Linux From Scratch

Table of Contents

* Preface
          + [1]Foreword
          + [2]Audience
          + [3]Prerequisites
          + [4]Host System Requirements
          + [5]Typography
          + [6]Structure
          + [7]Errata
     * I. Introduction
          + 1. Introduction
               o [8]How to Build an LFS System
               o [9]Changelog
               o [10]Resources
               o [11]Help
     * II. Preparing for the Build
          + 2. Preparing a New Partition
               o [12]Introduction
               o [13]Creating a New Partition
               o [14]Creating a File System on the Partition
               o [15]Mounting the New Partition
          + 3. Packages and Patches
               o [16]Introduction
               o [17]All Packages
               o [18]Needed Patches
          + 4. Final Preparations
               o [19]About $LFS
               o [20]Creating the $LFS/tools Directory
               o [21]Adding the LFS User
               o [22]Setting Up the Environment
               o [23]About SBUs
               o [24]About the Test Suites
          + 5. Constructing a Temporary System
               o [25]Introduction
               o [26]Toolchain Technical Notes
               o [27]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 1
               o [28]GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 1
               o [29]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2
               o [30]Glibc-2.3.4
               o [31]Adjusting the Toolchain
               o [32]Tcl-8.4.9
               o [33]Expect-5.43.0
               o [34]DejaGNU-1.4.4
               o [35]GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 2
               o [36]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 2
               o [37]Gawk-3.1.4
               o [38]Coreutils-5.2.1
               o [39]Bzip2-1.0.3
               o [40]Gzip-1.3.5
               o [41]Diffutils-2.8.1
               o [42]Findutils-4.2.23
               o [43]Make-3.80
               o [44]Grep-2.5.1a
               o [45]Sed-4.1.4
               o [46]Gettext-0.14.3
               o [47]Ncurses-5.4
               o [48]Patch-2.5.4
               o [49]Tar-1.15.1
               o [50]Texinfo-4.8
               o [51]Bash-3.0
               o [52]M4-1.4.3
               o [53]Bison-2.0
               o [54]Flex-2.5.31
               o [55]Util-linux-2.12q
               o [56]Perl-5.8.7
               o [57]Stripping
     * III. Building the LFS System
          + 6. Installing Basic System Software
               o [58]Introduction
               o [59]Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems
               o [60]Entering the Chroot Environment
               o [61]Changing Ownership
               o [62]Creating Directories
               o [63]Creating Essential Symlinks
               o [64]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
               o [65]Populating /dev
               o [66]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2
               o [67]Man-pages-2.01
               o [68]Glibc-2.3.4
               o [69]Re-adjusting the Toolchain
               o [70]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2
               o [71]GCC-3.4.3
               o [72]Coreutils-5.2.1
               o [73]Zlib-1.2.3
               o [74]Mktemp-1.5
               o [75]Iana-Etc-1.04
               o [76]Findutils-4.2.23
               o [77]Gawk-3.1.4
               o [78]Ncurses-5.4
               o [79]Readline-5.0
               o [80]Vim-6.3
               o [81]M4-1.4.3
               o [82]Bison-2.0
               o [83]Less-382
               o [84]Groff-1.19.1
               o [85]Sed-4.1.4
               o [86]Flex-2.5.31
               o [87]Gettext-0.14.3
               o [88]Inetutils-1.4.2
               o [89]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330
               o [90]Perl-5.8.7
               o [91]Texinfo-4.8
               o [92]Autoconf-2.59
               o [93]Automake-1.9.5
               o [94]Bash-3.0
               o [95]File-4.13
               o [96]Libtool-1.5.14
               o [97]Bzip2-1.0.3
               o [98]Diffutils-2.8.1
               o [99]Kbd-1.12
               o [100]E2fsprogs-1.37
               o [101]Grep-2.5.1a
               o [102]GRUB-0.96
               o [103]Gzip-1.3.5
               o [104]Hotplug-2004_09_23
               o [105]Man-1.5p
               o [106]Make-3.80
               o [107]Module-Init-Tools-3.1
               o [108]Patch-2.5.4
               o [109]Procps-3.2.5
               o [110]Psmisc-21.6
               o [111]Shadow-4.0.9
               o [112]Sysklogd-1.4.1
               o [113]Sysvinit-2.86
               o [114]Tar-1.15.1
               o [115]Udev-056
               o [116]Util-linux-2.12q
               o [117]About Debugging Symbols
               o [118]Stripping Again
               o [119]Cleaning Up
          + 7. Setting Up System Bootscripts
               o [120]Introduction
               o [121]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1
               o [122]How Do These Bootscripts Work?
               o [123]Device and Module Handling on an LFS System
               o [124]Configuring the setclock Script
               o [125]Configuring the Linux Console
               o [126]Configuring the sysklogd script
               o [127]Creating the /etc/inputrc File
               o [128]The Bash Shell Startup Files
               o [129]Configuring the localnet Script
               o [130]Creating the /etc/hosts File
               o [131]Configuring the network Script
          + 8. Making the LFS System Bootable
               o [132]Introduction
               o [133]Creating the /etc/fstab File
               o [134]Linux-2.6.11.12
               o [135]Making the LFS System Bootable
          + 9. The End
               o [136]The End
               o [137]Get Counted
               o [138]Rebooting the System
               o [139]What Now?
     * IV. Appendices
          + [140]A. Acronyms and Terms
          + [141]B. Acknowledgments
     * [142]Index

Preface

1. Foreword

   My adventures in Linux began in 1998 when I downloaded and installed
   my first distribution. After working with it for a while, I discovered
   issues I definitely would have liked to see improved upon. For
   example, I didn't like the arrangement of the bootscripts or the way
   programs were configured by default. I tried a number of alternative
   distributions to address these issues, yet each had its pros and cons.
   Finally, I realized that if I wanted full satisfaction from my Linux
   system, I would have to build my own from scratch.

   What does this mean? I resolved not to use pre-compiled packages of
   any kind, nor CD-ROMs or boot disks that would install basic
   utilities. I would use my current Linux system to develop my own
   customized system. This "perfect" Linux system would then have the
   strengths of various systems without their associated weaknesses. In
   the beginning, the idea was rather daunting, but I remained committed
   to the idea that a system could be built that would conform to my
   needs and desires rather than to a standard that just did not fit what
   I was looking for.

   After sorting through issues such as circular dependencies and
   compile-time errors, I created a custom-built Linux system that was
   fully operational and suitable to individual needs. This process also
   allowed me to create compact and streamlined Linux systems which are
   faster and take up less space than traditional operating systems. I
   called this system a Linux From Scratch system, or an LFS system for
   short.

   As I shared my goals and experiences with other members of the Linux
   community, it became apparent that there was sustained interest in the
   ideas set forth in my Linux adventures. Such custom-built LFS systems
   serve not only to meet user specifications and requirements, but also
   serve as an ideal learning opportunity for programmers and system
   administrators to enhance their Linux skills. Out of this broadened
   interest, the Linux From Scratch Project was born.

   This Linux From Scratch book provides readers with the background and
   instruction to design and build custom Linux systems. This book
   highlights the Linux from Scratch project and the benefits of using
   this system. Users can dictate all aspects of their system, including
   directory layout, script setup, and security. The resulting system
   will be compiled completely from the source code, and the user will be
   able to specify where, why, and how programs are installed. This book
   allows readers to fully customize Linux systems to their own needs and
   allows users more control over their system.

   I hope you will have a great time working on your own LFS system, and
   enjoy the numerous benefits of having a system that is truly your own.

   --
   Gerard Beekmans
   gerard AT linuxfromscratch D0T org

2. Audience

   There are many reasons why somebody would want to read this book. The
   principal reason is to install a Linux system from the source code. A
   question many people raise is, "why go through all the hassle of
   manually building a Linux system from scratch when you can just
   download and install an existing one?" That is a good question and is
   the impetus for this section of the book.

   One important reason for LFS's existence is to help people learn how a
   Linux system works from the inside out. Building an LFS system helps
   demonstrate what makes Linux tick, and how things work together and
   depend on each other. One of the best things that this learning
   experience provides is the ability to customize Linux to your own
   tastes and needs.

   A key benefit of LFS is that it allows users to have more control over
   the system without relying on someone else's Linux implementation.
   With LFS, you are in the driver's seat and dictate every aspect of the
   system, such as the directory layout and bootscript setup. You also
   dictate where, why, and how programs are installed.

   Another benefit of LFS is the ability to create a very compact Linux
   system. When installing a regular distribution, one is often forced to
   include several programs which are probably never used. These programs
   waste disk space, or worse, CPU cycles. It is not difficult to build
   an LFS system of less than 100 megabytes (MB), which is substantially
   smaller than the majority of existing installations. Does this still
   sound like a lot of space? A few of us have been working on creating a
   very small embedded LFS system. We successfully built a system that
   was specialized to run the Apache web server with approximately 8MB of
   disk space used. Further stripping could bring this down to 5 MB or
   less. Try that with a regular distribution! This is only one of the
   many benefits of designing your own Linux implementation.

   We could compare Linux distributions to a hamburger purchased at a
   fast-food restaurant--you have no idea what might be in what you are
   eating. LFS, on the other hand, does not give you a hamburger. Rather,
   LFS provides the recipe to make the exact hamburger desired. This
   allows users to review the recipe, omit unwanted ingredients, and add
   your own ingredients to enhance the flavor of the burger. When you are
   satisfied with the recipe, move on to preparing it. It can be made to
   exact specifications--broil it, bake it, deep-fry it, or barbecue it.

   Another analogy that we can use is that of comparing LFS with a
   finished house. LFS provides the skeletal plan of a house, but it is
   up to you to build it. LFS maintains the freedom to adjust plans
   throughout the process, customizing it to the user's needs and
   preferences.

   An additional advantage of a custom built Linux system is security. By
   compiling the entire system from source code, you are empowered to
   audit everything and apply all the security patches desired. It is no
   longer necessary to wait for somebody else to compile binary packages
   that fix a security hole. Unless you examine the patch and implement
   it yourself, you have no guarantee that the new binary package was
   built correctly and adequately fixes the problem.

   The goal of Linux From Scratch is to build a complete and usable
   foundation-level system. Readers who do not wish to build their own
   Linux system from scratch may not benefit from the information in this
   book. If you only want to know what happens while the computer boots,
   we recommend the "From Power Up To Bash Prompt" HOWTO located at
   [143]http://axiom.anu.edu.au/~okeefe/p2b/ or on The Linux
   Documentation Project's (TLDP) website at
   [144]http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/From-PowerUp-To-Bash-Prompt-HOWTO.html.
   The HOWTO builds a system which is similar to that of this book, but
   it focuses strictly on creating a system capable of booting to a BASH
   prompt. Consider your objective. If you wish to build a Linux system
   while learning along the way, then this book is your best choice.

   There are too many good reasons to build your own LFS system to list
   them all here. This section is only the tip of the iceberg. As you
   continue in your LFS experience, you will find the power that
   information and knowledge truly bring.

3. Prerequisites

   Building an LFS system is not a simple task. It requires a certain
   level of existing knowledge of Unix system administration in order to
   resolve problems, and correctly execute the commands listed. In
   particular, as an absolute minimum, the reader should already have the
   ability to use the command line (shell) to copy or move files and
   directories, list directory and file contents, and change the current
   directory. It is also expected that the reader has a reasonable
   knowledge of using and installing Linux software.

   Because the LFS book assumes at least this basic level of skill, the
   various LFS support forums are unlikely to be able to provide you with
   much assistance; you will find that your questions regarding such
   basic knowledge will likely go unanswered, or you will simply be
   referred to the LFS essential pre-reading list.

   Before building an LFS system, we recommend reading the following
   HOWTOs:
     * Software-Building-HOWTO
       [145]http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-Building-HOWTO.html
       This is a comprehensive guide to building and installing "generic"
       Unix software distributions under Linux.
     * The Linux Users' Guide
       [146]http://www.linuxhq.com/guides/LUG/guide.html
       This guide covers the usage of assorted Linux software.
     * The Essential Pre-Reading Hint
       [147]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/essenti
       al_prereading.txt
       This is an LFS Hint written specifically for users new to Linux.
       It includes a list of links to excellent sources of information on
       a wide range of topics. Anyone attempting to install LFS should
       have an understanding of many of the topics in this hint.

4. Host System Requirements

   The host must be running at least a 2.6.2 kernel compiled with GCC-3.0
   or higher. There are two main reasons for this requirement. First, the
   Native POSIX Threading Library (NPTL) test suite will segfault if the
   host's kernel has not been compiled with GCC-3.0 or a later version.
   Second, the 2.6.2 or later version of the kernel is required for the
   use of Udev. Udev creates devices dynamically by reading from the
   sysfs file system. However, support for this filesystem has only
   recently been implemented in most of the kernel drivers. We must be
   sure that all critical system devices get created properly.

   In order to determine whether the host kernel meets the requirements
   outlined above, run the following command:
cat /proc/version

   This will produce output similar to:
Linux version 2.6.2 (user@host) (gcc version 3.4.0) #1
    Tue Apr 20 21:22:18 GMT 2004

   If the results of the above command do not state that the host kernel
   is either 2.6.2 (or later), or that it was not compiled using a
   GCC-3.0 (or later) compiler, one will need to be installed. There are
   two methods you can take to solve this. First, see if your Linux
   vendor provides a 2.6.2 (or later) kernel package. If so, you may wish
   to install it. If your vendor doesn't offer a 2.6.2 (or later) kernel
   package, or you would prefer not to install it, then you can compile a
   2.6 kernel yourself. Instructions for compiling the kernel and
   configuring the boot loader (assuming the host uses GRUB) are located
   in [148]Chapter 8. This second option can also be seen as a gauge of
   your current Linux skills. If this second requirement is too steep,
   then the LFS book will not likely be much use to you at this time.

5. Typography

   To make things easier to follow, there are a few typographical
   conventions used throughout this book. This section contains some
   examples of the typographical format found throughout Linux From
   Scratch.
./configure --prefix=/usr

   This form of text is designed to be typed exactly as seen unless
   otherwise noted in the surrounding text. It is also used in the
   explanation sections to identify which of the commands is being
   referenced.
install-info: unknown option '--dir-file=/mnt/lfs/usr/info/dir'

   This form of text (fixed-width text) shows screen output, probably as
   the result of commands issued. This format is also used to show
   filenames, such as /etc/ld.so.conf.

   Emphasis

   This form of text is used for several purposes in the book. Its main
   purpose is to emphasize important points or items.

   [149]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/

   This format is used for hyperlinks both within the LFS community and
   to external pages. It includes HOWTOs, download locations, and
   websites.
cat > $LFS/etc/group << "EOF"
root:x:0:
bin:x:1:
......
EOF

   This format is used when creating configuration files. The first
   command tells the system to create the file $LFS/etc/group from
   whatever is typed on the following lines until the sequence end of
   file (EOF) is encountered. Therefore, this entire section is generally
   typed as seen.

   [REPLACED TEXT]

   This format is used to encapsulate text that is not to be typed as
   seen or copied-and-pasted.

   passwd(5)

   This format is used to refer to a specific manual page (hereinafter
   referred to simply as a "man" page). The number inside parentheses
   indicates a specific section inside of man. For example, passwd has
   two man pages. Per LFS installation instructions, those two man pages
   will be located at /usr/share/man/man1/passwd.1 and
   /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5. Both man pages have different
   information in them. When the book uses passwd(5) it is specifically
   referring to /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5. man passwd will print the
   first man page it finds that matches "passwd", which will be
   /usr/share/man/man1/passwd.1. For this example, you will need to run
   man 5 passwd in order to read the specific page being referred to. It
   should be noted that most man pages do not have duplicate page names
   in different sections. Therefore, man [program name] is generally
   sufficient.

6. Structure

   This book is divided into the following parts.

6.1. Part I - Introduction

   Part I explains a few important notes on how to proceed with the LFS
   installation. This section also provides meta-information about the
   book.

6.2. Part II - Preparing for the Build

   Part II describes how to prepare for the building process--making a
   partition, downloading the packages, and compiling temporary tools.

6.3. Part III - Building the LFS System

   Part III guides the reader through the building of the LFS
   system--compiling and installing all the packages one by one, setting
   up the boot scripts, and installing the kernel. The resulting Linux
   system is the foundation on which other software can be built to
   expand the system as desired. At the end of this book, there is an
   easy to use reference listing all of the programs, libraries, and
   important files that have been installed.

7. Errata

   The software used to create an LFS system is constantly being updated
   and enhanced. Security warnings and bug fixes may become available
   after the LFS book has been released. To check whether the package
   versions or instructions in this release of LFS need any modifications
   to accommodate security vulnerabilities or other bug fixes, please
   visit [150]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/errata/6.1.1/ before
   proceeding with your build. You should note any changes shown and
   apply them to the relevant section of the book as you progress with
   building the LFS system.

Part I. Introduction

Table of Contents

     * 1. Introduction
          + [151]How to Build an LFS System
          + [152]Changelog
          + [153]Resources
          + [154]Help

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. How to Build an LFS System

   The LFS system will be built by using a previously installed Linux
   distribution (such as Debian, Mandrake, Red Hat, or SuSE). This
   existing Linux system (the host) will be used as a starting point to
   provide necessary programs, including a compiler, linker, and shell,
   to build the new system. Select the "development" option during the
   distribution installation to be able to access these tools.

   As an alternative to installing an entire separate distribution onto
   your machine, you may wish to use the Linux From Scratch LiveCD. The
   CD works well as a host system, providing all the tools you need to
   successfully follow the instructions in this book. Additionally, it
   contains all the source packages, patches and a copy of this book. So
   once you have the CD, no network connection or additional downloads
   are necessary. For more information about the LFS LiveCD or to
   download a copy, visit [155]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/livecd/.

   [156]Chapter 2 of this book describes how to create a new Linux native
   partition and file system, the place where the new LFS system will be
   compiled and installed. [157]Chapter 3 explains which packages and
   patches need to be downloaded to build an LFS system and how to store
   them on the new file system. [158]Chapter 4 discusses the setup for an
   appropriate working environment. Please read [159]Chapter 4 carefully
   as it explains several important issues the developer should be aware
   of before beginning to work through [160]Chapter 5 and beyond.

   [161]Chapter 5 explains the installation of a number of packages that
   will form the basic development suite (or toolchain) which is used to
   build the actual system in [162]Chapter 6. Some of these packages are
   needed to resolve circular dependencies--for example, to compile a
   compiler, you need a compiler.

   [163]Chapter 5 also shows the user how to build a first pass of the
   toolchain, including Binutils and GCC (first pass basically means
   these two core packages will be re-installed a second time). The next
   step is to build Glibc, the C library. Glibc will be compiled by the
   toolchain programs built in the first pass. Then, a second pass of the
   toolchain will be built. This time, the toolchain will be dynamically
   linked against the newly built Glibc. The remaining [164]Chapter 5
   packages are built using this second pass toolchain. When this is
   done, the LFS installation process will no longer depend on the host
   distribution, with the exception of the running kernel.

   This effort to isolate the new system from the host distribution may
   seem excessive, but a full technical explanation is provided in
   [165]Section 5.2, "Toolchain Technical Notes".

   In [166]Chapter 6, the full LFS system is built. The chroot (change
   root) program is used to enter a virtual environment and start a new
   shell whose root directory will be set to the LFS partition. This is
   very similar to rebooting and instructing the kernel to mount the LFS
   partition as the root partition. The system does not actually reboot,
   but instead chroot's because creating a bootable system requires
   additional work which is not necessary just yet. The major advantage
   is that "chrooting" allows the builder to continue using the host
   while LFS is being built. While waiting for package compilation to
   complete, a user can switch to a different virtual console (VC) or X
   desktop and continue using the computer as normal.

   To finish the installation, the LFS-Bootscripts are set up in
   [167]Chapter 7, and the kernel and boot loader are set up in
   [168]Chapter 8. [169]Chapter 9 contains information on furthering the
   LFS experience beyond this book. After the steps in this book have
   been implemented, the computer will be ready to reboot into the new
   LFS system.

   This is the process in a nutshell. Detailed information on each step
   is discussed in the following chapters and package descriptions. Items
   that may seem complicated will be clarified, and everything will fall
   into place as the reader embarks on the LFS adventure.

1.2. Changelog

   This is version 6.1.1 of the Linux From Scratch book, dated November
   30, 2005. If this book is more than six months old, a newer and better
   version is probably already available. To find out, please check one
   of the mirrors via [170]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/.

   Below is a list of changes made since the previous release of the
   book. First a summary, then a detailed log.
     * Upgraded to:
          + Perl 5.8.7
          + Zlib 1.2.3
     * Added:
          + binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2-gcc4-1.patch
          + bzip2-1.0.3-install_docs-1.patch
          + bzip2-1.0.3-bzgrep_security-1.patch
          + glibc-2.3.4-rtld_search_dirs-1.patch
          + glibc-2.3.4-tls_assert-1.patch
          + texinfo-4.8-tempfile_fix-1.patch
          + util-linux-2.12q-umount_fix-1.patch
          + vim-6.3-security_fix-2.patch
     * Removed:
          + zlib-1.2.2-security_fix-1.patch;
     * November 30, 2005 [matt]: LFS-6.1.1 release.
     * November 24, 2005 [matt]: LFS-6.1.1-pre2 release.
     * November 24, 2005 [matt]: Fix an issue with Glibc that prevents
       some programs (including OpenOffice.org) from running.
     * November 23, 2005 [gerard]: Corrected reference to 'man page' to
       'HTML documentation' in chapter 6/sec
     * November 18, 2005 [manuel]: Fixed the unpack of the
       module-init-tools-testsuite package.
     * November 18, 2005 [manuel]: PDF fixes.
     * November 17, 2005 [matt]: LFS-6.1.1-pre1 release.
     * November 12, 2005 [matt]: Improve the heuristic for determining a
       locale that is supported by both Glibc and packages outside LFS
       (bug 1642). Many thanks to Alexander Patrakov for highlighting the
       numerous issues and for reviewing the various suggested fixes.
     * November 12, 2005 [matt]: Omit running Bzip2's testsuite as a
       separate step, as make runs it automatically (bug 1652).
     * November 7, 2005 [matt]: Stop Udev from killing udevd processes on
       the host system (fixes bug 1651). Thanks to Alexander Patrakov for
       the report and the fix.
     * November 5, 2005 [matt]: Add a note to the toolchain sanity check
       in chapter 5 to explain that if TCL fails to build, it's an
       indication of a broken toolchain (bug 1581).
     * November 4, 2005 [matt]: Correct the instructions for running
       Module-Init-Tools' testsuite (fixes bug 1597). Thanks to Greg
       Schafer, Tushar Teredesai and to Randy McMurchy for providing the
       patch.
     * October 29, 2005 [manuel]: PDF fixes.
     * October 23, 2005 [manuel]: Added Bash documentation installation.
       Added notes about libiconv and Cracklib. Fixed the installation of
       Sed documentation. Replaced a patch for IPRoute2 by a sed command.
     * October 19, 2005 [manuel]: Updated the acknowledgements to current
       trunk version. Ported some redaction changes in preface and
       chapter01 pages. Moved chapter02 to part II. Added -v switches.
       Ported several typos and redaction fixes from trunk.
     * October 19, 2005 [manuel]: Updated the stylesheets, Makefile and
       related files to current trunk versions.
     * October 15, 2005 [matt]: Use an updated version of the Udev rules
       file (fixes bug 1639).
     * October 15, 2005 [matt]: Add a cdrom group as required by the Udev
       rules file
     * October 14th, 2005 [ken]: Added a patch to allow binutils to be
       built from a host running gcc-4, updated glibc instructions for
       the rtld patch, updated space/time for perl and zlib.
     * October 14th, 2005 [matt]: Added a patch to fix a security
       vulnerability in util-linux.
     * October 14th, 2005 [matt]: Added the updated vim security patch.
     * October 14th, 2005 [jhuntwork]: Added the bzip2 security and
       install docs patches.
     * October 14th, 2005 [jhuntwork]: Added the tempfile patch for
       texinfo.
     * October 14th, 2005 [ken]: Update packages and patches in the
       changelog to only reflect changes since 6.1. Update zlib.
     * October 13th, 2005 [ken]: Fix known errors in lists of installed
       files and bump the perl version.

1.3. Resources

1.3.1. FAQ

   If during the building of the LFS system you encounter any errors,
   have any questions, or think there is a typo in the book, please start
   by consulting the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) that is located at
   [171]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/faq/.

1.3.2. Mailing Lists

   The linuxfromscratch.org server hosts a number of mailing lists used
   for the development of the LFS project. These lists include the main
   development and support lists, among others. If the FAQ does not solve
   the problem you are having, the next step would be to search the
   mailing lists at [172]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/search.html.

   For information on the different lists, how to subscribe, archive
   locations, and additional information, visit
   [173]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/mail.html.

1.3.3. News Server

   The mailing lists hosted at linuxfromscratch.org are also accessible
   via the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) server. All messages
   posted to a mailing list are copied to the corresponding newsgroup,
   and vice versa.

   The news server is located at news.linuxfromscratch.org.

1.3.4. IRC

   Several members of the LFS community offer assistance on our community
   Internet Relay Chat (IRC) network. Before using this support, please
   make sure that your question is not already answered in the LFS FAQ or
   the mailing list archives. You can find the IRC network at
   irc.linuxfromscratch.org. The support channel is named #LFS-support.

1.3.5. References

   For additional information on the packages, useful tips are available
   in the LFS Package Reference page located at
   [174]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/~matthew/LFS-references.html.

1.3.6. Mirror Sites

   The LFS project has a number of world-wide mirrors to make accessing
   the website and downloading the required packages more convenient.
   Please visit the LFS website at
   [175]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/mirrors.html for a list of
   current mirrors.

1.3.7. Contact Information

   Please direct all your questions and comments to one of the LFS
   mailing lists (see above).

1.4. Help

   If an issue or a question is encountered while working through this
   book, check the FAQ page at
   [176]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/faq/#generalfaq. Questions are
   often already answered there. If your question is not answered on this
   page, try to find the source of the problem. The following hint will
   give you some guidance for troubleshooting:
   [177]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/errors.txt.

   If you cannot find your problem listed in the FAQ, search the mailing
   lists at [178]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/search.html.

   We also have a wonderful LFS community that is willing to offer
   assistance through the mailing lists and IRC (see the
   [179]Section 1.3, "Resources" section of this book). However, we get
   several support questions everyday and many of them can be easily
   answered by going to the FAQ and by searching the mailing lists first.
   So for us to offer the best assistance possible, you need to do some
   research on your own first. That allows us to focus on the more
   unusual support needs. If your searches do not produce a solution,
   please include all relevant information (mentioned below) in your
   request for help.

1.4.1. Things to Mention

   Apart from a brief explanation of the problem being experienced, the
   essential things to include in any request for help are:
     * The version of the book being used (in this case 6.1.1)
     * The host distribution and version being used to create LFS
     * The package or section the problem was encountered in
     * The exact error message or symptom being received
     * Note whether you have deviated from the book at all

Note

   Deviating from this book does not mean that we will not help you.
   After all, LFS is about personal preference. Being upfront about any
   changes to the established procedure helps us evaluate and determine
   possible causes of your problem.

1.4.2. Configure Script Problems

   If something goes wrong while running the configure script, review the
   config.log file. This file may contain errors encountered during
   configure which were not printed to the screen. Include the relevant
   lines if you need to ask for help.

1.4.3. Compilation Problems

   Both the screen output and the contents of various files are useful in
   determining the cause of compilation problems. The screen output from
   the configure script and the make run can be helpful. It is not
   necessary to include the entire output, but do include enough of the
   relevant information. Below is an example of the type of information
   to include from the screen output from make:
gcc -DALIASPATH=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/share/locale:.\"
-DLOCALEDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/share/locale\"
-DLIBDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/lib\"
-DINCLUDEDIR=\"/mnt/lfs/usr/include\" -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -I. -I.
-g -O2 -c getopt1.c
gcc -g -O2 -static -o make ar.o arscan.o commands.o dir.o
expand.o file.o function.o getopt.o implicit.o job.o main.o
misc.o read.o remake.o rule.o signame.o variable.o vpath.o
default.o remote-stub.o version.o opt1.o
-lutil job.o: In function `load_too_high':
/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1/job.c:1565: undefined reference
to `getloadavg'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
make[2]: *** [make] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/lfs/tmp/make-3.79.1'
make: *** [all-recursive-am] Error 2

   In this case, many people would just include the bottom section:
make [2]: *** [make] Error 1

   This is not enough information to properly diagnose the problem
   because it only notes that something went wrong, not what went wrong.
   The entire section, as in the example above, is what should be saved
   because it includes the command that was executed and the associated
   error message(s).

   An excellent article about asking for help on the Internet is
   available online at
   [180]http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html. Read and follow
   the hints in this document to increase the likelihood of getting the
   help you need.

Part II. Preparing for the Build

Table of Contents

     * 2. Preparing a New Partition
          + [181]Introduction
          + [182]Creating a New Partition
          + [183]Creating a File System on the Partition
          + [184]Mounting the New Partition
     * 3. Packages and Patches
          + [185]Introduction
          + [186]All Packages
          + [187]Needed Patches
     * 4. Final Preparations
          + [188]About $LFS
          + [189]Creating the $LFS/tools Directory
          + [190]Adding the LFS User
          + [191]Setting Up the Environment
          + [192]About SBUs
          + [193]About the Test Suites
     * 5. Constructing a Temporary System
          + [194]Introduction
          + [195]Toolchain Technical Notes
          + [196]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 1
          + [197]GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 1
          + [198]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2
          + [199]Glibc-2.3.4
          + [200]Adjusting the Toolchain
          + [201]Tcl-8.4.9
          + [202]Expect-5.43.0
          + [203]DejaGNU-1.4.4
          + [204]GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 2
          + [205]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 2
          + [206]Gawk-3.1.4
          + [207]Coreutils-5.2.1
          + [208]Bzip2-1.0.3
          + [209]Gzip-1.3.5
          + [210]Diffutils-2.8.1
          + [211]Findutils-4.2.23
          + [212]Make-3.80
          + [213]Grep-2.5.1a
          + [214]Sed-4.1.4
          + [215]Gettext-0.14.3
          + [216]Ncurses-5.4
          + [217]Patch-2.5.4
          + [218]Tar-1.15.1
          + [219]Texinfo-4.8
          + [220]Bash-3.0
          + [221]M4-1.4.3
          + [222]Bison-2.0
          + [223]Flex-2.5.31
          + [224]Util-linux-2.12q
          + [225]Perl-5.8.7
          + [226]Stripping

Chapter 2. Preparing a New Partition

2.1. Introduction

   In this chapter, the partition which will host the LFS system is
   prepared. We will create the partition itself, create a file system on
   it, and mount it.

2.2. Creating a New Partition

   Like most other operating systems, LFS is usually installed on a
   dedicated partition. The recommended approach to building an LFS
   system is to use an available empty partition or, if you have enough
   unpartitioned space, to create one. However, an LFS system (in fact
   even multiple LFS systems) may also be installed on a partition
   already occupied by another operating system and the different systems
   will co-exist peacefully. The document
   [227]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/lfs_next_to
   _existing_systems.txt explains how to implement this, whereas this
   book discusses the method of using a fresh partition for the
   installation.

   A minimal system requires a partition of around 1.3 gigabytes (GB).
   This is enough to store all the source tarballs and compile the
   packages. However, if the LFS system is intended to be the primary
   Linux system, additional software will probably be installed which
   will require additional space (2-3 GB). The LFS system itself will not
   take up this much room. A large portion of this requirement is to
   provide sufficient free temporary storage. Compiling packages can
   require a lot of disk space which will be reclaimed after the package
   is installed.

   Because there is not always enough Random Access Memory (RAM)
   available for compilation processes, it is a good idea to use a small
   disk partition as swap space. This is used by the kernel to store
   seldom-used data and leave more memory available for active processes.
   The swap partition for an LFS system can be the same as the one used
   by the host system, in which case it is not necessary to create
   another one.

   Start a disk partitioning program such as cfdisk or fdisk with a
   command line option naming the hard disk on which the new partition
   will be created--for example /dev/hda for the primary Integrated Drive
   Electronics (IDE) disk. Create a Linux native partition and a swap
   partition, if needed. Please refer to cfdisk(8) or fdisk(8) if you do
   not yet know how to use the programs.

   Remember the designation of the new partition (e.g., hda5). This book
   will refer to this as the LFS partition. Also remember the designation
   of the swap partition. These names will be needed later for the
   /etc/fstab file.

2.3. Creating a File System on the Partition

   Now that a blank partition has been set up, the file system can be
   created. The most widely-used system in the Linux world is the second
   extended file system (ext2), but with newer high-capacity hard disks,
   journaling file systems are becoming increasingly popular. We will
   create an ext2 file system. Build instructions for other file systems
   can be found at
   [228]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/filesystems
   .html.

   To create an ext2 file system on the LFS partition, run the following:
mke2fs -v /dev/[xxx]

   Replace [xxx] with the name of the LFS partition (hda5 in our previous
   example).

Note

   Some host distributions use custom features in their filesystem
   creation tools (e2fsprogs). This can cause problems when booting into
   your new LFS in Chapter 9, as those features will not be supported by
   the LFS-installed e2fsprogs; you will get an error similar to
   "unsupported filesystem features, upgrade your e2fsprogs". To check if
   your host system uses custom enhancements, run the following command:
debugfs -R feature /dev/[xxx]

   If the output contains features other than: dir_index; filetype;
   large_file; resize_inode or sparse_super then your host system may
   have custom enhancements. In that case, to avoid later problems, you
   should compile the stock e2fsprogs package and use the resulting
   binaries to re-create the filesystem on your LFS partition:
cd /tmp
tar -xjvf /path/to/sources/e2fsprogs-1.37.tar.bz2
cd e2fsprogs-1.37
mkdir -v build
cd build
../configure
make #note that we intentionally don't 'make install' here!
./misc/mke2fs -v /dev/[xxx]
cd /tmp
rm -rfv e2fsprogs-1.37

   If a swap partition was created, it will need to be initialized for
   use by issuing the command below. If you are using an existing swap
   partition, there is no need to format it.
mkswap -v /dev/[yyy]

   Replace [yyy] with the name of the swap partition.

2.4. Mounting the New Partition

   Now that a file system has been created, the partition needs to be
   made accessible. In order to do this, the partition needs to be
   mounted at a chosen mount point. For the purposes of this book, it is
   assumed that the file system is mounted under /mnt/lfs, but the
   directory choice is up to you.

   Choose a mount point and assign it to the LFS environment variable by
   running:
export LFS=/mnt/lfs

   Next, create the mount point and mount the LFS file system by running:
mkdir -pv $LFS
mount -v /dev/[xxx] $LFS

   Replace [xxx] with the designation of the LFS partition.

   If using multiple partitions for LFS (e.g., one for / and another for
   /usr), mount them using:
mkdir -pv $LFS
mount -v /dev/[xxx] $LFS
mkdir -v $LFS/usr
mount -v /dev/[yyy] $LFS/usr

   Replace [xxx] and [yyy] with the appropriate partition names.

   Ensure that this new partition is not mounted with permissions that
   are too restrictive (such as the nosuid, nodev, or noatime options).
   Run the mount command without any parameters to see what options are
   set for the mounted LFS partition. If nosuid, nodev, and/or noatime
   are set, the partition will need to be remounted.

   Now that there is an established place to work, it is time to download
   the packages.

Chapter 3. Packages and Patches

3.1. Introduction

   This chapter includes a list of packages that need to be downloaded
   for building a basic Linux system. The listed version numbers
   correspond to versions of the software that are known to work, and
   this book is based on their use. We highly recommend not using newer
   versions because the build commands for one version may not work with
   a newer version. The newest package versions may also have problems
   that require work-arounds. These work-arounds will be developed and
   stabilized in the development version of the book.

   Download locations may not always be accessible. If a download
   location has changed since this book was published, Google
   ([229]http://www.google.com/) provides a useful search engine for most
   packages. If this search is unsuccessful, try one of the alternative
   means of downloading discussed at
   [230]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/packages.html.

   Downloaded packages and patches will need to be stored somewhere that
   is conveniently available throughout the entire build. A working
   directory is also required to unpack the sources and build them.
   $LFS/sources can be used both as the place to store the tarballs and
   patches and as a working directory. By using this directory, the
   required elements will be located on the LFS partition and will be
   available during all stages of the building process.

   To create this directory, execute, as user root, the following command
   before starting the download session:
mkdir -v $LFS/sources

   Make this directory writable and sticky. "Sticky" means that even if
   multiple users have write permission on a directory, only the owner of
   a file can delete the file within a sticky directory. The following
   command will enable the write and sticky modes:
chmod -v a+wt $LFS/sources

3.2. All Packages

   Download or otherwise obtain the following packages:

   Autoconf (2.59) - 908 kilobytes (KB):
          [231]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/

   Automake (1.9.5) - 748 KB:
          [232]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/automake/

   Bash (3.0) - 1,824 KB:
          [233]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/

   Bash Documentation (3.0) - 1,994 KB:
          [234]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bash/

   Binutils (2.15.94.0.2.2) - 11,056 KB:
          [235]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/

   Bison (2.0) - 916 KB:
          [236]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/bison/

   Bzip2 (1.0.3) - 596 KB:
          [237]http://www.bzip.org/

   Coreutils (5.2.1) - 4,184 KB:
          [238]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/coreutils/

   DejaGNU (1.4.4) - 852 KB:
          [239]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/dejagnu/

   Diffutils (2.8.1) - 648 KB:
          [240]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/diffutils/

   E2fsprogs (1.37) - 3,100 KB:
          [241]http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/e2fsprogs/

   Expect (5.43.0) - 416 KB:
          [242]http://expect.nist.gov/src/

   File (4.13) - 324 KB:
          [243]ftp://ftp.gw.com/mirrors/pub/unix/file/

Note

          File (4.13) may no longer be available at the listed location.
          The site administrators of the master download location
          occasionally remove older versions when new ones are released.
          An alternative download location that may have the correct
          version available can also be found at:
          [244]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/download.html#ftp.

