the ntpdate -d
command. This will contact an NTP server and determine the time difference
but not change your system's time.
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntpdate -d 132.236.56.250                                                               |
|13 Nov 14:43:17 ntpdate[29631]: ntpdate 4.1.1c-rc1@1.836 Thu Feb 13 12:17:20 EST 2003 (1) |
|transmit(132.236.56.250)                                                                  |
|receive(132.236.56.250)                                                                   |
|transmit(132.236.56.250)                                                                  |
|receive(132.236.56.250)                                                                   |
|transmit(132.236.56.250)                                                                  |
|receive(132.236.56.250)                                                                   |
|transmit(132.236.56.250)                                                                  |
|receive(132.236.56.250)                                                                   |
|transmit(132.236.56.250)                                                                  |
|server 132.236.56.250, port 123                                                           |
|stratum 2, precision -17, leap 00, trust 000                                              |
|refid [192.5.41.209], delay 0.06372, dispersion 0.00044                                   |
|transmitted 4, in filter 4                                                                |
|reference time:    c35e5998.4a46cfc8  Thu, Nov 13 2003 14:27:20.290                       |
|originate timestamp: c35e5d55.d69a6f82  Thu, Nov 13 2003 14:43:17.838                     |
|transmit timestamp:  c35e5d55.d16fc9bc  Thu, Nov 13 2003 14:43:17.818                     |
|filter delay:  0.06522  0.06372  0.06442  0.06442                                         |
|         0.00000  0.00000  0.00000  0.00000                                               |
|filter offset: 0.000036 0.001020 0.000527 0.000684                                        |
|         0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000                                              |
|delay 0.06372, dispersion 0.00044                                                         |
|offset 0.001020                                                                           |
|                                                                                          |
|13 Nov 14:43:17 ntpdate[29631]: adjust time server 132.236.56.250 offset 0.001020 sec     |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you want actually watch the system synchronize you can use ntptrace.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntptrace 132.236.56.250                                                          |
|cudns.cit.cornell.edu: stratum 2, offset -0.003278, synch distance 0.02779         |
|truetime.ntp.com: stratum 1, offset -0.014363, synch distance 0.00000, refid 'ACTS'|
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you need your system time synchronized immediately you can use the ntpdate
remote-servername to force a synchronization. No waiting!
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ntpdate 132.236.56.250                                                               |
|13 Nov 14:56:28 ntpdate[29676]: adjust time server 132.236.56.250 offset -0.003151 sec |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.8. Some known NTP servers

A list of public NTP servers can be obtained from: [http://www.eecis.udel.edu
/~mills/ntp/servers.html/] http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.html.
Please read the usage information on the page prior so using a server. Not
all servers have the available bandwidth to allow a large number of systems
synchronizing against them. Therefore it is a good idea to contact a system's
administrator prior to using his/her server for NTP services.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.9. NTP Links

More detailed information on NTP can be obtained from the NTP homepage:[http:
//www.ntp.org/] http://www.ntp.org.

Or from [http://www.ntp.org/ntpfaq/NTP-a-faq.htm] http://www.ntp.org/ntpfaq/
NTP-a-faq.htm
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 15. System Logs --To Be Added

Log info, rotation, monitoring, etc..
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 16. System Updates --To Be Added

    "A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get
    its pants on." Winston Churchill
   
Discussion on how and when to update the system.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 17. The Linux Kernel Source

    "Black holes are where God divided by zero. " Steven Wright
   
BASIC info on the kernel source and compiling it. It will also provide some
info on kdb debugger. Refer to other kernel HOWTO's for more info.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 18. Finding Help

    "Help me if you can I'm feeling down. And I do appreciate you being
    'round." - The Beatles
   
Help is out there. You just have to know where to look. With Linux there are
an amazing number of places you can go. There are mailing lists, IRC
channels, web pages with public forums, and many other resources available.
This chapter will try to help you get the most out of your quest for help.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1. Newsgroups and Mailing Lists

This guide cannot teach you everything about Linux. There just isn't enough
space. It is almost inevitable that at some point you will find something you
need to do, that isn't covered in this (or any other) document at the LDP.