   Findutils (4.2.23) - 784 KB:
          [245]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/findutils/

   Flex (2.5.31) - 672 KB:
          [246]http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/lex/

   Gawk (3.1.4) - 1,696 KB:
          [247]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gawk/

   GCC (3.4.3) - 26,816 KB:
          [248]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/

   Gettext (0.14.3) - 4,568 KB:
          [249]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gettext/

   Glibc (2.3.4) - 12,924 KB:
          [250]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/

   Glibc-Linuxthreads (2.3.4) - 236 KB:
          [251]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/glibc/

   Grep (2.5.1a) - 520 KB:
          [252]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/grep/

   Groff (1.19.1) - 2,096 KB:
          [253]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/groff/

   GRUB (0.96) - 768 KB:
          [254]ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/

   Gzip (1.3.5) - 284 KB:
          [255]ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/gzip/

   Hotplug (2004_09_23) - 40 KB:
          [256]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/

   Iana-Etc (1.04) - 176 KB:
          [257]http://www.sethwklein.net/projects/iana-etc/downloads/

   Inetutils (1.4.2) - 752 KB:
          [258]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/inetutils/

   IPRoute2 (2.6.11-050330) - 276 KB:
          [259]http://developer.osdl.org/dev/iproute2/download/

   Kbd (1.12) - 624 KB:
          [260]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kbd/

   Less (382) - 216 KB:
          [261]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/less/

   LFS-Bootscripts (3.2.1) - 32 KB:
          [262]http://downloads.linuxfromscratch.org/

   Libtool (1.5.14) - 1,604 KB:
          [263]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libtool/

   Linux (2.6.11.12) - 35,792 KB:
          [264]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/

   Linux-Libc-Headers (2.6.11.2) - 2,476 KB:
          [265]http://ep09.pld-linux.org/~mmazur/linux-libc-headers/

   M4 (1.4.3) - 304 KB:
          [266]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/m4/

   Make (3.80) - 904 KB:
          [267]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/

   Man (1.5p) - 208 KB:
          [268]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/man/

   Man-pages (2.01) - 1,640 KB:
          [269]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/manpages/

   Mktemp (1.5) - 68 KB:
          [270]ftp://ftp.mktemp.org/pub/mktemp/

   Module-Init-Tools (3.1) - 128 KB:
          [271]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/module-init-t
          ools/

   Module-Init-Tools-Testsuite (3.1) - 34 KB:
          [272]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/module-init-t
          ools/

   Ncurses (5.4) - 1,556 KB:
          [273]ftp://invisible-island.net/ncurses/

   Patch (2.5.4) - 156 KB:
          [274]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/patch/

   Perl (5.8.7) - 9,628 KB:
          [275]http://ftp.funet.fi/pub/CPAN/src/

   Procps (3.2.5) - 224 KB:
          [276]http://procps.sourceforge.net/

   Psmisc (21.6) - 188 KB:
          [277]http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/psmisc/

   Readline (5.0) - 1,456 KB:
          [278]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/readline/

   Sed (4.1.4) - 632 KB:
          [279]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/sed/

   Shadow (4.0.9) - 1,084 KB:
          [280]ftp://ftp.pld.org.pl/software/shadow/

Note

          Shadow (4.0.9) may no longer be available at the listed
          location. The site administrators of the master download
          location occasionally remove older versions when new ones are
          released. An alternative download location that may have the
          correct version available cat also be found at:
          [281]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/download.html#ftp.

   Sysklogd (1.4.1) - 72 KB:
          [282]http://www.infodrom.org/projects/sysklogd/download/

   Sysvinit (2.86) - 88 KB:
          [283]ftp://ftp.cistron.nl/pub/people/miquels/sysvinit/

   Tar (1.15.1) - 1,580 KB:
          [284]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/tar/

   Tcl (8.4.9) - 2,748 KB:
          [285]http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/tcl/

   Texinfo (4.8) - 1,492 KB:
          [286]http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/texinfo/

   Udev (056) - 476 KB:
          [287]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/

   Udev Rules Configuration - 5 KB:
          [288]http://downloads.linuxfromscratch.org/udev-config-4.rules

   Util-linux (2.12q) - 1,344 KB:
          [289]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/

   Vim (6.3) - 3,620 KB:
          [290]ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/vim/unix/

   Vim (6.3) language files (optional) - 540 KB:
          [291]ftp://ftp.vim.org/pub/vim/extra/

   Zlib (1.2.3) - 415 KB:
          [292]http://www.zlib.net/

   Total size of these packages: 146 MB

3.3. Needed Patches

   In addition to the packages, several patches are also required. These
   patches correct any mistakes in the packages that should be fixed by
   the maintainer. The patches also make small modifications to make the
   packages easier to work with. The following patches will be needed to
   build an LFS system:

   Bash Avoid Wcontinued Patch - 1 KB:
          [293]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/bash-3.0
          -avoid_WCONTINUED-1.patch

   Bash Various Fixes - 23 KB:
          [294]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/bash-3.0
          -fixes-3.patch

   Binutils Build From Host Running Gcc4 Patch - 2 KB:
          [295]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/binutils
          -2.15.94.0.2.2-gcc4-1.patch

   Bzip2 Documentation Patch - 1 KB:
          [296]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/bzip2-1.
          0.3-install_docs-1.patch

   Bzip2 Bzgrep Security Fixes Patch - 1 KB:
          [297]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/bzip2-1.
          0.3-bzgrep_security-1.patch

   Coreutils Suppress Uptime, Kill, Su Patch - 15 KB:
          [298]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/coreutil
          s-5.2.1-suppress_uptime_kill_su-1.patch

   Coreutils Uname Patch - 4 KB:
          [299]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/coreutil
          s-5.2.1-uname-2.patch

   Expect Spawn Patch - 7 KB:
          [300]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/expect-5
          .43.0-spawn-1.patch

   Flex Brokenness Patch - 156 KB:
          [301]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/flex-2.5
          .31-debian_fixes-3.patch

   GCC Linkonce Patch - 12 KB:
          [302]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/gcc-3.4.
          3-linkonce-1.patch

   GCC No-Fixincludes Patch - 1 KB:
          [303]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/gcc-3.4.
          3-no_fixincludes-1.patch

   GCC Specs Patch - 14 KB:
          [304]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/gcc-3.4.
          3-specs-2.patch

   Glibc Rtld Search Dirs Patch - 1 KB:
          [305]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/glibc-2.
          3.4-rtld_search_dirs-1.patch

   Glibc Fix Testsuite Patch - 1 KB:
          [306]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/glibc-2.
          3.4-fix_test-1.patch

   Glibc TLS Assertion Patch - 6 KB:
          [307]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/glibc-2.
          3.4-tls_assert-1.patch

   Gzip Security Patch - 2 KB:
          [308]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/gzip-1.3
          .5-security_fixes-1.patch

   Inetutils Kernel Headers Patch - 1 KB:
          [309]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/inetutil
          s-1.4.2-kernel_headers-1.patch

   Inetutils No-Server-Man-Pages Patch - 4 KB:
          [310]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/inetutil
          s-1.4.2-no_server_man_pages-1.patch

   Mktemp Tempfile Patch - 3 KB:
          [311]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/mktemp-1
          .5-add_tempfile-2.patch

   Perl Libc Patch - 1 KB:
          [312]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/perl-5.8
          .7-libc-1.patch

   Readline Fixes Patch - 7 KB:
          [313]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/readline
          -5.0-fixes-1.patch

   Sysklogd Fixes Patch - 27 KB:
          [314]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/sysklogd
          -1.4.1-fixes-1.patch

   Tar Sparse Fix Patch - 1 KB:
          [315]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/tar-1.15
          .1-sparse_fix-1.patch

   Texinfo Tempfile Fix Patch - 2 KB:
          [316]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/texinfo-
          4.8-tempfile_fix-1.patch

   Util-linux Cramfs Patch - 3 KB:
          [317]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/util-lin
          ux-2.12q-cramfs-1.patch

   Util-linux Umount Patch - 1 KB:
          [318]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/util-lin
          ux-2.12q-umount_fix-1.patch

   Vim Security Patch - 8 KB:
          [319]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/lfs/6.1.1/vim-6.3-
          security_fix-2.patch

   In addition to the above required patches, there exist a number of
   optional patches created by the LFS community. These optional patches
   solve minor problems or enable functionality that is not enabled by
   default. Feel free to peruse the patches database located at
   [320]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/ and acquire any
   additional patches to suit the system needs.

Chapter 4. Final Preparations

4.1. About $LFS

   Throughout this book, the environment variable LFS will be used
   several times. It is paramount that this variable is always defined.
   It should be set to the mount point chosen for the LFS partition.
   Check that the LFS variable is set up properly with:
echo $LFS

   Make sure the output shows the path to the LFS partition's mount
   point, which is /mnt/lfs if the provided example was followed. If the
   output is incorrect, the variable can be set with:
export LFS=/mnt/lfs

   Having this variable set is beneficial in that commands such as mkdir
   $LFS/tools can be typed literally. The shell will automatically
   replace "$LFS" with "/mnt/lfs" (or whatever the variable was set to)
   when it processes the command line.

   Do not forget to check that $LFS is set whenever you leave and reenter
   the current working environment (as when doing a "su" to root or
   another user).

4.2. Creating the $LFS/tools Directory

   All programs compiled in [321]Chapter 5 will be installed under
   $LFS/tools to keep them separate from the programs compiled in
   [322]Chapter 6. The programs compiled here are temporary tools and
   will not be a part of the final LFS system. By keeping these programs
   in a separate directory, they can easily be discarded later after
   their use. This also prevents these programs from ending up in the
   host production directories (easy to do by accident in [323]Chapter
   5).

   Create the required directory by running the following as root:
mkdir -v $LFS/tools

   The next step is to create a /tools symlink on the host system. This
   will point to the newly-created directory on the LFS partition. Run
   this command as root as well:
ln -sv $LFS/tools /

Note

   The above command is correct. The ln command has a few syntactic
   variations, so be sure to check info coreutils ln and ln(1) before
   reporting what you may think is an error.

   The created symlink enables the toolchain to be compiled so that it
   always refers to /tools, meaning that the compiler, assembler, and
   linker will work both in this chapter (when we are still using some
   tools from the host) and in the next (when we are "chrooted" to the
   LFS partition).

4.3. Adding the LFS User

   When logged in as user root, making a single mistake can damage or
   destroy a system. Therefore, we recommend building the packages in
   this chapter as an unprivileged user. You could use your own user
   name, but to make it easier to set up a clean working environment,
   create a new user called lfs as a member of a new group (also named
   lfs) and use this user during the installation process. As root, issue
   the following commands to add the new user:
groupadd lfs
useradd -s /bin/bash -g lfs -m -k /dev/null lfs

   The meaning of the command line options:

   -s /bin/bash
          This makes bash the default shell for user lfs.

   -g lfs
          This option adds user lfs to group lfs.

   -m
          This creates a home directory for lfs.

   -k /dev/null
          This parameter prevents possible copying of files from a
          skeleton directory (default is /etc/skel) by changing the input
          location to the special null device.

   lfs
          This is the actual name for the created group and user.

   To log in as lfs (as opposed to switching to user lfs when logged in
   as root, which does not require the lfs user to have a password), give
   lfs a password:
passwd lfs

   Grant lfs full access to $LFS/tools by making lfs the directory owner:
chown -v lfs $LFS/tools

   If a separate working directory was created as suggested, give user
   lfs ownership of this directory:
chown -v lfs $LFS/sources

   Next, login as user lfs. This can be done via a virtual console,
   through a display manager, or with the following substitute user
   command:
su - lfs

   The "-" instructs su to start a login shell as opposed to a non-login
   shell. The difference between these two types of shells can be found
   in detail in bash(1) and info bash.

4.4. Setting Up the Environment

   Set up a good working environment by creating two new startup files
   for the bash shell. While logged in as user lfs, issue the following
   command to create a new .bash_profile:
cat > ~/.bash_profile << "EOF"
exec env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM PS1='\u:\w\$ ' /bin/bash
EOF

   When logged on as user lfs, the initial shell is usually a login shell
   which reads the /etc/profile of the host (probably containing some
   settings and environment variables) and then .bash_profile. The exec
   env -i.../bin/bash command in the .bash_profile file replaces the
   running shell with a new one with a completely empty environment,
   except for the HOME, TERM, and PS1 variables. This ensures that no
   unwanted and potentially hazardous environment variables from the host
   system leak into the build environment. The technique used here
   achieves the goal of ensuring a clean environment.

   The new instance of the shell is a non-login shell, which does not
   read the /etc/profile or .bash_profile files, but rather reads the
   .bashrc file instead. Create the .bashrc file now:
cat > ~/.bashrc << "EOF"
set +h
umask 022
LFS=/mnt/lfs
LC_ALL=POSIX
PATH=/tools/bin:/bin:/usr/bin
export LFS LC_ALL PATH
EOF

   The set +h command turns off bash's hash function. Hashing is
   ordinarily a useful feature--bash uses a hash table to remember the
   full path of executable files to avoid searching the PATH time and
   again to find the same executable. However, the new tools should be
   used as soon as they are installed. By switching off the hash
   function, the shell will always search the PATH when a program is to
   be run. As such, the shell will find the newly compiled tools in
   $LFS/tools as soon as they are available without remembering a
   previous version of the same program in a different location.

   Setting the user file-creation mask (umask) to 022 ensures that newly
   created files and directories are only writable by their owner, but
   are readable and executable by anyone (assuming default modes are used
   by the open(2) system call, new files will end up with permission mode
   644 and directories with mode 755).

   The LFS variable should be set to the chosen mount point.

   The LC_ALL variable controls the localization of certain programs,
   making their messages follow the conventions of a specified country.
   If the host system uses a version of Glibc older than 2.2.4, having
   LC_ALL set to something other than "POSIX" or "C" (during this
   chapter) may cause issues if you exit the chroot environment and wish
   to return later. Setting LC_ALL to "POSIX" or "C" (the two are
   equivalent) ensures that everything will work as expected in the
   chroot environment.

   By putting /tools/bin ahead of the standard PATH, all the programs
   installed in [324]Chapter 5 are picked up by the shell immediately
   after their installation. This, combined with turning off hashing,
   limits the risk that old programs are used from the host when the same
   programs are available in the chapter 5 environment.

   Finally, to have the environment fully prepared for building the
   temporary tools, source the just-created user profile:
source ~/.bash_profile

4.5. About SBUs

   Many people would like to know beforehand approximately how long it
   takes to compile and install each package. Because Linux From Scratch
   can be built on many different systems, it is impossible to provide
   accurate time estimates. The biggest package (Glibc) will take
   approximately 20 minutes on the fastest systems, but could take up to
   three days on slower systems! Instead of providing actual times, the
   Standard Build Unit (SBU) measure will be used instead.

   The SBU measure works as follows. The first package to be compiled
   from this book is Binutils in [325]Chapter 5. The time it takes to
   compile this package is what will be referred to as the Standard Build
   Unit or SBU. All other compile times will be expressed relative to
   this time.

   For example, consider a package whose compilation time is 4.5 SBUs.
   This means that if a system took 10 minutes to compile and install the
   first pass of Binutils, it will take approximately 45 minutes to build
   this example package. Fortunately, most build times are shorter than
   the one for Binutils.

   In general, SBUs are not entirely accurate because they depend on many
   factors, including the host system's version of GCC. Note that on
   Symmetric Multi-Processor (SMP)-based machines, SBUs are even less
   accurate. They are provided here to give an estimate of how long it
   might take to install a package, but the numbers can vary by as much
   as dozens of minutes in some cases.

   To view actual timings for a number of specific machines, we recommend
   The LinuxFromScratch SBU Home Page at
   [326]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/~bdubbs/.

4.6. About the Test Suites

   Most packages provide a test suite. Running the test suite for a newly
   built package is a good idea because it can provide a "sanity check"
   indicating that everything compiled correctly. A test suite that
   passes its set of checks usually proves that the package is
   functioning as the developer intended. It does not, however, guarantee
   that the package is totally bug free.

   Some test suites are more important than others. For example, the test
   suites for the core toolchain packages--GCC, Binutils, and Glibc--are
   of the utmost importance due to their central role in a properly
   functioning system. The test suites for GCC and Glibc can take a very
   long time to complete, especially on slower hardware, but are strongly
   recommended.

Note

   Experience has shown that there is little to be gained from running
   the test suites in [327]Chapter 5. There can be no escaping the fact
   that the host system always exerts some influence on the tests in that
   chapter, often causing inexplicable failures. Because the tools built
   in [328]Chapter 5 are temporary and eventually discarded, we do not
   recommend running the test suites in [329]Chapter 5 for the average
   reader. The instructions for running those test suites are provided
   for the benefit of testers and developers, but they are strictly
   optional.

   A common issue with running the test suites for Binutils and GCC is
   running out of pseudo terminals (PTYs). This can result in a high
   number of failing tests. This may happen for several reasons, but the
   most likely cause is that the host system does not have the devpts
   file system set up correctly. This issue is discussed in greater
   detail in [330]Chapter 5.

   Sometimes package test suites will fail, but for reasons which the
   developers are aware of and have deemed non-critical. Consult the logs
   located at [331]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/build-logs/6.1.1/
   to verify whether or not these failures are expected. This site is
   valid for all tests throughout this book.

Chapter 5. Constructing a Temporary System

5.1. Introduction

   This chapter shows how to compile and install a minimal Linux system.
   This system will contain just enough tools to start constructing the
   final LFS system in [332]Chapter 6 and allow a working environment
   with more user convenience than a minimum environment would.

   There are two steps in building this minimal system. The first step is
   to build a new and host-independent toolchain (compiler, assembler,
   linker, libraries, and a few useful utilities). The second step uses
   this toolchain to build the other essential tools.

   The files compiled in this chapter will be installed under the
   $LFS/tools directory to keep them separate from the files installed in
   the next chapter and the host production directories. Since the
   packages compiled here are temporary, we do not want them to pollute
   the soon-to-be LFS system.

Important

   Before issuing the build instructions for a package, the package
   should be unpacked as user lfs, and a cd into the created directory
   should be performed. The build instructions assume that the bash shell
   is in use.

   Several of the packages are patched before compilation, but only when
   the patch is needed to circumvent a problem. A patch is often needed
   in both this and the next chapter, but sometimes in only one or the
   other. Therefore, do not be concerned if instructions for a downloaded
   patch seem to be missing. Warning messages about offset or fuzz may
   also be encountered when applying a patch. Do not worry about these
   warnings, as the patch was still successfully applied.

   During the compilation of most packages, there will be several
   warnings that scroll by on the screen. These are normal and can safely
   be ignored. These warnings are as they appear--warnings about
   deprecated, but not invalid, use of the C or C++ syntax. C standards
   change fairly often, and some packages still use the older standard.
   This is not a problem, but does prompt the warning.

Important

   After installing each package, delete its source and build
   directories, unless specifically instructed otherwise. Deleting the
   sources prevents mis-configuration when the same package is
   reinstalled later. Only three of the packages need to retain the
   source and build directories in order for their contents to be used by
   later commands. Pay special attention to these reminders.

   Check one last time that the LFS environment variable is set up
   properly:
echo $LFS

   Make sure the output shows the path to the LFS partition's mount
   point, which is /mnt/lfs, using our example.

5.2. Toolchain Technical Notes

   This section explains some of the rationale and technical details
   behind the overall build method. It is not essential to immediately
   understand everything in this section. Most of this information will
   be clearer after performing an actual build. This section can be
   referred back to at any time during the process.

   The overall goal of [333]Chapter 5 is to provide a temporary
   environment that can be chrooted into and from which can be produced a
   clean, trouble-free build of the target LFS system in [334]Chapter 6.
   Along the way, we separate the new system from the host system as much
   as possible, and in doing so, build a self-contained and self-hosted
   toolchain. It should be noted that the build process has been designed
   to minimize the risks for new readers and provide maximum educational
   value at the same time.

Important

   Before continuing, be aware of the name of the working platform, often
   referred to as the target triplet. Many times, the target triplet will
   probably be i686-pc-linux-gnu. A simple way to determine the name of
   the target triplet is to run the config.guess script that comes with
   the source for many packages. Unpack the Binutils sources and run the
   script: ./config.guess and note the output.

   Also be aware of the name of the platform's dynamic linker, often
   referred to as the dynamic loader (not to be confused with the
   standard linker ld that is part of Binutils). The dynamic linker
   provided by Glibc finds and loads the shared libraries needed by a
   program, prepares the program to run, and then runs it. The name of
   the dynamic linker will usually be ld-linux.so.2. On platforms that
   are less prevalent, the name might be ld.so.1, and newer 64 bit
   platforms might be named something else entirely. The name of the
   platform's dynamic linker can be determined by looking in the /lib
   directory on the host system. A sure-fire way to determine the name is
   to inspect a random binary from the host system by running: readelf -l
   <name of binary> | grep interpreter and noting the output. The
   authoritative reference covering all platforms is in the
   shlib-versions file in the root of the Glibc source tree.

   Some key technical points of how the [335]Chapter 5 build method
   works:
     * The process is similar in principle to cross-compiling, whereby
       tools installed in the same prefix work in cooperation, and thus
       utilize a little GNU "magic"
     * Careful manipulation of the standard linker's library search path
       ensures programs are linked only against chosen libraries
     * Careful manipulation of gcc's specs file tells the compiler which
       target dynamic linker will be used

   Binutils is installed first because the configure runs of both GCC and
   Glibc perform various feature tests on the assembler and linker to
   determine which software features to enable or disable. This is more
   important than one might first realize. An incorrectly configured GCC
   or Glibc can result in a subtly broken toolchain, where the impact of
   such breakage might not show up until near the end of the build of an
   entire distribution. A test suite failure will usually highlight this
   error before too much additional work is performed.

   Binutils installs its assembler and linker in two locations,
   /tools/bin and /tools/$TARGET_TRIPLET/bin. The tools in one location
   are hard linked to the other. An important facet of the linker is its
   library search order. Detailed information can be obtained from ld by
   passing it the --verbose flag. For example, an ld --verbose | grep
   SEARCH will illustrate the current search paths and their order. It
   shows which files are linked by ld by compiling a dummy program and
   passing the --verbose switch to the linker. For example, gcc dummy.c
   -Wl,--verbose 2>&1 | grep succeeded will show all the files
   successfully opened during the linking.

   The next package installed is GCC. An example of what can be seen
   during its run of configure is:
checking what assembler to use...
        /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/as
checking what linker to use... /tools/i686-pc-linux-gnu/bin/ld

   This is important for the reasons mentioned above. It also
   demonstrates that GCC's configure script does not search the PATH
   directories to find which tools to use. However, during the actual
   operation of gcc itself, the same search paths are not necessarily
   used. To find out which standard linker gcc will use, run: gcc
   -print-prog-name=ld.

   Detailed information can be obtained from gcc by passing it the -v
   command line option while compiling a dummy program. For example, gcc
   -v dummy.c will show detailed information about the preprocessor,
   compilation, and assembly stages, including gcc's included search
   paths and their order.

   The next package installed is Glibc. The most important considerations
   for building Glibc are the compiler, binary tools, and kernel headers.
   The compiler is generally not an issue since Glibc will always use the
   gcc found in a PATH directory. The binary tools and kernel headers can
   be a bit more complicated. Therefore, take no risks and use the
   available configure switches to enforce the correct selections. After
   the run of configure, check the contents of the config.make file in
   the glibc-build directory for all important details. Note the use of
   CC="gcc -B/tools/bin/" to control which binary tools are used and the
   use of the -nostdinc and -isystem flags to control the compiler's
   include search path. These items highlight an important aspect of the
   Glibc package--it is very self-sufficient in terms of its build
   machinery and generally does not rely on toolchain defaults.

   After the Glibc installation, make some adjustments to ensure that
   searching and linking take place only within the /tools prefix.
   Install an adjusted ld, which has a hard-wired search path limited to
   /tools/lib. Then amend gcc's specs file to point to the new dynamic
   linker in /tools/lib. This last step is vital to the whole process. As
   mentioned above, a hard-wired path to a dynamic linker is embedded
   into every Executable and Link Format (ELF)-shared executable. This
   can be inspected by running: readelf -l <name of binary> | grep
   interpreter. Amending gcc's specs file ensures that every program
   compiled from here through the end of this chapter will use the new
   dynamic linker in /tools/lib.

   The need to use the new dynamic linker is also the reason why the
   Specs patch is applied for the second pass of GCC. Failure to do so
   will result in the GCC programs themselves having the name of the
   dynamic linker from the host system's /lib directory embedded into
   them, which would defeat the goal of getting away from the host.

   During the second pass of Binutils, we are able to utilize the
   --with-lib-path configure switch to control ld's library search path.
   From this point onwards, the core toolchain is self-contained and
   self-hosted. The remainder of the [336]Chapter 5 packages all build
   against the new Glibc in /tools.

   Upon entering the chroot environment in [337]Chapter 6, the first
   major package to be installed is Glibc, due to its self-sufficient
   nature mentioned above. Once this Glibc is installed into /usr,
   perform a quick changeover of the toolchain defaults, then proceed in
   building the rest of the target LFS system.

5.3. Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 1

   The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools
   for handling object files.
   Approximate build time: 1.0 SBU
   Required disk space: 179 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Flex, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

5.3.1. Installation of Binutils

   It is important that Binutils be the first package compiled because
   both Glibc and GCC perform various tests on the available linker and
   assembler to determine which of their own features to enable.

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building
   Binutils.

   If you are building from a host running Gcc-4 or later, it is
   necessary to patch the first build of this version of Binutils so that
   it can be compiled by the host system.
patch -Np1 -i ../binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2-gcc4-1.patch

   The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the
   source directory in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v ../binutils-build
cd ../binutils-build

Note

   In order for the SBU values listed in the rest of the book to be of
   any use, measure the time it takes to build this package from the
   configuration, up to and including the first install. To achieve this
   easily, wrap the three commands in a time command like this: time {
   ./configure ... && make && make install; }.

   Now prepare Binutils for compilation:
../binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2/configure --prefix=/tools --disable-nls

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --prefix=/tools
          This tells the configure script to prepare to install the
          Binutils programs in the /tools directory.

   --disable-nls
          This disables internationalization as i18n is not needed for
          the temporary tools.

   Continue with compiling the package:
make

   Compilation is now complete. Ordinarily we would now run the test
   suite, but at this early stage the test suite framework (Tcl, Expect,
   and DejaGNU) is not yet in place. The benefits of running the tests at
   this point are minimal since the programs from this first pass will
   soon be replaced by those from the second.

   Install the package:
make install

   Next, prepare the linker for the "Adjusting" phase later on:
make -C ld clean
make -C ld LIB_PATH=/tools/lib

   The meaning of the make parameters:

   -C ld clean
          This tells the make program to remove all compiled files in the
          ld subdirectory.

   -C ld LIB_PATH=/tools/lib
          This option rebuilds everything in the ld subdirectory.
          Specifying the LIB_PATH Makefile variable on the command line
          allows us to override the default value and point it to the
          temporary tools location. The value of this variable specifies
          the linker's default library search path. This preparation is
          used later in the chapter.

Warning

   Do not remove the Binutils build and source directories yet. These
   will be needed again in their current state later in this chapter.

   Details on this package are located in [338]Section 6.13.2, "Contents
   of Binutils."

5.4. GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 1

   The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes
   the C and C++ compilers.
   Approximate build time: 4.4 SBU
   Required disk space: 219 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Findutils, Gawk, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

5.4.1. Installation of GCC

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GCC.

   The GCC documentation recommends building GCC outside of the source
   directory in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v ../gcc-build
cd ../gcc-build

   Prepare GCC for compilation:
../gcc-3.4.3/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --libexecdir=/tools/lib --with-local-prefix=/tools \
    --disable-nls --enable-shared --enable-languages=c

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --with-local-prefix=/tools
          The purpose of this switch is to remove /usr/local/include from
          gcc's include search path. This is not absolutely essential,
          however, it helps to minimize the influence of the host system.

   --enable-shared
          This switch allows the building of libgcc_s.so.1 and
          libgcc_eh.a. Having libgcc_eh.a available ensures that the
          configure script for Glibc (the next package we compile)
          produces the proper results.

   --enable-languages=c
          This option ensures that only the C compiler is built.

   Continue with compiling the package:
make bootstrap

   The meaning of the make parameters:

   bootstrap
          This target does not just compile GCC, but compiles it several
          times. It uses the programs compiled in a first round to
          compile itself a second time, and then again a third time. It
          then compares these second and third compiles to make sure it
          can reproduce itself flawlessly. This also implies that it was
          compiled correctly.

   Compilation is now complete. At this point, the test suite would
   normally be run, but, as mentioned before, the test suite framework is
   not in place yet. The benefits of running the tests at this point are
   minimal since the programs from this first pass will soon be replaced.

   Install the package:
make install

   As a finishing touch, create a symlink. Many programs and scripts run
   cc instead of gcc, which is used to keep programs generic and
   therefore usable on all kinds of UNIX systems where the GNU C compiler
   is not always installed. Running cc leaves the system administrator
   free to decide which C compiler to install.
ln -vs gcc /tools/bin/cc

   Details on this package are located in [339]Section 6.14.2, "Contents
   of GCC."

5.5. Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2

   The Linux-Libc-Headers package contains the "sanitized" kernel
   headers.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 26.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Coreutils

5.5.1. Installation of Linux-Libc-Headers

   For years it has been common practice to use "raw" kernel headers
   (straight from a kernel tarball) in /usr/include, but over the last
   few years, the kernel developers have taken a strong stance that this
   should not be done. This gave birth to the Linux-Libc-Headers Project,
   which was designed to maintain an Application Programming Interface
   (API) stable version of the Linux headers.

   Install the header files:
cp -Rv include/asm-i386 /tools/include/asm
cp -Rv include/linux /tools/include

   If your architecture is not i386 (compatible), adjust the first
   command accordingly.

   Details on this package are located in [340]Section 6.9.2, "Contents
   of Linux-Libc-Headers."

5.6. Glibc-2.3.4

   The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
   the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories,
   opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling,
   pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.
   Approximate build time: 11.8 SBU
   Required disk space: 454 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Gettext, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

5.6.1. Installation of Glibc

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Glibc.

   It should be noted that compiling Glibc in any way other than the
   method suggested in this book puts the stability of the system at
   risk.

   Glibc has two tests which fail when the running kernel is 2.6.11 or
   later. The problem has been determined to be with the tests
   themselves, not with the C library or the kernel. If you plan to run
   the testsuite apply this patch:
patch -Np1 -i ../glibc-2.3.4-fix_test-1.patch

   The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc outside of the
   source directory in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v ../glibc-build
cd ../glibc-build

   Next, prepare Glibc for compilation:
../glibc-2.3.4/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --disable-profile --enable-add-ons \
    --enable-kernel=2.6.0 --with-binutils=/tools/bin \
    --without-gd --with-headers=/tools/include \
    --without-selinux

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --disable-profile
          This builds the libraries without profiling information. Omit
          this option if profiling on the temporary tools is necessary.

   --enable-add-ons
          This tells Glibc to use the NPTL add-on as its threading
          library.

   --enable-kernel=2.6.0
          This tells Glibc to compile the library with support for 2.6.x
          Linux kernels.

   --with-binutils=/tools/bin
          While not required, this switch ensures that there are no
          errors pertaining to which Binutils programs get used during
          the Glibc build.

   --without-gd
          This prevents the build of the memusagestat program, which
          insists on linking against the host's libraries (libgd, libpng,
          libz, etc.).

   --with-headers=/tools/include
          This tells Glibc to compile itself against the headers recently
          installed to the tools directory, so that it knows exactly what
          features the kernel has and can optimize itself accordingly.

   --without-selinux
          When building from hosts that include SELinux functionality
          (e.g. Fedora Core 3), Glibc will build with support for
          SELinux. As the LFS tools environment does not contain support
          for SELinux, a Glibc compiled with such support will fail to
          operate correctly.

   During this stage the following warning might appear:

configure: WARNING:
*** These auxiliary programs are missing or
*** incompatible versions: msgfmt
*** some features will be disabled.
*** Check the INSTALL file for required versions.

   The missing or incompatible msgfmt program is generally harmless, but
   it can sometimes cause issues when running the test suite. This msgfmt
   program is part of the Gettext package which the host distribution
   should provide. If msgfmt is present but deemed incompatible, upgrade
   the host system's Gettext package or continue without it and see if
   the test suite runs without problems regardless.

   Compile the package:
make

   Compilation is now complete. As mentioned earlier, running the test
   suites for the temporary tools installed in this chapter is not
   mandatory. To run the Glibc test suite (if desired), the following
   command will do so:
make check

   For a discussion of test failures that are of particular importance,
   please see [341]Section 6.11, "Glibc-2.3.4."

   In this chapter, some tests can be adversely affected by existing
   tools or environmental issues on the host system. Glibc test suite
   failures in this chapter are typically not worrisome. The Glibc
   installed in [342]Chapter 6 is the one that will ultimately end up
   being used, so that is the one that needs to pass most tests (even in
   [343]Chapter 6, some failures could still occur, for example, with the
   math tests).

   When experiencing a failure, make a note of it, then continue by
   reissuing the make check command. The test suite should pick up where
   it left off and continue. This stop-start sequence can be circumvented
   by issuing a make -k check command. If using this option, be sure to
   log the output so that the log file can be examined for failures
   later.

   The install stage of Glibc will issue a harmless warning at the end
   about the absence of /tools/etc/ld.so.conf. Prevent this warning with:
mkdir -v /tools/etc
touch /tools/etc/ld.so.conf

   Install the package:
make install

   Different countries and cultures have varying conventions for how to
   communicate. These conventions range from the format for representing
   dates and times to more complex issues, such as the language spoken.
   The "internationalization" of GNU programs works by locale.

Note

   If the test suites are not being run in this chapter (as per the
   recommendation), there is no need to install the locales now. The
   appropriate locales will be installed in the next chapter.

   To install the Glibc locales anyway, use the following command:
make localedata/install-locales

   To save time, an alternative to running the previous command (which
   generates and installs every locale Glibc is aware of) is to install
   only those locales that are wanted and needed. This can be achieved by
   using the localedef command. Information on this command is located in
   the INSTALL file in the Glibc source. However, there are a number of
   locales that are essential in order for the tests of future packages
   to pass, in particular, the libstdc++ tests from GCC. The following
   instructions, instead of the install-locales target used above, will
   install the minimum set of locales necessary for the tests to run
   successfully:
mkdir -pv /tools/lib/locale
localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP

   Details on this package are located in [344]Section 6.11.4, "Contents
   of Glibc."

5.7. Adjusting the Toolchain

   Now that the temporary C libraries have been installed, all tools
   compiled in the rest of this chapter should be linked against these
   libraries. In order to accomplish this, the linker and the compiler's
   specs file need to be adjusted.

   The linker, adjusted at the end of the first pass of Binutils, is
   installed by running the following command from within the
   binutils-build directory:
make -C ld install

   From this point onwards, everything will link only against the
   libraries in /tools/lib.

Note

   If the earlier warning to retain the Binutils source and build
   directories from the first pass was missed, ignore the above command.
   This results in a small chance that the subsequent testing programs
   will link against libraries on the host. This is not ideal, but it is
   not a major problem. The situation is corrected when the second pass
   of Binutils is installed later.

   Now that the adjusted linker is installed, the Binutils build and
   source directories should be removed.

   The next task is to amend the GCC specs file so that it points to the
   new dynamic linker. A simple sed script will accomplish this:
SPECFILE=`gcc --print-file specs` &&
sed 's@ /lib/ld-linux.so.2@ /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2@g' \
    $SPECFILE > tempspecfile &&
mv -f tempspecfile $SPECFILE &&
unset SPECFILE

   It is recommended that the above command be copy-and-pasted in order
   to ensure accuracy. Alternatively, the specs file can be edited by
   hand. This is done by replacing every occurrence of
   "/lib/ld-linux.so.2" with "/tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2"

   Be sure to visually inspect the specs file in order to verify the
   intended changes have been made.

Important

   If working on a platform where the name of the dynamic linker is
   something other than ld-linux.so.2, replace "ld-linux.so.2" with the
   name of the platform's dynamic linker in the above commands. Refer
   back to [345]Section 5.2, "Toolchain Technical Notes," if necessary.

   There is a possibility that some include files from the host system
   have found their way into GCC's private include dir. This can happen
   as a result of GCC's "fixincludes" process, which runs as part of the
   GCC build. This is explained in more detail later in this chapter. Run
   the following command to eliminate this possibility:
rm -vf /tools/lib/gcc/*/*/include/{pthread.h,bits/sigthread.h}

Caution

   At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic
   functions (compiling and linking) of the new toolchain are working as
   expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:
echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /tools'

   If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the
   output of the last command will be of the form:
[Requesting program interpreter:
    /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2]

   Note that /tools/lib appears as the prefix of the dynamic linker.

   If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all,
   then something is wrong. Investigate and retrace the steps to find out
   where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved
   before continuing on. First, perform the sanity check again, using gcc
   instead of cc. If this works, then the /tools/bin/cc symlink is
   missing. Revisit [346]Section 5.4, "GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 1," and install
   the symlink. Next, ensure that the PATH is correct. This can be
   checked by running echo $PATH and verifying that /tools/bin is at the
   head of the list. If the PATH is wrong it could mean that you are not
   logged in as user lfs or that something went wrong back in
   [347]Section 4.4, "Setting Up the Environment." Another option is that
   something may have gone wrong with the specs file amendment above. In
   this case, redo the specs file amendment, being careful to
   copy-and-paste the commands.

   Once all is well, clean up the test files:
rm -v dummy.c a.out

   Building TCL in the next section will serve as an additional check
   that the toolchain has been built properly. If TCL fails to build, it
   is an indication that something has gone wrong with the Binutils, GCC,
   or Glibc installation, but not with TCL itself.

5.8. Tcl-8.4.9

   The Tcl package contains the Tool Command Language.
   Approximate build time: 0.9 SBU
   Required disk space: 23.3 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.8.1. Installation of Tcl

   This package and the next two (Expect and DejaGNU) are installed to
   support running the test suites for GCC and Binutils. Installing three
   packages for testing purposes may seem excessive, but it is very
   reassuring, if not essential, to know that the most important tools
   are working properly. Even if the test suites are not run in this
   chapter (they are not mandatory), these packages are required to run
   the test suites in [348]Chapter 6.

   Prepare Tcl for compilation:
cd unix
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Build the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: TZ=UTC make test. The Tcl test suite is
   known to experience failures under certain host conditions that are
   not fully understood. Therefore, test suite failures here are not
   surprising, and are not considered critical. The TZ=UTC parameter sets
   the time zone to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), also known as
   Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), but only for the duration of the test suite
   run. This ensures that the clock tests are exercised correctly.
   Details on the TZ environment variable are provided in [349]Chapter 7.

   Install the package:
make install

Warning

   Do not remove the tcl8.4.9 source directory yet, as the next package
   will need its internal headers.

   Set a variable containing the full path of the current directory. The
   next package, Expect, will use this variable to find Tcl's headers.
cd ..
export TCLPATH=`pwd`

   Now make a necessary symbolic link:
ln -sv tclsh8.4 /tools/bin/tclsh

5.8.2. Contents of Tcl

   Installed programs: tclsh (link to tclsh8.4) and tclsh8.4
   Installed library: libtcl8.4.so

Short Descriptions

   tclsh8.4    

   The Tcl command shell
   tclsh       

   A link to tclsh8.4
   libtcl8.4.so

   The Tcl library

5.9. Expect-5.43.0

   The Expect package contains a program for carrying out scripted
   dialogues with other interactive programs.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 4.0 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Tcl

5.9.1. Installation of Expect

   First, fix a bug that can result in false failures during the GCC test
   suite run:
patch -Np1 -i ../expect-5.43.0-spawn-1.patch

   Now prepare Expect for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --with-tcl=/tools/lib \
   --with-tclinclude=$TCLPATH --with-x=no

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --with-tcl=/tools/lib
          This ensures that the configure script finds the Tcl
          installation in the temporary tools location instead of
          possibly locating an existing one on the host system.

   --with-tclinclude=$TCLPATH
          This explicitly tells Expect where to find Tcl's source
          directory and internal headers. Using this option avoids
          conditions where configure fails because it cannot
          automatically discover the location of the Tcl source
          directory.

   --with-x=no
          This tells the configure script not to search for Tk (the Tcl
          GUI component) or the X Window System libraries, both of which
          may reside on the host system but will not exist in the
          temporary environment.

   Build the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make test. Note that the Expect test suite
   is known to experience failures under certain host conditions that are
   not within our control. Therefore, test suite failures here are not
   surprising and are not considered critical.

   Install the package:
make SCRIPTS="" install

   The meaning of the make parameter:

   SCRIPTS=""
          This prevents installation of the supplementary expect scripts,
          which are not needed.

   Now remove the TCLPATH variable:
unset TCLPATH

   The source directories of both Tcl and Expect can now be removed.

5.9.2. Contents of Expect

   Installed program: expect
   Installed library: libexpect-5.43.a

Short Descriptions

   expect          

   Communicates with other interactive programs according to a script
   libexpect-5.43.a

   Contains functions that allow Expect to be used as a Tcl extension or
   to be used directly from C or C++ (without Tcl)

5.10. DejaGNU-1.4.4

   The DejaGNU package contains a framework for testing other programs.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 6.1 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.10.1. Installation of DejaGNU

   Prepare DejaGNU for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Build and install the package:
make install

5.10.2. Contents of DejaGNU

   Installed program: runtest

Short Descriptions

   runtest

   A wrapper script that locates the proper expect shell and then runs
   DejaGNU

5.11. GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 2

   Approximate build time: 11.0 SBU
   Required disk space: 292 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Findutils, Gawk, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

5.11.1. Re-installation of GCC

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GCC.

   The tools required to test GCC and Binutils--Tcl, Expect and
   DejaGNU--are installed now. GCC and Binutils can now be rebuilt,
   linking them against the new Glibc and testing them properly (if
   running the test suites in this chapter). Please note that these test
   suites are highly dependent on properly functioning PTYs which are
   provided by the host. PTYs are most commonly implemented via the
   devpts file system. Check to see if the host system is set up
   correctly in this regard by performing a quick test:
expect -c "spawn ls"

   The response might be:
The system has no more ptys.
Ask your system administrator to create more.

   If the above message is received, the host does not have its PTYs set
   up properly. In this case, there is no point in running the test
   suites for GCC and Binutils until this issue is resolved. Please
   consult the LFS FAQ at
   [350]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org//lfs/faq.html#no-ptys for more
   information on how to get PTYs working.

   First correct a known problem and make an essential adjustment:
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.3-no_fixincludes-1.patch
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.3-specs-2.patch

   The first patch disables the GCC fixincludes script. This was briefly
   mentioned earlier, but a more in-depth explanation of the fixincludes
   process is warranted here. Under normal circumstances, the GCC
   fixincludes script scans the system for header files that need to be
   fixed. It might find that some Glibc header files on the host system
   need to be fixed, and will fix them and put them in the GCC private
   include directory. In [351]Chapter 6, after the newer Glibc has been
   installed, this private include directory will be searched before the
   system include directory. This may result in GCC finding the fixed
   headers from the host system, which most likely will not match the
   Glibc version used for the LFS system.

   The second patch changes GCC's default location of the dynamic linker
   (typically ld-linux.so.2). It also removes /usr/include from GCC's
   include search path. Patching now rather than adjusting the specs file
   after installation ensures that the new dynamic linker is used during
   the actual build of GCC. That is, all of the final (and temporary)
   binaries created during the build will link against the new Glibc.

Important

   The above patches are critical in ensuring a successful overall build.
   Do not forget to apply them.

   Create a separate build directory again:
mkdir -v ../gcc-build
cd ../gcc-build

   Before starting to build GCC, remember to unset any environment
   variables that override the default optimization flags.

   Now prepare GCC for compilation:
../gcc-3.4.3/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --libexecdir=/tools/lib --with-local-prefix=/tools \
    --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-shared \
    --enable-threads=posix --enable-__cxa_atexit \
    --enable-languages=c,c++ --disable-libstdcxx-pch

   The meaning of the new configure options:

   --enable-clocale=gnu
          This option ensures the correct locale model is selected for
          the C++ libraries under all circumstances. If the configure
          script finds the de_DE locale installed, it will select the
          correct gnu locale model. However, if the de_DE locale is not
          installed, there is the risk of building Application Binary
          Interface (ABI)-incompatible C++ libraries because the
          incorrect generic locale model may be selected.

   --enable-threads=posix
          This enables C++ exception handling for multi-threaded code.

   --enable-__cxa_atexit
          This option allows use of __cxa_atexit, rather than atexit, to
          register C++ destructors for local statics and global objects.
          This option is essential for fully standards-compliant handling
          of destructors. It also affects the C++ ABI, and therefore
          results in C++ shared libraries and C++ programs that are
          interoperable with other Linux distributions.

   --enable-languages=c,c++
          This option ensures that both the C and C++ compilers are
          built.

   --disable-libstdcxx-pch
          Do not build the pre-compiled header (PCH) for libstdc++. It
          takes up a lot of space, and we have no use for it.

   Compile the package:
make

   There is no need to use the bootstrap target now because the compiler
   being used to compile this GCC was built from the exact same version
   of the GCC sources used earlier.

   Compilation is now complete. As previously mentioned, running the test
   suites for the temporary tools compiled in this chapter is not
   mandatory. To run the GCC test suite anyway, use the following
   command:
make -k check

   The -k flag is used to make the test suite run through to completion
   and not stop at the first failure. The GCC test suite is very
   comprehensive and is almost guaranteed to generate a few failures. To
   receive a summary of the test suite results, run:
../gcc-3.4.3/contrib/test_summary

   For only the summaries, pipe the output through grep -A7 Summ.

   Results can be compared with those located at
   [352]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/build-logs/6.1.1/.

   A few unexpected failures cannot always be avoided. The GCC developers
   are usually aware of these issues, but have not resolved them yet.
   Unless the test results are vastly different from those at the above
   URL, it is safe to continue.

   Install the package:
make install

Note

   At this point it is strongly recommended to repeat the sanity check we
   performed earlier in this chapter. Refer back to [353]Section 5.7,
   "Adjusting the Toolchain," and repeat the test compilation. If the
   result is wrong, the most likely reason is that the GCC Specs patch
   was not properly applied.

   Details on this package are located in [354]Section 6.14.2, "Contents
   of GCC."

5.12. Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 2

   The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools
   for handling object files.
   Approximate build time: 1.5 SBU
   Required disk space: 114 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Flex, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

5.12.1. Re-installation of Binutils

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building
   Binutils.

   Create a separate build directory again:
mkdir -v ../binutils-build
cd ../binutils-build

   Prepare Binutils for compilation:
../binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2/configure --prefix=/tools \
    --disable-nls --enable-shared --with-lib-path=/tools/lib

   The meaning of the new configure options:

   --with-lib-path=/tools/lib
          This tells the configure script to specify the library search
          path during the compilation of Binutils, resulting in
          /tools/lib being passed to the linker. This prevents the linker
          from searching through library directories on the host.

   Compile the package:
make

   Compilation is now complete. As discussed earlier, running the test
   suite is not mandatory for the temporary tools here in this chapter.
   To run the Binutils test suite anyway, issue the following command:
make check

   Install the package:
make install

   Now prepare the linker for the "Re-adjusting" phase in the next
   chapter:
make -C ld clean
make -C ld LIB_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib

Warning

   Do not remove the Binutils source and build directories yet. These
   directories will be needed again in the next chapter in their current
   state.

   Details on this package are located in [355]Section 6.13.2, "Contents
   of Binutils."

5.13. Gawk-3.1.4

   The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 16.4 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.13.1. Installation of Gawk

   Prepare Gawk for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [356]Section 6.20.2, "Contents
   of Gawk."

5.14. Coreutils-5.2.1

   The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
   basic system characteristics.
   Approximate build time: 0.9 SBU
   Required disk space: 53.3 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

5.14.1. Installation of Coreutils

   Prepare Coreutils for compilation:
DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION=199209 ./configure --prefix=/tools

   This package has an issue when compiled against versions of Glibc
   later than 2.3.2. Some of the Coreutils utilities (such as head, tail,
   and sort) will reject their traditional syntax, a syntax that has been
   in use for approximately 30 years. This old syntax is so pervasive
   that compatibility should be preserved until the many places where it
   is used can be updated. Backwards compatibility is achieved by setting
   the DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION environment variable to "199209" in the
   above command. If you do not want Coreutils to be backwards compatible
   with the traditional syntax, then omit setting the
   DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION environment variable. It is important to
   remember that doing so will have consequences, including the need to
   patch the many packages that still use the old syntax. Therefore, it
   is recommended that the instructions be followed exactly as given
   above.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check. The
   RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes parameter tells the test suite to run several
   additional tests that are considered relatively expensive (in terms of
   CPU power and memory usage) on some platforms, but generally are not a
   problem on Linux.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [357]Section 6.15.2, "Contents
   of Coreutils."

5.15. Bzip2-1.0.3

   The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
   files. Compressing text files with bzip2 yields a much better
   compression percentage than with the traditional gzip.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 3.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, and Make

5.15.1. Installation of Bzip2

   The Bzip2 package does not contain a configure script. Compile and
   test it with:
make

   Install the package:
make PREFIX=/tools install

   Details on this package are located in [358]Section 6.40.2, "Contents
   of Bzip2."

5.16. Gzip-1.3.5

   The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
   files.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.2 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.16.1. Installation of Gzip

   Prepare Gzip for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [359]Section 6.46.2, "Contents
   of Gzip."

5.17. Diffutils-2.8.1

   The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences
   between files or directories.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 5.6 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.17.1. Installation of Diffutils

   Prepare Diffutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [360]Section 6.41.2, "Contents
   of Diffutils."

5.18. Findutils-4.2.23

   The Findutils package contains programs to find files. These programs
   are provided to recursively search through a directory tree and to
   create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the
   recursive find, but unreliable if the database has not been recently
   updated).
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make and Sed

5.18.1. Installation of Findutils

   Prepare Findutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [361]Section 6.19.2, "Contents
   of Findutils."

5.19. Make-3.80

   The Make package contains a program for compiling packages.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 7.1 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, and Sed

5.19.1. Installation of Make

   Prepare Make for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [362]Section 6.49.2, "Contents
   of Make."

5.20. Grep-2.5.1a

   The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 4.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Make, Sed, and Texinfo

5.20.1. Installation of Grep

   Prepare Grep for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools \
    --disable-perl-regexp

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --disable-perl-regexp
          This ensures that the grep program does not get linked against
          a Perl Compatible Regular Expression (PCRE) library that may be
          present on the host but will not be available once we enter the
          chroot environment.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [363]Section 6.44.2, "Contents
   of Grep."

5.21. Sed-4.1.4

   The Sed package contains a stream editor.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.4 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Texinfo

5.21.1. Installation of Sed

   Prepare Sed for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [364]Section 6.28.2, "Contents
   of Sed."

5.22. Gettext-0.14.3

   The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and
   localization. These allow programs to be compiled with NLS (Native
   Language Support), enabling them to output messages in the user's
   native language.
   Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU
   Required disk space: 63.0 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.22.1. Installation of Gettext

   Prepare Gettext for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --disable-libasprintf \
    --without-csharp

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --disable-libasprintf
          This flag tells Gettext not to build the asprintf library.
          Because nothing in this chapter or the next requires this
          library and Gettext gets rebuilt later, exclude it to save time
          and space.

   --without-csharp
          This ensures that Gettext does not build support for the C#
          compiler which may be present on the host but will not be
          available once we enter the chroot environment.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check. This takes quite some time,
   around 7 SBUs. The Gettext test suite is known to experience failures
   under certain host conditions, for example when it finds a Java
   compiler on the host. An experimental patch to disable Java is
   available from the LFS Patches project at
   [365]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [366]Section 6.30.2, "Contents
   of Gettext."

5.23. Ncurses-5.4

   The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent
   handling of character screens.
   Approximate build time: 0.7 SBU
   Required disk space: 27.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.23.1. Installation of Ncurses

   Prepare Ncurses for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --with-shared \
    --without-debug --without-ada --enable-overwrite

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --without-ada
          This ensures that Ncurses does not build support for the Ada
          compiler which may be present on the host but will not be
          available once we enter the chroot environment.

   --enable-overwrite
          This tells Ncurses to install its header files into
          /tools/include, instead of /tools/include/ncurses, to ensure
          that other packages can find the Ncurses headers successfully.

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [367]Section 6.21.2, "Contents
   of Ncurses."

5.24. Patch-2.5.4

   The Patch package contains a program for modifying or creating files
   by applying a "patch" file typically created by the diff program.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 1.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.24.1. Installation of Patch

   Prepare Patch for compilation:
CPPFLAGS=-D_GNU_SOURCE ./configure --prefix=/tools

   The preprocessor flag -D_GNU_SOURCE is only needed on the PowerPC
   platform. It can be left out on other architectures.

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [368]Section 6.51.2, "Contents
   of Patch."

5.25. Tar-1.15.1

   The Tar package contains an archiving program.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 12.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.25.1. Installation of Tar

   Prepare Tar for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [369]Section 6.57.2, "Contents
   of Tar."

5.26. Texinfo-4.8

   The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and
   converting info pages.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 14.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

5.26.1. Installation of Texinfo

   Prepare Texinfo for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [370]Section 6.34.2, "Contents
   of Texinfo."

5.27. Bash-3.0

   The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.
   Approximate build time: 1.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 20.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed.

5.27.1. Installation of Bash

   Bash has a problem when compiled against newer versions of Glibc,
   causing it to hang inappropriately. This patch fixes the problem:
patch -Np1 -i ../bash-3.0-avoid_WCONTINUED-1.patch

   Prepare Bash for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools --without-bash-malloc

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --without-bash-malloc
          This options turns off the use of Bash's memory allocation
          (malloc) function which is known to cause segmentation faults.
          By turning this option off, Bash will use the malloc functions
          from Glibc which are more stable.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make tests.

   Install the package:
make install

   Make a link for the programs that use sh for a shell:
ln -vs bash /tools/bin/sh

   Details on this package are located in [371]Section 6.37.2, "Contents
   of Bash."

5.28. M4-1.4.3

   The M4 package contains a macro processor.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.8 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

5.28.1. Installation of M4

   Prepare M4 for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [372]Section 6.24.2, "Contents
   of M4."

5.29. Bison-2.0

   The Bison package contains a parser generator.
   Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU
   Required disk space: 10.0 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

5.29.1. Installation of Bison

   Prepare Bison for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [373]Section 6.25.2, "Contents
   of Bison."

5.30. Flex-2.5.31

   The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that
   recognize patterns in text.
   Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU
   Required disk space: 22.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

5.30.1. Installation of Flex

   Flex contains several known bugs. These can be fixed with the
   following patch:
patch -Np1 -i ../flex-2.5.31-debian_fixes-3.patch

   The GNU autotools will detect that the Flex source code has been
   modified by the previous patch and tries to update the man page
   accordingly. This does not work on many systems, and the default page
   is fine, so make sure it does not get regenerated:
touch doc/flex.1

   Now prepare Flex for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/tools

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Details on this package are located in [374]Section 6.29.2, "Contents
   of Flex."

5.31. Util-linux-2.12q

   The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among
   them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles, partitions,
   and messages.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Sed, and Zlib

5.31.1. Installation of Util-linux

   Util-linux does not use the freshly installed headers and libraries
   from the /tools directory by default. This is fixed by altering the
   configure script:
sed -i 's@/usr/include@/tools/include@g' configure

   Prepare Util-linux for compilation:
./configure

   Compile some support routines:
make -C lib

   Only a few of the utilities contained in this package need to be
   built:
make -C mount mount umount
make -C text-utils more

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Copy these programs to the temporary tools directory:
cp mount/{,u}mount text-utils/more /tools/bin

   Details on this package are located in [375]Section 6.59.3, "Contents
   of Util-linux."

5.32. Perl-5.8.7

   The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report
   Language.
   Approximate build time: 0.8 SBU
   Required disk space: 81.6 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

5.32.1. Installation of Perl

   First adapt some hard-wired paths to the C library by applying the
   following patch:
patch -Np1 -i ../perl-5.8.7-libc-1.patch

   Prepare Perl for compilation (make sure to get the 'IO Fcntl POSIX'
   part of the command correct--they are all letters):
./configure.gnu --prefix=/tools -Dstatic_ext='IO Fcntl POSIX'

   The meaning of the configure options:

   -Dstatic_ext='IO Fcntl POSIX'
          This tells Perl to build the minimum set of static extensions
          needed for installing and testing the Coreutils package in the
          next chapter.

   Only a few of the utilities contained in this package need to be
   built:
make perl utilities

   Although Perl comes with a test suite, it is not recommended to run it
   at this point. Only part of Perl was built and running make test now
   will cause the rest of Perl to be built as well, which is unnecessary
   at this point. The test suite can be run in the next chapter if
   desired.

   Install these tools and their libraries:
cp -v perl pod/pod2man /tools/bin
mkdir -pv /tools/lib/perl5/5.8.7
cp -Rv lib/* /tools/lib/perl5/5.8.7

   Details on this package are located in [376]Section 6.33.2, "Contents
   of Perl."

5.33. Stripping

   The steps in this section are optional, but if the LFS partition is
   rather small, it is beneficial to learn that unnecessary items can be
   removed. The executables and libraries built so far contain about 130
   MB of unneeded debugging symbols. Remove those symbols with:
strip --strip-debug /tools/lib/*
strip --strip-unneeded /tools/{,s}bin/*

   The last of the above commands will skip some twenty files, reporting
   that it does not recognize their file format. Most of these are
   scripts instead of binaries.

   Take care not to use --strip-unneeded on the libraries. The static
   ones would be destroyed and the toolchain packages would need to be
   built all over again.

   To save another 30 MB, remove the documentation:
rm -rf /tools/{info,man}

   There will now be at least 850 MB of free space on the LFS file system
   that can be used to build and install Glibc in the next phase. If you
   can build and install Glibc, you can build and install the rest too.

Part III. Building the LFS System

Table of Contents

     * 6. Installing Basic System Software
          + [377]Introduction
          + [378]Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems
          + [379]Entering the Chroot Environment
          + [380]Changing Ownership
          + [381]Creating Directories
          + [382]Creating Essential Symlinks
          + [383]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
          + [384]Populating /dev
          + [385]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2
          + [386]Man-pages-2.01
          + [387]Glibc-2.3.4
          + [388]Re-adjusting the Toolchain
          + [389]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2
          + [390]GCC-3.4.3
          + [391]Coreutils-5.2.1
          + [392]Zlib-1.2.3
          + [393]Mktemp-1.5
          + [394]Iana-Etc-1.04
          + [395]Findutils-4.2.23
          + [396]Gawk-3.1.4
          + [397]Ncurses-5.4
          + [398]Readline-5.0
          + [399]Vim-6.3
          + [400]M4-1.4.3
          + [401]Bison-2.0
          + [402]Less-382
          + [403]Groff-1.19.1
          + [404]Sed-4.1.4
          + [405]Flex-2.5.31
          + [406]Gettext-0.14.3
          + [407]Inetutils-1.4.2
          + [408]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330
          + [409]Perl-5.8.7
          + [410]Texinfo-4.8
          + [411]Autoconf-2.59
          + [412]Automake-1.9.5
          + [413]Bash-3.0
          + [414]File-4.13
          + [415]Libtool-1.5.14
          + [416]Bzip2-1.0.3
          + [417]Diffutils-2.8.1
          + [418]Kbd-1.12
          + [419]E2fsprogs-1.37
          + [420]Grep-2.5.1a
          + [421]GRUB-0.96
          + [422]Gzip-1.3.5
          + [423]Hotplug-2004_09_23
          + [424]Man-1.5p
          + [425]Make-3.80
          + [426]Module-Init-Tools-3.1
          + [427]Patch-2.5.4
          + [428]Procps-3.2.5
          + [429]Psmisc-21.6
          + [430]Shadow-4.0.9
          + [431]Sysklogd-1.4.1
          + [432]Sysvinit-2.86
          + [433]Tar-1.15.1
          + [434]Udev-056
          + [435]Util-linux-2.12q
          + [436]About Debugging Symbols
          + [437]Stripping Again
          + [438]Cleaning Up
     * 7. Setting Up System Bootscripts
          + [439]Introduction
          + [440]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1
          + [441]How Do These Bootscripts Work?
          + [442]Device and Module Handling on an LFS System
          + [443]Configuring the setclock Script
          + [444]Configuring the Linux Console
          + [445]Configuring the sysklogd script
          + [446]Creating the /etc/inputrc File
          + [447]The Bash Shell Startup Files
          + [448]Configuring the localnet Script
          + [449]Creating the /etc/hosts File
          + [450]Configuring the network Script
     * 8. Making the LFS System Bootable
          + [451]Introduction
          + [452]Creating the /etc/fstab File
          + [453]Linux-2.6.11.12
          + [454]Making the LFS System Bootable
     * 9. The End
          + [455]The End
          + [456]Get Counted
          + [457]Rebooting the System
          + [458]What Now?

Chapter 6. Installing Basic System Software

6.1. Introduction

   In this chapter, we enter the building site and start constructing the
   LFS system in earnest. That is, we chroot into the temporary mini
   Linux system, make a few final preparations, and then begin installing
   the packages.

   The installation of this software is straightforward. Although in many
   cases the installation instructions could be made shorter and more
   generic, we have opted to provide the full instructions for every
   package to minimize the possibilities for mistakes. The key to
   learning what makes a Linux system work is to know what each package
   is used for and why the user (or the system) needs it. For every
   installed package, a summary of its contents is given, followed by
   concise descriptions of each program and library the package
   installed.

   If using the compiler optimizations provided in this chapter, please
   review the optimization hint at
   [459]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/optimizatio
   n.txt. Compiler optimizations can make a program run slightly faster,
   but they may also cause compilation difficulties and problems when
   running the program. If a package refuses to compile when using
   optimization, try to compile it without optimization and see if that
   fixes the problem. Even if the package does compile when using
   optimization, there is the risk it may have been compiled incorrectly
   because of the complex interactions between the code and build tools.
   The small potential gains achieved in using compiler optimizations are
   often outweighed by the risks. First-time builders of LFS are
   encouraged to build without custom optimizations. The subsequent
   system will still run very fast and be stable at the same time.

   The order that packages are installed in this chapter needs to be
   strictly followed to ensure that no program accidentally acquires a
   path referring to /tools hard-wired into it. For the same reason, do
   not compile packages in parallel. Compiling in parallel may save time
   (especially on dual-CPU machines), but it could result in a program
   containing a hard-wired path to /tools, which will cause the program
   to stop working when that directory is removed.

   Before the installation instructions, each installation page provides
   information about the package, including a concise description of what
   it contains, approximately how long it will take to build, how much
   disk space is required during this building process, and any other
   packages needed to successfully build the package. Following the
   installation instructions, there is a list of programs and libraries
   (along with brief descriptions of these) that the package installs.

   To keep track of which package installs particular files, a package
   manager can be used. For a general overview of different styles of
   package managers, please refer to
   [460]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/introduction/import
   ant.html. For a package management method specifically geared towards
   LFS, we recommend
   [461]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/more_contro
   l_and_pkg_man.txt.

Note

   The remainder of this book is to be performed while logged in as user
   root and no longer as user lfs. Also, double check that $LFS is set.

6.2. Mounting Virtual Kernel File Systems

   Various file systems exported by the kernel are used to communicate to
   and from the kernel itself. These file systems are virtual in that no
   disk space is used for them. The content of the file systems resides
   in memory.

   Begin by creating directories onto which the file systems will be
   mounted:
mkdir -pv $LFS/{proc,sys}

   Now mount the file systems:
mount -vt proc proc $LFS/proc
mount -vt sysfs sysfs $LFS/sys

   Remember that if for any reason you stop working on the LFS system and
   start again later, it is important to check that these file systems
   are mounted again before entering the chroot environment.

   Additional file systems will soon be mounted from within the chroot
   environment. To keep the host up to date, perform a "fake mount" for
   each of these now:
mount -vft tmpfs tmpfs $LFS/dev
mount -vft tmpfs tmpfs $LFS/dev/shm
mount -vft devpts -o gid=4,mode=620 devpts $LFS/dev/pts

6.3. Entering the Chroot Environment

   It is time to enter the chroot environment to begin building and
   installing the final LFS system. As user root, run the following
   command to enter the realm that is, at the moment, populated with only
   the temporary tools:
chroot "$LFS" /tools/bin/env -i \
    HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/tools/bin \
    /tools/bin/bash --login +h

   The -i option given to the env command will clear all variables of the
   chroot environment. After that, only the HOME, TERM, PS1, and PATH
   variables are set again. The TERM=$TERM construct will set the TERM
   variable inside chroot to the same value as outside chroot. This
   variable is needed for programs like vim and less to operate properly.
   If other variables are needed, such as CFLAGS or CXXFLAGS, this is a
   good place to set them again.

   From this point on, there is no need to use the LFS variable anymore,
   because all work will be restricted to the LFS file system. This is
   because the Bash shell is told that $LFS is now the root (/)
   directory.

   Notice that /tools/bin comes last in the PATH. This means that a
   temporary tool will no longer be used once its final version is
   installed. This occurs when the shell does not "remember" the
   locations of executed binaries--for this reason, hashing is switched
   off by passing the +h option to bash.

   It is important that all the commands throughout the remainder of this
   chapter and the following chapters are run from within the chroot
   environment. If you leave this environment for any reason (rebooting
   for example), remember to first mount the proc and devpts file systems
   (discussed in the previous section) and enter chroot again before
   continuing with the installations.

   Note that the bash prompt will say I have no name! This is normal
   because the /etc/passwd file has not been created yet.

6.4. Changing Ownership

   Currently, the /tools directory is owned by the user lfs, a user that
   exists only on the host system. Although the /tools directory can be
   deleted once the LFS system has been finished, it can be retained to
   build additional LFS systems. If the /tools directory is kept as is,
   the files are owned by a user ID without a corresponding account. This
   is dangerous because a user account created later could get this same
   user ID and would own the /tools directory and all the files therein,
   thus exposing these files to possible malicious manipulation.

   To avoid this issue, add the lfs user to the new LFS system later when
   creating the /etc/passwd file, taking care to assign it the same user
   and group IDs as on the host system. Alternatively, assign the
   contents of the /tools directory to user root by running the following
   command:
chown -R 0:0 /tools

   The command uses 0:0 instead of root:root, because chown is unable to
   resolve the name "root" until the password file has been created. This
   book assumes you ran this chown command.

6.5. Creating Directories

   It is time to create some structure in the LFS file system. Create a
   standard directory tree by issuing the following commands:
install -dv /{bin,boot,dev,etc/opt,home,lib,mnt}
install -dv /{sbin,srv,usr/local,var,opt}
install -dv /root -m 0750
install -dv /tmp /var/tmp -m 1777
install -dv /media/{floppy,cdrom}
install -dv /usr/{bin,include,lib,sbin,share,src}
ln -sv share/{man,doc,info} /usr
install -dv /usr/share/{doc,info,locale,man}
install -dv /usr/share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
install -dv /usr/share/man/man{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
install -dv /usr/local/{bin,etc,include,lib,sbin,share,src}
ln -sv share/{man,doc,info} /usr/local
install -dv /usr/local/share/{doc,info,locale,man}
install -dv /usr/local/share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
install -dv /usr/local/share/man/man{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}
install -dv /var/{lock,log,mail,run,spool}
install -dv /var/{opt,cache,lib/{misc,locate},local}
install -dv /opt/{bin,doc,include,info}
install -dv /opt/{lib,man/man{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8}}

   Directories are, by default, created with permission mode 755, but
   this is not desirable for all directories. In the commands above, two
   changes are made--one to the home directory of user root, and another
   to the directories for temporary files.

   The first mode change ensures that not just anybody can enter the
   /root directory--the same as a normal user would do with his or her
   home directory. The second mode change makes sure that any user can
   write to the /tmp and /var/tmp directories, but cannot remove another
   user's files from them. The latter is prohibited by the so-called
   "sticky bit," the highest bit (1) in the 1777 bit mask.

6.5.1. FHS Compliance Note

   The directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
   (available at [462]http://www.pathname.com/fhs/). In addition to the
   tree created above, this standard stipulates the existence of
   /usr/local/games and /usr/share/games. The FHS is not precise as to
   the structure of the /usr/local/share subdirectory, so we create only
   the directories that are needed. However, feel free to create these
   directories if you prefer to conform more strictly to the FHS.

6.6. Creating Essential Symlinks

   Some programs use hard-wired paths to programs which do not exist yet.
   In order to satisfy these programs, create a number of symbolic links
   which will be replaced by real files throughout the course of this
   chapter after the software has been installed.
ln -sv /tools/bin/{bash,cat,pwd,stty} /bin
ln -sv /tools/bin/perl /usr/bin
ln -sv /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1} /usr/lib
ln -sv bash /bin/sh

6.7. Creating the passwd, group, and log Files

   In order for user root to be able to login and for the name "root" to
   be recognized, there must be relevant entries in the /etc/passwd and
   /etc/group files.

   Create the /etc/passwd file by running the following command:
cat > /etc/passwd << "EOF"
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
EOF

   The actual password for root (the "x" used here is just a placeholder)
   will be set later.

   Create the /etc/group file by running the following command:
cat > /etc/group << "EOF"
root:x:0:
bin:x:1:
sys:x:2:
kmem:x:3:
tty:x:4:
tape:x:5:
daemon:x:6:
floppy:x:7:
disk:x:8:
lp:x:9:
dialout:x:10:
audio:x:11:
video:x:12:
utmp:x:13:
usb:x:14:
cdrom:x:15:
EOF

   The created groups are not part of any standard--they are groups
   decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev configuration in
   this chapter, and in part by common convention employed by a number of
   existing Linux distributions. The Linux Standard Base (LSB, available
   at [463]http://www.linuxbase.org) recommends only that, besides the
   group "root" with a Group ID (GID) of 0, a group "bin" with a GID of 1
   be present. All other group names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the
   system administrator since well-written programs do not depend on GID
   numbers, but rather use the group's name.

   To remove the "I have no name!" prompt, start a new shell. Since a
   full Glibc was installed in [464]Chapter 5 and the /etc/passwd and
   /etc/group files have been created, user name and group name
   resolution will now work.
exec /tools/bin/bash --login +h

   Note the use of the +h directive. This tells bash not to use its
   internal path hashing. Without this directive, bash would remember the
   paths to binaries it has executed. To ensure the use of the newly
   compiled binaries as soon as they are installed, the +h directive will
   be used for the duration of this chapter.

   The login, agetty, and init programs (and others) use a number of log
   files to record information such as who was logged into the system and
   when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they
   do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them proper
   permissions:
touch /var/run/utmp /var/log/{btmp,lastlog,wtmp}
chgrp -v utmp /var/run/utmp /var/log/lastlog
chmod -v 664 /var/run/utmp /var/log/lastlog

   The /var/run/utmp file records the users that are currently logged in.
   The /var/log/wtmp file records all logins and logouts. The
   /var/log/lastlog file records when each user last logged in. The
   /var/log/btmp file records the bad login attempts.

6.8. Populating /dev

6.8.1. Creating Initial Device Nodes

   When the kernel boots the system, it requires the presence of a few
   device nodes, in particular the console and null devices. The device
   nodes will be created on the hard disk so that they are available
   before udev has been started, and additionally when Linux is started
   in single user mode (hence the restrictive permissions on console).
   Create the devices by running the following commands:
mknod -m 600 /dev/console c 5 1
mknod -m 666 /dev/null c 1 3

6.8.2. Mounting tmpfs and Populating /dev

   The recommended method of populating the /dev directory with devices
   is to mount a virtual filesystem (such as tmpfs) on the /dev
   directory, and allow the devices to be created dynamically on that
   virtual filesystem as they are detected or accessed. This is generally
   done during the boot process. Since this new system has not been
   booted, it is necessary to do what the LFS-Bootscripts package would
   otherwise do by mounting /dev:
mount -nvt tmpfs none /dev

   The Udev package is what actually creates the devices in the /dev
   directory. Since it will not be installed until later on in the
   process, manually create the minimal set of device nodes needed to
   complete the building of this system:
mknod -m 622 /dev/console c 5 1
mknod -m 666 /dev/null c 1 3
mknod -m 666 /dev/zero c 1 5
mknod -m 666 /dev/ptmx c 5 2
mknod -m 666 /dev/tty c 5 0
mknod -m 444 /dev/random c 1 8
mknod -m 444 /dev/urandom c 1 9
chown -v root:tty /dev/{console,ptmx,tty}

   There are some symlinks and directories required by LFS that are
   created during system startup by the LFS-Bootscripts package. Since
   this is a chroot environment and not a booted environment, those
   symlinks and directories need to be created here:
ln -sv /proc/self/fd /dev/fd
ln -sv /proc/self/fd/0 /dev/stdin
ln -sv /proc/self/fd/1 /dev/stdout
ln -sv /proc/self/fd/2 /dev/stderr
ln -sv /proc/kcore /dev/core
mkdir -v /dev/pts
mkdir -v /dev/shm

   Finally, mount the proper virtual (kernel) file systems on the
   newly-created directories:
mount -vt devpts -o gid=4,mode=620 none /dev/pts
mount -vt tmpfs none /dev/shm

   The mount commands executed above may result in the following warning
   message:
can't open /etc/fstab: No such file or directory.

   This file--/etc/fstab--has not been created yet but is also not
   required for the file systems to be properly mounted. As such, the
   warning can be safely ignored.

6.9. Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2

   The Linux-Libc-Headers package contains the "sanitized" kernel
   headers.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 26.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Coreutils

6.9.1. Installation of Linux-Libc-Headers

   For years it has been common practice to use "raw" kernel headers
   (straight from a kernel tarball) in /usr/include, but over the last
   few years, the kernel developers have taken a strong stance that this
   should not be done. This gave birth to the Linux-Libc-Headers Project,
   which was designed to maintain an API stable version of the Linux
   headers.

   Install the header files:
cp -Rv include/asm-i386 /usr/include/asm
cp -Rv include/linux /usr/include

   Ensure that all the headers are owned by root:
chown -Rv root:root /usr/include/{asm,linux}

   Make sure the users can read the headers:
find /usr/include/{asm,linux} -type d -exec chmod -v 755 {} \;
find /usr/include/{asm,linux} -type f -exec chmod -v 644 {} \;

6.9.2. Contents of Linux-Libc-Headers

   Installed headers: /usr/include/{asm,linux}/*.h

Short Descriptions

   /usr/include/{asm,linux}/*.h

   The Linux API headers

6.10. Man-pages-2.01

   The Man-pages package contains over 1,200 man pages.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 25.8 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, and Make

6.10.1. Installation of Man-pages

   Install Man-pages by running:
make install

6.10.2. Contents of Man-pages

   Installed files: various man pages

Short Descriptions

   man pages

   Describe the C and C++ functions, important device files, and
   significant configuration files

6.11. Glibc-2.3.4

   The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
   the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories,
   opening and closing files, reading and writing files, string handling,
   pattern matching, arithmetic, and so on.
   Approximate build time: 12.3 SBU
   Required disk space: 476 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Gettext, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

6.11.1. Installation of Glibc

Note

   Some packages outside of LFS suggest installing GNU libiconv in order
   to translate data from one encoding to another. The project's home
   page ([465]http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/) says "This library
   provides an iconv() implementation, for use on systems which don't
   have one, or whose implementation cannot convert from/to Unicode. "
   Glibc provides an iconv() implementation and can convert from/to
   Unicode, therefore libiconv is not required on an LFS system.

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building Glibc.

   The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install perfectly,
   even though the compiler specs file and linker are still pointing at
   /tools. The specs and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc
   install because the Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and
   defeat the goal of achieving a clean build.

   The linuxthreads tarball contains the man pages for the threading
   libraries installed by Glibc. Unpack the tarball from within the Glibc
   source directory:
tar -xjvf ../glibc-linuxthreads-2.3.4.tar.bz2

   In certain rare circumstances, Glibc can segfault when no standard
   search directories exist. The following patch prevents this:
patch -Np1 -i ../glibc-2.3.4-rtld_search_dirs-1.patch

   Glibc has two tests which fail when the running kernel is 2.6.11.x The
   problem has been determined to be with the tests themselves, not with
   the libc nor the kernel. This patch fixes the problem:
patch -Np1 -i ../glibc-2.3.4-fix_test-1.patch

   Apply the following patch to fix a bug in Glibc that can prevent some
   programs (including OpenOffice.org) from running:
patch -Np1 -i ../glibc-2.3.4-tls_assert-1.patch

   The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc outside of the
   source directory in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v ../glibc-build
cd ../glibc-build

   Prepare Glibc for compilation:
../glibc-2.3.4/configure --prefix=/usr \
    --disable-profile --enable-add-ons \
    --enable-kernel=2.6.0 --libexecdir=/usr/lib/glibc

   The meaning of the new configure options:

   --libexecdir=/usr/lib/glibc
          This changes the location of the pt_chown program from its
          default of /usr/libexec to /usr/lib/glibc.

   Compile the package:
make

Important

   In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical. Do
   not skip it under any circumstance.

   Test the results:
make -k check >glibc-check-log 2>&1
grep Error glibc-check-log

   The Glibc test suite is highly dependent on certain functions of the
   host system, in particular the kernel. In general, the Glibc test
   suite is always expected to pass. However, in certain circumstances,
   some failures are unavoidable. This is a list of the most common
   issues:
     * The math tests sometimes fail when running on systems where the
       CPU is not a relatively new genuine Intel or authentic AMD.
       Certain optimization settings are also known to be a factor here.
     * The gettext test sometimes fails due to host system issues. The
       exact reasons are not yet clear.
     * If you have mounted the LFS partition with the noatime option, the
       atime test will fail. As mentioned in [466]Section 2.4, "Mounting
       the New Partition", do not use the noatime option while building
       LFS.
     * When running on older and slower hardware, some tests can fail
       because of test timeouts being exceeded.

   Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
   complain about the absence of /etc/ld.so.conf. Prevent this warning
   with:
touch /etc/ld.so.conf

   Install the package:
make install

   The locales that can make the system respond in a different language
   were not installed by the above command. Install this with:
make localedata/install-locales

   To save time, an alternative to running the previous command (which
   generates and installs every locale listed in the
   glibc-2.3.4/localedata/SUPPORTED file) is to install only those
   locales that are wanted and needed. This can be achieved by using the
   localedef command. Information on this command is located in the
   INSTALL file in the Glibc source. However, there are a number of
   locales that are essential in order for the tests of future packages
   to pass, in particular, the libstdc++ tests from GCC. The following
   instructions, instead of the install-locales target used above, will
   install the minimum set of locales necessary for the tests to run
   successfully:
mkdir -pv /usr/lib/locale
localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP

   Some locales installed by the make localedata/install-locales command
   above are not properly supported by some applications that are in the
   LFS and BLFS books. Because of the various problems that arise due to
   application programmers making assumptions that break in such locales,
   LFS should not be used in locales that utilize multibyte character
   sets (including UTF-8) or right-to-left writing order. Numerous
   unofficial and unstable patches are required to fix these problems,
   and it has been decided by the LFS developers not to support such
   complex locales at this time. This applies to the ja_JP and fa_IR
   locales as well--they have been installed only for GCC and Gettext
   tests to pass, and the watch program (part of the Procps package) does
   not work properly in them. Various attempts to circumvent these
   restrictions are documented in internationalization-related hints.

   Build the linuxthreads man pages, which are a great reference on the
   threading API (applicable to NPTL as well):
make -C ../glibc-2.3.4/linuxthreads/man

   Install these pages:
make -C ../glibc-2.3.4/linuxthreads/man install

6.11.2. Configuring Glibc

   The /etc/nsswitch.conf file needs to be created because, although
   Glibc provides defaults when this file is missing or corrupt, the
   Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked environment. The time
   zone also needs to be configured.