One of the nicest things about Linux is the large number of forums devoted to
it. There are forums relating to almost all facets of Linux ranging from
newbie FAQs to in depth kernel development issues. To receive the most from
them, there are a few things you can do.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1.1. Finding The Right Forum

The first thing to do is to find an appropriate forum. There are many
newsgroups and mailing lists devoted to Linux, so try to find and use the one
which most closely matches your question. For example, there isn't much point
in you asking a question about sendmail in a forum devoted to Linux kernel
development. At best the people there will think you are stupid and you will
get few responses, at worst you may receive lots of highly insulting replies
(flames). A quick look through the newsgroups available finds
comp.mail.sendmail, which looks like an appropriate place to ask a sendmail
question. Your news client probably has a list of the newsgroups available to
you, but if not then a full list of newsgroups is available at [http://
groups.google.com/groups?group=*] http://groups.google.com/groups?group=*.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1.2. Before You Post

Now that you have found your appropriate forum, you may think you are ready
to post your question. Stop. You aren't ready yet. Have you already looked
for the answer yourself? There are a huge number of HOWTOs and FAQs
available, if any of them relate to the thing you are having a problem with
then read them first. Even if they don't contain the answer to your problem,
what they will do is give you a better understanding of the subject area, and
that understanding will allow you to ask a more informed and sensible
question. There are also archives of newsgroups and mailing lists and it is
entirely possible that your question has been asked and answered previously.
[http://www.google.com] http://www.google.com or a similar search engine
should be something you try before posting a question.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1.3. Writing Your Post

Okay, you have found your appropriate forum, you have read the relevant
HOWTOs and FAQs, you have searched the web, but you still have not found the
answer you need. Now you can start writing your post. It is always a good
idea to make it clear that you already have read up on the subject by saying
something like ``I have read the Winmodem-HOWTO and the PPP FAQ, but neither
contained what I was looking for, searching for `Winmodem Linux PPP Setup' on
google didn't return anything of use either''. This shows you to be someone
who is willing to make an effort rather than a lazy idiot who requires
spoonfeeding. The former is likely to receive help if anyone knows the
answer, the latter is likely to meet with either stony silence or outright
derision.

Write in clear, grammatical and correctly spelt English. This is incredibly
important. It marks you as a precise and considered thinker. There are no
such words as ``u'' or ``b4.'' Try to make yourself look like an educated and
intelligent person rather than an idiot. It will help. I promise.

Similarly do not type in all capitals LIKE THIS. That is considered shouting
and looks very rude.

Provide clear details stating what the problem is and what you have already
tried to do to fix it. A question like ``My linux has stopped working, what
can I do?'' is totally useless. Where has it stopped working? In what way has
it stopped working? You need to be as precise as possible. There are limits
however. Try not to include irrelevant information either. If you are having
problems with your mail client it is unlikely that a dump of your kernel boot
log (dmesg) would be of help.

Don't ask for replies by private email. The point of most Linux forums is
that everybody can learn something from each other. Asking for private
replies simply removes value from the newsgroup or mailing list.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1.4. Formatting Your Post

Do not post in HTML. Many Linux users have mail clients which can't easily
read HTML email. Whilst with some effort, they can read HTML email, they
usually don't. If you send them HTML mail it often gets deleted unread. Send
plain text emails, they will reach a wider audience that way.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1.5. Follow Up

After your problem has been solved, post a short followup explaining what the
problem was and how you solved it. People will appreciate this as it not only
gives a sense of closure about the problem but also helps the next time
someone has a similar question. When they look at the archives of the
newsgroup or mailing list, they will see you had the same problem, the
discussion that followed your question and your final solution.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.1.6. More Information

This short guide is simply a paraphrase and summary of the excellent (and
more detailed) document ``How To Ask Questions The Smart Way'' by Eric S
Raymond. [http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html] http://
www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html. It is recommend that you read it
before you post anything. It will help you formulate your question to
maximize your chances of getting the answer you are looking for.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2. IRC

IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is not covered in the Eric Raymond document, but
IRC can also be an excellent way of finding the answers you need. However it
does require some practice in asking questions in the right way. Most IRC
networks have busy #linux channels and if the answer to your question is
contained in the man pages, or in the HOWTOs then expect to be told to go
read them. The rule about typing in clear and grammatical English still
applies.

Most of what has been said about newsgroups and mailing lists is still
relevant for IRC, with a the following additions
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.1. Colours

Do not use colours, bold, underline or strange (non ASCII) characters. This
breaks some older terminals and is just plain ugly to look at. If you arrive
in a channel and start spewing colour or bold then expect to be kicked out.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.2. Be Polite

Remember you are not entitled to an answer. If you ask the question in the
right way then you will probably get one, but you have no right to get one.
The people in Linux IRC channels are all there on their own time, nobody is
paying them, especially not you.

Be polite. Treat others as you would like to be treated. If you think people
are not being polite to you then don't start calling them names or getting
annoyed, become even politer. This makes them look foolish rather than
dragging you down to their level.

Don't go slapping anyone with large trouts. Would you believe this has been
done before once or twice? And that we it wasn't funny the first time?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.3. Type Properly, in English

Most #linux channels are English channels. Speak English whilst in them. Most
of the larger IRC networks also have #linux channel in other languages, for
example the French language channel might be called #linuxfr, the Spanish one
might be #linuxes or #linuxlatino. If you can't find the right channel then
asking in the main #linux channel (preferably in English) should help you
find the one you are looking for.