   Create a new file /etc/nsswitch.conf by running the following:
cat > /etc/nsswitch.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf

passwd: files
group: files
shadow: files

hosts: files dns
networks: files

protocols: files
services: files
ethers: files
rpc: files

# End /etc/nsswitch.conf
EOF

   To determine the local time zone, run the following script:
tzselect

   After answering a few questions about the location, the script will
   output the name of the time zone (e.g., EST5EDT or Canada/Eastern).
   Then create the /etc/localtime file by running:
cp -v --remove-destination /usr/share/zoneinfo/[xxx] \
    /etc/localtime

   Replace [xxx] with the name of the time zone that tzselect provided
   (e.g., Canada/Eastern).

   The meaning of the cp option:

   --remove-destination
          This is needed to force removal of the already existing
          symbolic link. The reason for copying the file instead of using
          a symlink is to cover the situation where /usr is on a separate
          partition. This could be important when booted into single user
          mode.

6.11.3. Configuring Dynamic Loader

   By default, the dynamic loader (/lib/ld-linux.so.2) searches through
   /lib and /usr/lib for dynamic libraries that are needed by programs as
   they are run. However, if there are libraries in directories other
   than /lib and /usr/lib, these need to be added to the /etc/ld.so.conf
   file in order for the dynamic loader to find them. Two directories
   that are commonly known to contain additional libraries are
   /usr/local/lib and /opt/lib, so add those directories to the dynamic
   loader's search path.

   Create a new file /etc/ld.so.conf by running the following:
cat > /etc/ld.so.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/ld.so.conf

/usr/local/lib
/opt/lib

# End /etc/ld.so.conf
EOF

6.11.4. Contents of Glibc

   Installed programs: catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv,
   iconvconfig, ldconfig, ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, mtrace, nscd,
   nscd_nischeck, pcprofiledump, pt_chown, rpcgen, rpcinfo, sln, sprof,
   tzselect, xtrace, zdump, and zic
   Installed libraries: ld.so, libBrokenLocale.[a,so], libSegFault.so,
   libanl.[a,so], libbsd-compat.a, libc.[a,so], libcrypt.[a,so],
   libdl.[a,so], libg.a, libieee.a, libm.[a,so], libmcheck.a,
   libmemusage.so, libnsl.a, libnss_compat.so, libnss_dns.so,
   libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so, libnss_nisplus.so,
   libpcprofile.so, libpthread.[a,so], libresolv.[a,so], librpcsvc.a,
   librt.[a,so], libthread_db.so, and libutil.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   catchsegv

   Can be used to create a stack trace when a program terminates with a
   segmentation fault
   gencat         

   Generates message catalogues
   getconf

   Displays the system configuration values for file system specific
   variables
   getent         

   Gets entries from an administrative database
   iconv          

   Performs character set conversion
   iconvconfig    

   Creates fastloading iconv module configuration files
   ldconfig       

   Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings
   ldd

   Reports which shared libraries are required by each given program or
   shared library
   lddlibc4       

   Assists ldd with object files
   locale

   Tells the compiler to enable or disable the use of POSIX locales for
   built-in operations
   localedef      

   Compiles locale specifications
   mtrace

   Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary in
   human-readable format
   nscd

   A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name service
   requests
   nscd_nischeck  

   Checks whether or not secure mode is necessary for NIS+ lookup
   pcprofiledump  

   Dumps information generated by PC profiling
   pt_chown

   A helper program for grantpt to set the owner, group and access
   permissions of a slave pseudo terminal
   rpcgen         

   Generates C code to implement the Remote Procecure Call (RPC) protocol
   rpcinfo        

   Makes an RPC call to an RPC server
   sln            

   A statically linked ln program
   sprof          

   Reads and displays shared object profiling data
   tzselect

   Asks the user about the location of the system and reports the
   corresponding time zone description
   xtrace

   Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently executed
   function
   zdump          

   The time zone dumper
   zic            

   The time zone compiler
   ld.so          

   The helper program for shared library executables
   libBrokenLocale

   Used by programs, such as Mozilla, to solve broken locales
   libSegFault    

   The segmentation fault signal handler
   libanl         

   An asynchronous name lookup library
   libbsd-compat

   Provides the portability needed in order to run certain Berkey
   Software Distribution (BSD) programs under Linux
   libc           

   The main C library
   libcrypt       

   The cryptography library
   libdl          

   The dynamic linking interface library
   libg           

   A runtime library for g++
   libieee

   The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) floating
   point library
   libm           

   The mathematical library
   libmcheck      

   Contains code run at boot
   libmemusage

   Used by memusage to help collect information about the memory usage of
   a program
   libnsl         

   The network services library
   libnss

   The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for resolving
   host names, user names, group names, aliases, services, protocols,
   etc.
   libpcprofile

   Contains profiling functions used to track the amount of CPU time
   spent in specific source code lines
   libpthread     

   The POSIX threads library
   libresolv

   Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting packets to
   the Internet domain name servers
   librpcsvc      

   Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services
   librt

   Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified by the
   POSIX.1b Realtime Extension
   libthread_db

   Contains functions useful for building debuggers for multi-threaded
   programs
   libutil

   Contains code for "standard" functions used in many different Unix
   utilities

6.12. Re-adjusting the Toolchain

   Now that the final C libraries have been installed, it is time to
   adjust the toolchain again. The toolchain will be adjusted so that it
   will link any newly compiled program against these new libraries. This
   is the same process used in the "Adjusting" phase in the beginning of
   [467]Chapter 5, but with the adjustments reversed. In [468]Chapter 5,
   the chain was guided from the host's /{,usr/}lib directories to the
   new /tools/lib directory. Now, the chain will be guided from that same
   /tools/lib directory to the LFS /{,usr/}lib directories.

   Start by adjusting the linker. The source and build directories from
   the second pass of Binutils were retained for this purpose. Install
   the adjusted linker by running the following command from within the
   binutils-build directory:
make -C ld INSTALL=/tools/bin/install install

Note

   If the earlier warning to retain the Binutils source and build
   directories from the second pass in [469]Chapter 5 was missed, or if
   they were accidentally deleted or are inaccessible, ignore the above
   command. The result will be that the next package, Binutils, will link
   against the C libraries in /tools rather than in /{,usr/}lib. This is
   not ideal, however, testing has shown that the resulting Binutils
   program binaries should be identical.

   From now on, every compiled program will link only against the
   libraries in /usr/lib and /lib. The extra INSTALL=/tools/bin/install
   option is needed because the Makefile file created during the second
   pass still contains the reference to /usr/bin/install, which has not
   been installed yet. Some host distributions contain a ginstall
   symbolic link which takes precedence in the Makefile file and can
   cause a problem. The above command takes care of this issue.

   Remove the Binutils source and build directories now.

   Next, amend the GCC specs file so that it points to the new dynamic
   linker. A perl command accomplishes this:
perl -pi -e 's@ /tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2@ /lib/ld-linux.so.2@g;' \
    -e 's@\*startfile_prefix_spec:\n@$_/usr/lib/ @g;' \
        `gcc --print-file specs`

   It is a good idea to visually inspect the specs file to verify the
   intended change was actually made.

Important

   If working on a platform where the name of the dynamic linker is
   something other than ld-linux.so.2, substitute "ld-linux.so.2" with
   the name of the platform's dynamic linker in the above commands. Refer
   back to [470]Section 5.2, "Toolchain Technical Notes," if necessary.

Caution

   It is imperative at this point to stop and ensure that the basic
   functions (compiling and linking) of the adjusted toolchain are
   working as expected. To do this, perform a sanity check:
echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /lib'

   If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors, and the
   output of the last command will be (allowing for platform-specific
   differences in dynamic linker name):
[Requesting program interpreter: /lib/ld-linux.so.2]

   Note that /lib is now the prefix of our dynamic linker.

   If the output does not appear as shown above or is not received at
   all, then something is seriously wrong. Investigate and retrace the
   steps to find out where the problem is and correct it. The most likely
   reason is that something went wrong with the specs file amendment
   above. Any issues will need to be resolved before continuing on with
   the process.

   Once everything is working correctly, clean up the test files:
rm -v dummy.c a.out

6.13. Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2

   The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools
   for handling object files.
   Approximate build time: 1.3 SBU
   Required disk space: 158 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils, Flex, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

6.13.1. Installation of Binutils

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building
   Binutils.

   Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the chroot
   environment. Check that everything is set up correctly by performing a
   simple test:
expect -c "spawn ls"

   If the following message shows up, the chroot environment is not set
   up for proper PTY operation:
The system has no more ptys.
Ask your system administrator to create more.

   This issue needs to be resolved before running the test suites for
   Binutils and GCC.

   The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the
   source directory in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v ../binutils-build
cd ../binutils-build

   Prepare Binutils for compilation:
../binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2/configure --prefix=/usr \
    --enable-shared

   Compile the package:
make tooldir=/usr

   Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables will
   ultimately be located) is set to $(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias). For
   example, i686 machines would expand that to /usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu.
   Because this is a custom system, this target-specific directory in
   /usr is not required. $(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias) would be used if
   the system was used to cross-compile (for example, compiling a package
   on an Intel machine that generates code that can be executed on
   PowerPC machines).

Important

   The test suite for Binutils in this section is considered critical. Do
   not skip it under any circumstances.

   Test the results:
make check

   Install the package:
make tooldir=/usr install

   Install the libiberty header file that is needed by some packages:
cp -v ../binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2/include/libiberty.h /usr/include

6.13.2. Contents of Binutils

   Installed programs: addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, gprof, ld, nm,
   objcopy, objdump, ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip
   Installed libraries: libiberty.a, libbfd.[a,so], and libopcodes.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   addr2line

   Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers; given an
   address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging
   information in the executable to determine which source file and line
   number are associated with the address
   ar        

   Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives
   as        

   An assembler that assembles the output of gcc into object files
   c++filt

   Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep
   overloaded functions from clashing
   gprof     

   Displays call graph profile data
   ld

   A linker that combines a number of object and archive files into a
   single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol references
   nm        

   Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file
   objcopy   

   Translates one type of object file into another
   objdump

   Displays information about the given object file, with options
   controlling the particular information to display; the information
   shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation
   tools
   ranlib

   Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it in the
   archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive members
   that are relocatable object files
   readelf   

   Displays information about ELF type binaries
   size      

   Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given object files
   strings

   Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable characters
   that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to four); for
   object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from the
   initializing and loading sections while for other types of files, it
   scans the entire file
   strip     

   Discards symbols from object files
   libiberty

   Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including getopt,
   obstack, strerror, strtol, and strtoul
   libbfd    

   The Binary File Descriptor library
   libopcodes

   A library for dealing with opcodes--the "readable text" versions of
   instructions for the processor; it is used for building utilities like
   objdump.

6.14. GCC-3.4.3

   The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes
   the C and C++ compilers.
   Approximate build time: 11.7 SBU
   Required disk space: 451 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Findutils, Gawk, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, and Texinfo

6.14.1. Installation of GCC

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GCC.

   Apply only the No-Fixincludes patch (not the Specs patch) also used in
   the previous chapter:
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.3-no_fixincludes-1.patch

   GCC fails to compile some packages outside of a base Linux From
   Scratch install (e.g., Mozilla and kdegraphics) when used in
   conjunction with newer versions of Binutils. Apply the following patch
   to fix this issue:
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.3-linkonce-1.patch

   Apply a sed substitution that will suppress the installation of
   libiberty.a. The version of libiberty.a provided by Binutils will be
   used instead:
sed -i 's/install_to_$(INSTALL_DEST) //' libiberty/Makefile.in

   The GCC documentation recommends building GCC outside of the source
   directory in a dedicated build directory:
mkdir -v ../gcc-build
cd ../gcc-build

   Prepare GCC for compilation:
../gcc-3.4.3/configure --prefix=/usr \
    --libexecdir=/usr/lib --enable-shared \
    --enable-threads=posix --enable-__cxa_atexit \
    --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-languages=c,c++

   Compile the package:
make

Important

   In this section, the test suite for GCC is considered critical. Do not
   skip it under any circumstance.

   Test the results, but do not stop at errors:
make -k check

   Some of the errors are known issues and were noted in the previous
   chapter. The test suite notes from [471]Section 5.11, "GCC-3.4.3 -
   Pass 2," are still relevant here. Be sure to refer back to them as
   necessary.

   Install the package:
make install

   Some packages expect the C preprocessor to be installed in the /lib
   directory. To support those packages, create this symlink:
ln -sv ../usr/bin/cpp /lib

   Many packages use the name cc to call the C compiler. To satisfy those
   packages, create a symlink:
ln -sv gcc /usr/bin/cc

Note

   At this point, it is strongly recommended to repeat the sanity check
   performed earlier in this chapter. Refer back to [472]Section 6.12,
   "Re-adjusting the Toolchain," and repeat the check. If the results are
   in error, then the most likely reason is that the GCC Specs patch from
   [473]Chapter 5 was erroneously applied here.

6.14.2. Contents of GCC

   Installed programs: c++, cc (link to gcc), cpp, g++, gcc, gccbug, and
   gcov
   Installed libraries: libgcc.a, libgcc_eh.a, libgcc_s.so,
   libstdc++.[a,so], and libsupc++.a

Short Descriptions

   cc       

   The C compiler
   cpp

   The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the #include,
   #define, and similar statements in the source files
   c++      

   The C++ compiler
   g++      

   The C++ compiler
   gcc      

   The C compiler
   gccbug   

   A shell script used to help create useful bug reports
   gcov

   A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to determine
   where optimizations will have the most effect
   libgcc   

   Contains run-time support for gcc
   libstdc++

   The standard C++ library
   libsupc++

   Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming language

6.15. Coreutils-5.2.1

   The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
   basic system characteristics.
   Approximate build time: 0.9 SBU
   Required disk space: 52.8 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

6.15.1. Installation of Coreutils

   A known issue with the uname program from this package is that the -p
   switch always returns unknown. The following patch fixes this behavior
   for Intel architectures:
patch -Np1 -i ../coreutils-5.2.1-uname-2.patch

   Prevent Coreutils from installing binaries that will be installed by
   other packages later:
patch -Np1 -i ../coreutils-5.2.1-suppress_uptime_kill_su-1.patch

   Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:
DEFAULT_POSIX2_VERSION=199209 ./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   The test suite of Coreutils makes several assumptions about the
   presence of system users and groups that are not valid within the
   minimal environment that exists at the moment. Therefore, additional
   items need to be set up before running the tests. Skip down to
   "Install the package" if not running the test suite.

   Create two dummy groups and a dummy user:
echo "dummy1:x:1000:" >> /etc/group
echo "dummy2:x:1001:dummy" >> /etc/group
echo "dummy:x:1000:1000:::/bin/bash" >> /etc/passwd

   Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
   meant to be run as user root:
make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=dummy check-root

   Then run the remainder of the tests as the dummy user:
src/su dummy -c "make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"

   When testing is complete, remove the dummy user and groups:
sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/passwd /etc/group

   Install the package:
make install

   Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:
mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/{false,hostname,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin

   Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package depend on head and
   sleep. As /usr may not be available during the early stages of
   booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition:
mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep} /bin

6.15.2. Contents of Coreutils

   Installed programs: basename, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum,
   comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du,
   echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups, head,
   hostid, hostname, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum,
   mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, nice, nl, nohup, od, paste, pathchk, pinky,
   pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, rm, rmdir, seq, sha1sum,
   shred, sleep, sort, split, stat, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee,
   test, touch, tr, true, tsort, tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink,
   users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and yes

Short Descriptions

   basename 

   Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name
   cat      

   Concatenates files to standard output
   chgrp    

   Changes the group ownership of files and directories
   chmod

   Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode can
   be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an octal
   number representing the new permissions
   chown    

   Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and directories
   chroot   

   Runs a command with the specified directory as the / directory
   cksum

   Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte counts
   of each specified file
   comm

   Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines that
   are unique and the lines that are common
   cp       

   Copies files
   csplit

   Splits a given file into several new files, separating them according
   to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte count of
   each new file
   cut

   Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
   fields or positions
   date     

   Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the system date
   dd

   Copies a file using the given block size and count, while optionally
   performing conversions on it
   df

   Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all mounted
   file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected files
   dir

   Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as the ls
   command)
   dircolors

   Outputs commands to set the LS_COLOR environment variable to change
   the color scheme used by ls
   dirname  

   Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name
   du

   Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory, by
   each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
   each of the given files
   echo     

   Displays the given strings
   env      

   Runs a command in a modified environment
   expand   

   Converts tabs to spaces
   expr     

   Evaluates expressions
   factor   

   Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers
   false

   Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
   indicating failure
   fmt      

   Reformats the paragraphs in the given files
   fold     

   Wraps the lines in the given files
   groups   

   Reports a user's group memberships
   head

   Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
   given file
   hostid   

   Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host
   hostname 

   Reports or sets the name of the host
   id

   Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships of the
   current user or specified user
   install

   Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if possible,
   their owner and group
   join

   Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two separate
   files
   link     

   Creates a hard link with the given name to a file
   ln       

   Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files
   logname  

   Reports the current user's login name
   ls       

   Lists the contents of each given directory
   md5sum   

   Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums
   mkdir    

   Creates directories with the given names
   mkfifo

   Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named pipe" in UNIX parlance,
   with the given names
   mknod

   Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
   character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO
   mv       

   Moves or renames files or directories
   nice     

   Runs a program with modified scheduling priority
   nl       

   Numbers the lines from the given files
   nohup

   Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to a log
   file
   od       

   Dumps files in octal and other formats
   paste

   Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines side
   by side, separated by tab characters
   pathchk  

   Checks if file names are valid or portable
   pinky

   Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information about the
   given users
   pr       

   Paginates and columnates files for printing
   printenv 

   Prints the environment
   printf

   Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much like
   the C printf function
   ptx

   Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files, with
   each keyword in its context
   pwd      

   Reports the name of the current working directory
   readlink 

   Reports the value of the given symbolic link
   rm       

   Removes files or directories
   rmdir    

   Removes directories if they are empty
   seq

   Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a given
   increment
   sha1sum  

   Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1) checksums
   shred

   Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns, making it
   difficult to recover the data
   sleep    

   Pauses for the given amount of time
   sort     

   Sorts the lines from the given files
   split    

   Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of lines
   stat     

   Displays file or filesystem status
   stty     

   Sets or reports terminal line settings
   sum      

   Prints checksum and block counts for each given file
   sync

   Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk and
   updates the super block
   tac      

   Concatenates the given files in reverse
   tail

   Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each given
   file
   tee

   Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output and to
   the given files
   test     

   Compares values and checks file types
   touch

   Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification times of
   the given files to the current time; files that do not exist are
   created with zero length
   tr

   Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from standard
   input
   true

   Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
   indicating success
   tsort

   Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
   according to the partial ordering in a given file
   tty      

   Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
   uname    

   Reports system information
   unexpand 

   Converts spaces to tabs
   uniq     

   Discards all but one of successive identical lines
   unlink   

   Removes the given file
   users    

   Reports the names of the users currently logged on
   vdir     

   Is the same as ls -l
   wc

   Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given file, as
   well as a total line when more than one file is given
   who      

   Reports who is logged on
   whoami   

   Reports the user name associated with the current effective user ID
   yes      

   Repeatedly outputs "y" or a given string until killed

6.16. Zlib-1.2.3

   The Zlib package contains compression and decompression routines used
   by some programs.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 3.1 MB
   Installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make, and
   Sed

6.16.1. Installation of Zlib

Note

   Zlib is known to build its shared library incorrectly if CFLAGS is
   specified in the environment. If using a specified CFLAGS variable, be
   sure to add the -fPIC directive to the CFLAGS variable for the
   duration of the configure command below, then remove it afterwards.

   Prepare Zlib for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --shared --libdir=/lib

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the shared library:
make install

   The previous command installed a .so file in /lib. We will remove it
   and relink it into /usr/lib:
rm -v /lib/libz.so
ln -sfv ../../lib/libz.so.1.2.3 /usr/lib/libz.so

   Build the static library:
make clean
./configure --prefix=/usr
make

   To test the results again, issue: make check.

   Install the static library:
make install

   Fix the permissions on the static library:
chmod -v 644 /usr/lib/libz.a

6.16.2. Contents of Zlib

   Installed libraries: libz.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   libz

   Contains compression and decompression functions used by some programs

6.17. Mktemp-1.5

   The Mktemp package contains programs used to create secure temporary
   files in shell scripts.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 436 KB
   Installation depends on: Coreutils, Make, and Patch

6.17.1. Installation of Mktemp

   Many scripts still use the deprecated tempfile program, which has
   functionality similar to mktemp. Patch Mktemp to include a tempfile
   wrapper:
patch -Np1 -i ../mktemp-1.5-add_tempfile-2.patch

   Prepare Mktemp for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --with-libc

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --with-libc
          This causes the mktemp program to use the mkstemp and mkdtemp
          functions from the system C library.

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install
make install-tempfile

6.17.2. Contents of Mktemp

   Installed programs: mktemp and tempfile

Short Descriptions

   mktemp  

   Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts
   tempfile

   Creates temporary files in a less secure manner than mktemp; it is
   installed for backwards-compatibility

6.18. Iana-Etc-1.04

   The Iana-Etc package provides data for network services and protocols.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 1.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Make

6.18.1. Installation of Iana-Etc

   The following command converts the raw data provided by IANA into the
   correct formats for the /etc/protocols and /etc/services data files:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.18.2. Contents of Iana-Etc

   Installed files: /etc/protocols and /etc/services

Short Descriptions

   /etc/protocols

   Describes the various DARPA Internet protocols that are available from
   the TCP/IP subsystem
   /etc/services

   Provides a mapping between friendly textual names for internet
   services, and their underlying assigned port numbers and protocol
   types

6.19. Findutils-4.2.23

   The Findutils package contains programs to find files. These programs
   are provided to recursively search through a directory tree and to
   create, maintain, and search a database (often faster than the
   recursive find, but unreliable if the database has not been recently
   updated).
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 9.4 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make and Sed

6.19.1. Installation of Findutils

   Prepare Findutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/lib/locate \
    --localstatedir=/var/lib/locate

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --localstatedir
          This option changes the location of the locate database to be
          in /var/lib/locate, which is FHS-compliant.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.19.2. Contents of Findutils

   Installed programs: bigram, code, find, frcode, locate, updatedb, and
   xargs

Short Descriptions

   bigram  

   Was formerly used to produce locate databases
   code

   Was formerly used to produce locate databases; it is the ancestor of
   frcode.
   find

   Searches given directory trees for files matching the specified
   criteria
   frcode

   Is called by updatedb to compress the list of file names; it uses
   front-compression, reducing the database size by a factor of four to
   five.
   locate

   Searches through a database of file names and reports the names that
   contain a given string or match a given pattern
   updatedb

   Updates the locate database; it scans the entire file system
   (including other file systems that are currently mounted, unless told
   not to) and puts every file name it finds into the database
   xargs   

   Can be used to apply a given command to a list of files

6.20. Gawk-3.1.4

   The Gawk package contains programs for manipulating text files.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 16.4 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.20.1. Installation of Gawk

   Prepare Gawk for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/lib

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.20.2. Contents of Gawk

   Installed programs: awk (link to gawk), gawk, gawk-3.1.4, grcat,
   igawk, pgawk, pgawk-3.1.4, and pwcat

Short Descriptions

   awk        

   A link to gawk
   gawk

   A program for manipulating text files; it is the GNU implementation of
   awk
   gawk-3.1.4 

   A hard link to gawk
   grcat      

   Dumps the group database /etc/group
   igawk      

   Gives gawk the ability to include files
   pgawk      

   The profiling version of gawk
   pgawk-3.1.4

   Hard link to pgawk
   pwcat      

   Dumps the password database /etc/passwd

6.21. Ncurses-5.4

   The Ncurses package contains libraries for terminal-independent
   handling of character screens.
   Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU
   Required disk space: 18.6 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.21.1. Installation of Ncurses

   Prepare Ncurses for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --with-shared --without-debug

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

   Give the Ncurses libraries execute permissions:
chmod -v 755 /usr/lib/*.5.4

   Fix a library that should not be executable:
chmod -v 644 /usr/lib/libncurses++.a

   Move the libraries to the /lib directory, where they are expected to
   reside:
mv -v /usr/lib/libncurses.so.5* /lib

   Because the libraries have been moved, a few symlinks point to
   non-existent files. Recreate those symlinks:
ln -sfv ../../lib/libncurses.so.5 /usr/lib/libncurses.so
ln -sfv libncurses.so /usr/lib/libcurses.so

6.21.2. Contents of Ncurses

   Installed programs: captoinfo (link to tic), clear, infocmp, infotocap
   (link to tic), reset (link to tset), tack, tic, toe, tput, and tset
   Installed libraries: libcurses.[a,so] (link to libncurses.[a,so]),
   libform.[a,so], libmenu.[a,so], libncurses++.a, libncurses.[a,so], and
   libpanel.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   captoinfo 

   Converts a termcap description into a terminfo description
   clear     

   Clears the screen, if possible
   infocmp   

   Compares or prints out terminfo descriptions
   infotocap 

   Converts a terminfo description into a termcap description
   reset     

   Reinitializes a terminal to its default values
   tack

   The terminfo action checker; it is mainly used to test the accuracy of
   an entry in the terminfo database
   tic

   The terminfo entry-description compiler that translates a terminfo
   file from source format into the binary format needed for the ncurses
   library routines. A terminfo file contains information on the
   capabilities of a certain terminal
   toe

   Lists all available terminal types, giving the primary name and
   description for each
   tput

   Makes the values of terminal-dependent capabilities available to the
   shell; it can also be used to reset or initialize a terminal or report
   its long name
   tset      

   Can be used to initialize terminals
   libcurses 

   A link to libncurses
   libncurses

   Contains functions to display text in many complex ways on a terminal
   screen; a good example of the use of these functions is the menu
   displayed during the kernel's make menuconfig
   libform   

   Contains functions to implement forms
   libmenu   

   Contains functions to implement menus
   libpanel  

   Contains functions to implement panels

6.22. Readline-5.0

   The Readline package is a set of libraries that offers command-line
   editing and history capabilities.
   Approximate build time: 0.11 SBU
   Required disk space: 9.1 MB
   Installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

6.22.1. Installation of Readline

   The following patch includes a fix for a problem where Readline
   sometimes only shows 33 characters on a line and then wraps to the
   next line. It also includes other fixes recommended by the Readline
   author.
patch -Np1 -i ../readline-5.0-fixes-1.patch

   Prepare Readline for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --libdir=/lib

   Compile the package:
make SHLIB_XLDFLAGS=-lncurses

   The meaning of the make option:

   SHLIB_XLDFLAGS=-lncurses
          This option forces Readline to link against the libncurses
          library.

   Install the package:
make install

   Give Readline's dynamic libraries more appropriate permissions:
chmod -v 755 /lib/lib{readline,history}.so*

   Now move the static libraries to a more appropriate location:
mv -v /lib/lib{readline,history}.a /usr/lib

   Next, remove the .so files in /lib and relink them into /usr/lib.
rm -v /lib/lib{readline,history}.so
ln -sfv ../../lib/libreadline.so.5 /usr/lib/libreadline.so
ln -sfv ../../lib/libhistory.so.5 /usr/lib/libhistory.so

6.22.2. Contents of Readline

   Installed libraries: libhistory.[a,so], and libreadline.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   libhistory 

   Provides a consistent user interface for recalling lines of history
   libreadline

   Aids in the consistency of user interface across discrete programs
   that need to provide a command line interface

6.23. Vim-6.3

   The Vim package contains a powerful text editor.
   Approximate build time: 0.4 SBU
   Required disk space: 38.0 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

Alternatives to Vim

   If you prefer another editor--such as Emacs, Joe, or Nano--please
   refer to
   [474]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/editors.htm
   l for suggested installation instructions.

6.23.1. Installation of Vim

   First, unpack both vim-6.3.tar.bz2 and (optionally)
   vim-6.3-lang.tar.gz archives into the same directory. Then, change the
   default location of the vimrc configuration file to /etc:
echo '#define SYS_VIMRC_FILE "/etc/vimrc"' >> src/feature.h

   Vim has two known security vulnerabilities that have already been
   addressed upstream. The following patch fixes the problems:
patch -Np1 -i ../vim-6.3-security_fix-2.patch

   Now prepare Vim for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-multibyte

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --enable-multibyte
          This optional but highly recommended switch enables support for
          editing files in multibyte character encodings. This is needed
          if using a locale with a multibyte character set. This switch
          is also helpful to be able to edit text files initially created
          in Linux distributions like Fedora Core that use UTF-8 as a
          default character set.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make test. However, this test suite
   outputs a lot of binary data to the screen, which can cause issues
   with the settings of the current terminal. This can be resolved by
   redirecting the output to a log file.

   Install the package:
make install

   Many users are used to using vi instead of vim. To allow execution of
   vim when users habitually enter vi, create a symlink:
ln -sv vim /usr/bin/vi

   If an X Window System is going to be installed on the LFS system, it
   may be necessary to recompile Vim after installing X. Vim comes with a
   GUI version of the editor that requires X and some additional
   libraries to be installed. For more information on this process, refer
   to the Vim documentation and the Vim installation page in the BLFS
   book at
   [475]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/editors.htm
   l#postlfs-editors-vim.

6.23.2. Configuring Vim

   By default, vim runs in vi-incompatible mode. This may be new to users
   who have used other editors in the past. The "nocompatible" setting is
   included below to highlight the fact that a new behavior is being
   used. It also reminds those who would change to "compatible" mode that
   it should be the first setting in the configuration file. This is
   necessary because it changes other settings, and overrides must come
   after this setting. Create a default vim configuration file by running
   the following:
cat > /etc/vimrc << "EOF"
" Begin /etc/vimrc

set nocompatible
set backspace=2
syntax on
if (&term == "iterm") || (&term == "putty")
  set background=dark
endif

" End /etc/vimrc
EOF

   The set nocompatible makes vim behave in a more useful way (the
   default) than the vi-compatible manner. Remove the "no" to keep the
   old vi behavior. The set backspace=2 allows backspacing over line
   breaks, autoindents, and the start of insert. The syntax on enables
   vim's syntax highlighting. Finally, the if statement with the set
   background=dark corrects vim's guess about the background color of
   some terminal emulators. This gives the highlighting a better color
   scheme for use on the black background of these programs.

   Documentation for other available options can be obtained by running
   the following command:
vim -c ':options'

6.23.3. Contents of Vim

   Installed programs: efm_filter.pl, efm_perl.pl, ex (link to vim),
   less.sh, mve.awk, pltags.pl, ref, rview (link to vim), rvim (link to
   vim), shtags.pl, tcltags, vi (link to vim), view (link to vim), vim,
   vim132, vim2html.pl, vimdiff (link to vim), vimm, vimspell.sh,
   vimtutor, and xxd

Short Descriptions

   efm_filter.pl

   A filter for creating an error file that can be read by vim
   efm_perl.pl

   Reformats the error messages of the Perl interpreter for use with the
   "quickfix" mode of vim
   ex           

   Starts vim in ex mode
   less.sh      

   A script that starts vim with less.vim
   mve.awk      

   Processes vim errors
   pltags.pl    

   Creates a tags file for Perl code for use by vim
   ref          

   Checks the spelling of arguments
   rview

   Is a restricted version of view; no shell commands can be started and
   view cannot be suspended
   rvim

   Is a restricted version of vim; no shell commands can be started and
   vim cannot be suspended
   shtags.pl    

   Generates a tags file for Perl scripts
   tcltags      

   Generates a tags file for TCL code
   view         

   Starts vim in read-only mode
   vi           

   Is the editor
   vim          

   Is the editor
   vim132       

   Starts vim with the terminal in 132-column mode
   vim2html.pl  

   Converts Vim documentation to HypterText Markup Language (HTML)
   vimdiff      

   Edits two or three versions of a file with vim and show differences
   vimm         

   Enables the DEC locator input model on a remote terminal
   vimspell.sh

   Spell checks a file and generates the syntax statements necessary to
   highlight in vim. This script requires the old Unix spell command,
   which is provided neither in LFS nor in BLFS
   vimtutor     

   Teaches the basic keys and commands of vim
   xxd

   Creates a hex dump of the given file; it can also do the reverse, so
   it can be used for binary patching

6.24. M4-1.4.3

   The M4 package contains a macro processor.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.8 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Perl, and Sed

6.24.1. Installation of M4

   Prepare M4 for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.24.2. Contents of M4

   Installed program: m4

Short Descriptions

   m4

   copies the given files while expanding the macros that they contain.
   These macros are either built-in or user-defined and can take any
   number of arguments. Besides performing macro expansion, m4 has
   built-in functions for including named files, running Unix commands,
   performing integer arithmetic, manipulating text, recursion, etc. The
   m4 program can be used either as a front-end to a compiler or as a
   macro processor in its own right.

6.25. Bison-2.0

   The Bison package contains a parser generator.
   Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU
   Required disk space: 9.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

6.25.1. Installation of Bison

   Prepare Bison for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.25.2. Contents of Bison

   Installed programs: bison and yacc
   Installed library: liby.a

Short Descriptions

   bison

   Generates, from a series of rules, a program for analyzing the
   structure of text files; Bison is a replacement for Yacc (Yet Another
   Compiler Compiler)
   yacc

   A wrapper for bison, meant for programs that still call yacc instead
   of bison; it calls bison with the -y option
   liby.a

   The Yacc library containing implementations of Yacc-compatible yyerror
   and main functions; this library is normally not very useful, but
   POSIX requires it

6.26. Less-382

   The Less package contains a text file viewer.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.3 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

6.26.1. Installation of Less

   Prepare Less for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin --sysconfdir=/etc

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --sysconfdir=/etc
          This option tells the programs created by the package to look
          in /etc for the configuration files.

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.26.2. Contents of Less

   Installed programs: less, lessecho, and lesskey

Short Descriptions

   less

   A file viewer or pager; it displays the contents of the given file,
   letting the user scroll, find strings, and jump to marks
   lessecho

   Needed to expand meta-characters, such as * and ?, in filenames on
   Unix systems
   lesskey 

   Used to specify the key bindings for less

6.27. Groff-1.19.1

   The Groff package contains programs for processing and formatting
   text.
   Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU
   Required disk space: 38.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.27.1. Installation of Groff

   Groff expects the environment variable PAGE to contain the default
   paper size. For users in the United States, PAGE=letter is
   appropriate. Elsewhere, PAGE=A4 may be more suitable.

   Prepare Groff for compilation:
PAGE=[paper_size] ./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

   Some documentation programs, such as xman, will not work properly
   without the following symlinks:
ln -sv soelim /usr/bin/zsoelim
ln -sv eqn /usr/bin/geqn
ln -sv tbl /usr/bin/gtbl

6.27.2. Contents of Groff

   Installed programs: addftinfo, afmtodit, eqn, eqn2graph, geqn (link to
   eqn), grn, grodvi, groff, groffer, grog, grolbp, grolj4, grops,
   grotty, gtbl (link to tbl), hpftodit, indxbib, lkbib, lookbib, mmroff,
   neqn, nroff, pfbtops, pic, pic2graph, post-grohtml, pre-grohtml,
   refer, soelim, tbl, tfmtodit, troff, and zsoelim (link to soelim)

Short Descriptions

   addftinfo

   Reads a troff font file and adds some additional font-metric
   information that is used by the groff system
   afmtodit    

   Creates a font file for use with groff and grops
   eqn

   Compiles descriptions of equations embedded within troff input files
   into commands that are understood by troff
   eqn2graph   

   Converts a troff EQN (equation) into a cropped image
   geqn        

   A link to eqn
   grn         

   A groff preprocessor for gremlin files
   grodvi      

   A driver for groff that produces TeX dvi format
   groff

   A front-end to the groff document formatting system; normally, it runs
   the troff program and a post-processor appropriate for the selected
   device
   groffer     

   Displays groff files and man pages on X and tty terminals
   grog

   Reads files and guesses which of the groff options -e, -man, -me, -mm,
   -ms, -p, -s, and -t are required for printing files, and reports the
   groff command including those options
   grolbp

   Is a groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series
   laser printers)
   grolj4

   Is a driver for groff that produces output in PCL5 format suitable for
   an HP LaserJet 4 printer
   grops       

   Translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript
   grotty

   Translates the output of GNU troff into a form suitable for
   typewriter-like devices
   gtbl        

   A link to tbl
   hpftodit

   Creates a font file for use with groff -Tlj4 from an HP-tagged font
   metric file
   indxbib

   Creates an inverted index for the bibliographic databases with a
   specified file for use with refer, lookbib, and lkbib
   lkbib

   Searches bibliographic databases for references that contain specified
   keys and reports any references found
   lookbib

   Prints a prompt on the standard error (unless the standard input is
   not a terminal), reads a line containing a set of keywords from the
   standard input, searches the bibliographic databases in a specified
   file for references containing those keywords, prints any references
   found on the standard output, and repeats this process until the end
   of input
   mmroff      

   A simple preprocessor for groff
   neqn

   Formats equations for American Standard Code for Information
   Interchange (ASCII) output
   nroff       

   A script that emulates the nroff command using groff
   pfbtops     

   Translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII
   pic

   Compiles descriptions of pictures embedded within troff or TeX input
   files into commands understood by TeX or troff
   pic2graph   

   Converts a PIC diagram into a cropped image
   post-grohtml

   Translates the output of GNU troff to HTML
   pre-grohtml 

   Translates the output of GNU troff to HTML
   refer

   Copies the contents of a file to the standard output, except that
   lines between .[ and .] are interpreted as citations, and lines
   between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted as commands for how citations are
   to be processed
   soelim

   Reads files and replaces lines of the form .so file by the contents of
   the mentioned file
   tbl

   Compiles descriptions of tables embedded within troff input files into
   commands that are understood by troff
   tfmtodit    

   Creates a font file for use with groff -Tdvi
   troff

   Is highly compatible with Unix troff; it should usually be invoked
   using the groff command, which will also run preprocessors and
   post-processors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate
   options
   zsoelim     

   A link to soelim

6.28. Sed-4.1.4

   The Sed package contains a stream editor.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.4 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Texinfo

6.28.1. Installation of Sed

   By default, Sed installs its HTML documentation in /usr/share/doc.
   Alter this to /usr/share/doc/sed-4.1.4 by applying the following sed:
sed -i 's@/doc@&/sed-4.1.4@' doc/Makefile.in

   Prepare Sed for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.28.2. Contents of Sed

   Installed program: sed

Short Descriptions

   sed

   Filters and transforms text files in a single pass

6.29. Flex-2.5.31

   The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that
   recognize patterns in text.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 22.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

6.29.1. Installation of Flex

   Flex contains several known bugs. Fix these with the following patch:
patch -Np1 -i ../flex-2.5.31-debian_fixes-3.patch

   The GNU autotools detects that the Flex source code has been modified
   by the previous patch and tries to update the man page accordingly.
   This does not work correctly on many systems, and the default page is
   fine, so make sure it does not get regenerated:
touch doc/flex.1

   Prepare Flex for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   There are some packages that expect to find the lex library in
   /usr/lib. Create a symlink to account for this:
ln -sv libfl.a /usr/lib/libl.a

   A few programs do not know about flex yet and try to run its
   predecessor, lex. To support those programs, create a wrapper script
   named lex that calls flex in lex emulation mode:
cat > /usr/bin/lex << "EOF"
#!/bin/sh
# Begin /usr/bin/lex

exec /usr/bin/flex -l "$@"

# End /usr/bin/lex
EOF
chmod -v 755 /usr/bin/lex

6.29.2. Contents of Flex

   Installed programs: flex and lex
   Installed library: libfl.a

Short Descriptions

   flex

   A tool for generating programs that recognize patterns in text; it
   allows for the versatility to specify the rules for pattern-finding,
   eradicating the need to develop a specialized program
   lex    

   A script that runs flex in lex emulation mode
   libfl.a

   The flex library

6.30. Gettext-0.14.3

   The Gettext package contains utilities for internationalization and
   localization. These allow programs to be compiled with NLS (Native
   Language Support), enabling them to output messages in the user's
   native language.
   Approximate build time: 1.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 65.1 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Gawk, GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.30.1. Installation of Gettext

   Prepare Gettext for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check. This takes a very long time,
   around 7 SBUs.