Do not type like a ``1337 H4X0R d00d!!!''. Even if other people are. It looks
silly and thereby makes you look silly. At best you will only look like an
idiot, at worst you will be derided then kicked out.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.4. Port scanning

Never ever ask anyone to port scan you, or try to ``hack'' you. This is
inviolable. There is no way of knowing that you are who you say you are, or
that the IP that you are connected from belongs to you. Don't put people in
the position where they have to say no to a request like this.

Don't ever port scan anyone, even if they ask you to. You have no way to tell
that they are who they say they are or that the IP they are connected from is
their own IP. In some jurisdictions port scanning may be illegal and it is
certainly against the Terms of Service of most ISPs. Most people log TCP
connections, they will notice they are being scanned. Most people will report
you to your ISP for this (it is trivial to find out who that is).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.5. Keep it in the Channel

Don't /msg anyone unless they ask you to. It diminishes the usefulness of the
channel and some people just prefer that you not do it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.6. Stay On Topic

Stay on topic. The channel is a ``Linux'' channel, not a ``What Uncle Bob Got
Up To Last Weekend'' channel. Even if you see other people being off topic,
this does not mean that you should be. They are probably channel regulars and
different conventions apply to them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.7. CTCPs

If you are thinking of mass CTCP pinging the channel or CTCP version or CTCP
anything, then think again. It is liable to get you kicked out very quickly.

If you are not familiar with IRC, CTCP stands for Client To Client Protocol.
It is a method whereby you can find out things about other peoples' clients.
See the documentation for your IRC for more details.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.8. Hacking, Cracking, Phreaking, Warezing

Don't ask about exploits, unless you are looking for a further way to be
unceremoniously kicked out.

Don't be in hacker/cracker/phreaker/warezer channels whilst in a #linux
channel. For some reason the people in charge of #linux channels seem to hate
people who like causing destruction to people's machines or who like to steal
software. Can't imagine why.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.9. Round Up

Apologies if that seems like a lot of DON'Ts, and very few DOs. The DOs were
already pretty much covered in the section on newsgroups and mailing lists.

Probably the best thing you can do is to go into a #linux channel, sit there
and watch, getting the feel for a half hour before you say anything. This can
help you to recognize the correct tone you should be using.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18.2.10. Further Reading

There are excellent FAQs about how to get the most of IRC #linux channels.
Most #linux channels have an FAQ and/or set or channel rules. How to find
this will usually be in the channel topic (which you can see at any time
using the /topic command. Make sure you read the rules if there are any and
follow them. One fairly generic set of rules and advice is the ``Undernet #
linux FAQ'' which can be found at http://linuxfaq.quartz.net.nz .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License

A.1. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure
everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this
License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by
others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide,
royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the
conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or
work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You
accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
requiring permission under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be
a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters,
or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit
the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as
Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document
does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5
words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with
generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint
programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is
suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a
variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an
otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is
not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any
substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called
"Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or
PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats
include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can
be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors
for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title
either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that
translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section
name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
"Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when
you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ"
according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states
that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are
considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards
disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers
may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed
covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license
notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that
carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the
front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also
clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front
cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally
prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the
title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as
verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
computer-network location from which the general network-using public has
access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the
latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent
copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through
your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.5. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

GNU FDL Modification Conditions

 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
    that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
    if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
    may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
    that version gives permission.
   
 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release
    you from this requirement.
   
 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
    the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
    License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
    required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to
    it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher
    of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no
    section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title,
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    previous sentence.
   
 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
    locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
    These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
    the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance
    and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications
    given therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
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    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to
    conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
   
 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve
all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from
the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's
users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included
in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the
aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket
the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if
the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed
covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in
the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the
translation and the original version of this License or a notice or
disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1)
will typically require changing the actual title.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
    Sample Invariant Sections list
   
    Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no
    Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section
    entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
   
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

   
    Sample Invariant Sections list
   
    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover
    Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
   
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination
of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.

Glossary (DRAFT, but not for long hopefully)

    "The Librarian of the Unseen University had unilaterally decided to aid
    comprehension by producing an Orang-utan/Human Dictionary. He'd been
    working on it for three months. It wasn't easy. He'd got as far as
    `Oook.'" (Terry Pratchett, ``Men At Arms'')
   
This is a short list of word definitions for concepts relating to Linux and
system administration.