   Install the package:
make install

6.30.2. Contents of Gettext

   Installed programs: autopoint, config.charset, config.rpath, envsubst,
   gettext, gettextize, hostname, msgattrib, msgcat, msgcmp, msgcomm,
   msgconv, msgen, msgexec, msgfilter, msgfmt, msggrep, msginit,
   msgmerge, msgunfmt, msguniq, ngettext, and xgettext
   Installed libraries: libasprintf.[a,so], libgettextlib.so,
   libgettextpo.[a,so], and libgettextsrc.so

Short Descriptions

   autopoint     

   Copies standard Gettext infrastructure files into a source package
   config.charset

   Outputs a system-dependent table of character encoding aliases
   config.rpath

   Outputs a system-dependent set of variables, describing how to set the
   runtime search path of shared libraries in an executable
   envsubst      

   Substitutes environment variables in shell format strings
   gettext

   Translates a natural language message into the user's language by
   looking up the translation in a message catalog
   gettextize

   Copies all standard Gettext files into the given top-level directory
   of a package to begin internationalizing it
   hostname      

   Displays a network hostname in various forms
   msgattrib

   Filters the messages of a translation catalog according to their
   attributes and manipulates the attributes
   msgcat        

   Concatenates and merges the given .po files
   msgcmp

   Compares two .po files to check that both contain the same set of
   msgid strings
   msgcomm       

   Finds the messages that are common to to the given .po files
   msgconv       

   Converts a translation catalog to a different character encoding
   msgen         

   Creates an English translation catalog
   msgexec       

   Applies a command to all translations of a translation catalog
   msgfilter     

   Applies a filter to all translations of a translation catalog
   msgfmt        

   Generates a binary message catalog from a translation catalog
   msggrep

   Extracts all messages of a translation catalog that match a given
   pattern or belong to some given source files
   msginit

   Creates a new .po file, initializing the meta information with values
   from the user's environment
   msgmerge      

   Combines two raw translations into a single file
   msgunfmt      

   Decompiles a binary message catalog into raw translation text
   msguniq       

   Unifies duplicate translations in a translation catalog
   ngettext

   Displays native language translations of a textual message whose
   grammatical form depends on a number
   xgettext

   Extracts the translatable message lines from the given source files to
   make the first translation template
   libasprintf

   defines the autosprintf class, which makes C formatted output routines
   usable in C++ programs, for use with the <string> strings and the
   <iostream> streams
   libgettextlib

   a private library containing common routines used by the various
   Gettext programs; these are not intended for general use
   libgettextpo

   Used to write specialized programs that process .po files; this
   library is used when the standard applications shipped with Gettext
   (such as msgcomm, msgcmp, msgattrib, and msgen) will not suffice
   libgettextsrc

   A private library containing common routines used by the various
   Gettext programs; these are not intended for general use

6.31. Inetutils-1.4.2

   The Inetutils package contains programs for basic networking.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

6.31.1. Installation of Inetutils

   Inetutils has issues with the Linux 2.6 kernel series. Fix these
   issues by applying the following patch:
patch -Np1 -i ../inetutils-1.4.2-kernel_headers-1.patch

   All programs that come with Inetutils will not be installed. However,
   the Inetutils build system will insist on installing all the man pages
   anyway. The following patch will correct this situation:
patch -Np1 -i ../inetutils-1.4.2-no_server_man_pages-1.patch

   Prepare Inetutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --libexecdir=/usr/sbin \
    --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var \
    --disable-logger --disable-syslogd \
    --disable-whois --disable-servers

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --disable-logger
          This option prevents Inetutils from installing the logger
          program, which is used by scripts to pass messages to the
          System Log Daemon. Do not install it because Util-linux
          installs a better version later.

   --disable-syslogd
          This option prevents Inetutils from installing the System Log
          Daemon, which is installed with the Sysklogd package.

   --disable-whois
          This option disables the building of the Inetutils whois
          client, which is out of date. Instructions for a better whois
          client are in the BLFS book.

   --disable-servers
          This disables the installation of the various network servers
          included as part of the Inetutils package. These servers are
          deemed not appropriate in a basic LFS system. Some are insecure
          by nature and are only considered safe on trusted networks.
          More information can be found at
          [476]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/basicnet/ine
          tutils.html. Note that better replacements are available for
          many of these servers.

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

   Move the ping program to its FHS-compliant place:
mv -v /usr/bin/ping /bin

6.31.2. Contents of Inetutils

   Installed programs: ftp, ping, rcp, rlogin, rsh, talk, telnet, and
   tftp

Short Descriptions

   ftp   

   Is the file transfer protocol program
   ping  

   Sends echo-request packets and reports how long the replies take
   rcp   

   Performs remote file copy
   rlogin

   Performs remote login
   rsh   

   Runs a remote shell
   talk  

   Is used to chat with another user
   telnet

   An interface to the TELNET protocol
   tftp  

   A trivial file transfer program

6.32. IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330

   The IPRoute2 package contains programs for basic and advanced
   IPV4-based networking.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 4.3 MB
   Installation depends on: GCC, Glibc, Make, Linux-Headers, and Sed

6.32.1. Installation of IPRoute2

   The arpd binary included in this package is dependent on Berkeley DB.
   Because arpd is not a very common requirement on a base Linux system,
   remove the dependency on Berkeley DB by applying the sed command
   below. If the arpd binary is needed, instructions for compiling
   Berkeley DB can be found in the BLFS Book at
   [477]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/server/databases.ht
   ml#db.
sed -i '/^TARGETS/s@arpd@@g' misc/Makefile

   Prepare IPRoute2 for compilation:
./configure

   Compile the package:
make SBINDIR=/sbin

   The meaning of the make option:

   SBINDIR=/sbin
          This ensures that the IPRoute2 binaries will install into
          /sbin. This is the correct location according to the FHS,
          because some of the IPRoute2 binaries are used by the
          LFS-Bootscripts package.

   Install the package:
make SBINDIR=/sbin install

6.32.2. Contents of IPRoute2

   Installed programs: ctstat (link to lnstat), ifcfg, ifstat, ip,
   lnstat, nstat, routef, routel, rtacct, rtmon, rtpr, rtstat (link to
   lnstat), ss, and tc.

Short Descriptions

   ctstat

   Connection status utility
   ifcfg 

   A shell script wrapper for the ip command
   ifstat

   Shows the interface statistics, including the amount of transmitted
   and received packets by interface
   ip

   The main executable. It has several different functions:

   ip link [device] allows users to look at the state of devices and to
   make changes

   ip addr allows users to look at addresses and their properties, add
   new addresses, and delete old ones

   ip neighbor allows users to look at neighbor bindings and their
   properties, add new neighbor entries, and delete old ones

   ip rule allows users to look at the routing policies and change them

   ip route allows users to look at the routing table and change routing
   table rules

   ip tunnel allows users to look at the IP tunnels and their properties,
   and change them

   ip maddr allows users to look at the multicast addresses and their
   properties, and change them

   ip mroute allows users to set, change, or delete the multicast routing

   ip monitor allows users to continously monitor the state of devices,
   addresses and routes
   lnstat

   Provides Linux network statistics. It is a generalized and more
   feature-complete replacement for the old rtstat program
   nstat 

   Shows network statistics
   routef

   A component of ip route. This is for flushing the routing tables
   routel

   A component of ip route. This is for listing the routing tables
   rtacct

   Displays the contents of /proc/net/rt_acct
   rtmon 

   Route monitoring utility
   rtpr  

   Converts the output of ip -o back into a readable form
   rtstat

   Route status utility
   ss    

   Similar to the netstat command; shows active connections
   tc

   Traffic Controlling Executable; this is for Quality Of Service (QOS)
   and Class Of Service (COS) implementations

   tc qdisc allows users to setup the queueing discipline

   tc class allows users to setup classes based on the queuing discipline
   scheduling

   tc estimator allows users to estimate the network flow into a network

   tc filter allows users to setup the QOS/COS packet filtering

   tc policy allows users to setup the QOS/COS policies

6.33. Perl-5.8.7

   The Perl package contains the Practical Extraction and Report
   Language.
   Approximate build time: 4.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 140 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.33.1. Installation of Perl

   To have full control over the way Perl is set up, run the interactive
   Configure script and hand-pick the way this package is built. If the
   defaults it auto-detects are suitable, prepare Perl for compilation
   with:
./configure.gnu --prefix=/usr -Dpager="/bin/less -isR"

   The meaning of the configure options:

   -Dpager="/bin/less -isR"
          This corrects an error in the way that perldoc invokes the less
          program.

   Compile the package:
make

   To run the test suite, first create a basic /etc/hosts file which is
   needed by a couple of the tests to resolve the network name localhost:
echo "127.0.0.1 localhost $(hostname)" > /etc/hosts

   Now run the tests, if desired:
make test

   Install the package:
make install

6.33.2. Contents of Perl

   Installed programs: a2p, c2ph, dprofpp, enc2xs, find2perl, h2ph, h2xs,
   libnetcfg, perl, perl5.8.7 (link to perl), perlbug, perlcc, perldoc,
   perlivp, piconv, pl2pm, pod2html, pod2latex, pod2man, pod2text,
   pod2usage, podchecker, podselect, psed (link to s2p), pstruct (link to
   c2ph), s2p, splain, and xsubpp
   Installed libraries: Several hundred which cannot all be listed here

Short Descriptions

   a2p       

   Translates awk to Perl
   c2ph      

   Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S
   dprofpp   

   Displays Perl profile data
   en2cxs

   Builds a Perl extension for the Encode module from either Unicode
   Character Mappings or Tcl Encoding Files
   find2perl 

   Translates find commands to Perl
   h2ph      

   Converts .h C header files to .ph Perl header files
   h2xs      

   Converts .h C header files to Perl extensions
   libnetcfg 

   Can be used to configure the libnet
   perl

   Combines some of the best features of C, sed, awk and sh into a single
   swiss-army language
   perl5.8.7 

   A hard link to perl
   perlbug

   Used to generate bug reports about Perl, or the modules that come with
   it, and mail them
   perlcc    

   Generates executables from Perl programs
   perldoc

   Displays a piece of documentation in pod format that is embedded in
   the Perl installation tree or in a Perl script
   perlivp

   The Perl Installation Verification Procedure; it can be used to verify
   that Perl and its libraries have been installed correctly
   piconv    

   A Perl version of the character encoding converter iconv
   pl2pm     

   A rough tool for converting Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules
   pod2html  

   Converts files from pod format to HTML format
   pod2latex 

   Converts files from pod format to LaTeX format
   pod2man   

   Converts pod data to formatted *roff input
   pod2text  

   Converts pod data to formatted ASCII text
   pod2usage 

   Prints usage messages from embedded pod docs in files
   podchecker

   Checks the syntax of pod format documentation files
   podselect 

   Displays selected sections of pod documentation
   psed      

   A Perl version of the stream editor sed
   pstruct   

   Dumps C structures as generated from cc -g -S stabs
   s2p       

   Translates sed scripts to Perl
   splain    

   Is used to force verbose warning diagnostics in Perl
   xsubpp    

   Converts Perl XS code into C code

6.34. Texinfo-4.8

   The Texinfo package contains programs for reading, writing, and
   converting info pages.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 14.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

6.34.1. Installation of Texinfo

   Texinfo allows local users to overwrite arbitrary files via a symlink
   attack on temporary files. Apply the following patch to fix this:
patch -Np1 -i ../texinfo-4.8-tempfile_fix-1.patch

   Prepare Texinfo for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

   Optionally, install the components belonging in a TeX installation:
make TEXMF=/usr/share/texmf install-tex

   The meaning of the make parameter:

   TEXMF=/usr/share/texmf
          The TEXMF makefile variable holds the location of the root of
          the TeX tree if, for example, a TeX package will be installed
          later.

   The Info documentation system uses a plain text file to hold its list
   of menu entries. The file is located at /usr/share/info/dir.
   Unfortunately, due to occasional problems in the Makefiles of various
   packages, it can sometimes get out of sync with the info pages
   installed on the system. If the /usr/share/info/dir file ever needs to
   be recreated, the following optional commands will accomplish the
   task:
cd /usr/share/info
rm dir
for f in *
do install-info $f dir 2>/dev/null
done

6.34.2. Contents of Texinfo

   Installed programs: info, infokey, install-info, makeinfo, texi2dvi,
   texi2pdf, and texindex

Short Descriptions

   info

   Used to read info pages which are similar to man pages, but often go
   much deeper than just explaining all the available command line
   options. For example, compare man bison and info bison.
   infokey

   Compiles a source file containing Info customizations into a binary
   format
   install-info

   Used to install info pages; it updates entries in the info index file
   makeinfo

   Translates the given Texinfo source documents into info pages, plain
   text, or HTML
   texi2dvi

   Used to format the given Texinfo document into a device-independent
   file that can be printed
   texi2pdf

   Used to format the given Texinfo document into a Portable Document
   Format (PDF) file
   texindex    

   Used to sort Texinfo index files

6.35. Autoconf-2.59

   The Autoconf package contains programs for producing shell scripts
   that can automatically configure source code.
   Approximate build time: 0.5 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, Grep, M4, Make,
   Perl, and Sed

6.35.1. Installation of Autoconf

   Prepare Autoconf for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check. This takes a long time, about
   2 SBUs.

   Install the package:
make install

6.35.2. Contents of Autoconf

   Installed programs: autoconf, autoheader, autom4te, autoreconf,
   autoscan, autoupdate, and ifnames

Short Descriptions

   autoconf

   Produces shell scripts that automatically configure software source
   code packages to adapt to many kinds of Unix-like systems. The
   configuration scripts it produces are independent--running them does
   not require the autoconf program.
   autoheader

   A tool for creating template files of C #define statements for
   configure to use
   autom4te  

   A wrapper for the M4 macro processor
   autoreconf

   Automatically runs autoconf, autoheader, aclocal, automake,
   gettextize, and libtoolize in the correct order to save time when
   changes are made to autoconf and automake template files
   autoscan

   Helps to create a configure.in file for a software package; it
   examines the source files in a directory tree, searching them for
   common portability issues, and creates a configure.scan file that
   serves as as a preliminary configure.in file for the package
   autoupdate

   Modifies a configure.in file that still calls autoconf macros by their
   old names to use the current macro names
   ifnames

   Helps when writing configure.in files for a software package; it
   prints the identifiers that the package uses in C preprocessor
   conditionals. If a package has already been set up to have some
   portability, this program can help determine what configure needs to
   check for. It can also fill in gaps in a configure.in file generated
   by autoscan

6.36. Automake-1.9.5

   The Automake package contains programs for generating Makefiles for
   use with Autoconf.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 8.8 MB
   Installation depends on: Autoconf, Bash, Coreutils, Diffutils, Grep,
   M4, Make, Perl, and Sed

6.36.1. Installation of Automake

   Prepare Automake for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check. This takes a long time, about
   5 SBUs.

   Install the package:
make install

6.36.2. Contents of Automake

   Installed programs: acinstall, aclocal, aclocal-1.9.5, automake,
   automake-1.9.5, compile, config.guess, config.sub, depcomp,
   elisp-comp, install-sh, mdate-sh, missing, mkinstalldirs, py-compile,
   symlink-tree, and ylwrap

Short Descriptions

   acinstall     

   A script that installs aclocal-style M4 files
   aclocal       

   Generates aclocal.m4 files based on the contents of configure.in files
   aclocal-1.9.5 

   A hard link to aclocal
   automake

   A tool for automatically generating Makefile.in files from Makefile.am
   files. To create all the Makefile.in files for a package, run this
   program in the top-level directory. By scanning the configure.in file,
   it automatically finds each appropriate Makefile.am file and generates
   the corresponding Makefile.in file
   automake-1.9.5

   A hard link to automake
   compile       

   A wrapper for compilers
   config.guess

   A script that attempts to guess the canonical triplet for the given
   build, host, or target architecture
   config.sub    

   A configuration validation subroutine script
   depcomp

   A script for compiling a program so that dependency information is
   generated in addition to the desired output
   elisp-comp    

   Byte-compiles Emacs Lisp code
   install-sh    

   A script that installs a program, script, or data file
   mdate-sh      

   A script that prints the modification time of a file or directory
   missing

   A script acting as a common stub for missing GNU programs during an
   installation
   mkinstalldirs 

   A script that creates a directory tree
   py-compile    

   Compiles a Python program
   symlink-tree  

   A script to create a symlink tree of a directory tree
   ylwrap        

   A wrapper for lex and yacc

6.37. Bash-3.0

   The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.
   Approximate build time: 1.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 20.6 MB
   Installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed.

6.37.1. Installation of Bash

   If you downloaded the Bash documentation tarball and wish to install
   HTML documentation, issue the following commands:
tar -xvf ../bash-doc-3.0.tar.gz &&
sed -i "s|htmldir = @htmldir@|htmldir = /usr/share/doc/bash-3.0|" \
    Makefile.in

   The following patch fixes various issues, including a problem where
   Bash will sometimes only show 33 characters on a line, then wrap to
   the next:
patch -Np1 -i ../bash-3.0-fixes-3.patch

   Bash also has issues when compiled against newer versions of Glibc.
   The following patch resolves this problem:
patch -Np1 -i ../bash-3.0-avoid_WCONTINUED-1.patch

   Prepare Bash for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin \
    --without-bash-malloc --with-installed-readline

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --with-installed-readline
          This option tells Bash to use the readline library that is
          already installed on the system rather than using its own
          readline version.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make tests.

   Install the package:
make install

   Run the newly compiled bash program (replacing the one that is
   currently being executed):
exec /bin/bash --login +h

Note

   The parameters used make the bash process an interactive login shell
   and continue to disable hashing so that new programs are found as they
   become available.

6.37.2. Contents of Bash

   Installed programs: bash, bashbug, and sh (link to bash)

Short Descriptions

   bash

   A widely-used command interpreter; it performs many types of
   expansions and substitutions on a given command line before executing
   it, thus making this interpreter a powerful tool
   bashbug

   A shell script to help the user compose and mail standard formatted
   bug reports concerning bash
   sh

   A symlink to the bash program; when invoked as sh, bash tries to mimic
   the startup behavior of historical versions of sh as closely as
   possible, while conforming to the POSIX standard as well

6.38. File-4.13

   The File package contains a utility for determining the type of a
   given file or files.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 6.2 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Zlib

6.38.1. Installation of File

   Prepare File for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.38.2. Contents of File

   Installed programs: file
   Installed library: libmagic.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   file

   Tries to classify each given file; it does this by performing several
   tests--file system tests, magic number tests, and language tests
   libmagic

   Contains routines for magic number recognition, used by the file
   program

6.39. Libtool-1.5.14

   The Libtool package contains the GNU generic library support script.
   It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in a consistent,
   portable interface.
   Approximate build time: 1.5 SBU
   Required disk space: 19.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.39.1. Installation of Libtool

   Prepare Libtool for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.39.2. Contents of Libtool

   Installed programs: libtool and libtoolize
   Installed libraries: libltdl.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   libtool   

   Provides generalized library-building support services
   libtoolize

   Provides a standard way to add libtool support to a package
   libltdl   

   Hides the various difficulties of dlopening libraries

6.40. Bzip2-1.0.3

   The Bzip2 package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
   files. Compressing text files with bzip2 yields a much better
   compression percentage than with the traditional gzip.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 3.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, and Make

6.40.1. Installation of Bzip2

   Apply a patch to install the documentation for this package:
patch -Np1 -i ../bzip2-1.0.3-install_docs-1.patch

   The bzgrep command does not escape '|' and '&' in filenames passed to
   it. This allows arbitrary commands to be executed with the privileges
   of the user running bzgrep. Apply the following to address this:
patch -Np1 -i ../bzip2-1.0.3-bzgrep_security-1.patch

   Prepare Bzip2 for compilation with:
make -f Makefile-libbz2_so
make clean

   The -f flag will cause Bzip2 to be built using a different Makefile
   file, in this case the Makefile-libbz2_so file, which creates a
   dynamic libbz2.so library and links the Bzip2 utilities against it.

   Compile and test the package:
make

   If reinstalling Bzip2, perform rm -vf /usr/bin/bz* first, otherwise
   the following make install will fail.

   Install the programs:
make install

   Install the shared bzip2 binary into the /bin directory, make some
   necessary symbolic links, and clean up:
cp -v bzip2-shared /bin/bzip2
cp -av libbz2.so* /lib
ln -sv ../../lib/libbz2.so.1.0 /usr/lib/libbz2.so
rm -v /usr/bin/{bunzip2,bzcat,bzip2}
ln -sv bzip2 /bin/bunzip2
ln -sv bzip2 /bin/bzcat

6.40.2. Contents of Bzip2

   Installed programs: bunzip2 (link to bzip2), bzcat (link to bzip2),
   bzcmp, bzdiff, bzegrep, bzfgrep, bzgrep, bzip2, bzip2recover, bzless,
   and bzmore
   Installed libraries: libbz2.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   bunzip2     

   Decompresses bzipped files
   bzcat       

   Decompresses to standard output
   bzcmp       

   Runs cmp on bzipped files
   bzdiff      

   Runs diff on bzipped files
   bzgrep      

   Runs grep on bzipped files
   bzegrep     

   Runs egrep on bzipped files
   bzfgrep     

   Runs fgrep on bzipped files
   bzip2

   Compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text
   compression algorithm with Huffman coding; the compression rate is
   better than that achieved by more conventional compressors using
   "Lempel-Ziv" algorithms, like gzip
   bzip2recover

   Tries to recover data from damaged bzipped files
   bzless      

   Runs less on bzipped files
   bzmore      

   Runs more on bzipped files
   libbz2*

   The library implementing lossless, block-sorting data compression,
   using the Burrows-Wheeler algorithm

6.41. Diffutils-2.8.1

   The Diffutils package contains programs that show the differences
   between files or directories.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 5.6 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.41.1. Installation of Diffutils

   Prepare Diffutils for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

6.41.2. Contents of Diffutils

   Installed programs: cmp, diff, diff3, and sdiff

Short Descriptions

   cmp  

   Compares two files and reports whether or in which bytes they differ
   diff

   Compares two files or directories and reports which lines in the files
   differ
   diff3

   Compares three files line by line
   sdiff

   Merges two files and interactively outputs the results

6.42. Kbd-1.12

   The Kbd package contains key-table files and keyboard utilities.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 11.8 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Flex, GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Gzip, M4, Make, and Sed

6.42.1. Installation of Kbd

   Prepare Kbd for compilation:
./configure

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.42.2. Contents of Kbd

   Installed programs: chvt, deallocvt, dumpkeys, fgconsole, getkeycodes,
   getunimap, kbd_mode, kbdrate, loadkeys, loadunimap, mapscrn, openvt,
   psfaddtable (link to psfxtable), psfgettable (link to psfxtable),
   psfstriptable (link to psfxtable), psfxtable, resizecons, setfont,
   setkeycodes, setleds, setlogcons, setmetamode, setvesablank,
   showconsolefont, showkey, unicode_start, and unicode_stop

Short Descriptions

   chvt           

   Changes the foreground virtual terminal
   deallocvt      

   Deallocates unused virtual terminals
   dumpkeys       

   Dumps the keyboard translation tables
   fgconsole      

   Prints the number of the active virtual terminal
   getkeycodes    

   Prints the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table
   getunimap      

   Prints the currently used unicode-to-font mapping table
   kbd_mode       

   Reports or sets the keyboard mode
   kbdrate        

   Sets the keyboard repeat and delay rates
   loadkeys       

   Loads the keyboard translation tables
   loadunimap     

   Loads the kernel unicode-to-font mapping table
   mapscrn

   An obsolete program that used to load a user-defined output character
   mapping table into the console driver; this is now done by setfont
   openvt         

   Starts a program on a new virtual terminal (VT)
   psfaddtable    

   A link to psfxtable
   psfgettable    

   A link to psfxtable
   psfstriptable  

   A link to psfxtable
   psfxtable      

   Handle Unicode character tables for console fonts
   resizecons     

   Changes the kernel idea of the console size
   setfont

   Changes the Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA) and Video Graphics Array
   (VGA) fonts on the console
   setkeycodes

   Loads kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries; this is useful
   if there are unusual keys on the keyboard
   setleds        

   Sets the keyboard flags and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
   setlogcons     

   Sends kernel messages to the console
   setmetamode    

   Defines the keyboard meta-key handling
   setvesablank

   Lets the user adjust the built-in hardware screensaver (a blank
   screen)
   showconsolefont

   Shows the current EGA/VGA console screen font
   showkey

   Reports the scancodes, keycodes, and ASCII codes of the keys pressed
   on the keyboard
   unicode_start

   Puts the keyboard and console in UNICODE mode. Never use it on LFS,
   because applications are not configured to support UNICODE.
   unicode_stop   

   Reverts keyboard and console from UNICODE mode

6.43. E2fsprogs-1.37

   The E2fsprogs package contains the utilities for handling the ext2
   file system. It also supports the ext3 journaling file system.
   Approximate build time: 0.6 SBU
   Required disk space: 40.0 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, Gawk,
   GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Sed, and Texinfo

6.43.1. Installation of E2fsprogs

   Fix a compilation error in E2fsprogs' testsuite:
sed -i -e 's/-DTEST/$(ALL_CFLAGS) &/' lib/e2p/Makefile.in

   It is recommended that E2fsprogs be built in a subdirectory of the
   source tree:
mkdir -v build
cd build

   Prepare E2fsprogs for compilation:
../configure --prefix=/usr --with-root-prefix="" \
    --enable-elf-shlibs --disable-evms

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --with-root-prefix=""
          Certain programs (such as the e2fsck program) are considered
          essential programs. When, for example, /usr is not mounted,
          these programs still need to be available. They belong in
          directories like /lib and /sbin. If this option is not passed
          to E2fsprogs' configure, the programs are installed into the
          /usr directory.

   --enable-elf-shlibs
          This creates the shared libraries which some programs in this
          package use.

   --disable-evms
          This disables the building of the Enterprise Volume Management
          System (EVMS) plugin. This plugin is not up-to-date with the
          latest EVMS internal interfaces and EVMS is not installed as
          part of a base LFS system, so the plugin is not required. See
          the EVMS website at [478]http://evms.sourceforge.net/ for more
          information regarding EVMS.

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the binaries and documentation:
make install

   Install the shared libraries:
make install-libs

6.43.2. Contents of E2fsprogs

   Installed programs: badblocks, blkid, chattr, compile_et, debugfs,
   dumpe2fs, e2fsck, e2image, e2label, findfs, fsck, fsck.ext2,
   fsck.ext3, logsave, lsattr, mk_cmds, mke2fs, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3,
   mklost+found, resize2fs, tune2fs, and uuidgen.
   Installed libraries: libblkid.[a,so], libcom_err.[a,so],
   libe2p.[a,so], libext2fs.[a,so], libss.[a,so], and libuuid.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   badblocks   

   Searches a device (usually a disk partition) for bad blocks
   blkid       

   A command line utility to locate and print block device attributes
   chattr

   Changes the attributes of files on an ext2 file system; it also
   changes ext3 file systems, the journaling version of ext2 file systems
   compile_et

   An error table compiler; it converts a table of error-code names and
   messages into a C source file suitable for use with the com_err
   library
   debugfs

   A file system debugger; it can be used to examine and change the state
   of an ext2 file system
   dumpe2fs

   Prints the super block and blocks group information for the file
   system present on a given device
   e2fsck

   Is used to check, and optionally repair ext2 file systems and ext3
   file systems
   e2image     

   Is used to save critical ext2 file system data to a file
   e2label

   Displays or changes the file system label on the ext2 file system
   present on a given device
   findfs      

   Finds a file system by label or Universally Unique Identifier (UUID)
   fsck        

   Is used to check, and optionally repair, file systems
   fsck.ext2   

   By default checks ext2 file systems
   fsck.ext3   

   By default checks ext3 file systems
   logsave     

   Saves the output of a command in a log file
   lsattr      

   Lists the attributes of files on a second extended file system
   mk_cmds

   Converts a table of command names and help messages into a C source
   file suitable for use with the libss subsystem library
   mke2fs      

   Creates an ext2 or ext3 file system on the given device
   mkfs.ext2   

   By default creates ext2 file systems
   mkfs.ext3   

   By default creates ext3 file systems
   mklost+found

   Used to create a lost+found directory on an ext2 file system; it
   pre-allocates disk blocks to this directory to lighten the task of
   e2fsck
   resize2fs   

   Can be used to enlarge or shrink an ext2 file system
   tune2fs     

   Adjusts tunable file system parameters on an ext2 file system
   uuidgen

   Creates new UUIDs. Each new UUID can reasonably be considered unique
   among all UUIDs created, on the local system and on other systems, in
   the past and in the future
   libblkid    

   Contains routines for device identification and token extraction
   libcom_err  

   The common error display routine
   libe2p      

   Used by dumpe2fs, chattr, and lsattr
   libext2fs

   Contains routines to enable user-level programs to manipulate an ext2
   file system
   libss       

   Used by debugfs
   libuuid

   Contains routines for generating unique identifiers for objects that
   may be accessible beyond the local system

6.44. Grep-2.5.1a

   The Grep package contains programs for searching through files.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 4.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Make, Sed, and Texinfo

6.44.1. Installation of Grep

   Prepare Grep for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.44.2. Contents of Grep

   Installed programs: egrep (link to grep), fgrep (link to grep), and
   grep

Short Descriptions

   egrep

   Prints lines matching an extended regular expression
   fgrep

   Prints lines matching a list of fixed strings
   grep 

   Prints lines matching a basic regular expression

6.45. GRUB-0.96

   The GRUB package contains the GRand Unified Bootloader.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 10.0 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

6.45.1. Installation of GRUB

   This package is known to have issues when its default optimization
   flags (including the -march and -mcpu options) are changed. If any
   environment variables that override default optimizations have been
   defined, such as CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, unset them when building GRUB.

   Prepare GRUB for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Note that the test results will always show the error "ufs2_stage1_5
   is too big." This is due to a compiler issue, but can be ignored
   unless you plan to boot from an UFS partition. The partitions are
   normally only used by Sun workstations.

   Install the package:
make install
mkdir -v /boot/grub
cp -v /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/stage{1,2} /boot/grub

   Replace i386-pc with whatever directory is appropriate for the
   hardware in use.

   The i386-pc directory contains a number of *stage1_5 files, different
   ones for different file systems. Review the files available and copy
   the appropriate ones to the /boot/grub directory. Most users will copy
   the e2fs_stage1_5 and/or reiserfs_stage1_5 files.

6.45.2. Contents of GRUB

   Installed programs: grub, grub-install, grub-md5-crypt, grub-terminfo,
   and mbchk

Short Descriptions

   grub          

   The Grand Unified Bootloader's command shell
   grub-install  

   Installs GRUB on the given device
   grub-md5-crypt

   Encrypts a password in MD5 format
   grub-terminfo

   Generates a terminfo command from a terminfo name; it can be employed
   if an unknown terminal is being used
   mbchk         

   Checks the format of a multi-boot kernel

6.46. Gzip-1.3.5

   The Gzip package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
   files.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.2 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.46.1. Installation of Gzip

   Gzip has 2 known security vulnerabilities. The following patch
   addresses both of them:
patch -Np1 -i ../gzip-1.3.5-security_fixes-1.patch

   Prepare Gzip for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   The gzexe script has the location of the gzip binary hard-wired into
   it. Because the location of the binary is changed later, the following
   command ensures that the new location gets placed into the script:
sed -i 's@"BINDIR"@/bin@g' gzexe.in

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

   Move the gzip program to the /bin directory and create some commonly
   used symlinks to it:
mv -v /usr/bin/gzip /bin
rm -v /usr/bin/{gunzip,zcat}
ln -sv gzip /bin/gunzip
ln -sv gzip /bin/zcat
ln -sv gzip /bin/compress
ln -sv gunzip /bin/uncompress

6.46.2. Contents of Gzip

   Installed programs: compress (link to gzip), gunzip (link to gzip),
   gzexe, gzip, uncompress (link to gunzip), zcat (link to gzip), zcmp,
   zdiff, zegrep, zfgrep, zforce, zgrep, zless, zmore, and znew

Short Descriptions

   compress  

   Compresses and decompresses files
   gunzip    

   Decompresses gzipped files
   gzexe     

   Creates self-decompressing executable files
   gzip      

   Compresses the given files using Lempel-Ziv (LZ77) coding
   uncompress

   Decompresses compressed files
   zcat      

   Decompresses the given gzipped files to standard output
   zcmp      

   Runs cmp on gzipped files
   zdiff     

   Runs diff on gzipped files
   zegrep    

   Runs egrep on gzipped files
   zfgrep    

   Runs fgrep on gzipped files
   zforce

   Forces a .gz extension on all given files that are gzipped files, so
   that gzip will not compress them again; this can be useful when file
   names were truncated during a file transfer
   zgrep     

   Runs grep on gzipped files
   zless     

   Runs less on gzipped files
   zmore     

   Runs more on gzipped files
   znew      

   Re-compresses files from compress format to gzip format--.Z to .gz

6.47. Hotplug-2004_09_23

   The Hotplug package contains scripts that react upon hotplug events
   generated by the kernel. Such events correspond to every change in the
   kernel state visible in the sysfs filesystem, e.g., the addition and
   removal of hardware. This package also detects existing hardware
   during boot and inserts the relevant modules into the running kernel.
   Approximate build time: 0.01 SBU
   Required disk space: 460 KB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Coreutils, Find, Gawk, and Make

6.47.1. Installation of Hotplug

   Install the Hotplug package:
make install

   Copy a file that the "install" target omits.
cp -v etc/hotplug/pnp.distmap /etc/hotplug

   Remove the init script that Hotplug installs since we are going to be
   using the script included in the LFS-Bootscripts package:
rm -rfv /etc/init.d

   Network device hotplugging is not yet supported by the LFS-Bootscripts
   package. For that reason, remove the network hotplug agent:
rm -fv /etc/hotplug/net.agent

   Create a directory for storing firmware that can be loaded by hotplug:
mkdir -v /lib/firmware

6.47.2. Contents of Hotplug

   Installed program: hotplug
   Installed scripts: /etc/hotplug/*.rc, /etc/hotplug/*.agent
   Installed files: /etc/hotplug/hotplug.functions,
   /etc/hotplug/blacklist, /etc/hotplug/{pci,usb},
   /etc/hotplug/usb.usermap, /etc/hotplug.d, and /var/log/hotplug/events

Short Descriptions

   hotplug

   This script is called by default by the Linux kernel when something
   changes in its internal state (e.g., a new device is added or an
   existing device is removed)
   /etc/hotplug/*.rc

   These scripts are used for cold plugging, i.e., detecting and acting
   upon hardware already present during system startup. They are called
   by the hotplug initscript included in the LFS-Bootscripts package. The
   *.rc scripts try to recover hotplug events that were lost during
   system boot because, for example, the root filesystem was not mounted
   by the kernel
   /etc/hotplug/*.agent

   These scripts are called by hotplug in response to different types of
   hotplug events generated by the kernel. Their action is to insert
   corresponding kernel modules and call any user-provided scripts
   /etc/hotplug/blacklist

   This file contains the list of modules that should never be inserted
   into the kernel by the Hotplug scripts
   /etc/hotplug/hotplug.functions

   This file contains common functions used by other scripts in the
   Hotplug package
   /etc/hotplug/{pci,usb}        

   These directories contain user-written handlers for hotplug events
   /etc/hotplug/usb.usermap

   This file contains rules that determine which user-defined handlers to
   call for each USB device, based on its vendor ID and other attributes
   /etc/hotplug.d

   This directory contains programs (or symlinks to them) that are
   interested in receiving hotplug events. For example, Udev puts its
   symlink here during installation
   /lib/firmware

   This directory contains the firmware for devices that need to have
   their firmware loaded before use
   /var/log/hotplug/events       

   This file contains all the events that hotplug has called since bootup

6.48. Man-1.5p

   The Man package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Gawk, GCC, Glibc,
   Grep, Make, and Sed

6.48.1. Installation of Man

   Two adjustments need to be made to the sources of Man.

   The first is a sed substitution to add the -R switch to the PAGER
   variable so that escape sequences are properly handled by Less:
sed -i 's@-is@&R@g' configure

   The second is also a sed substitution to comment out the "MANPATH
   /usr/man" line in the man.conf file to prevent redundant results when
   using programs such as whatis:
sed -i 's@MANPATH./usr/man@#&@g' src/man.conf.in

   Prepare Man for compilation:
./configure -confdir=/etc

   The meaning of the configure options:

   -confdir=/etc
          This tells the man program to look for the man.conf
          configuration file in the /etc directory.

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

Note

   If you will be working on a terminal that does not support text
   attributes such as color and bold, you can disable Select Graphic
   Rendition (SGR) escape sequences by editing the man.conf file and
   adding the -c option to the NROFF variable. If you use multiple
   terminal types for one computer it may be better to selectively add
   the GROFF_NO_SGR environment variable for the terminals that do not
   support SGR.

   If the character set of the locale uses 8-bit characters, search for
   the line beginning with "NROFF" in /etc/man.conf, and verify that it
   matches the following:
              NROFF  /usr/bin/nroff -Tlatin1 -mandoc

   Note that "latin1" should be used even if it is not the character set
   of the locale. The reason is that, according to the specification,
   groff has no means of typesetting characters outside International
   Organization for Standards (ISO) 8859-1 without some strange escape
   codes. When formatting man pages, groff thinks that they are in the
   ISO 8859-1 encoding and this -Tlatin1 switch tells groff to use the
   same encoding for output. Since groff does no recoding of input
   characters, the formatted result is really in the same encoding as
   input, and therefore it is usable as the input for a pager.

   This does not solve the problem of a non-working man2dvi program for
   localized man pages in non-ISO 8859-1 locales. Also, it does not work
   with multibyte character sets. The first problem does not currently
   have a solution. The second issue is not of concern because the LFS
   installation does not support multibyte character sets.

   Additional information with regards to the compression of man and info
   pages can be found in the BLFS book at
   [479]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/cvs/postlfs/compressdoc
   .html.