CMOS RAM
    CMOS stands for "Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor". It is a
    complex technology, but put very simply it is a type of transistor which
    maintains its state even if computer is powered off. This is due to a
    small battery on the motherboard. As a result, it does not lose what was
    stored on it when the power is switched off.
   
account
    A Unix system gives users accounts. It gives them a username and a
    password with which to log on to the account. A home directory in which
    to store files is usually provided, and permissions to access hardware
    and software. These things taken as a whole are an account.
   
application program
    Software that does something useful. The results of using an application
    program is what the computer was bought for. See also system program,
    operating system.
   
bad block
    A block (usually one sector on a disk) that cannot reliably hold data.
   
bad sector
    Similar to bad block but more precise in the case where a block and a
    sector may be of differing sizes.
   
boot sector
    Usually the first sector on any given partition. It contains a very short
    program (on the order of a few hundred bytes) which will load and start
    running the operating system proper.
   
booting
    Everything that happens between the time the computer is switched on and
    it is ready to accept commands/input from the user is known as booting.
   
bootstrap loader
    A very small program (usually residing in ROM) which reads a fixed
    location on a disk (eg. the MBR) and passes control over to it. The data
    residing on that fixed location is, in general, slightly bigger and more
    sophisticated, and it then takes responsibility for loading the actual
    operating system and passing control to it.
   
cylinder
    The set of tracks on a multi-headed disk that may be accessed without
    head movement. In other words the tracks which are the same distance from
    the spindle about which the disk platters rotate. Placing data that is
    more likely to be accessed at the same time on the same cylinder can
    reduce the access time significantly as moving the read-write heads is
    slow compared to the speed with which the disks rotate.
   
daemon
    A process lurking in the background, usually unnoticed, until something
    triggers it into action. For example, the update daemon wakes up every
    thirty seconds or so to flush the buffer cache, and the sendmail daemon
    awakes whenever someone sends mail.
   
daylight savings time
    A time of the year during which clocks are set forward one hour. Widely
    used around the world in summer so that evenings have more daylight than
    they would otherwise.
   
disk controller
    A hardware circuit which translates instructions about disk access from
    the operating system to the physical disk. This provides a layer of
    abstraction that means that an operating system does not need to know how
    to talk to the many different types of disks, but only needs to know
    about the (comparatively low) number of types of disk controller. Common
    disk controller types are IDE and SCSI.
   
emergency boot floppy
    A floppy disk which can be used to boot the system even if the hard disk
    has suffered damage on its filesystem. Most linux distributions offer to
    make one of these during installation, this is highly recommended. If
    your Linux distribution does not offer this facility then read the Boot
    floppy HOWTO, available at the LDP (**Find URL to cite**).
   
fibre channel
    A high speed networking protocol primarily used in Storage Area Networks.
    Unlike it's name suggests, fibre channel can be ran over fiber optic, or
    copper cables.
   
filesystem
    A term which is used for two purposes and which can have two subtly
    different meanings. It is either the collection of files and directories
    on a drive (whether hard drive, floppy, Cd-ROM, etc). Or it is the
    markers put onto the disk media which the OS uses to decide where to
    write files to (inodes, blocks, superblocks etc). The actual meaning can
    almost always be inferred from context.
   
formatting
    Strictly, formatting is organizing and marking the surface of a disk into
    tracks, sectors , and cylinders. It is also sometimes (incorrectly) a
    term used to signify the action of writing a filesystem to a disk
    (especially in the MS Windows/MS DOS world).
   
fragmented
    When a file is not written to a disk in contiguous blocks. If there is
    not enough free space to write a full file to a disk in one continuous
    stream of blocks then the file gets split up between two or more parts of
    the disk surface. This is known as fragmenting and can make the time for
    loading a file longer as the disk has to seek for the rest of the file.
   
full backup
    Taking a copy of the whole filesystem to a backup media (eg tape, floppy,
    or CD).
   
geometry
    How many cylinders, sectors per cylinder and heads a disk drive has.
   
high level formatting
    An incorrect term for writing a filesystem to a disk. Often used in the
    MS Windows and MS DOS world.
   
incremental backups
    A backup of what has changed in a filesystem since the last full backup.
    Incremental backups if used sensibly as part of a backup regime, can save
    a lot of time and effort in maintaining a backup of data.
   
inode
    A data structure holding information about files in a Unix file system.
    There is an inode for each file and a file is uniquely identified by the
    file system on which it resides and its inode number on that system. Each
    inode contains the following information: the device where the inode
    resides, locking information, mode and type of file, the number of links
    to the file, the owner's user and group ids, the number of bytes in the
    file, access and modification times, the time the inode itself was last
    modified and the addresses of the file's blocks on disk. A Unix directory
    is an association between file leafnames and inode numbers. A file's
    inode number can be found using the "-i" switch to ls.
   
iSCSI
    A network storage protocol that enables the sending of SCSI commands over
    a TCP/IP network. Primarily used in Storage Area Networks.
   
kernel
    Part of an operating system that implements the interaction with hardware
    and the sharing of resources. See also system program.
   
local time
    The official time in a local region (adjusted for location around the
    Earth); established by law or custom.
   
logical partition
    A partition inside an extended partition, which is ``logical'' in that it
    does not exist in reality, but only inside the logical structure of the
    software.
   
logical volume manager (LVM)
    A collection of programs that allow larger physical disks to be
    reassembled into "logical" disks that can be shrunk or expanded as data
    needs change.
   
low level formatting
    Synonymous with formatting and used in the MS DOS world so differentiate
    from creating a filesystem which is also known as formatting sometimes.
   
mail transfer agent
    (MTA) The program responsible for delivering e-mail messages. Upon
    receiving a message from a mail user agent or another MTA it stores it
    temporarily locally and analyzes the recipients and either delivers it
    (local addressee) or forwards it to another MTA. In either case it may
    edit and/or add to the message headers. A widely used MTA for Unix is
    sendmail.
   
mail user agent
    (MUA) The program that allows the user to compose and read electronic
    mail messages. The MUA provides the interface between the user and the
    mail transfer agent . Outgoing mail is eventually handed over to an MTA
    for delivery while the incoming messages are picked up from where the MTA
    left it (although MUAs running on single-user machines may pick up mail
    using POP). Examples of MUAs are pine, elm and mutt.
   
master boot record
    (MBR) The first logical sector on a disk, this is (usually) where the
    BIOS looks to load a small program that will boot the computer.
   
network file system
    (NFS) A protocol developed by Sun Microsystems, and defined in RFC 1094
    (FIND URL), which allows a computer to access files over a network as if
    they were on its local disks.
   
operating system
    Software that shares a computer system's resources (processor, memory,
    disk space, network bandwidth, and so on) between users and the
    application programs they run. Controls access to the system to provide
    security. See also kernel, system program, application program.
   
partition
    A logical section of a disk. Each partition normally has its own file
    system. Unix tends to treat partitions as though they were separate
    physical entities.
   
password file
    A file that holds usernames and information about their accounts like
    their password. On Unix systems this file is usually /etc/passwd. On most
    modern Linux systems the /etc/passwd file does not actually hold password
    data. That tends to be held in a different file /etc/shadow for security
    reasons. See manual pages passwd(5) and shadow(5) for more information.
   
physical extents
    A term used to describe a the chunks a physical volume is broken down
    into when using the Logical Volume Manager.
   
physical volume
    A term used an actual disk partition, usually in reference to the logical
    volume manager.
   
platters
    A physical disk inside a hard drive. Usually a hard drive is made up of
    multiple physical disks stacked up on top of each other. One individual
    disk is known as a platter .
   
power on self test
    (POST) A series of diagnostic tests which are run when a computer is
    powered on. Typically this might include testing the memory, testing that
    the hardware configuration is the same as the last saved configuration,
    checking that any floppy drives, or hard drives which are known about by
    the BIOS are installed and working.
   
print queue
    A file (or set of files) which the print daemon uses so that applications
    which wish to use the printer do not have to wait until the print job
    they have sent is finished before they can continue. It also allows
    multiple users to share a printer.
   
read-write head
    A tiny electromagnetic coil and metal pole used to write and read
    magnetic patterns on a disk. These coils move laterally against the
    rotary motion on the platters.
   
root filesystem
    The parent of all the other filesystems mounted in a Unix filesystem
    tree. Mounted as / it might have other filesystems mounted on it (/usr
    for example). If the root filesystem cannot be mounted then the kernel
    will panic and the system will not be able to continue booting
   
run level
    Linux has up to 10 runlevels (0-9) available (of which usually only the
    first 7 are defined). Each runlevel may start a different set of
    services, giving multiple different configurations in the same system.
    Runlevel 0 is defined as ``system halt'', runlevel 1 is defined as
    ``single user mode'', and runlevel 6 is defined as ``reboot system''. The
    remaining runlevels can, theoretically, be defined by the system
    administrator in any way. However most distributions provide some other
    predefined runlevels. For example, runlevel 2 might be defined as
    ``multi-user console'', and runlevel 5 as ``multi-user X-Window system''.
    These definitions vary considerably from distribution to distribution, so
    please check the documentation for your own distribution.
   
sectors
    The minimum track length that can be allocated to store data. This is
    usually (but not always) 512 bytes.
   
shadow passwords
    Because the password file on Unix systems often needs to be world
    readable it usually does not actually contain the encrypted passwords for
    users' accounts. Instead a shadow file is employed (which is not world
    readable) which holds the encrypted passwords for users' accounts.
   
single user mode
    Usually runlevel 1. A runlevel where logins are not allowed except by the
    root account. Used either for system repairs (if the filesystem is
    partially damaged it may still be possible to boot into runlevel 1 and
    repair it), or for moving filesystems around between partitions. These
    are just two examples. Any task that requires a system where only one
    person can write to a disk at a time is a candidate for requiring
    runlevel 1.
   