6.48.2. Contents of Man

   Installed programs: apropos, makewhatis, man, man2dvi, man2html, and
   whatis

Short Descriptions

   apropos

   Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of
   system commands that contain a given string
   makewhatis

   Builds the whatis database; it reads all the man pages in the MANPATH
   and writes the name and a short description in the whatis database for
   each page
   man       

   Formats and displays the requested on-line man page
   man2dvi   

   Converts a man page into dvi format
   man2html  

   Converts a man page into HTML
   whatis

   Searches the whatis database and displays the short descriptions of
   system commands that contain the given keyword as a separate word

6.49. Make-3.80

   The Make package contains a program for compiling packages.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 7.1 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, and Sed

6.49.1. Installation of Make

   Prepare Make for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.49.2. Contents of Make

   Installed program: make

Short Descriptions

   make

   Automatically determines which pieces of a package need to be
   (re)compiled and then issues the relevant commands

6.50. Module-Init-Tools-3.1

   The Module-Init-Tools package contains programs for handling kernel
   modules in Linux kernels greater than or equal to version 2.5.47.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 4.9 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   Flex, GCC, Glibc, Grep, M4, Make, and Sed

6.50.1. Installation of Module-Init-Tools

   Module-Init-Tools attempts to rewrite its modprobe.conf man page
   during the build process. This is unnecessary and also relies on
   docbook2man -- which is not installed in LFS. Run the following
   command to avoid this:
touch modprobe.conf.5

   If you wish to run the test suite for Module-Init-Tools, you will need
   to download the separate testsuite tarball. Issue the following
   commands to perform the tests (note that the make distclean command is
   required to clean up the source tree, as the source gets recompiled as
   part of the testing process):
tar -xvf ../module-init-tools-testsuite-3.1.tar.bz2 --strip-path=1 &&
./configure &&
make check &&
make distclean

   Prepare Module-Init-Tools for compilation:
./configure --prefix="" --enable-zlib

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --enable-zlib
          This allows the Module-Init-Tools package to handle compressed
          kernel modules.

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.50.2. Contents of Module-Init-Tools

   Installed programs: depmod, insmod, insmod.static, lsmod (link to
   insmod), modinfo, modprobe (link to insmod), and rmmod (link to
   insmod)

Short Descriptions

   depmod

   Creates a dependency file based on the symbols it finds in the
   existing set of modules; this dependency file is used by modprobe to
   automatically load the required modules
   insmod       

   Installs a loadable module in the running kernel
   insmod.static

   A statically compiled version of insmod
   lsmod        

   Lists currently loaded modules
   modinfo

   Examines an object file associated with a kernel module and displays
   any information that it can glean
   modprobe

   Uses a dependency file, created by depmod, to automatically load
   relevant modules
   rmmod        

   Unloads modules from the running kernel

6.51. Patch-2.5.4

   The Patch package contains a program for modifying or creating files
   by applying a "patch" file typically created by the diff program.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 1.5 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.51.1. Installation of Patch

   Prepare Patch for compilation. The preprocessor flag -D_GNU_SOURCE is
   only needed on the PowerPC platform. It can be left it out on other
   architectures:
CPPFLAGS=-D_GNU_SOURCE ./configure --prefix=/usr

   Compile the package:
make

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package:
make install

6.51.2. Contents of Patch

   Installed program: patch

Short Descriptions

   patch

   Modifies files according to a patch file. A patch file is normally a
   difference listing created with the diff program. By applying these
   differences to the original files, patch creates the patched versions.

6.52. Procps-3.2.5

   The Procps package contains programs for monitoring processes.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 2.3 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make,
   and Ncurses

6.52.1. Installation of Procps

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.52.2. Contents of Procps

   Installed programs: free, kill, pgrep, pkill, pmap, ps, skill, snice,
   sysctl, tload, top, uptime, vmstat, w, and watch
   Installed library: libproc.so

Short Descriptions

   free

   Reports the amount of free and used memory (both physical and swap
   memory) in the system
   kill   

   Sends signals to processes
   pgrep  

   Looks up processes based on their name and other attributes
   pkill  

   Signals processes based on their name and other attributes
   pmap   

   Reports the memory map of the given process
   ps     

   Lists the current running processes
   skill  

   Sends signals to processes matching the given criteria
   snice

   Changes the scheduling priority of processes matching the given
   criteria
   sysctl 

   Modifies kernel parameters at run time
   tload  

   Prints a graph of the current system load average
   top

   Displays a list of the most CPU intensive processes; it provides an
   ongoing look at processor activity in real time
   uptime

   Reports how long the system has been running, how many users are
   logged on, and the system load averages
   vmstat

   Reports virtual memory statistics, giving information about processes,
   memory, paging, block Input/Output (IO), traps, and CPU activity
   w      

   Shows which users are currently logged on, where, and since when
   watch

   Runs a given command repeatedly, displaying the first screen-full of
   its output; this allows a user to watch the output change over time
   libproc

   Contains the functions used by most programs in this package

6.53. Psmisc-21.6

   The Psmisc package contains programs for displaying information about
   running processes.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 1.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, and Sed

6.53.1. Installation of Psmisc

   Prepare Psmisc for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --exec-prefix=""

   The meaning of the configure options:

   --exec-prefix=""
          This ensures that the Psmisc binaries will install into /bin
          instead of /usr/bin. This is the correct location according to
          the FHS, because some of the Psmisc binaries are used by the
          LFS-Bootscripts package.

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

   There is no reason for the pstree and pstree.x11 programs to reside in
   /bin. Therefore, move them to /usr/bin:
mv -v /bin/pstree* /usr/bin

   By default, Psmisc's pidof program is not installed. This usually is
   not a problem because it is installed later in the Sysvinit package,
   which provides a better pidof program. If Sysvinit will not be used
   for a particular system, complete the installation of Psmisc by
   creating the following symlink:
ln -sv killall /bin/pidof

6.53.2. Contents of Psmisc

   Installed programs: fuser, killall, pstree, and pstree.x11 (link to
   pstree)

Short Descriptions

   fuser

   Reports the Process IDs (PIDs) of processes that use the given files
   or file systems
   killall

   Kills processes by name; it sends a signal to all processes running
   any of the given commands
   pstree    

   Displays running processes as a tree
   pstree.x11

   Same as pstree, except that it waits for confirmation before exiting

6.54. Shadow-4.0.9

   The Shadow package contains programs for handling passwords in a
   secure way.
   Approximate build time: 0.4 SBU
   Required disk space: 13.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Bison, Coreutils, Diffutils,
   GCC, Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.54.1. Installation of Shadow

Note

   If you would like to enforce the use of strong passwords, refer to
   [480]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/postlfs/cracklib.ht
   ml for installing Cracklib prior to building Shadow. Then add
   --with-libcrack to the configure command below.

   Prepare Shadow for compilation:
./configure --libdir=/lib --enable-shared

   Disable the installation of the groups program and its man page, as
   Coreutils provides a better version:
sed -i 's/groups$(EXEEXT) //' src/Makefile
sed -i '/groups/d' man/Makefile

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

   Shadow uses two files to configure authentication settings for the
   system. Install these two configuration files:
cp -v etc/{limits,login.access} /etc

   Instead of using the default crypt method, use the more secure MD5
   method of password encryption, which also allows passwords longer than
   8 characters. It is also necessary to change the obsolete
   /var/spool/mail location for user mailboxes that Shadow uses by
   default to the /var/mail location used currently. Both of these can be
   accomplished by changing the relevant configuration file while copying
   it to its destination:

Note

   If you built Shadow with Cracklib support, insert the following into
   the sed given below:
-e 's@DICTPATH.*@DICTPATH\t/lib/cracklib/pw_dict@'

sed -e's@#MD5_CRYPT_ENAB.no@MD5_CRYPT_ENAB yes@' \
    -e 's@/var/spool/mail@/var/mail@' \
    etc/login.defs.linux > /etc/login.defs

   Move a misplaced program to its proper location:
mv -v /usr/bin/passwd /bin

   Move Shadow's libraries to more appropriate locations:
mv -v /lib/libshadow.*a /usr/lib
rm -v /lib/libshadow.so
ln -sfv ../../lib/libshadow.so.0 /usr/lib/libshadow.so

   The -D option of the useradd program requires the /etc/default
   directory for it to work properly:
mkdir -v /etc/default

6.54.2. Configuring Shadow

   This package contains utilities to add, modify, and delete users and
   groups; set and change their passwords; and perform other
   administrative tasks. For a full explanation of what password
   shadowing means, see the doc/HOWTO file within the unpacked source
   tree. If using Shadow support, keep in mind that programs which need
   to verify passwords (display managers, FTP programs, pop3 daemons,
   etc.) must be Shadow-compliant. That is, they need to be able to work
   with shadowed passwords.

   To enable shadowed passwords, run the following command:
pwconv

   To enable shadowed group passwords, run:
grpconv

   Under normal circumstances, passwords will not have been created yet.
   However, if returning to this section later to enable shadowing, reset
   any current user passwords with the passwd command or any group
   passwords with the gpasswd command.

6.54.3. Setting the root password

   Choose a password for user root and set it by running:
passwd root

6.54.4. Contents of Shadow

   Installed programs: chage, chfn, chpasswd, chsh, expiry, faillog,
   gpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv,
   lastlog, login, logoutd, mkpasswd, newgrp, newusers, passwd, pwck,
   pwconv, pwunconv, sg (link to newgrp), useradd, userdel, usermod, vigr
   (link to vipw), and vipw
   Installed libraries: libshadow.[a,so]

Short Descriptions

   chage

   Used to change the maximum number of days between obligatory password
   changes
   chfn     

   Used to change a user's full name and other information
   chpasswd 

   Used to update the passwords of an entire series of user accounts
   chsh     

   Used to change a user's default login shell
   expiry   

   Checks and enforces the current password expiration policy
   faillog

   Is used to examine the log of login failures, to set a maximum number
   of failures before an account is blocked, or to reset the failure
   count
   gpasswd  

   Is used to add and delete members and administrators to groups
   groupadd 

   Creates a group with the given name
   groupdel 

   Deletes the group with the given name
   groupmod 

   Is used to modify the given group's name or GID
   grpck    

   Verifies the integrity of the group files /etc/group and /etc/gshadow
   grpconv  

   Creates or updates the shadow group file from the normal group file
   grpunconv

   Updates /etc/group from /etc/gshadow and then deletes the latter
   lastlog  

   Reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user
   login    

   Is used by the system to let users sign on
   logoutd  

   Is a daemon used to enforce restrictions on log-on time and ports
   mkpasswd 

   Generates random passwords
   newgrp   

   Is used to change the current GID during a login session
   newusers 

   Is used to create or update an entire series of user accounts
   passwd   

   Is used to change the password for a user or group account
   pwck

   Verifies the integrity of the password files /etc/passwd and
   /etc/shadow
   pwconv

   Creates or updates the shadow password file from the normal password
   file
   pwunconv 

   Updates /etc/passwd from /etc/shadow and then deletes the latter
   sg

   Executes a given command while the user's GID is set to that of the
   given group
   su       

   Runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs
   useradd

   Creates a new user with the given name, or updates the default
   new-user information
   userdel  

   Deletes the given user account
   usermod

   Is used to modify the given user's login name, User Identification
   (UID), shell, initial group, home directory, etc.
   vigr     

   Edits the /etc/group or /etc/gshadow files
   vipw     

   Edits the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow files
   libshadow

   Contains functions used by most programs in this package

6.55. Sysklogd-1.4.1

   The Sysklogd package contains programs for logging system messages,
   such as those given by the kernel when unusual things happen.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 704 KB
   Installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, Make

6.55.1. Installation of Sysklogd

   The following patch fixes various issues, including a problem building
   Sysklogd with Linux 2.6 series kernels
patch -Np1 -i ../sysklogd-1.4.1-fixes-1.patch

   Compile the package:
make

   Install the package:
make install

6.55.2. Configuring Sysklogd

   Create a new /etc/syslog.conf file by running the following:
cat > /etc/syslog.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/syslog.conf

auth,authpriv.* -/var/log/auth.log
*.*;auth,authpriv.none -/var/log/sys.log
daemon.* -/var/log/daemon.log
kern.* -/var/log/kern.log
mail.* -/var/log/mail.log
user.* -/var/log/user.log
*.emerg *

# log the bootscript output:
local2.* -/var/log/boot.log

# End /etc/syslog.conf
EOF

6.55.3. Contents of Sysklogd

   Installed programs: klogd and syslogd

Short Descriptions

   klogd  

   A system daemon for intercepting and logging kernel messages
   syslogd

   Logs the messages that system programs offer for logging. Every logged
   message contains at least a date stamp and a hostname, and normally
   the program's name too, but that depends on how trusting the logging
   daemon is told to be

6.56. Sysvinit-2.86

   The Sysvinit package contains programs for controlling the startup,
   running, and shutdown of the system.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 1012 KB
   Installation depends on: Binutils, Coreutils, GCC, Glibc, and Make

6.56.1. Installation of Sysvinit

   When run-levels are changed (for example, when halting the system),
   init sends termination signals to those processes that init itself
   started and that should not be running in the new run-level. While
   doing this, init outputs messages like "Sending processes the TERM
   signal" which seem to imply that it is sending these signals to all
   currently running processes. To avoid this misinterpretation, modify
   the source so that these messages read like "Sending processes started
   by init the TERM signal" instead:
sed -i 's@Sending processes@& started by init@g' \
    src/init.c

   Compile the package:
make -C src

   Install the package:
make -C src install

6.56.2. Configuring Sysvinit

   Create a new file /etc/inittab by running the following:
cat > /etc/inittab << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/inittab

id:3:initdefault:

si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc sysinit

l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 0
l1:S1:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 1
l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 2
l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 3
l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 4
l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 5
l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 6

ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now

su:S016:once:/sbin/sulogin

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty1 9600
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty2 9600
3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty3 9600
4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty4 9600
5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty5 9600
6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -I '\033(K' tty6 9600

# End /etc/inittab
EOF

   The -I '\033(K' option tells agetty to send this escape sequence to
   the terminal before doing anything else. This escape sequence switches
   the console character set to a user-defined one, which can be modified
   by running the setfont program. The console initscript from the
   LFS-Bootscripts package calls the setfont program during system
   startup. Sending this escape sequence is necessary for people who use
   non-ISO 8859-1 screen fonts, but it does not affect native English
   speakers.

6.56.3. Contents of Sysvinit

   Installed programs: halt, init, killall5, last, lastb (link to last),
   mesg, pidof (link to killall5), poweroff (link to halt), reboot (link
   to halt), runlevel, shutdown, sulogin, telinit (link to init),
   utmpdump, and wall

Short Descriptions

   halt

   Normally invokes shutdown with the -h option, except when already in
   run-level 0, then it tells the kernel to halt the system; it notes in
   the file /var/log/wtmp that the system is being brought down
   init

   The first process to be started when the kernel has initialized the
   hardware which takes over the boot process and starts all the proceses
   it is instructed to
   killall5

   Sends a signal to all processes, except the processes in its own
   session so it will not kill the shell running the script that called
   it
   last

   Shows which users last logged in (and out), searching back through the
   /var/log/wtmp file; it also shows system boots, shutdowns, and
   run-level changes
   lastb     

   Shows the failed login attempts, as logged in /var/log/btmp
   mesg

   Controls whether other users can send messages to the current user's
   terminal
   mountpoint

   Checks if the directory is a mountpoint
   pidof     

   Reports the PIDs of the given programs
   poweroff

   Tells the kernel to halt the system and switch off the computer (see
   halt)
   reboot    

   Tells the kernel to reboot the system (see halt)
   runlevel

   Reports the previous and the current run-level, as noted in the last
   run-level record in /var/run/utmp
   shutdown

   Brings the system down in a secure way, signaling all processes and
   notifying all logged-in users
   sulogin

   Allows root to log in; it is normally invoked by init when the system
   goes into single user mode
   telinit   

   Tells init which run-level to change to
   utmpdump

   Displays the content of the given login file in a more user-friendly
   format
   wall      

   Writes a message to all logged-in users

6.57. Tar-1.15.1

   The Tar package contains an archiving program.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 12.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, and Sed

6.57.1. Installation of Tar

   Tar has a bug when the -S option is used with files larger than 4 GB.
   The following patch properly fixes this issue:
patch -Np1 -i ../tar-1.15.1-sparse_fix-1.patch

   Prepare Tar for compilation:
./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin --libexecdir=/usr/sbin

   Compile the package:
make

   To test the results, issue: make check.

   Install the package:
make install

6.57.2. Contents of Tar

   Installed programs: rmt and tar

Short Descriptions

   rmt

   Remotely manipulates a magnetic tape drive through an interprocess
   communication connection
   tar

   Creates, extracts files from, and lists the contents of archives, also
   known as tarballs

6.58. Udev-056

   The Udev package contains programs for dynamic creation of device
   nodes.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 6.7 MB
   Installation depends on: Coreutils and Make

6.58.1. Installation of Udev

   Compile the package:
make udevdir=/dev

   udevdir=/dev
          This tells udev in which directory devices nodes are to be
          created.

   To test the results, issue: make test.

   Install the package:
make DESTDIR=/ udevdir=/dev install

   The meaning of the make option:

   DESTDIR=/
          This prevents the Udev build process from killing any udevd
          processes that may be running on the host system.

   Udev's configuration is far from ideal by default, so install the
   configuration files here:
cp -v ../udev-config-4.rules /etc/udev/rules.d/25-lfs.rules

   Run the udevstart program to create our full complement of device
   nodes.
/sbin/udevstart

6.58.2. Contents of Udev

   Installed programs: udev, udevd, udevsend, udevstart, udevinfo, and
   udevtest
   Installed directory: /etc/udev

Short Descriptions

   udev

   Creates device nodes in /dev or renames network interfaces (not in
   LFS) in response to hotplug events
   udevd

   A daemon that reorders hotplug events before submitting them to udev,
   thus avoiding various race conditions
   udevsend 

   Delivers hotplug events to udevd
   udevstart

   Creates device nodes in /dev that correspond to drivers compiled
   directly into the kernel; it performs that task by simulating hotplug
   events presumably dropped by the kernel before invocation of this
   program (e.g., because the root filesystem has not been mounted) and
   submitting such synthetic hotplug events to udev
   udevinfo

   Allows users to query the udev database for information on any device
   currently present on the system; it also provides a way to query any
   device in the sysfs tree to help create udev rules
   udevtest

   Simulates a udev run for the given device, and prints out the name of
   the node the real udev would have created or (not in LFS) the name of
   the renamed network interface
   /etc/udev

   Contains udev configuation files, device permissions, and rules for
   device naming

6.59. Util-linux-2.12q

   The Util-linux package contains miscellaneous utility programs. Among
   them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles, partitions,
   and messages.
   Approximate build time: 0.2 SBU
   Required disk space: 11.6 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils, GCC,
   Gettext, Glibc, Grep, Make, Ncurses, Sed, and Zlib

6.59.1. FHS compliance notes

   The FHS recommends using the /var/lib/hwclock directory instead of the
   usual /etc directory as the location for the adjtime file. To make the
   hwclock program FHS-compliant, run the following:
sed -i 's@etc/adjtime@var/lib/hwclock/adjtime@g' \
    hwclock/hwclock.c
mkdir -p /var/lib/hwclock

6.59.2. Installation of Util-linux

   Util-linux fails to compile against newer versions of
   Linux-Libc-Headers. The following patch properly fixes this issue:
patch -Np1 -i ../util-linux-2.12q-cramfs-1.patch

   Util-linux has a security vulnerability that could allow a user to
   remount a volume without the nosuid option. The following patch fixes
   this issue:
patch -Np1 -i ../util-linux-2.12q-umount_fix-1.patch

   Prepare Util-linux for compilation:
./configure

   Compile the package:
make HAVE_KILL=yes HAVE_SLN=yes

   The meaning of the make parameters:

   HAVE_KILL=yes
          This prevents the kill program (already installed by Procps)
          from being built and installed again.

   HAVE_SLN=yes
          This prevents the sln program (a statically linked version of
          ln already installed by Glibc) from being built and installed
          again.

   This package does not come with a test suite.

   Install the package and move the logger binary to /bin as it is needed
   by the LFS-Bootscripts package:
make HAVE_KILL=yes HAVE_SLN=yes install
mv /usr/bin/logger /bin

6.59.3. Contents of Util-linux

   Installed programs: agetty, arch, blockdev, cal, cfdisk, chkdupexe,
   col, colcrt, colrm, column, ctrlaltdel, cytune, ddate, dmesg, elvtune,
   fdformat, fdisk, fsck.cramfs, fsck.minix, getopt, hexdump, hwclock,
   ipcrm, ipcs, isosize, line, logger, look, losetup, mcookie, mkfs,
   mkfs.bfs, mkfs.cramfs, mkfs.minix, mkswap, more, mount, namei, pg,
   pivot_root, ramsize (link to rdev), raw, rdev, readprofile, rename,
   renice, rev, rootflags (link to rdev), script, setfdprm, setsid,
   setterm, sfdisk, swapdev, swapoff (link to swapon), swapon, tunelp,
   ul, umount, vidmode (link to rdev), whereis, and write

Short Descriptions

   agetty

   Opens a tty port, prompts for a login name, and then invokes the login
   program
   arch       

   Reports the machine's architecture
   blockdev   

   Allows users to call block device ioctls from the command line
   cal        

   Displays a simple calendar
   cfdisk     

   Manipulates the partition table of the given device
   chkdupexe  

   Finds duplicate executables
   col        

   Filters out reverse line feeds
   colcrt

   Filters nroff output for terminals that lack some capabilities, such
   as overstriking and half-lines
   colrm      

   Filters out the given columns
   column     

   Formats a given file into multiple columns
   ctrlaltdel

   Sets the function of the Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination to a hard or a
   soft reset
   cytune     

   Tunes the parameters of the serial line drivers for Cyclades cards
   ddate

   Gives the Discordian date or converts the given Gregorian date to a
   Discordian one
   dmesg      

   Dumps the kernel boot messages
   elvtune    

   Tunes the performance and interactivity of a block device
   fdformat   

   Low-level formats a floppy disk
   fdisk      

   Manipulates the partition table of the given device
   fsck.cramfs

   Performs a consistency check on the Cramfs file system on the given
   device
   fsck.minix

   Performs a consistency check on the Minix file system on the given
   device
   getopt     

   Parses options in the given command line
   hexdump    

   Dumps the given file in hexadecimal or in another given format
   hwclock

   Reads or sets the system's hardware clock, also called the Real-Time
   Clock (RTC) or Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) clock
   ipcrm      

   Removes the given Inter-Process Communication (IPC) resource
   ipcs       

   Provides IPC status information
   isosize    

   Reports the size of an iso9660 file system
   line       

   Copies a single line
   logger     

   Enters the given message into the system log
   look       

   Displays lines that begin with the given string
   losetup    

   Sets up and controls loop devices
   mcookie    

   Generates magic cookies (128-bit random hexadecimal numbers) for xauth
   mkfs       

   Builds a file system on a device (usually a hard disk partition)
   mkfs.bfs   

   Creates a Santa Cruz Operations (SCO) bfs file system
   mkfs.cramfs

   Creates a cramfs file system
   mkfs.minix 

   Creates a Minix file system
   mkswap     

   Initializes the given device or file to be used as a swap area
   more       

   A filter for paging through text one screen at a time
   mount

   Attaches the file system on the given device to a specified directory
   in the file-system tree
   namei      

   Shows the symbolic links in the given pathnames
   pg         

   Displays a text file one screen full at a time
   pivot_root

   Makes the given file system the new root file system of the current
   process
   ramsize    

   Sets the size of the RAM disk in a bootable image
   raw        

   Used to bind a Linux raw character device to a block device
   rdev

   Queries and sets the root device, among other things, in a bootable
   image
   readprofile

   Reads kernel profiling information
   rename     

   Renames the given files, replacing a given string with another
   renice     

   Alters the priority of running processes
   rev        

   Reverses the lines of a given file
   rootflags  

   Sets the rootflags in a bootable image
   script     

   Makes a typescript of a terminal session
   setfdprm   

   Sets user-provided floppy disk parameters
   setsid     

   Runs the given program in a new session
   setterm    

   Sets terminal attributes
   sfdisk     

   A disk partition table manipulator
   swapdev    

   Sets the swap device in a bootable image
   swapoff    

   Disables devices and files for paging and swapping
   swapon

   Enables devices and files for paging and swapping and lists the
   devices and files currently in use
   tunelp     

   Tunes the parameters of the line printer
   ul

   A filter for translating underscores into escape sequences indicating
   underlining for the terminal in use
   umount     

   Disconnects a file system from the system's file tree
   vidmode    

   Sets the video mode in a bootable image
   whereis

   Reports the location of the binary, source, and man page for the given
   command
   write

   Sends a message to the given user if that user has not disabled
   receipt of such messages

6.60. About Debugging Symbols

   Most programs and libraries are, by default, compiled with debugging
   symbols included (with gcc's -g option). This means that when
   debugging a program or library that was compiled with debugging
   information included, the debugger can provide not only memory
   addresses, but also the names of the routines and variables.

   However, the inclusion of these debugging symbols enlarges a program
   or library significantly. The following is an example of the amount of
   space these symbols occupy:
     * a bash binary with debugging symbols: 1200 KB
     * a bash binary without debugging symbols: 480 KB
     * Glibc and GCC files (/lib and /usr/lib) with debugging symbols: 87
       MB
     * Glibc and GCC files without debugging symbols: 16 MB

   Sizes may vary depending on which compiler and C library were used,
   but when comparing programs with and without debugging symbols, the
   difference will usually be a factor between two and five.

   Because most users will never use a debugger on their system software,
   a lot of disk space can be regained by removing these symbols. The
   next section shows how to strip all debugging symbols from the
   programs and libraries. Additional information on system optimization
   can be found at
   [481]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/optimizatio
   n.txt.

6.61. Stripping Again

   If the intended user is not a programmer and does not plan to do any
   debugging on the system software, the system size can be decreased by
   about 200 MB by removing the debugging symbols from binaries and
   libraries. This causes no inconvenience other than not being able to
   debug the software fully anymore.

   Most people who use the command mentioned below do not experience any
   difficulties. However, it is easy to make a typo and render the new
   system unusable, so before running the strip command, it is a good
   idea to make a backup of the current situation.

   Before performing the stripping, take special care to ensure that none
   of the binaries that are about to be stripped are running. If unsure
   whether the user entered chroot with the command given in
   [482]Section 6.3, "Entering the Chroot Environment," first exit from
   chroot:
logout

   Then reenter it with:
chroot $LFS /tools/bin/env -i \
    HOME=/root TERM=$TERM PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin \
    /tools/bin/bash --login

   Now the binaries and libraries can be safely stripped:
/tools/bin/find /{,usr/}{bin,lib,sbin} -type f \
   -exec /tools/bin/strip --strip-debug '{}' ';'

   A large number of files will be reported as having their file format
   not recognized. These warnings can be safely ignored. These warnings
   indicate that those files are scripts instead of binaries.

   If disk space is very tight, the --strip-all option can be used on the
   binaries in /{,usr/}{bin,sbin} to gain several more megabytes. Do not
   use this option on libraries--they will be destroyed.

6.62. Cleaning Up

   From now on, when reentering the chroot environment after exiting, use
   the following modified chroot command:
chroot "$LFS" /usr/bin/env -i \
    HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin \
    /bin/bash --login

   The reason for this is that the programs in /tools are no longer
   needed. Since they are no longer needed you can delete the /tools
   directory if so desired or tar it up and keep it to build another
   final system.

Note

   Removing /tools will also remove the temporary copies of Tcl, Expect,
   and DejaGNU which were used for running the toolchain tests. If you
   need these programs later on, they will need to be recompiled and
   re-installed. The BLFS book has instructions for this (see
   [483]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/).

Chapter 7. Setting Up System Bootscripts

7.1. Introduction

   This chapter details how to install and configure the LFS-Bootscripts
   package. Most of these scripts will work without modification, but a
   few require additional configuration files because they deal with
   hardware-dependent information.

   System-V style init scripts are employed in this book because they are
   widely used. For additional options, a hint detailing the BSD style
   init setup is available at
   [484]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/bsd-init.tx
   t. Searching the LFS mailing lists for "depinit" will also offer
   additional choices.

   If using an alternative style of init scripts, skip this chapter and
   move on to [485]Chapter 8.

7.2. LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1

   The LFS-Bootscripts package contains a set of scripts to start/stop
   the LFS system at bootup/shutdown.
   Approximate build time: 0.1 SBU
   Required disk space: 0.3 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash and Coreutils

7.2.1. Installation of LFS-Bootscripts

   Install the package:
make install

7.2.2. Contents of LFS-Bootscripts

   Installed scripts: checkfs, cleanfs, console, functions, halt,
   hotplug, ifdown, ifup, localnet, mountfs, mountkernfs, network, rc,
   reboot, sendsignals, setclock, static, swap, sysklogd, template, and
   udev

Short Descriptions

   checkfs

   Checks the integrity of the file systems before they are mounted (with
   the exception of journal and network based file systems)
   cleanfs

   Removes files that should not be preserved between reboots, such as
   those in /var/run/ and /var/lock/; it re-creates /var/run/utmp and
   removes the possibly present /etc/nologin, /fastboot, and /forcefsck
   files
   console

   Loads the correct keymap table for the desired keyboard layout; it
   also sets the screen font
   functions

   Contains common functions, such as error and status checking, that are
   used by several bootscripts
   halt       

   Halts the system
   hotplug    

   Loads modules for system devices
   ifdown     

   Assists the network script with stopping network devices
   ifup       

   Assists the network script with starting network devices
   localnet   

   Sets up the system's hostname and local loopback device
   mountfs

   Mounts all file systems, except ones that are marked noauto or are
   network based
   mountkernfs

   Mounts virtual kernel file systems, such as proc
   network

   Sets up network interfaces, such as network cards, and sets up the
   default gateway (where applicable)
   rc

   The master run-level control script; it is responsible for running all
   the other bootscripts one-by-one, in a sequence determined by the name
   of the symbolic links being processed
   reboot     

   Reboots the system
   sendsignals

   Makes sure every process is terminated before the system reboots or
   halts
   setclock

   Resets the kernel clock to local time in case the hardware clock is
   not set to UTC time
   static

   Provides the functionality needed to assign a static Internet Protocol
   (IP) address to a network interface
   swap       

   Enables and disables swap files and partitions
   sysklogd   

   Starts and stops the system and kernel log daemons
   template   

   A template to create custom bootscripts for other daemons
   udev       

   Prepares the /dev directory and starts Udev

7.3. How Do These Bootscripts Work?

   Linux uses a special booting facility named SysVinit that is based on
   a concept of run-levels. It can be quite different from one system to
   another, so it cannot be assumed that because things worked in one
   particular Linux distribution, they should work the same in LFS too.
   LFS has its own way of doing things, but it respects generally
   accepted standards.

   SysVinit (which will be referred to as "init" from now on) works using
   a run-levels scheme. There are seven (numbered 0 to 6) run-levels
   (actually, there are more run-levels, but they are for special cases
   and are generally not used. See init(8) for more details), and each
   one of those corresponds to the actions the computer is supposed to
   perform when it starts up. The default run-level is 3. Here are the
   descriptions of the different run-levels as they are implemented:

   0: halt the computer
   1: single-user mode
   2: multi-user mode without networking
   3: multi-user mode with networking
   4: reserved for customization, otherwise does the same as 3
   5: same as 4, it is usually used for GUI login (like X's
   xdm or KDE's  kdm)
   6: reboot the computer

   The command used to change run-levels is init [runlevel], where
   [runlevel] is the target run-level. For example, to reboot the
   computer, a user could issue the init 6 command, which is an alias for
   the reboot command. Likewise, init 0 is an alias for the halt command.

   There are a number of directories under /etc/rc.d that look like rc?.d
   (where ? is the number of the run-level) and rcsysinit.d, all
   containing a number of symbolic links. Some begin with a K, the others
   begin with an S, and all of them have two numbers following the
   initial letter. The K means to stop (kill) a service and the S means
   to start a service. The numbers determine the order in which the
   scripts are run, from 00 to 99--the lower the number the earlier it
   gets executed. When init switches to another run-level, the
   appropriate services are either started or stopped, depending on the
   runlevel chosen.

   The real scripts are in /etc/rc.d/init.d. They do the actual work, and
   the symlinks all point to them. Killing links and starting links point
   to the same script in /etc/rc.d/init.d. This is because the scripts
   can be called with different parameters like start, stop, restart,
   reload, and status. When a K link is encountered, the appropriate
   script is run with the stop argument. When an S link is encountered,
   the appropriate script is run with the start argument.

   There is one exception to this explanation. Links that start with an S
   in the rc0.d and rc6.d directories will not cause anything to be
   started. They will be called with the parameter stop to stop
   something. The logic behind this is that when a user is going to
   reboot or halt the system, nothing needs to be started. The system
   only needs to be stopped.

   These are descriptions of what the arguments make the scripts do:

   start
          The service is started.

   stop
          The service is stopped.

   restart
          The service is stopped and then started again.

   reload
          The configuration of the service is updated. This is used after
          the configuration file of a service was modified, when the
          service does not need to be restarted.

   status
          Tells if the service is running and with which PIDs.

   Feel free to modify the way the boot process works (after all, it is
   your own LFS system). The files given here are an example of how it
   can be done.

7.4. Device and Module Handling on an LFS System

   In [486]Chapter 6, we installed the Udev package. Before we go into
   the details regarding how this works, a brief history of previous
   methods of handling devices is in order.

   Linux systems in general traditionally use a static device creation
   method, whereby a great many device nodes are created under /dev
   (sometimes literally thousands of nodes), regardless of whether the
   corresponding hardware devices actually exist. This is typically done
   via a MAKEDEV script, which contains a number of calls to the mknod
   program with the relevant major and minor device numbers for every
   possible device that might exist in the world. Using the Udev method,
   only those devices which are detected by the kernel get device nodes
   created for them. Because these device nodes will be created each time
   the system boots, they will be stored on a tmpfs file system (a
   virtual file system that resides entirely in system memory). Device
   nodes do not require much space, so the memory that is used is
   negligible.

7.4.1. History

   In February 2000, a new filesystem called devfs was merged into the
   2.3.46 kernel and was made available during the 2.4 series of stable
   kernels. Although it was present in the kernel source itself, this
   method of creating devices dynamically never received overwhelming
   support from the core kernel developers.

   The main problem with the approach adopted by devfs was the way it
   handled device detection, creation, and naming. The latter issue, that
   of device node naming, was perhaps the most critical. It is generally
   accepted that if device names are allowed to be configurable, then the
   device naming policy should be up to a system administrator, not
   imposed on them by any particular developer(s). The devfs file system
   also suffers from race conditions that are inherent in its design and
   cannot be fixed without a substantial revision to the kernel. It has
   also been marked as deprecated due to a lack of recent maintenance.

   With the development of the unstable 2.5 kernel tree, later released
   as the 2.6 series of stable kernels, a new virtual filesystem called
   sysfs came to be. The job of sysfs is to export a view of the system's
   hardrware configuration to userspace processes. With this
   userspace-visible representation, the possibility of seeing a
   userspace replacement for devfs became much more realistic.

7.4.2. Udev Implementation

   The sysfs filesystem was mentioned briefly above. One may wonder how
   sysfs knows about the devices present on a system and what device
   numbers should be used for them. Drivers that have been compiled into
   the kernel directly register their objects with sysfs as they are
   detected by the kernel. For drivers compiled as modules, this
   registration will happen when the module is loaded. Once the sysfs
   filesystem is mounted (on /sys), data which the built-in drivers
   registered with sysfs are available to userspace processes and to udev
   for device node creation.

   The S10udev initscript takes care of creating these device nodes when
   Linux is booted. This script starts by registering /sbin/udevsend as a
   hotplug event handler. Hotplug events (discussed below) are not
   usually generated during this stage, but udev is registered just in
   case they do occur. The udevstart program then walks through the /sys
   filesystem and creates devices under /dev that match the descriptions.
   For example, /sys/class/tty/vcs/dev contains the string "7:0" This
   string is used by udevstart to create /dev/vcs with major number 7 and
   minor 0. The names and permissions of the nodes created under the /dev
   directory are configured according to the rules specified in the files
   within the /etc/udev/rules.d/ directory. These are numbered in a
   similar fashion to the LFS-Bootscripts package. If udev can't find a
   rule for the device it is creating, it will default permissions to 660
   and ownership to root:root.

   Once the above stage is complete, all devices that were already
   present and have compiled-in drivers will be available for use. This
   leads us to the devices that have modular drivers.

   Earlier, we mentioned the concept of a "hotplug event handler." When a
   new device connection is detected by the kernel, the kernel will
   generate a hotplug event and look at the file /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug
   to determine the userspace program that handles the device's
   connection. The udev bootscript registered udevsend as this handler.
   When these hotplug events are generated, the kernel will tell udev to
   check the /sys filesystem for the information pertaining to this new
   device and create the /dev entry for it.

   This brings us to one problem that exists with udev, and likewise with
   devfs before it. It is commonly referred to as the "chicken and egg"
   problem. Most Linux distributions handle loading modules via entries
   in /etc/modules.conf. Access to a device node causes the appropriate
   kernel module to load. With udev, this method will not work because
   the device node does not exist until the module is loaded. To solve
   this, the S05modules bootscript was added to the LFS-Bootscripts
   package, along with the /etc/sysconfig/modules file. By adding module
   names to the modules file, these modules will be loaded when the
   computer starts up. This allows udev to detect the devices and create
   the appropriate device nodes.

   Note that on slower machines or for drivers that create a lot of
   device nodes, the process of creating devices may take a few seconds
   to complete. This means that some device nodes may not be immediately
   accessible.

7.4.3. Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices

   When you plug in a device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) MP3
   player, the kernel recognizes that the device is now connected and
   generates a hotplug event. If the driver is already loaded (either
   because it was compiled into the kernel or because it was loaded via
   the S05modules bootscript), udev will be called upon to create the
   relevant device node(s) according to the sysfs data available in /sys.

   If the driver for the just plugged in device is available as a module
   but currently unloaded, the Hotplug package will load the appropriate
   module and make this device available by creating the device node(s)
   for it.

7.4.4. Problems with Creating Devices

   There are a few known problems when it comes to automatically creating
   device nodes:

   1) A kernel driver may not export its data to sysfs.

   This is most common with third party drivers from outside the kernel
   tree. Udev will be unable to automatically create device nodes for
   such drivers. Use the /etc/sysconfig/createfiles configuration file to
   manually create the devices. Consult the devices.txt file inside the
   kernel documentation or the documentation for that driver to find the
   proper major/minor numbers.

   2) A non-hardware device is required. This is most common with the
   Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) project's Open Sound System
   (OSS) compatibility module. These types of devices can be handled in
   one of two ways:
     * Adding the module names to /etc/sysconfig/modules
     * Using an "install" line in /etc/modprobe.conf. This tells the
       modprobe command "when loading this module, also load this other
       module, at the same time." For example:
install snd-pcm modprobe -i snd-pcm ; modprobe \
    snd-pcm-oss ; true
       This will cause the system to load both the snd-pcm and
       snd-pcm-oss modules when any request is made to load the driver
       snd-pcm.

7.4.5. Useful Reading

   Additional helpful documentation is available at the following sites:
     * A Userspace Implementation of devfs
       [487]http://www.kroah.com/linux/talks/ols_2003_udev_paper/Reprint-
       Kroah-Hartman-OLS2003.pdf
     * udev FAQ
       [488]http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev-FAQ
     * The Linux Kernel Driver Model
       [489]http://public.planetmirror.com/pub/lca/2003/proceedings/paper
       s/Patrick_Mochel/Patrick_Mochel.pdf

7.5. Configuring the setclock Script

   The setclock script reads the time from the hardware clock, also known
   as the BIOS or the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)
   clock. If the hardware clock is set to UTC, this script will convert
   the hardware clock's time to the local time using the /etc/localtime
   file (which tells the hwclock program which timezone the user is in).
   There is no way to detect whether or not the hardware clock is set to
   UTC, so this needs to be configured manually.