spool
    To send a file (or other data) to a queue. Generally used in conjunction
    with printers, but might also be used for other things (mail for
    example). The term is reported to be an acronym for ``Simultaneous
    Peripheral Operation On-Line'', but according to the Jargon File it may
    have been a backronym (something made up later for effect).
   
system call
    The services provided by the kernel to application programs, and the way
    in which they are invoked. See section 2 of the manual pages.
   
swap space
    Space on a disk in which the system can write portions of memory to.
    Usually this is a dedicated partition, but it may also be a swapfile.
   
system program
    Programs that implement high level functionality of an operating system,
    i.e., things that aren't directly dependent on the hardware. May
    sometimes require special privileges to run (e.g., for delivering
    electronic mail), but often just commonly thought of as part of the
    system (e.g., a compiler). See also application program, kernel,
    operating system.
   
time drift
    This is a term for a computers inaccuracy at keeping track of time. All
    computers have some rate of error when keeping time. With newer computers
    this rate of error is extremely small.
   
track
    The part of a disk platter which passes under one read-write head while
    the head is stationary but the disk is spinning. Each track is divided
    into sectors, and a vertical collection of tracks is a cylinder
   
volume group
    A collection of physical volumes broken down into physical extents, and
    available for use in logical partitions.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Index-Draft

A

at , Periodic command execution: cron and at

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
B

BIOS, The root filesystem, Hard disks, Partitioning a hard disk
booting
    vmlinuz, The root filesystem
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
C

CMOS, Hard disks
commands
    badblocks, Formatting
       
       
    cfdisk, Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    chsh, The /etc directory
       
       
    depmod, depmod
       
       
    df, The /etc directory
       
       
    fdformat, Formatting
       
       
    fdisk, The MBR, boot sectors and partition table, Partition types, 
        Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    file, The /etc directory
       
       
    fips, Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    free, The /proc filesystem
       
       
    fsck, Formatting
       
       
    ftpd, The /etc directory
       
       
    getty, init, The /etc directory
       
       
    gzexe, Tips for saving disk space
       
       
    gzip, Tips for saving disk space
       
       
    hdparm, The hdparm command
       
       
    init, init
       
       
    insmod, insmod
       
       
    login, The /etc directory, The /var filesystem
       
       
    losetup, The /dev directory
       
       
    lpr, Two kinds of devices
       
       
    ls, Two kinds of devices
       
       
    lsdev, The lsdev command
       
       
    lsmod, lsmod
       
       
    lspci, The lspci command
       
       
    lsraid, The lsraid command
       
       
    lsusb, The lsusb command
       
       
    MAKEDEV, The /dev directory, The MAKEDEV Script, The mknod command
       
       
    man, The /var filesystem
       
       
    mkfs, Formatting
       
       
    mknod, The mknod command
       
       
    modprobe, modprobe
       
       
    mount, The /etc directory, The /dev directory
       
       
    parted, Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    rmmod, rmmod
       
       
    setfdparm, Floppies
       
       
    setfdprm, The /etc directory, Formatting
       
       
    su, The /etc directory
       
       
    sudo, The /etc directory
       
       
    swapon, The /etc directory
       
       
    syslog, The /var filesystem, Formatting
       
       
    zip, Tips for saving disk space
       
       
   
   
Common Internet File System (CIFS), Network file systems, Network Attached
    Storage - Draft, CIFS
cron, Periodic command execution: cron and at
    crontab , Periodic command execution: cron and at
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
D

devices
    block, Two kinds of devices
       
       
    character, Two kinds of devices
       
       
   
   
disks, Using Disks and Other Storage Media
    bad blocks, Formatting
       
       
    bad sectors, Formatting
       
       
    boot sectors, The MBR, boot sectors and partition table
       
       
    changing partition size, Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    components, Hard disks
       
       
    cylinders, Hard disks
       
       
    extended partition, Extended and logical partitions, Device files and
        partitions
       
       
    filesystem, What are filesystems?
        data block, What are filesystems?
        directory block, What are filesystems?
        indirection block, What are filesystems?
        inode, What are filesystems?
        superblock, What are filesystems?
       
       
    formatting, Formatting
        high-level, Formatting
        low-level, Formatting
       
       
    geometry, Hard disks
       
       
    IDE, Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    Logical Block Addressing (LBA), Partitioning a hard disk
       
       
    MBR, The MBR, boot sectors and partition table
       
       
    partition table, The MBR, boot sectors and partition table
       
       
    partition type, Partition types
       
       
    partitions, Partitions
       
       
    saving space, Tips for saving disk space
       
       
    sectors, Hard disks
       
       
    tracks, Hard disks
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E

email, Mail

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
F

fibre channel, Storage Area Networks - Draft
filesystem, The filesystem layout, The /usr filesystem.
    / (root), Background, The root filesystem
       