   If you cannot remember whether or not the hardware clock is set to
   UTC, find out by running the hwclock --localtime --show command. This
   will display what the current time is according to the hardware clock.
   If this time matches whatever your watch says, then the hardware clock
   is set to local time. If the output from hwclock is not local time,
   chances are it is set to UTC time. Verify this by adding or
   subtracting the proper amount of hours for the timezone to the time
   shown by hwclock. For example, if you are currently in the MST
   timezone, which is also known as GMT -0700, add seven hours to the
   local time.

   Change the value of the UTC variable below to a value of 0 (zero) if
   the hardware clock is not set to UTC time.

   Create a new file /etc/sysconfig/clock by running the following:
cat > /etc/sysconfig/clock << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/sysconfig/clock

UTC=1

# End /etc/sysconfig/clock
EOF

   A good hint explaining how to deal with time on LFS is available at
   [490]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/time.txt.
   It explains issues such as time zones, UTC, and the TZ environment
   variable.

7.6. Configuring the Linux Console

   This section discusses how to configure the console bootscript that
   sets up the keyboard map and the console font. If non-ASCII characters
   (e.g., the British pound sign and Euro character) will not be used and
   the keyboard is a U.S. one, skip this section. Without the
   configuration file, the console bootscript will do nothing.

   The console script reads the /etc/sysconfig/console file for
   configuration information. Decide which keymap and screen font will be
   used. Various language-specific HOWTO's can also help with this (see
   [491]http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/other-lang.html. A pre-made
   /etc/sysconfig/console file with known settings for several countries
   was installed with the LFS-Bootscripts package, so the relevant
   section can be uncommented if the country is supported. If still in
   doubt, look in the /usr/share/kbd directory for valid keymaps and
   screen fonts. Read loadkeys(1) and setfont(8) to determine the correct
   arguments for these programs. Once decided, create the configuration
   file with the following command:
cat >/etc/sysconfig/console <<"EOF"
KEYMAP="[arguments for loadkeys]"
FONT="[arguments for setfont]"
EOF

   For example, for Spanish users who also want to use the Euro character
   (accessible by pressing AltGr+E), the following settings are correct:
cat >/etc/sysconfig/console <<"EOF"
KEYMAP="es euro2"
FONT="lat9-16 -u iso01"
EOF

Note

   The FONT line above is correct only for the ISO 8859-15 character set.
   If using ISO 8859-1 and, therefore, a pound sign instead of Euro, the
   correct FONT line would be:
FONT="lat1-16"

   If the KEYMAP or FONT variable is not set, the console initscript will
   not run the corresponding program.

   In some keymaps, the Backspace and Delete keys send characters
   different from ones in the default keymap built into the kernel. This
   confuses some applications. For example, Emacs displays its help
   (instead of erasing the character before the cursor) when Backspace is
   pressed. To check if the keymap in use is affected (this works only
   for i386 keymaps):
zgrep '\W14\W' [/path/to/your/keymap]

   If the keycode 14 is Backspace instead of Delete, create the following
   keymap snippet to fix this issue:
mkdir -pv /etc/kbd && cat > /etc/kbd/bs-sends-del <<"EOF"
                  keycode  14 = Delete Delete Delete Delete
              alt keycode  14 = Meta_Delete
        altgr alt keycode  14 = Meta_Delete
                  keycode 111 = Remove
    altgr control keycode 111 = Boot
      control alt keycode 111 = Boot
altgr control alt keycode 111 = Boot
EOF

   Tell the console script to load this snippet after the main keymap:
cat >>/etc/sysconfig/console <<"EOF"
KEYMAP_CORRECTIONS="/etc/kbd/bs-sends-del"
EOF

   To compile the keymap directly into the kernel instead of setting it
   every time from the console bootscript, follow the instructions given
   in [492]Section 8.3, "Linux-2.6.11.12." Doing this ensures that the
   keyboard will always work as expected, even when booting into
   maintenance mode (by passing init=/bin/sh to the kernel), because the
   console bootscript will not be run in that situation. Additionally,
   the kernel will not set the screen font automatically. This should not
   pose many problems because ASCII characters will be handled correctly,
   and it is unlikely that a user would need to rely on non-ASCII
   characters while in maintenance mode.

   Since the kernel will set up the keymap, it is possible to omit the
   KEYMAP variable from the /etc/sysconfig/console configuration file. It
   can also be left in place, if desired, without consequence. Keeping it
   could be beneficial if running several different kernels where it is
   difficult to ensure that the keymap is compiled into every one of
   them.

7.7. Configuring the sysklogd script

   The sysklogd script invokes the syslogd program with the -m 0 option.
   This option turns off the periodic timestamp mark that syslogd writes
   to the log files every 20 minutes by default. If you want to turn on
   this periodic timestamp mark, edit the sysklogd script and make the
   changes accordingly. See man syslogd for more information.

7.8. Creating the /etc/inputrc File

   The inputrc file handles keyboard mapping for specific situations.
   This file is the startup file used by Readline -- the input-related
   library -- used by Bash and most other shells.

   Most people do not need user-specific keyboard mappings so the command
   below creates a global /etc/inputrc used by everyone who logs in. If
   you later decide you need to override the defaults on a per-user
   basis, you can create a .inputrc file in the user's home directory
   with the modified mappings.

   For more information on how to edit the inputrc file, see info bash
   under the Readline Init File section. info readline is also a good
   source of information.

   Below is a generic global inputrc along with comments to explain what
   the various options do. Note that comments cannot be on the same line
   as commands. Create the file using the following command:
cat > /etc/inputrc << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/inputrc
# Modified by Chris Lynn <roryo@roryo.dynup.net>

# Allow the command prompt to wrap to the next line
set horizontal-scroll-mode Off

# Enable 8bit input
set meta-flag On
set input-meta On

# Turns off 8th bit stripping
set convert-meta Off

# Keep the 8th bit for display
set output-meta On

# none, visible or audible
set bell-style none

# All of the following map the escape sequence of the
# value contained inside the 1st argument to the
# readline specific functions

"\eOd": backward-word
"\eOc": forward-word

# for linux console
"\e[1~": beginning-of-line
"\e[4~": end-of-line
"\e[5~": beginning-of-history
"\e[6~": end-of-history
"\e[3~": delete-char
"\e[2~": quoted-insert

# for xterm
"\eOH": beginning-of-line
"\eOF": end-of-line

# for Konsole
"\e[H": beginning-of-line
"\e[F": end-of-line

# End /etc/inputrc
EOF

7.9. The Bash Shell Startup Files

   The shell program /bin/bash (hereafter referred to as "the shell")
   uses a collection of startup files to help create an environment to
   run in. Each file has a specific use and may affect login and
   interactive environments differently. The files in the /etc directory
   provide global settings. If an equivalent file exists in the home
   directory, it may override the global settings.

   An interactive login shell is started after a successful login, using
   /bin/login, by reading the /etc/passwd file. An interactive non-login
   shell is started at the command-line (e.g., [prompt]$/bin/bash). A
   non-interactive shell is usually present when a shell script is
   running. It is non-interactive because it is processing a script and
   not waiting for user input between commands.

   For more information, see info bash under the Bash Startup Files and
   Interactive Shells section.

   The files /etc/profile and ~/.bash_profile are read when the shell is
   invoked as an interactive login shell.

   The base /etc/profile below sets some environment variables necessary
   for native language support. Setting them properly results in:
     * The output of programs translated into the native language
     * Correct classification of characters into letters, digits and
       other classes. This is necessary for bash to properly accept
       non-ASCII characters in command lines in non-English locales
     * The correct alphabetical sorting order for the country
     * Appropriate default paper size
     * Correct formatting of monetary, time, and date values

   This script also sets the INPUTRC environment variable that makes Bash
   and Readline use the /etc/inputrc file created earlier.

   Replace [ll] below with the two-letter code for the desired language
   (e.g., "en") and [CC] with the two-letter code for the appropriate
   country (e.g., "GB"). [charmap] should be replaced with the canonical
   charmap for your chosen locale.

   The list of all locales supported by Glibc can be obtained by running
   the following command:
locale -a

   Locales can have a number of synonyms, e.g. "ISO-8859-1" is also
   referred to as "iso8859-1" and "iso88591". Some applications cannot
   handle the various synonyms correctly, so it is safest to choose the
   canonical name for a particular locale. To determine the canonical
   name, run the following command, where [locale name] is the output
   given by locale -a for your preferred locale ("en_GB.iso88591" in our
   example).
LC_ALL=[locale name] locale charmap

   For the "en_GB.iso88591" locale, the above command will print:
ISO-8859-1

   This results in a final locale setting of "en_GB.ISO-8859-1". It is
   important that the locale found using the heuristic above is tested
   prior to it being added to the Bash startup files:
LC_ALL=[locale name] locale country
LC_ALL=[locale name] locale language
LC_ALL=[locale name] locale charmap
LC_ALL=[locale name] locale int_curr_symbol
LC_ALL=[locale name] locale int_prefix

   The above commands should print the country and language names, the
   character encoding used by the locale, the local currency and the
   prefix to dial before the telephone number in order to get into the
   country. If any of the commands above fail with a message similar to
   the one shown below, this means that your locale was either not
   installed in Chapter 6 or is not supported by the default installation
   of Glibc.
locale: Cannot set LC_* to default locale: No such file or directory

   If this happens, you should either install the desired locale using
   the localedef command, or consider choosing a different locale.
   Further instructions assume that there are no such error messages from
   Glibc.

   Some packages beyond LFS may also lack support for your chosen locale.
   One example is the X library (part of the X Window System), which
   outputs the following error message:
Warning: locale not supported by Xlib, locale set to C

   Sometimes it is possible to fix this by removing the charmap part of
   the locale specification, as long as that does not change the
   character map that Glibc associates with the locale (this can be
   checked by running the locale charmap command in both locales). For
   example, one would have to change "de_DE.ISO-8859-15@euro" to
   "de_DE@euro" in order to get this locale recognized by Xlib.

   Other packages can also function incorrectly (but may not necessarily
   display any error messages) if the locale name does not meet their
   expectations. In those cases, investigating how other Linux
   distributions support your locale might provide some useful
   information.

   Once the proper locale settings have been determined, create the
   /etc/profile file:
cat > /etc/profile << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/profile

export LANG=[ll]_[CC].[charmap]
export INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc

# End /etc/profile
EOF

Note

   The "C" (default) and "en_US" (the recommended one for United States
   English users) locales are different.

   Setting the keyboard layout, screen font, and locale-related
   environment variables are the only internationalization steps needed
   to support locales that use ordinary single-byte encodings and
   left-to-right writing direction. More complex cases (including UTF-8
   based locales) require additional steps and additional patches because
   many applications tend to not work properly under such conditions.
   These steps and patches are not included in the LFS book and such
   locales are not yet supported by LFS.

7.10. Configuring the localnet Script

   Part of the job of the localnet script is setting the system's
   hostname. This needs to be configured in the /etc/sysconfig/network
   file.

   Create the /etc/sysconfig/network file and enter a hostname by
   running:
echo "HOSTNAME=[lfs]" > /etc/sysconfig/network

   [lfs] needs to be replaced with the name given to the computer. Do not
   enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) here. That information
   will be put in the /etc/hosts file in the next section.

7.11. Creating the /etc/hosts File

   If a network card is to be configured, decide on the IP address, FQDN,
   and possible aliases for use in the /etc/hosts file. The syntax is:
            <IP address> myhost.example.org aliases

   Unless the computer is to be visible to the Internet (i.e., there is a
   registered domain and a valid block of assigned IP addresses--most
   users do not have this), make sure that the IP address is in the
   private network IP address range. Valid ranges are:
    Class Networks
        A     10.0.0.0
        B     172.16.0.0 through 172.31.0.255
        C     192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255

   A valid IP address could be 192.168.1.1. A valid FQDN for this IP
   could be www.linuxfromscratch.org (not recommended because this is a
   valid registered domain address and could cause domain name server
   issues).

   Even if not using a network card, an FQDN is still required. This is
   necessary for certain programs to operate correctly.

   Create the /etc/hosts file by running:
cat > /etc/hosts << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/hosts (network card version)

127.0.0.1 localhost
[192.168.1.1] [<HOSTNAME>.example.org] [HOSTNAME]

# End /etc/hosts (network card version)
EOF

   The [192.168.1.1] and [<HOSTNAME>.example.org] values need to be
   changed for specific users or requirements (if assigned an IP address
   by a network/system administrator and the machine will be connected to
   an existing network).

   If a network card is not going to be configured, create the /etc/hosts
   file by running:
cat > /etc/hosts << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/hosts (no network card version)

127.0.0.1 [<HOSTNAME>.example.org] [HOSTNAME] localhost

# End /etc/hosts (no network card version)
EOF

7.12. Configuring the network Script

   This section only applies if a network card is to be configured.

   If a network card will not be used, there is likely no need to create
   any configuration files relating to network cards. If that is the
   case, remove the network symlinks from all run-level directories
   (/etc/rc.d/rc*.d).

7.12.1. Creating Network Interface Configuration Files

   Which interfaces are brought up and down by the network script depends
   on the files and directories in the /etc/sysconfig/network-devices
   hierarchy. This directory should contain a sub-directory for each
   interface to be configured, such as ifconfig.xyz, where "xyz" is a
   network interface name. Inside this directory would be files defining
   the attributes to this interface, such as its IP address(es), subnet
   masks, and so forth.

   The following command creates a sample ipv4 file for the eth0 device:
cd /etc/sysconfig/network-devices &&
mkdir -v ifconfig.eth0 &&
cat > ifconfig.eth0/ipv4 << "EOF"
ONBOOT=yes
SERVICE=ipv4-static
IP=192.168.1.1
GATEWAY=192.168.1.2
PREFIX=24
BROADCAST=192.168.1.255
EOF

   The values of these variables must be changed in every file to match
   the proper setup. If the ONBOOT variable is set to "yes" the network
   script will bring up the Network Interface Card (NIC) during booting
   of the system. If set to anything but "yes" the NIC will be ignored by
   the network script and not be brought up.

   The SERVICE variable defines the method used for obtaining the IP
   address. The LFS-Bootscripts package has a modular IP assignment
   format, and creating additional files in the
   /etc/sysconfig/network-devices/services directory allows other IP
   assignment methods. This is commonly used for Dynamic Host
   Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is addressed in the BLFS book.

   The GATEWAY variable should contain the default gateway IP address, if
   one is present. If not, then comment out the variable entirely.

   The PREFIX variable needs to contain the number of bits used in the
   subnet. Each octet in an IP address is 8 bits. If the subnet's netmask
   is 255.255.255.0, then it is using the first three octets (24 bits) to
   specify the network number. If the netmask is 255.255.255.240, it
   would be using the first 28 bits. Prefixes longer than 24 bits are
   commonly used by DSL and cable-based Internet Service Providers
   (ISPs). In this example (PREFIX=24), the netmask is 255.255.255.0.
   Adjust the PREFIX variable according to your specific subnet.

7.12.2. Creating the /etc/resolv.conf File

   If the system is going to be connected to the Internet, it will need
   some means of Domain Name Service (DNS) name resolution to resolve
   Internet domain names to IP addresses, and vice versa. This is best
   achieved by placing the IP address of the DNS server, available from
   the ISP or network administrator, into /etc/resolv.conf. Create the
   file by running the following:
cat > /etc/resolv.conf << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/resolv.conf

domain {[Your Domain Name]}
nameserver [IP address of your primary nameserver]
nameserver [IP address of your secondary nameserver]

# End /etc/resolv.conf
EOF

   Replace [IP address of the nameserver] with the IP address of the DNS
   most appropriate for the setup. There will often be more than one
   entry (requirements demand secondary servers for fallback capability).
   If you only need or want one DNS server, remove the second nameserver
   line from the file. The IP address may also be a router on the local
   network.

Chapter 8. Making the LFS System Bootable

8.1. Introduction

   It is time to make the LFS system bootable. This chapter discusses
   creating an fstab file, building a kernel for the new LFS system, and
   installing the GRUB boot loader so that the LFS system can be selected
   for booting at startup.

8.2. Creating the /etc/fstab File

   The /etc/fstab file is used by some programs to determine where file
   systems are to be mounted by default, in which order, and which must
   be checked (for integrity errors) prior to mounting. Create a new file
   systems table like this:
cat > /etc/fstab << "EOF"
# Begin /etc/fstab

# file system  mount-point  type   options         dump  fsck
#                                                        order

/dev/[xxx]     /            [fff]  defaults        1     1
/dev/[yyy]     swap         swap   pri=1           0     0
proc           /proc        proc   defaults        0     0
sysfs          /sys         sysfs  defaults        0     0
devpts         /dev/pts     devpts gid=4,mode=620  0     0
shm            /dev/shm     tmpfs  defaults        0     0
# End /etc/fstab
EOF

   Replace [xxx], [yyy], and [fff] with the values appropriate for the
   system, for example, hda2, hda5, and ext2. For details on the six
   fields in this file, see man 5 fstab.

   When using a journalling file system, the 1 1 at the end of the line
   should be replaced with 0 0 because such a partition does not need to
   be dumped or checked.

   The /dev/shm mount point for tmpfs is included to allow enabling
   POSIX-shared memory. The kernel must have the required support built
   into it for this to work (more about this is in the next section).
   Please note that very little software currently uses POSIX-shared
   memory. Therefore, consider the /dev/shm mount point optional. For
   more information, see Documentation/filesystems/tmpfs.txt in the
   kernel source tree.

   There are other lines which may be added to the /etc/fstab file. One
   example is a line for USB devices:
            usbfs        /proc/bus/usb usbfs   devgid=14,devmode=0660 0 0

   This option will only work if "Support for Host-side USB" and "USB
   device filesystem" are configured in the kernel. If "Support for
   Host-side USB" is compiled as a module, then usbcore must be listed in
   /etc/sysconfig/modules.

8.3. Linux-2.6.11.12

   The Linux package contains the Linux kernel.
   Approximate build time: 4.20 SBU
   Required disk space: 181 MB
   Installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Findutils, GCC,
   Glibc, Grep, Gzip, Make, Modutils, Perl, and Sed

8.3.1. Installation of the kernel

   Building the kernel involves a few steps--configuration, compilation,
   and installation. Read the README file in the kernel source tree for
   alternative methods to the way this book configures the kernel.

   Prepare for compilation by running the following command:
make mrproper

   This ensures that the kernel tree is absolutely clean. The kernel team
   recommends that this command be issued prior to each kernel
   compilation. Do not rely on the source tree being clean after
   un-tarring.

   If, in [493]Section 7.6, "Configuring the Linux Console," it was
   decided to compile the keymap into the kernel, issue the command
   below:
loadkeys -m /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/[path to  keymap] > \
    drivers/char/defkeymap.c

   For example, if using a Dutch keyboard, use
   /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/nl.map.gz.

   Configure the kernel via a menu-driven interface. BLFS has some
   information regarding particular kernel configuration requirements of
   packages outside of LFS at
   [494]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/view/svn/longindex.html#kern
   el-config-index:
make menuconfig

   Alternatively, make oldconfig may be more appropriate in some
   situations. See the README file for more information.

   If desired, skip kernel configuration by copying the kernel config
   file, .config, from the host system (assuming it is available) to the
   unpacked linux-2.6.11.12 directory. However, we do not recommend this
   option. It is often better to explore all the configuration menus and
   create the kernel configuration from scratch.

Note

   NPTL requires the kernel to be compiled with GCC-3.x or later, in this
   case 3.4.3. It is not recommended to compile the kernel with
   GCC-2.95.x, as this causes failures in the Glibc test suite. Normally,
   this wouldn't be mentioned as LFS doesn't build GCC-2.95.x.
   Unfortunately, the kernel documentation is outdated and still claims
   GCC-2.95.3 is the recommended compiler.

   Compile the kernel image and modules:
make

   If using kernel modules, an /etc/modprobe.conf file may be needed.
   Information pertaining to modules and kernel configuration is located
   in the kernel documentation in the linux-2.6.11.12/Documentation
   directory. Also, modprobe.conf(5) may be of interest.

   Be very careful when reading other documentation relating to kernel
   modules because it usually applies to 2.4.x kernels only. As far as we
   know, kernel configuration issues specific to Hotplug and Udev are not
   documented. The problem is that Udev will create a device node only if
   Hotplug or a user-written script inserts the corresponding module into
   the kernel, and not all modules are detectable by Hotplug. Note that
   statements like the one below in the /etc/modprobe.conf file do not
   work with Udev:
alias char-major-XXX some-module

   Because of the complications with Hotplug, Udev, and modules, we
   strongly recommend starting with a completely non-modular kernel
   configuration, especially if this is the first time using Udev.

   Install the modules, if the kernel configuration uses them:
make modules_install

   After kernel compilation is complete, additional steps are required to
   complete the installation. Some files need to be copied to the /boot
   directory.

   The path to the kernel image may vary depending on the platform being
   used. The following command assumes an x86 architecture:
cp -v arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/lfskernel-2.6.11.12

   System.map is a symbol file for the kernel. It maps the function entry
   points of every function in the kernel API, as well as the addresses
   of the kernel data structures for the running kernel. Issue the
   following command to install the map file:
cp -v System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.11.12

   The kernel configuration file .config produced by the make menuconfig
   step above contains all the configuration selections for the kernel
   that was just compiled. It is a good idea to keep this file for future
   reference:
cp -v .config /boot/config-2.6.11.12

   It is important to note that the files in the kernel source directory
   are not owned by root. Whenever a package is unpacked as user root
   (like we did inside chroot), the files have the user and group IDs of
   whatever they were on the packager's computer. This is usually not a
   problem for any other package to be installed because the source tree
   is removed after the installation. However, the Linux source tree is
   often retained for a long time. Because of this, there is a chance
   that whatever user ID the packager used will be assigned to somebody
   on the machine. That person would then have write access to the kernel
   source.

   If the kernel source tree is going to be retained, run chown -R 0:0 on
   the linux-2.6.11.12 directory to ensure all files are owned by user
   root.

Warning

   Some kernel documentation recommends creating a symlink from
   /usr/src/linux pointing to the kernel source directory. This is
   specific to kernels prior to the 2.6 series and must not be created on
   an LFS system as it can cause problems for packages you may wish to
   build once your base LFS system is complete.

   Also, the headers in the system's include directory should always be
   the ones against which Glibc was compiled, that is, the ones from the
   Linux-Libc-Headers package, and therefore, should never be replaced by
   the kernel headers.

8.3.2. Contents of Linux

   Installed files: config-2.6.11.12, lfskernel-2.6.11.12, and
   System.map-2.6.11.12

Short Descriptions

   config-2.6.11.12    

   Contains all the configuration selections for the kernel
   lfskernel-2.6.11.12

   The engine of the Linux system. When turning on the computer, the
   kernel is the first part of the operating system that gets loaded. It
   detects and initializes all components of the computer's hardware,
   then makes these components available as a tree of files to the
   software and turns a single CPU into a multitasking machine capable of
   running scores of programs seemingly at the same time
   System.map-2.6.11.12

   A list of addresses and symbols; it maps the entry points and
   addresses of all the functions and data structures in the kernel

8.4. Making the LFS System Bootable

   Your shiny new LFS system is almost complete. One of the last things
   to do is to ensure that the system can be properly booted. The
   instructions below apply only to computers of IA-32 architecture,
   meaning mainstream PCs. Information on "boot loading" for other
   architectures should be available in the usual resource-specific
   locations for those architectures.

   Boot loading can be a complex area, so a few cautionary words are in
   order. Be familiar with the current boot loader and any other
   operating systems present on the hard drive(s) that need to be
   bootable. Make sure that an emergency boot disk is ready to "rescue"
   the computer if the computer becomes unusable (un-bootable).

   Earlier, we compiled and installed the GRUB boot loader software in
   preparation for this step. The procedure involves writing some special
   GRUB files to specific locations on the hard drive. We highly
   recommend creating a GRUB boot floppy diskette as a backup. Insert a
   blank floppy diskette and run the following commands:
dd if=/boot/grub/stage1 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1
dd if=/boot/grub/stage2 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 seek=1

   Remove the diskette and store it somewhere safe. Now, run the grub
   shell:
grub

   GRUB uses its own naming structure for drives and partitions in the
   form of (hdn,m), where n is the hard drive number and m is the
   partition number, both starting from zero. For example, partition hda1
   is (hd0,0) to GRUB and hdb3 is (hd1,2). In contrast to Linux, GRUB
   does not consider CD-ROM drives to be hard drives. For example, if
   using a CD on hdb and a second hard drive on hdc, that second hard
   drive would still be (hd1).

   Using the above information, determine the appropriate designator for
   the root partition (or boot partition, if a separate one is used). For
   the following example, it is assumed that the root (or separate boot)
   partition is hda4.

   Tell GRUB where to search for its stage{1,2} files. The Tab key can be
   used everywhere to make GRUB show the alternatives:
root (hd0,3)

Warning

   The following command will overwrite the current boot loader. Do not
   run the command if this is not desired, for example, if using a third
   party boot manager to manage the Master Boot Record (MBR). In this
   scenario, it would make more sense to install GRUB into the "boot
   sector" of the LFS partition. In this case, this next command would
   become setup (hd0,3).

   Tell GRUB to install itself into the MBR of hda:
setup (hd0)

   If all went well, GRUB will have reported finding its files in
   /boot/grub. That's all there is to it. Quit the grub shell:
quit

   Create a "menu list" file defining GRUB's boot menu:
cat > /boot/grub/menu.lst << "EOF"
# Begin /boot/grub/menu.lst

# By default boot the first menu entry.
default 0

# Allow 30 seconds before booting the default.
timeout 30

# Use prettier colors.
color green/black light-green/black

# The first entry is for LFS.
title LFS 6.1.1
root (hd0,3)
kernel /boot/lfskernel-2.6.11.12 root=/dev/hda4
EOF

   Add an entry for the host distribution if desired. It might look like
   this:
cat >> /boot/grub/menu.lst << "EOF"
title Red Hat
root (hd0,2)
kernel /boot/kernel-2.6.5 root=/dev/hda3
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.5
EOF

   If dual-booting Windows, the following entry will allow booting it:
cat >> /boot/grub/menu.lst << "EOF"
title Windows
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1
EOF

   If info grub does not provide all necessary material, additional
   information regarding GRUB is located on its website at:
   [495]http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/.

   The FHS stipulates that GRUB's menu.lst file should be symlinked to
   /etc/grub/menu.lst. To satisfy this requirement, issue the following
   command:
mkdir -v /etc/grub &&
ln -sv /boot/grub/menu.lst /etc/grub

Chapter 9. The End

9.1. The End

   Well done! The new LFS system is installed! We wish you much success
   with your shiny new custom-built Linux system.

   It may be a good idea to create an /etc/lfs-release file. By having
   this file, it is very easy for you (and for us if you need to ask for
   help at some point) to find out which LFS version is installed on the
   system. Create this file by running:
echo 6.1.1 > /etc/lfs-release

9.2. Get Counted

   Now that you have finished the book, do you want to be counted as an
   LFS user? Head over to
   [496]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/cgi-bin/lfscounter.cgi and
   register as an LFS user by entering your name and the first LFS
   version you have used.

   Let's reboot into LFS now.

9.3. Rebooting the System

   Now that all of the software has been installed, it is time to reboot
   your computer. However, you should be aware of a few things. The
   system you have created in this book is quite minimal, and most likely
   will not have the functionality you would need to be able to continue
   forward. By installing a few extra packages from the BLFS book while
   still in our current chroot environment, you can leave yourself in a
   much better position to continue on once you reboot into your new LFS
   installation. Installing a text mode web browser, such as Lynx, you
   can easily view the BLFS book in one virtual terminal, while building
   packages in another. The GPM package will also allow you to perform
   copy/paste actions in your virtual terminals. Lastly, if you are in a
   situation where static IP configuration does not meet your networking
   requirements, installing packages such as Dhcpcd or PPP at this point
   might also be useful.

   Now that we have said that, lets move on to booting our shiny new LFS
   installation for the first time! First exit from the chroot
   environment:
logout

   Then unmount the virtual files systems:
umount -v $LFS/dev/pts
umount -v $LFS/dev/shm
umount -v $LFS/dev
umount -v $LFS/proc
umount -v $LFS/sys

   Unmount the LFS file system itself:
umount -v $LFS

   If multiple partitions were created, unmount the other partitions
   before unmounting the main one, like this:
umount -v $LFS/usr
umount -v $LFS/home
umount -v $LFS

   Now, reboot the system with:
shutdown -r now

   Assuming the GRUB boot loader was set up as outlined earlier, the menu
   is set to boot LFS 6.1.1 automatically.

   When the reboot is complete, the LFS system is ready for use and more
   software may be added to suit your needs.

9.4. What Now?

   Thank you for reading this LFS book. We hope that you have found this
   book helpful and have learned more about the system creation process.

   Now that the LFS system is installed, you may be wondering "What
   next?" To answer that question, we have compiled a list of resources
   for you.
     * Maintenance
       Bugs and security notices are reported regularly for all software.
       Since an LFS system is compiled from source, it is up to you to
       keep abreast of such reports. There are several online resources
       that track such reports, some of which are shown below:
          + Freshmeat.net ([497]http://freshmeat.net/)
            Freshmeat can notify you (via email) of new versions of
            packages installed on your system.
          + [498]CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team)
            CERT has a mailing list that publishes security alerts
            concerning various operating systems and applications.
            Subscription information is available at
            [499]http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/signup.html.
          + Bugtraq
            Bugtraq is a full-disclosure computer security mailing list.
            It publishes newly discovered security issues, and
            occasionally potential fixes for them. Subscription
            information is available at
            [500]http://www.securityfocus.com/archive.
     * Beyond Linux From Scratch
       The Beyond Linux From Scratch book covers installation procedures
       for a wide range of software beyond the scope of the LFS Book. The
       BLFS project is located at
       [501]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/blfs/.
     * LFS Hints
       The LFS Hints are a collection of educational documents submitted
       by volunteers in the LFS community. The hints are available at
       [502]http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/list.html.
     * Mailing lists
       There are several LFS mailing lists you may subscribe to if you
       are in need of help, want to stay current with the latest
       developments, want to contribute to the project, and more. See
       [503]Chapter 1 - Mailing Lists for more information.
     * The Linux Documentation Project
       The goal of The Linux Documentation Project (TLDP) is to
       collaborate on all of the issues of Linux documentation. The TLDP
       features a large collection of HOWTOs, guides, and man pages. It
       is located at [504]http://www.tldp.org/.

Part IV. Appendices

Table of Contents

     * [505]A. Acronyms and Terms
     * [506]B. Acknowledgments

Appendix A. Acronyms and Terms

   ABI   

   Application Binary Interface
   ALFS  

   Automated Linux From Scratch
   ALSA  

   Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
   API   

   Application Programming Interface
   ASCII 

   American Standard Code for Information Interchange
   BIOS  

   Basic Input/Output System
   BLFS  

   Beyond Linux From Scratch
   BSD   

   Berkeley Software Distribution
   chroot

   change root
   CMOS  

   Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
   COS   

   Class Of Service
   CPU   

   Central Processing Unit
   CRC   

   Cyclic Redundancy Check
   CVS   

   Concurrent Versions System
   DHCP  

   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
   DNS   

   Domain Name Service
   EGA   

   Enhanced Graphics Adapter
   ELF   

   Executable and Linkable Format
   EOF   

   End of File
   EQN   

   equation
   EVMS  

   Enterprise Volume Management System
   ext2  

   second extended file system
   FAQ   

   Frequently Asked Questions
   FHS   

   Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
   FIFO  

   First-In, First Out
   FQDN  

   Fully Qualified Domain Name
   FTP   

   File Transfer Protocol
   GB    

   Gibabytes
   GCC   

   GNU Compiler Collection
   GID   

   Group Identifier
   GMT   

   Greenwich Mean Time
   GPG   

   GNU Privacy Guard
   HTML  

   Hypertext Markup Language
   IDE   

   Integrated Drive Electronics
   IEEE  

   Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
   IO    

   Input/Output
   IP    

   Internet Protocol
   IPC   

   Inter-Process Communication
   IRC   

   Internet Relay Chat
   ISO   

   International Organization for Standardization
   ISP   

   Internet Service Provider
   KB    

   Kilobytes
   LED   

   Light Emitting Diode
   LFS   

   Linux From Scratch
   LSB   

   Linux Standards Base
   MB    

   Megabytes
   MBR   

   Master Boot Record
   MD5   

   Message Digest 5
   NIC   

   Network Interface Card
   NLS   

   Native Language Support
   NNTP  

   Network News Transport Protocol
   NPTL  

   Native POSIX Threading Library
   OSS   

   Open Sound System
   PCH   

   Pre-Compiled Headers
   PCRE  

   Perl Compatible Regular Expression
   PID   

   Process Identifier
   PLFS  

   Pure Linux From Scratch
   PTY   

   pseudo terminal
   QA    

   Quality Assurance
   QOS   

   Quality Of Service
   RAM   

   Random Access Memory
   RPC   

   Remote Procedure Call
   RTC   

   Real Time Clock
   SBU   

   Standard Build Unit
   SCO   

   The Santa Cruz Operation
   SGR   

   Select Graphic Rendition
   SHA1  

   Secure-Hash Algorithm 1
   SMP   

   Symmetric Multi-Processor
   TLDP  

   The Linux Documentation Project
   TFTP  

   Trivial File Transfer Protocol
   TLS   

   Thread-Local Storage
   UID   

   User Identifier
   umask 

   user file-creation mask
   USB   

   Universal Serial Bus
   UTC   

   Coordinated Universal Time
   UUID  

   Universally Unique Identifier
   VC    

   Virtual Console
   VGA   

   Video Graphics Array
   VT    

   Virtual Terminal

Appendix B. Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank the following people and organizations for
   their contributions to the Linux From Scratch Project.
     * [507]Gerard Beekmans <gerard AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS
       Creator, LFS Project Leader
     * [508]Matthew Burgess <matthew AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS
       Project Leader, LFS Technical Writer/Editor, LFS Release Manager
     * [509]Archaic <archaic AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS Technical
       Writer/Editor, HLFS Project Leader, BLFS Editor, Hints and Patches
       Project Maintainer
     * [510]Nathan Coulson <nathan AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> -
       LFS-Bootscripts Maintainer
     * [511]Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - BLFS
       Project Leader
     * [512]Manuel Canales Esparcia <manuel AT linuxfromscratch D0T org>
       - LFS/BLFS/HLFS XML and XSL Maintainer
     * [513]Jim Gifford <jim AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS Technical
       Writer, Patches Project Leader
     * [514]Jeremy Huntwork <jhuntwork AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS
       Technical Writer, LFS LiveCD Maintainer, ALFS Project Leader
     * [515]Anderson Lizardo <lizardo AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> -
       Website Backend-Scripts Maintainer
     * [516]Ryan Oliver <ryan AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS
       Toolchain Maintainer
     * [517]James Robertson <jwrober AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> -
       Bugzilla Maintainer
     * [518]Tushar Teredesai <tushar AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - BLFS
       Book Editor, Hints and Patches Project Leader
     * Countless other people on the various LFS and BLFS mailing lists
       who helped make this book possible by giving their suggestions,
       testing the book, and submitting bug reports, instructions, and
       their experiences with installing various packages.