       
    /bin, The filesystem layout, The root filesystem
       
       
    /boot, The root filesystem
       
       
    /dev, The filesystem layout, The root filesystem, The /dev directory, Two
        kinds of devices
        /dev/dsp, The /dev directory
        /dev/fb0, The /dev directory
        /dev/fd0, The /dev directory, Floppies, Formatting
        /dev/fd1, Floppies
        /dev/hda, The /dev directory, Hard disks
        /dev/hdb, The /dev directory, Hard disks
        /dev/hdc, The /dev directory, Hard disks
        /dev/hdc9, The /dev directory
        /dev/hdd, The /dev directory, Hard disks
        /dev/ht0, The /dev directory
        /dev/js0, The /dev directory
        /dev/loop0, The /dev directory
        /dev/lp0, The /dev directory
        /dev/md0, The /dev directory
        /dev/mixer, The /dev directory
        /dev/null, The /dev directory
        /dev/parport0, The /dev directory
        /dev/pcd0, The /dev directory
        /dev/pda, The /dev directory
        /dev/pdb, The /dev directory
        /dev/pdc, The /dev directory
        /dev/pdd, The /dev directory
        /dev/psaux, The /dev directory
        /dev/pt0, The /dev directory
        /dev/pt1, The /dev directory
        /dev/random, The /dev directory
        /dev/sda, The /dev directory, Two kinds of devices, Hard disks
        /dev/sdb, The /dev directory, Hard disks
        /dev/sdd, The /dev directory
        /dev/ttyS0, The /dev directory, The MAKEDEV Script, The mknod command
        /dev/urandom, The /dev directory
        /dev/zero, The /dev directory
       
       
    /etc, The filesystem layout, The root filesystem, The /etc directory
        /etc/bash.rc, The /etc directory
        /etc/csh.cshrc, The /etc directory
        /etc/fdprm, The /etc directory, Floppies
        /etc/fstab, The /etc directory
        /etc/group, The /etc directory
        /etc/inittab, The /etc directory
        /etc/issue, The /etc directory
        /etc/login.defs, The /etc directory
        /etc/magic, The /etc directory
        /etc/motd, The /etc directory
        /etc/mtab, The /etc directory
        /etc/passwd, The /etc directory
        /etc/printcap, The /etc directory
        /etc/profile, The /etc directory
        /etc/rc.d, The /etc directory
        /etc/securetty, The /etc directory
        /etc/shadow, The /etc directory
        /etc/shells, The /etc directory
        /etc/termcap, The /etc directory
       
       
    /home, The filesystem layout, Background, The root filesystem
       
       
    /lib, The filesystem layout, The root filesystem
       
       
    /lib/modules, The root filesystem
       
       
    /mnt, The root filesystem
       
       
    /proc, The root filesystem, The /proc filesystem, Filesystems galore
        /proc/1, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/cpuinfo, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/devices, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/dma, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/filesystems, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/interrupts, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/ioports, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/kcore, The /proc filesystem, Filesystems galore
        /proc/kmsg, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/ksyms, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/loadavg, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/meminfo, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/modules, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/net, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/self, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/stat, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/uptime, The /proc filesystem
        /proc/version, The /proc filesystem
       
       
    /root, The root filesystem
       
       
    /sbin, The root filesystem
       
       
    /tmp, The root filesystem, The /var filesystem
       
       
    /usr, The filesystem layout, Background, The root filesystem
        /usr/bin, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/include, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/lib, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/local, The /usr filesystem., The /var filesystem
        /usr/sbin, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/share/doc, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/share/info, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/share/man, The /usr filesystem.
        /usr/share/man/cat, The /var filesystem
        /usr/share/man/man, The /var filesystem
        /usr/X11R6, The /usr filesystem.
       
       
    /var, The filesystem layout, Background, The root filesystem, The /var
        filesystem
        /var/cache/man, The /var filesystem
        /var/games, The /var filesystem
        /var/lib, The /var filesystem
        /var/local, The /var filesystem
        /var/lock, The /var filesystem
        /var/log, The /var filesystem
        /var/log/messages, The /var filesystem
        /var/log/wtmp, The /var filesystem
        /var/mail, The /var filesystem
        /var/run, The /var filesystem
        /var/spool, The /var filesystem
        /var/spool/mail, The /var filesystem
        /var/spool/news, The /var filesystem
        /var/tmp, The /var filesystem
        /var/utmp, The /var filesystem
       
       
   
   
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) , The filesystem layout, Overview of the
    Directory Tree, Background
filesystem types
    ext, Filesystems galore
       
       
    ext2, Filesystems galore, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    ext3, Filesystems galore, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    fat16, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    fat32, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    hfs+, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    hpfs, Filesystems galore, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    iso9660, Filesystems galore
       
       
    jfs, Filesystems galore, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    minix, Filesystems galore
       
       
    msdos, Filesystems galore
       
       
    nfs, Filesystems galore
       
       
    ntfs, Filesystems galore, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    reiserfs, Filesystems galore, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    smbfs, Filesystems galore
       
       
    sysv, Filesystems galore
       
       
    ufs2, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    umsdos, Filesystems galore
       
       
    vfat, Filesystems galore
       
       
    vxfs, Filesystem comparison
       
       
    xfs, Filesystems galore
       
       
    xia, Filesystems galore
       
       
    zfs, Filesystem comparison
       
       
   
   
filesystems
    /etc
        /etc/fstab, Adding more disk space for Linux
       
       
   
   
Free Software Foundation, Linux or GNU/Linux, that is the question.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
G

getty, Logins from terminals, Network logins
GNOME, Graphical user interface
GRUB , The root filesystem
GUI, init, Graphical user interface
    blackbox, Graphical user interface
       
       
    fvwm, Graphical user interface
       
       
    icewm, Graphical user interface
       
       
    windowmaker , Graphical user interface
       
       
    X Windows, Graphical user interface
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
H

hardware
    CD-ROM, CD-ROMs
       
       
    Central Processing Unit (CPU), Hard disks
       
       
    disk controller, Hard disks
       
       
    fibre channel, Storage Area Networks - Draft
       
       
    floppy disk, Floppies
       
       
    tape drive, Tapes
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
I

init, init, Logins from terminals
inittab, init
iSCSI, Storage Area Networks - Draft
ISO 9660, CD-ROMs
    Rock Ridge extensions, CD-ROMs
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
K

KDE, Graphical user interface
kernel
    devices, Hardware, Devices, and Tools
       
       
    documentation
        devices.txt, The mknod command
       
       
    driver, Important parts of the kernel
       
       
    memory management, Important parts of the kernel
       
       
    modules, Kernel Modules
        depmod, depmod
        insmod, insmod
        lsmod, lsmod
        modprobe, modprobe
        rmmod, rmmod
       
       
    NFS, Network file systems
       
       
    overview, Various parts of an operating system, Important parts of the
        kernel
       
       
    process management, Important parts of the kernel
       
       
    virtual filesystem (VFS), Important parts of the kernel
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
L

LILO, The root filesystem, Partitioning a hard disk
Linux
    Distributions, Introduction
       
       
    GNU , Linux or GNU/Linux, that is the question.
       
       
   
   
logging in, Network logins
login, Logins from terminals
logs
    /var/log/messages, The /var filesystem, Formatting
       
       
    /var/log/wtmp, The /var filesystem
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
M

mail transfer agent (MTA) , Mail
    postfix, Mail
       
       
    sendmail, Mail
       
       
   
   
mail user agent, Mail
    evolution, Mail
       
       
    pine, Mail
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
N

Network Attached Storage (NAS), Network Attached Storage - Draft
Network File System (NFS), Network file systems, Background, Network Attached
    Storage - Draft, NFS
networking, Networking
    Network Admin Guide (NAG), Networking
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
O

Open Sound System (OSS), The /dev directory

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
P

partition types
    AIX, Partition types
       
       
    FAT16, Partition types
       
       
    FAT32, Partition types
       
       
    FreeBSD, Partition types
       
       
    HPFS, Partition types
       
       
    Linux, Partition types
       
       
    Linux LVM, Partition types
       
       
    Linux Swap, Partition types
       
       
    Minix, Partition types
       
       
    NetBSD, Partition types
       
       
    NTFS, Partition types
       
       
   
   
printing, Printing
    queue, Printing
       
       
    spools, Printing
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
R

runlevels, init
    0 - shutdown, init
       
       
    1 - single user , init
       
       
    1 - single-user, init
       
       
    3 - multi-user, init
       
       
    5 - multi-user with GUI , init
       
       
    6 - reboot, init
       
       
    inittab, init
       
       
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
S

Samba , Network file systems, Network Attached Storage - Draft, CIFS
shells
    bash - Bourne Again SHell, The /etc directory
       
       
    csh - C SHell, The /etc directory
       
       
    sh - Bourne, The /etc directory
       
       
   
   
ssh, Network logins
Storage Area Network (SAN), Storage Area Networks - Draft, Network Attached
    Storage - Draft
    LUN, Storage Area Networks - Draft
       
       
   
   
syslog , Syslog

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
T

telnet , Network logins

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
V

VMWare, CD-ROMs

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
W

WINE, CD-ROMs