Translators

     * [519]Manuel Canales Esparcia <macana AT lfs-es D0T com> - Spanish
       LFS translation project
     * [520]Johan Lenglet <johan AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - French
       LFS translation project
     * [521]Anderson Lizardo <lizardo AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> -
       Portuguese LFS translation project
     * [522]Thomas Reitelbach <tr AT erdfunkstelle D0T de> - German LFS
       translation project

Mirror Maintainers

North American Mirrors

     * [523]Scott Kveton <scott AT osuosl D0T org> - lfs.oregonstate.edu
       mirror
     * [524]Mikhail Pastukhov <miha AT xuy D0T biz> - lfs.130th.net
       mirror
     * [525]William Astle <lost AT l-w D0T net> - ca.linuxfromscratch.org
       mirror
     * [526]Jeremy Polen <jpolen AT rackspace D0T com> -
       us2.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [527]Tim Jackson <tim AT idge D0T net> - linuxfromscratch.idge.net
       mirror
     * [528]Jeremy Utley <jeremy AT linux-phreak D0T net> -
       lfs.linux-phreak.net mirror

South American Mirrors

     * [529]Andres Meggiotto <sysop AT mesi D0T com D0T ar> -
       lfs.mesi.com.ar mirror
     * [530]Manuel Canales Esparcia <manuel AT linuxfromscratch D0T org>
       - lfsmirror.lfs-es.info mirror
     * [531]Eduardo B. Fonseca <ebf AT aedsolucoes D0T com D0T br> -
       br.linuxfromscratch.org mirror

European Mirrors

     * [532]Barna Koczka <barna AT siker D0T hu> -
       hu.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [533]UK Mirror Service - linuxfromscratch.mirror.ac.uk mirror
     * [534]Martin Voss <Martin D0T Voss AT ada D0T de> -
       lfs.linux-matrix.net mirror
     * [535]Guido Passet <guido AT primerelay D0T net> -
       nl.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [536]Bastiaan Jacques <baafie AT planet D0T nl> -
       lfs.pagefault.net mirror
     * [537]Roel Neefs <lfs-mirror AT linuxfromscratch D0T rave D0T org>
       - linuxfromscratch.rave.org mirror
     * [538]Justin Knierim <justin AT jrknierim D0T de> -
       www.lfs-matrix.de mirror
     * [539]Stephan Brendel <stevie AT stevie20 D0T de> -
       lfs.netservice-neuss.de mirror
     * [540]Antonin Sprinzl <Antonin D0T Sprinzl AT tuwien D0T ac D0T at>
       - at.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [541]Fredrik Danerklint <fredan-lfs AT fredan D0T org> -
       se.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [542]Parisian sysadmins <archive AT doc D0T cs D0T univ-paris8 D0T
       fr> - www2.fr.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [543]Alexander Velin <velin AT zadnik D0T org> -
       bg.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [544]Dirk Webster <dirk AT securewebservices D0T co D0T uk> -
       lfs.securewebservices.co.uk mirror
     * [545]Thomas Skyt <thomas AT sofagang D0T dk> -
       dk.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [546]Simon Nicoll <sime AT dot-sime D0T com> -
       uk.linuxfromscratch.org mirror

Asian Mirrors

     * [547]Pui Yong <pyng AT spam D0T averse D0T net> -
       sg.linuxfromscratch.org mirror
     * [548]Stuart Harris <stuart AT althalus D0T me D0T uk> -
       lfs.mirror.intermedia.com.sg mirror

Australian Mirrors

     * [549]Jason Andrade <jason AT dstc D0T edu D0T au> -
       au.linuxfromscratch.org mirror

Former Project Team Members

     * [550]Christine Barczak <theladyskye AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> -
       LFS Book Editor
     * Timothy Bauscher
     * Robert Briggs
     * Ian Chilton
     * [551]Jeroen Coumans <jeroen AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - Website
       Developer, FAQ Maintainer
     * Alex Groenewoud - LFS Technical Writer
     * Marc Heerdink
     * Mark Hymers
     * Seth W. Klein - FAQ maintainer
     * [552]Nicholas Leippe <nicholas AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - Wiki
       Maintainer
     * Simon Perreault
     * [553]Scot Mc Pherson <scot AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS NNTP
       Gateway Maintainer
     * [554]Alexander Patrakov <semzx AT newmail D0T ru> - LFS Technical
       Writer
     * [555]Greg Schafer <gschafer AT zip D0T com D0T au> - LFS Technical
       Writer
     * Jesse Tie-Ten-Quee - LFS Technical Writer
     * [556]Jeremy Utley <jeremy AT linuxfromscratch D0T org> - LFS
       Technical Writer, Bugzilla Maintainer, LFS-Bootscripts Maintainer
     * [557]Zack Winkles <zwinkles AT gmail D0T com> - LFS Technical
       Writer

A very special thank you to our donators

     * [558]Dean Benson <dean AT vipersoft D0T co D0T uk> for several
       monetary contributions
     * [559]Hagen Herrschaft <hrx AT hrxnet D0T de> for donating a 2.2
       GHz P4 system, now running under the name of Lorien
     * [560]VA Software who, on behalf of [561]Linux.com, donated a VA
       Linux 420 (former StartX SP2) workstation
     * Mark Stone for donating Belgarath, the linuxfromscratch.org server

Index

Packages

     * Autoconf: [562]Autoconf-2.59
     * Automake: [563]Automake-1.9.5
     * Bash: [564]Bash-3.0
          + tools: [565]Bash-3.0
     * Binutils: [566]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2
          + tools, pass 1: [567]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 1
          + tools, pass 2: [568]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 - Pass 2
     * Bison: [569]Bison-2.0
          + tools: [570]Bison-2.0
     * Bootscripts: [571]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1
          + usage: [572]How Do These Bootscripts Work?
     * Bzip2: [573]Bzip2-1.0.3
          + tools: [574]Bzip2-1.0.3
     * Coreutils: [575]Coreutils-5.2.1
          + tools: [576]Coreutils-5.2.1
     * DejaGNU: [577]DejaGNU-1.4.4
     * Diffutils: [578]Diffutils-2.8.1
          + tools: [579]Diffutils-2.8.1
     * E2fsprogs: [580]E2fsprogs-1.37
     * Expect: [581]Expect-5.43.0
     * File: [582]File-4.13
     * Findutils: [583]Findutils-4.2.23
          + tools: [584]Findutils-4.2.23
     * Flex: [585]Flex-2.5.31
          + tools: [586]Flex-2.5.31
     * Gawk: [587]Gawk-3.1.4
          + tools: [588]Gawk-3.1.4
     * GCC: [589]GCC-3.4.3
          + tools, pass 1: [590]GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 1
          + tools, pass 2: [591]GCC-3.4.3 - Pass 2
     * Gettext: [592]Gettext-0.14.3
          + tools: [593]Gettext-0.14.3
     * Glibc: [594]Glibc-2.3.4
          + tools: [595]Glibc-2.3.4
     * Grep: [596]Grep-2.5.1a
          + tools: [597]Grep-2.5.1a
     * Groff: [598]Groff-1.19.1
     * GRUB: [599]GRUB-0.96
          + configuring: [600]Making the LFS System Bootable
     * Gzip: [601]Gzip-1.3.5
          + tools: [602]Gzip-1.3.5
     * Hotplug: [603]Hotplug-2004_09_23
     * Iana-Etc: [604]Iana-Etc-1.04
     * Inetutils: [605]Inetutils-1.4.2
     * IPRoute2: [606]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330
     * Kbd: [607]Kbd-1.12
     * Less: [608]Less-382
     * Libtool: [609]Libtool-1.5.14
     * Linux: [610]Linux-2.6.11.12
     * Linux-Libc-Headers: [611]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2
          + tools, headers: [612]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2
     * M4: [613]M4-1.4.3
          + tools: [614]M4-1.4.3
     * Make: [615]Make-3.80
          + tools: [616]Make-3.80
     * Man: [617]Man-1.5p
     * Man-pages: [618]Man-pages-2.01
     * Mktemp: [619]Mktemp-1.5
     * Module-Init-Tools: [620]Module-Init-Tools-3.1
     * Ncurses: [621]Ncurses-5.4
          + tools: [622]Ncurses-5.4
     * Patch: [623]Patch-2.5.4
          + tools: [624]Patch-2.5.4
     * Perl: [625]Perl-5.8.7
          + tools: [626]Perl-5.8.7
     * Procps: [627]Procps-3.2.5
     * Psmisc: [628]Psmisc-21.6
     * Readline: [629]Readline-5.0
     * Sed: [630]Sed-4.1.4
          + tools: [631]Sed-4.1.4
     * Shadow: [632]Shadow-4.0.9
          + configuring: [633]Configuring Shadow
     * Sysklogd: [634]Sysklogd-1.4.1
          + configuring: [635]Configuring Sysklogd
     * Sysvinit: [636]Sysvinit-2.86
          + configuring: [637]Configuring Sysvinit
     * Tar: [638]Tar-1.15.1
          + tools: [639]Tar-1.15.1
     * Tcl: [640]Tcl-8.4.9
     * Texinfo: [641]Texinfo-4.8
          + tools: [642]Texinfo-4.8
     * Udev: [643]Udev-056
          + usage: [644]Device and Module Handling on an LFS System
     * Util-linux: [645]Util-linux-2.12q
          + tools: [646]Util-linux-2.12q
     * Vim: [647]Vim-6.3
     * Zlib: [648]Zlib-1.2.3

Programs

     * a2p: [649]Perl-5.8.7 -- [650]description
     * acinstall: [651]Automake-1.9.5 -- [652]description
     * aclocal: [653]Automake-1.9.5 -- [654]description
     * aclocal-1.9.5: [655]Automake-1.9.5 -- [656]description
     * addftinfo: [657]Groff-1.19.1 -- [658]description
     * addr2line: [659]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [660]description
     * afmtodit: [661]Groff-1.19.1 -- [662]description
     * agetty: [663]Util-linux-2.12q -- [664]description
     * apropos: [665]Man-1.5p -- [666]description
     * ar: [667]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [668]description
     * arch: [669]Util-linux-2.12q -- [670]description
     * as: [671]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [672]description
     * autoconf: [673]Autoconf-2.59 -- [674]description
     * autoheader: [675]Autoconf-2.59 -- [676]description
     * autom4te: [677]Autoconf-2.59 -- [678]description
     * automake: [679]Automake-1.9.5 -- [680]description
     * automake-1.9.5: [681]Automake-1.9.5 -- [682]description
     * autopoint: [683]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [684]description
     * autoreconf: [685]Autoconf-2.59 -- [686]description
     * autoscan: [687]Autoconf-2.59 -- [688]description
     * autoupdate: [689]Autoconf-2.59 -- [690]description
     * awk: [691]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [692]description
     * badblocks: [693]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [694]description
     * basename: [695]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [696]description
     * bash: [697]Bash-3.0 -- [698]description
     * bashbug: [699]Bash-3.0 -- [700]description
     * bigram: [701]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [702]description
     * bison: [703]Bison-2.0 -- [704]description
     * blkid: [705]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [706]description
     * blockdev: [707]Util-linux-2.12q -- [708]description
     * bunzip2: [709]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [710]description
     * bzcat: [711]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [712]description
     * bzcmp: [713]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [714]description
     * bzdiff: [715]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [716]description
     * bzegrep: [717]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [718]description
     * bzfgrep: [719]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [720]description
     * bzgrep: [721]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [722]description
     * bzip2: [723]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [724]description
     * bzip2recover: [725]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [726]description
     * bzless: [727]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [728]description
     * bzmore: [729]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [730]description
     * c++: [731]GCC-3.4.3 -- [732]description
     * c++filt: [733]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [734]description
     * c2ph: [735]Perl-5.8.7 -- [736]description
     * cal: [737]Util-linux-2.12q -- [738]description
     * captoinfo: [739]Ncurses-5.4 -- [740]description
     * cat: [741]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [742]description
     * catchsegv: [743]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [744]description
     * cc: [745]GCC-3.4.3 -- [746]description
     * cfdisk: [747]Util-linux-2.12q -- [748]description
     * chage: [749]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [750]description
     * chattr: [751]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [752]description
     * chfn: [753]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [754]description
     * chgrp: [755]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [756]description
     * chkdupexe: [757]Util-linux-2.12q -- [758]description
     * chmod: [759]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [760]description
     * chown: [761]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [762]description
     * chpasswd: [763]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [764]description
     * chroot: [765]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [766]description
     * chsh: [767]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [768]description
     * chvt: [769]Kbd-1.12 -- [770]description
     * cksum: [771]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [772]description
     * clear: [773]Ncurses-5.4 -- [774]description
     * cmp: [775]Diffutils-2.8.1 -- [776]description
     * code: [777]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [778]description
     * col: [779]Util-linux-2.12q -- [780]description
     * colcrt: [781]Util-linux-2.12q -- [782]description
     * colrm: [783]Util-linux-2.12q -- [784]description
     * column: [785]Util-linux-2.12q -- [786]description
     * comm: [787]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [788]description
     * compile: [789]Automake-1.9.5 -- [790]description
     * compile_et: [791]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [792]description
     * compress: [793]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [794]description
     * config.charset: [795]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [796]description
     * config.guess: [797]Automake-1.9.5 -- [798]description
     * config.rpath: [799]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [800]description
     * config.sub: [801]Automake-1.9.5 -- [802]description
     * cp: [803]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [804]description
     * cpp: [805]GCC-3.4.3 -- [806]description
     * csplit: [807]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [808]description
     * ctrlaltdel: [809]Util-linux-2.12q -- [810]description
     * ctstat: [811]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [812]description
     * cut: [813]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [814]description
     * cytune: [815]Util-linux-2.12q -- [816]description
     * date: [817]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [818]description
     * dd: [819]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [820]description
     * ddate: [821]Util-linux-2.12q -- [822]description
     * deallocvt: [823]Kbd-1.12 -- [824]description
     * debugfs: [825]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [826]description
     * depcomp: [827]Automake-1.9.5 -- [828]description
     * depmod: [829]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [830]description
     * df: [831]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [832]description
     * diff: [833]Diffutils-2.8.1 -- [834]description
     * diff3: [835]Diffutils-2.8.1 -- [836]description
     * dir: [837]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [838]description
     * dircolors: [839]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [840]description
     * dirname: [841]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [842]description
     * dmesg: [843]Util-linux-2.12q -- [844]description
     * dprofpp: [845]Perl-5.8.7 -- [846]description
     * du: [847]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [848]description
     * dumpe2fs: [849]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [850]description
     * dumpkeys: [851]Kbd-1.12 -- [852]description
     * e2fsck: [853]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [854]description
     * e2image: [855]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [856]description
     * e2label: [857]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [858]description
     * echo: [859]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [860]description
     * efm_filter.pl: [861]Vim-6.3 -- [862]description
     * efm_perl.pl: [863]Vim-6.3 -- [864]description
     * egrep: [865]Grep-2.5.1a -- [866]description
     * elisp-comp: [867]Automake-1.9.5 -- [868]description
     * elvtune: [869]Util-linux-2.12q -- [870]description
     * en2cxs: [871]Perl-5.8.7 -- [872]description
     * env: [873]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [874]description
     * envsubst: [875]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [876]description
     * eqn: [877]Groff-1.19.1 -- [878]description
     * eqn2graph: [879]Groff-1.19.1 -- [880]description
     * ex: [881]Vim-6.3 -- [882]description
     * expand: [883]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [884]description
     * expect: [885]Expect-5.43.0 -- [886]description
     * expiry: [887]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [888]description
     * expr: [889]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [890]description
     * factor: [891]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [892]description
     * faillog: [893]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [894]description
     * false: [895]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [896]description
     * fdformat: [897]Util-linux-2.12q -- [898]description
     * fdisk: [899]Util-linux-2.12q -- [900]description
     * fgconsole: [901]Kbd-1.12 -- [902]description
     * fgrep: [903]Grep-2.5.1a -- [904]description
     * file: [905]File-4.13 -- [906]description
     * find: [907]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [908]description
     * find2perl: [909]Perl-5.8.7 -- [910]description
     * findfs: [911]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [912]description
     * flex: [913]Flex-2.5.31 -- [914]description
     * fmt: [915]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [916]description
     * fold: [917]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [918]description
     * frcode: [919]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [920]description
     * free: [921]Procps-3.2.5 -- [922]description
     * fsck: [923]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [924]description
     * fsck.cramfs: [925]Util-linux-2.12q -- [926]description
     * fsck.ext2: [927]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [928]description
     * fsck.ext3: [929]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [930]description
     * fsck.minix: [931]Util-linux-2.12q -- [932]description
     * ftp: [933]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [934]description
     * fuser: [935]Psmisc-21.6 -- [936]description
     * g++: [937]GCC-3.4.3 -- [938]description
     * gawk: [939]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [940]description
     * gawk-3.1.4: [941]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [942]description
     * gcc: [943]GCC-3.4.3 -- [944]description
     * gccbug: [945]GCC-3.4.3 -- [946]description
     * gcov: [947]GCC-3.4.3 -- [948]description
     * gencat: [949]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [950]description
     * geqn: [951]Groff-1.19.1 -- [952]description
     * getconf: [953]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [954]description
     * getent: [955]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [956]description
     * getkeycodes: [957]Kbd-1.12 -- [958]description
     * getopt: [959]Util-linux-2.12q -- [960]description
     * gettext: [961]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [962]description
     * gettextize: [963]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [964]description
     * getunimap: [965]Kbd-1.12 -- [966]description
     * gpasswd: [967]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [968]description
     * gprof: [969]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [970]description
     * grcat: [971]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [972]description
     * grep: [973]Grep-2.5.1a -- [974]description
     * grn: [975]Groff-1.19.1 -- [976]description
     * grodvi: [977]Groff-1.19.1 -- [978]description
     * groff: [979]Groff-1.19.1 -- [980]description
     * groffer: [981]Groff-1.19.1 -- [982]description
     * grog: [983]Groff-1.19.1 -- [984]description
     * grolbp: [985]Groff-1.19.1 -- [986]description
     * grolj4: [987]Groff-1.19.1 -- [988]description
     * grops: [989]Groff-1.19.1 -- [990]description
     * grotty: [991]Groff-1.19.1 -- [992]description
     * groupadd: [993]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [994]description
     * groupdel: [995]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [996]description
     * groupmod: [997]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [998]description
     * groups: [999]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1000]description
     * grpck: [1001]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1002]description
     * grpconv: [1003]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1004]description
     * grpunconv: [1005]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1006]description
     * grub: [1007]GRUB-0.96 -- [1008]description
     * grub-install: [1009]GRUB-0.96 -- [1010]description
     * grub-md5-crypt: [1011]GRUB-0.96 -- [1012]description
     * grub-terminfo: [1013]GRUB-0.96 -- [1014]description
     * gtbl: [1015]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1016]description
     * gunzip: [1017]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1018]description
     * gzexe: [1019]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1020]description
     * gzip: [1021]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1022]description
     * h2ph: [1023]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1024]description
     * h2xs: [1025]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1026]description
     * halt: [1027]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1028]description
     * head: [1029]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1030]description
     * hexdump: [1031]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1032]description
     * hostid: [1033]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1034]description
     * hostname: [1035]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1036]description
     * hostname: [1037]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1038]description
     * hotplug: [1039]Hotplug-2004_09_23 -- [1040]description
     * hpftodit: [1041]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1042]description
     * hwclock: [1043]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1044]description
     * iconv: [1045]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1046]description
     * iconvconfig: [1047]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1048]description
     * id: [1049]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1050]description
     * ifcfg: [1051]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1052]description
     * ifnames: [1053]Autoconf-2.59 -- [1054]description
     * ifstat: [1055]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1056]description
     * igawk: [1057]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [1058]description
     * indxbib: [1059]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1060]description
     * info: [1061]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1062]description
     * infocmp: [1063]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1064]description
     * infokey: [1065]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1066]description
     * infotocap: [1067]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1068]description
     * init: [1069]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1070]description
     * insmod: [1071]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [1072]description
     * insmod.static: [1073]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [1074]description
     * install: [1075]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1076]description
     * install-info: [1077]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1078]description
     * install-sh: [1079]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1080]description
     * ip: [1081]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1082]description
     * ipcrm: [1083]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1084]description
     * ipcs: [1085]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1086]description
     * isosize: [1087]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1088]description
     * join: [1089]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1090]description
     * kbdrate: [1091]Kbd-1.12 -- [1092]description
     * kbd_mode: [1093]Kbd-1.12 -- [1094]description
     * kill: [1095]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1096]description
     * killall: [1097]Psmisc-21.6 -- [1098]description
     * killall5: [1099]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1100]description
     * klogd: [1101]Sysklogd-1.4.1 -- [1102]description
     * last: [1103]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1104]description
     * lastb: [1105]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1106]description
     * lastlog: [1107]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1108]description
     * ld: [1109]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1110]description
     * ldconfig: [1111]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1112]description
     * ldd: [1113]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1114]description
     * lddlibc4: [1115]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1116]description
     * less: [1117]Less-382 -- [1118]description
     * less.sh: [1119]Vim-6.3 -- [1120]description
     * lessecho: [1121]Less-382 -- [1122]description
     * lesskey: [1123]Less-382 -- [1124]description
     * lex: [1125]Flex-2.5.31 -- [1126]description
     * lfskernel-2.6.11.12: [1127]Linux-2.6.11.12 -- [1128]description
     * libnetcfg: [1129]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1130]description
     * libtool: [1131]Libtool-1.5.14 -- [1132]description
     * libtoolize: [1133]Libtool-1.5.14 -- [1134]description
     * line: [1135]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1136]description
     * link: [1137]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1138]description
     * lkbib: [1139]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1140]description
     * ln: [1141]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1142]description
     * lnstat: [1143]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1144]description
     * loadkeys: [1145]Kbd-1.12 -- [1146]description
     * loadunimap: [1147]Kbd-1.12 -- [1148]description
     * locale: [1149]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1150]description
     * localedef: [1151]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1152]description
     * locate: [1153]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [1154]description
     * logger: [1155]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1156]description
     * login: [1157]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1158]description
     * logname: [1159]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1160]description
     * logoutd: [1161]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1162]description
     * logsave: [1163]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1164]description
     * look: [1165]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1166]description
     * lookbib: [1167]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1168]description
     * losetup: [1169]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1170]description
     * ls: [1171]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1172]description
     * lsattr: [1173]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1174]description
     * lsmod: [1175]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [1176]description
     * m4: [1177]M4-1.4.3 -- [1178]description
     * make: [1179]Make-3.80 -- [1180]description
     * makeinfo: [1181]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1182]description
     * makewhatis: [1183]Man-1.5p -- [1184]description
     * man: [1185]Man-1.5p -- [1186]description
     * man2dvi: [1187]Man-1.5p -- [1188]description
     * man2html: [1189]Man-1.5p -- [1190]description
     * mapscrn: [1191]Kbd-1.12 -- [1192]description
     * mbchk: [1193]GRUB-0.96 -- [1194]description
     * mcookie: [1195]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1196]description
     * md5sum: [1197]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1198]description
     * mdate-sh: [1199]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1200]description
     * mesg: [1201]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1202]description
     * missing: [1203]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1204]description
     * mkdir: [1205]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1206]description
     * mke2fs: [1207]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1208]description
     * mkfifo: [1209]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1210]description
     * mkfs: [1211]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1212]description
     * mkfs.bfs: [1213]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1214]description
     * mkfs.cramfs: [1215]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1216]description
     * mkfs.ext2: [1217]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1218]description
     * mkfs.ext3: [1219]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1220]description
     * mkfs.minix: [1221]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1222]description
     * mkinstalldirs: [1223]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1224]description
     * mklost+found: [1225]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1226]description
     * mknod: [1227]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1228]description
     * mkpasswd: [1229]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1230]description
     * mkswap: [1231]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1232]description
     * mktemp: [1233]Mktemp-1.5 -- [1234]description
     * mk_cmds: [1235]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1236]description
     * mmroff: [1237]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1238]description
     * modinfo: [1239]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [1240]description
     * modprobe: [1241]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [1242]description
     * more: [1243]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1244]description
     * mount: [1245]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1246]description
     * mountpoint: [1247]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1248]description
     * msgattrib: [1249]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1250]description
     * msgcat: [1251]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1252]description
     * msgcmp: [1253]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1254]description
     * msgcomm: [1255]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1256]description
     * msgconv: [1257]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1258]description
     * msgen: [1259]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1260]description
     * msgexec: [1261]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1262]description
     * msgfilter: [1263]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1264]description
     * msgfmt: [1265]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1266]description
     * msggrep: [1267]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1268]description
     * msginit: [1269]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1270]description
     * msgmerge: [1271]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1272]description
     * msgunfmt: [1273]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1274]description
     * msguniq: [1275]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1276]description
     * mtrace: [1277]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1278]description
     * mv: [1279]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1280]description
     * mve.awk: [1281]Vim-6.3 -- [1282]description
     * namei: [1283]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1284]description
     * neqn: [1285]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1286]description
     * newgrp: [1287]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1288]description
     * newusers: [1289]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1290]description
     * ngettext: [1291]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1292]description
     * nice: [1293]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1294]description
     * nl: [1295]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1296]description
     * nm: [1297]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1298]description
     * nohup: [1299]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1300]description
     * nroff: [1301]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1302]description
     * nscd: [1303]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1304]description
     * nscd_nischeck: [1305]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1306]description
     * nstat: [1307]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1308]description
     * objcopy: [1309]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1310]description
     * objdump: [1311]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1312]description
     * od: [1313]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1314]description
     * openvt: [1315]Kbd-1.12 -- [1316]description
     * passwd: [1317]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1318]description
     * paste: [1319]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1320]description
     * patch: [1321]Patch-2.5.4 -- [1322]description
     * pathchk: [1323]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1324]description
     * pcprofiledump: [1325]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1326]description
     * perl: [1327]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1328]description
     * perl5.8.7: [1329]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1330]description
     * perlbug: [1331]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1332]description
     * perlcc: [1333]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1334]description
     * perldoc: [1335]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1336]description
     * perlivp: [1337]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1338]description
     * pfbtops: [1339]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1340]description
     * pg: [1341]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1342]description
     * pgawk: [1343]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [1344]description
     * pgawk-3.1.4: [1345]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [1346]description
     * pgrep: [1347]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1348]description
     * pic: [1349]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1350]description
     * pic2graph: [1351]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1352]description
     * piconv: [1353]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1354]description
     * pidof: [1355]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1356]description
     * ping: [1357]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1358]description
     * pinky: [1359]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1360]description
     * pivot_root: [1361]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1362]description
     * pkill: [1363]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1364]description
     * pl2pm: [1365]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1366]description
     * pltags.pl: [1367]Vim-6.3 -- [1368]description
     * pmap: [1369]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1370]description
     * pod2html: [1371]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1372]description
     * pod2latex: [1373]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1374]description
     * pod2man: [1375]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1376]description
     * pod2text: [1377]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1378]description
     * pod2usage: [1379]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1380]description
     * podchecker: [1381]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1382]description
     * podselect: [1383]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1384]description
     * post-grohtml: [1385]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1386]description
     * poweroff: [1387]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1388]description
     * pr: [1389]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1390]description
     * pre-grohtml: [1391]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1392]description
     * printenv: [1393]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1394]description
     * printf: [1395]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1396]description
     * ps: [1397]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1398]description
     * psed: [1399]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1400]description
     * psfaddtable: [1401]Kbd-1.12 -- [1402]description
     * psfgettable: [1403]Kbd-1.12 -- [1404]description
     * psfstriptable: [1405]Kbd-1.12 -- [1406]description
     * psfxtable: [1407]Kbd-1.12 -- [1408]description
     * pstree: [1409]Psmisc-21.6 -- [1410]description
     * pstree.x11: [1411]Psmisc-21.6 -- [1412]description
     * pstruct: [1413]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1414]description
     * ptx: [1415]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1416]description
     * pt_chown: [1417]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1418]description
     * pwcat: [1419]Gawk-3.1.4 -- [1420]description
     * pwck: [1421]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1422]description
     * pwconv: [1423]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1424]description
     * pwd: [1425]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1426]description
     * pwunconv: [1427]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1428]description
     * py-compile: [1429]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1430]description
     * ramsize: [1431]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1432]description
     * ranlib: [1433]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1434]description
     * raw: [1435]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1436]description
     * rcp: [1437]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1438]description
     * rdev: [1439]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1440]description
     * readelf: [1441]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1442]description
     * readlink: [1443]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1444]description
     * readprofile: [1445]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1446]description
     * reboot: [1447]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1448]description
     * ref: [1449]Vim-6.3 -- [1450]description
     * refer: [1451]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1452]description
     * rename: [1453]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1454]description
     * renice: [1455]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1456]description
     * reset: [1457]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1458]description
     * resize2fs: [1459]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1460]description
     * resizecons: [1461]Kbd-1.12 -- [1462]description
     * rev: [1463]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1464]description
     * rlogin: [1465]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1466]description
     * rm: [1467]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1468]description
     * rmdir: [1469]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1470]description
     * rmmod: [1471]Module-Init-Tools-3.1 -- [1472]description
     * rmt: [1473]Tar-1.15.1 -- [1474]description
     * rootflags: [1475]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1476]description
     * routef: [1477]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1478]description
     * routel: [1479]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1480]description
     * rpcgen: [1481]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1482]description
     * rpcinfo: [1483]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1484]description
     * rsh: [1485]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1486]description
     * rtacct: [1487]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1488]description
     * rtmon: [1489]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1490]description
     * rtpr: [1491]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1492]description
     * rtstat: [1493]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1494]description
     * runlevel: [1495]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1496]description
     * runtest: [1497]DejaGNU-1.4.4 -- [1498]description
     * rview: [1499]Vim-6.3 -- [1500]description
     * rvim: [1501]Vim-6.3 -- [1502]description
     * s2p: [1503]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1504]description
     * script: [1505]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1506]description
     * sdiff: [1507]Diffutils-2.8.1 -- [1508]description
     * sed: [1509]Sed-4.1.4 -- [1510]description
     * seq: [1511]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1512]description
     * setfdprm: [1513]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1514]description
     * setfont: [1515]Kbd-1.12 -- [1516]description
     * setkeycodes: [1517]Kbd-1.12 -- [1518]description
     * setleds: [1519]Kbd-1.12 -- [1520]description
     * setlogcons: [1521]Kbd-1.12 -- [1522]description
     * setmetamode: [1523]Kbd-1.12 -- [1524]description
     * setsid: [1525]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1526]description
     * setterm: [1527]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1528]description
     * setvesablank: [1529]Kbd-1.12 -- [1530]description
     * sfdisk: [1531]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1532]description
     * sg: [1533]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1534]description
     * sh: [1535]Bash-3.0 -- [1536]description
     * sha1sum: [1537]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1538]description
     * showconsolefont: [1539]Kbd-1.12 -- [1540]description
     * showkey: [1541]Kbd-1.12 -- [1542]description
     * shred: [1543]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1544]description
     * shtags.pl: [1545]Vim-6.3 -- [1546]description
     * shutdown: [1547]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1548]description
     * size: [1549]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1550]description
     * skill: [1551]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1552]description
     * sleep: [1553]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1554]description
     * sln: [1555]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1556]description
     * snice: [1557]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1558]description
     * soelim: [1559]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1560]description
     * sort: [1561]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1562]description
     * splain: [1563]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1564]description
     * split: [1565]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1566]description
     * sprof: [1567]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1568]description
     * ss: [1569]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1570]description
     * stat: [1571]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1572]description
     * strings: [1573]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1574]description
     * strip: [1575]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1576]description
     * stty: [1577]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1578]description
     * su: [1579]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1580]description
     * sulogin: [1581]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1582]description
     * sum: [1583]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1584]description
     * swapdev: [1585]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1586]description
     * swapoff: [1587]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1588]description
     * swapon: [1589]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1590]description
     * symlink-tree: [1591]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1592]description
     * sync: [1593]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1594]description
     * sysctl: [1595]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1596]description
     * syslogd: [1597]Sysklogd-1.4.1 -- [1598]description
     * tac: [1599]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1600]description
     * tack: [1601]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1602]description
     * tail: [1603]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1604]description
     * talk: [1605]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1606]description
     * tar: [1607]Tar-1.15.1 -- [1608]description
     * tbl: [1609]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1610]description
     * tc: [1611]IPRoute2-2.6.11-050330 -- [1612]description
     * tclsh: [1613]Tcl-8.4.9 -- [1614]description
     * tclsh8.4: [1615]Tcl-8.4.9 -- [1616]description
     * tcltags: [1617]Vim-6.3 -- [1618]description
     * tee: [1619]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1620]description
     * telinit: [1621]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1622]description
     * telnet: [1623]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1624]description
     * tempfile: [1625]Mktemp-1.5 -- [1626]description
     * test: [1627]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1628]description
     * texi2dvi: [1629]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1630]description
     * texi2pdf: [1631]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1632]description
     * texindex: [1633]Texinfo-4.8 -- [1634]description
     * tfmtodit: [1635]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1636]description
     * tftp: [1637]Inetutils-1.4.2 -- [1638]description
     * tic: [1639]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1640]description
     * tload: [1641]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1642]description
     * toe: [1643]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1644]description
     * top: [1645]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1646]description
     * touch: [1647]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1648]description
     * tput: [1649]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1650]description
     * tr: [1651]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1652]description
     * troff: [1653]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1654]description
     * true: [1655]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1656]description
     * tset: [1657]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1658]description
     * tsort: [1659]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1660]description
     * tty: [1661]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1662]description
     * tune2fs: [1663]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1664]description
     * tunelp: [1665]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1666]description
     * tzselect: [1667]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1668]description
     * udev: [1669]Udev-056 -- [1670]description
     * udevd: [1671]Udev-056 -- [1672]description
     * udevinfo: [1673]Udev-056 -- [1674]description
     * udevsend: [1675]Udev-056 -- [1676]description
     * udevstart: [1677]Udev-056 -- [1678]description
     * udevtest: [1679]Udev-056 -- [1680]description
     * ul: [1681]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1682]description
     * umount: [1683]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1684]description
     * uname: [1685]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1686]description
     * uncompress: [1687]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1688]description
     * unexpand: [1689]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1690]description
     * unicode_start: [1691]Kbd-1.12 -- [1692]description
     * unicode_stop: [1693]Kbd-1.12 -- [1694]description
     * uniq: [1695]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1696]description
     * unlink: [1697]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1698]description
     * updatedb: [1699]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [1700]description
     * uptime: [1701]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1702]description
     * useradd: [1703]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1704]description
     * userdel: [1705]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1706]description
     * usermod: [1707]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1708]description
     * users: [1709]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1710]description
     * utmpdump: [1711]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1712]description
     * uuidgen: [1713]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1714]description
     * vdir: [1715]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1716]description
     * vi: [1717]Vim-6.3 -- [1718]description
     * vidmode: [1719]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1720]description
     * view: [1721]Vim-6.3 -- [1722]description
     * vigr: [1723]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1724]description
     * vim: [1725]Vim-6.3 -- [1726]description
     * vim132: [1727]Vim-6.3 -- [1728]description
     * vim2html.pl: [1729]Vim-6.3 -- [1730]description
     * vimdiff: [1731]Vim-6.3 -- [1732]description
     * vimm: [1733]Vim-6.3 -- [1734]description
     * vimspell.sh: [1735]Vim-6.3 -- [1736]description
     * vimtutor: [1737]Vim-6.3 -- [1738]description
     * vipw: [1739]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1740]description
     * vmstat: [1741]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1742]description
     * w: [1743]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1744]description
     * wall: [1745]Sysvinit-2.86 -- [1746]description
     * watch: [1747]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1748]description
     * wc: [1749]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1750]description
     * whatis: [1751]Man-1.5p -- [1752]description
     * whereis: [1753]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1754]description
     * who: [1755]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1756]description
     * whoami: [1757]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1758]description
     * write: [1759]Util-linux-2.12q -- [1760]description
     * xargs: [1761]Findutils-4.2.23 -- [1762]description
     * xgettext: [1763]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1764]description
     * xsubpp: [1765]Perl-5.8.7 -- [1766]description
     * xtrace: [1767]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1768]description
     * xxd: [1769]Vim-6.3 -- [1770]description
     * yacc: [1771]Bison-2.0 -- [1772]description
     * yes: [1773]Coreutils-5.2.1 -- [1774]description
     * ylwrap: [1775]Automake-1.9.5 -- [1776]description
     * zcat: [1777]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1778]description
     * zcmp: [1779]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1780]description
     * zdiff: [1781]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1782]description
     * zdump: [1783]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1784]description
     * zegrep: [1785]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1786]description
     * zfgrep: [1787]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1788]description
     * zforce: [1789]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1790]description
     * zgrep: [1791]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1792]description
     * zic: [1793]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1794]description
     * zless: [1795]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1796]description
     * zmore: [1797]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1798]description
     * znew: [1799]Gzip-1.3.5 -- [1800]description
     * zsoelim: [1801]Groff-1.19.1 -- [1802]description

Libraries

     * ld.so: [1803]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1804]description
     * libanl: [1805]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1806]description
     * libasprintf: [1807]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1808]description
     * libbfd: [1809]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1810]description
     * libblkid: [1811]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1812]description
     * libBrokenLocale: [1813]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1814]description
     * libbsd-compat: [1815]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1816]description
     * libbz2*: [1817]Bzip2-1.0.3 -- [1818]description
     * libc: [1819]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1820]description
     * libcom_err: [1821]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1822]description
     * libcrypt: [1823]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1824]description
     * libcurses: [1825]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1826]description
     * libdl: [1827]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1828]description
     * libe2p: [1829]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1830]description
     * libexpect-5.43: [1831]Expect-5.43.0 -- [1832]description
     * libext2fs: [1833]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1834]description
     * libfl.a: [1835]Flex-2.5.31 -- [1836]description
     * libform: [1837]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1838]description
     * libg: [1839]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1840]description
     * libgcc*: [1841]GCC-3.4.3 -- [1842]description
     * libgettextlib: [1843]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1844]description
     * libgettextpo: [1845]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1846]description
     * libgettextsrc: [1847]Gettext-0.14.3 -- [1848]description
     * libhistory: [1849]Readline-5.0 -- [1850]description
     * libiberty: [1851]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1852]description
     * libieee: [1853]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1854]description
     * libltdl: [1855]Libtool-1.5.14 -- [1856]description
     * libm: [1857]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1858]description
     * libmagic: [1859]File-4.13 -- [1860]description
     * libmcheck: [1861]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1862]description
     * libmemusage: [1863]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1864]description
     * libmenu: [1865]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1866]description
     * libncurses: [1867]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1868]description
     * libnsl: [1869]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1870]description
     * libnss: [1871]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1872]description
     * libopcodes: [1873]Binutils-2.15.94.0.2.2 -- [1874]description
     * libpanel: [1875]Ncurses-5.4 -- [1876]description
     * libpcprofile: [1877]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1878]description
     * libproc: [1879]Procps-3.2.5 -- [1880]description
     * libpthread: [1881]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1882]description
     * libreadline: [1883]Readline-5.0 -- [1884]description
     * libresolv: [1885]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1886]description
     * librpcsvc: [1887]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1888]description
     * librt: [1889]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1890]description
     * libSegFault: [1891]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1892]description
     * libshadow: [1893]Shadow-4.0.9 -- [1894]description
     * libss: [1895]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1896]description
     * libstdc++: [1897]GCC-3.4.3 -- [1898]description
     * libsupc++: [1899]GCC-3.4.3 -- [1900]description
     * libtcl8.4.so: [1901]Tcl-8.4.9 -- [1902]description
     * libthread_db: [1903]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1904]description
     * libutil: [1905]Glibc-2.3.4 -- [1906]description
     * libuuid: [1907]E2fsprogs-1.37 -- [1908]description
     * liby.a: [1909]Bison-2.0 -- [1910]description
     * libz: [1911]Zlib-1.2.3 -- [1912]description

Scripts

     * /etc/hotplug/*.agent: [1913]Hotplug-2004_09_23 --
       [1914]description
     * /etc/hotplug/*.rc: [1915]Hotplug-2004_09_23 -- [1916]description
     * checkfs: [1917]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1918]description
     * cleanfs: [1919]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1920]description
     * console: [1921]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1922]description
          + configuring: [1923]Configuring the Linux Console
     * functions: [1924]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1925]description
     * halt: [1926]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1927]description
     * hotplug: [1928]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1929]description
     * ifdown: [1930]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1931]description
     * ifup: [1932]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1933]description
     * localnet: [1934]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1935]description
          + /etc/hosts: [1936]Creating the /etc/hosts File
          + configuring: [1937]Configuring the localnet Script
     * mountfs: [1938]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1939]description
     * mountkernfs: [1940]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1941]description
     * network: [1942]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1943]description
          + /etc/hosts: [1944]Creating the /etc/hosts File
          + configuring: [1945]Configuring the network Script
     * rc: [1946]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1947]description
     * reboot: [1948]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1949]description
     * sendsignals: [1950]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1951]description
     * setclock: [1952]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1953]description
          + configuring: [1954]Configuring the setclock Script
     * static: [1955]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1956]description
     * swap: [1957]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1958]description
     * sysklogd: [1959]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1960]description
          + configuring: [1961]Configuring the sysklogd script
     * template: [1962]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1963]description
     * udev: [1964]LFS-Bootscripts-3.2.1 -- [1965]description

Others

     * /boot/config-2.6.11.12: [1966]Linux-2.6.11.12 -- [1967]description
     * /boot/System.map-2.6.11.12: [1968]Linux-2.6.11.12 --
       [1969]description
     * /dev/*: [1970]Populating /dev
     * /etc/fstab: [1971]Creating the /etc/fstab File
     * /etc/group: [1972]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
     * /etc/hosts: [1973]Creating the /etc/hosts File
     * /etc/hotplug.d: [1974]Hotplug-2004_09_23 -- [1975]description
     * /etc/hotplug/blacklist: [1976]Hotplug-2004_09_23 --
       [1977]description
     * /etc/hotplug/hotplug.functions: [1978]Hotplug-2004_09_23 --
       [1979]description
     * /etc/hotplug/usb.usermap: [1980]Hotplug-2004_09_23 --
       [1981]description
     * /etc/hotplug/{pci,usb}: [1982]Hotplug-2004_09_23 --
       [1983]description
     * /etc/inittab: [1984]Configuring Sysvinit
     * /etc/inputrc: [1985]Creating the /etc/inputrc File
     * /etc/ld.so.conf: [1986]Configuring Dynamic Loader
     * /etc/lfs-release: [1987]The End
     * /etc/limits: [1988]Installation of Shadow
     * /etc/localtime: [1989]Configuring Glibc
     * /etc/login.access: [1990]Installation of Shadow
     * /etc/login.defs: [1991]Installation of Shadow
     * /etc/nsswitch.conf: [1992]Configuring Glibc
     * /etc/passwd: [1993]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
     * /etc/profile: [1994]The Bash Shell Startup Files
     * /etc/protocols: [1995]Iana-Etc-1.04
     * /etc/resolv.conf: [1996]Creating the /etc/resolv.conf File
     * /etc/services: [1997]Iana-Etc-1.04
     * /etc/syslog.conf: [1998]Configuring Sysklogd
     * /etc/udev: [1999]Udev-056 -- [2000]description
     * /etc/vim: [2001]Configuring Vim
     * /lib/firmware: [2002]Hotplug-2004_09_23 -- [2003]description
     * /usr/include/{asm,linux}/*.h: [2004]Linux-Libc-Headers-2.6.11.2 --
       [2005]description
     * /var/log/btmp: [2006]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
     * /var/log/hotplug/events: [2007]Hotplug-2004_09_23 --
       [2008]description
     * /var/log/lastlog: [2009]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
     * /var/log/wtmp: [2010]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
     * /var/run/utmp: [2011]Creating the passwd, group, and log Files
     * man pages: [2012]Man-pages-2.01 -- [2013]description

References

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