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GNU/Linux Command-Line Tools Summary

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. Who would want to read this guide?
1.2. Who would not want to read this guide?
1.3. Availability of sources
1.4. Conventions used in this guide
1.5. Resources used to create this document
1.6. Feedback
1.7. Contributors

2. Legal
2.1. Disclaimer

3. The Unix Tools Philosophy
4. Shell Tips
4.1. General Shell Tips
4.2. The command-line history
4.3. Other Key combinations
4.4. Virtual Terminals and screen

5. Help
6. Directing Input/Output
6.1. Concept Definitions
6.2. Usage
6.3. Command Substitution
6.4. Performing more than one command

7. Working with the file-system
7.1. Moving around the filesystem
7.2. Working with files and folders

8. Finding information about the system
8.1. Date/Time/Calendars

9. Controlling the system
9.1. Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
9.2. Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
9.3. Controlling Processes
9.4. Controlling services

10. Managing users
10.1. Users/Groups

11. Text Related Tools
11.1. Text Editors
11.2. Text Viewing Tools
11.3. Text Information Tools
11.4. Text manipulation tools
11.5. Text Conversion/Filter Tools
11.6. Finding Text Within Files

12. Mathematical tools
13. Network Commands
13.1. Network Configuration
13.2. Internet Specific Commands

14. Security
14.1. Some basic Security Tools
14.2. File Permissions

15. Archiving Files
15.1. tar (tape archiver)
15.2. rsync
15.3. Compression

16. Graphics tools (command line based)
17. Working with MS-DOS files
18. Scheduling Commands to run in the background
19. Miscellaneous
20. Mini-Guides
20.1. RPM: Redhat Package Management System
20.2. Checking the Hard Disk for errors
20.3. Duplicating disks
20.4. Wildcards

A. Appendix
A.1. Finding Packages/Tools

Bibliography
Index

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Chapter 1. Introduction

This document is an attempt to summarise the many command-line based tools
available to a GNU/Linux based operating system. This guide is not a complete
listing (I doubt it's possible to document all available programs), this
document lists many tools which are available to GNU/Linux systems and which
are, or can be useful to the majority of users.

Each tool description provides a quick overview of it's function and some
useful options for that individual tool.

The tools listed that require a GUI, usually the X windowing system, are
those listed in the Graphics Tools section. All other tools are completely
command-line-based and do not require a GUI to run.

If you are looking for information on GUI based tools you will need to look
elsewhere.

Also note that a few of the tools in this guide are bash (the
Bourne-Again-SHell) specific, tools specific to other shells are not listed
in this document.

For some of the tools that are harder to use, or perform a more complex task,
there are several mini-tutorials (or mini-guides; Chapter 20) within this
document.

Where a mini-guide was considered unncessary, detailed descriptions that
explain in detail how a particular tool works, and some examples of how to
use it are provided.

Please note that the word ??tool?? is used interchangeably with the word ??
command??, both have the same meaning (at least in this guide). For a more
detailed explanation, read about the UNIX Tools Philosophy here: Chapter 3 or
visit the links in the appendix, Section A.2.2.1.

Tip To find out which tools are bash specific
═   To find out which tools are bash specific you can type:
-
enable -a
-
-

1.1. Who would want to read this guide?

Anyone who is interested in learning about the tools (also known as commands)
available to them when using their GNU/Linux based operating system.

Why would you want to learn how to use the command-line (and available
tools)? The Command Line-Interface (CLI), while difficult to learn, is the
quickest and most efficient way to use a computer for many different tasks.
The CLI is the normal method of use for most UNIX system administrators,
programmers and some power users. While a GUI is better suited to some tasks,
many operations are best suited to the CLI.

The major motivation behind learning the GNU/Linux CLI is the authors idea
that, with software in general, the more time spent learning something equals
less time spent performing that particular task (authors opinion only).

This guide is aimed at beginners to intermediate users who want to learn
about the command-line tools available to them. Advanced users may wish to
use it as a command reference, however this document aims to list commands of
interest, as judged by the authors opinion, it is not designed to be
completely comprehensive, see the appendix, Section A.2.1 for further
information. Or if you are not looking for a command reference guide, but a
more gentle introduction to GNU/Linux you may be interested in the
Introduction to Linux guide authored by Machtelt Garrels.

This guide could also be considered a summarised version of the Linux
Cookbook. If you are looking for a book with more detailed descriptions of
each tool have a look at the [http://dsl.org/cookbook/] Linux Cookbook
Homepage, also check out the [http://www.onlamp.com/linux/cmd/] command list
from "Linux in a Nutshell 3rd Edition" for an index of 300 commands and
their explanations.
-

1.2. Who would not want to read this guide?

Anyone who is not interested in the command-line, or anyone looking for a
detailed reference to all available GNU/Linux tools should look elsewhere.
This is only a summary, while it does list many commands, it's not a complete
listing (I don't think it's possible to make a complete listing anyway).

This document would not be of interest to those who already have an expert
knowledge of the command-line interface and do require any reference
information. Or those readers who require detailed lists of options for each
command, the man pages are better suited to this purpose.
-

1.3. Availability of sources

The modifiable sources of the original book (in english), are available in
LyX format (LyX Document Processor) or Machine-translated SGML (SGML markup
language).

LyX is a completely free document processor based on LaTeX, downloadable from
[http://www.lyx.org] the LyX homepage..

See for the modifiable sources of this document. These are the official
versions. We (the translators and current maintainers) plan to continue work
on this document and add new chapters and enhancements. If you want to see
the version we are currently working on (the "bleeding edge" version), check
the [http://www.karakas-online.de/gnu-linux-tools-summary/] GNU/Linux
Command-Line Tools Summary Homepage from time to time (kindly hosted by
[http://www.karakas-online.de] Chris Karakas).
-

1.4. Conventions used in this guide

The following conventions are used within this guide:

italic
Anything appearing in italic, like═this is either an executable command
or emphasized text. Tools (executable commands) are in italics to prevent
confusion. Some tools have names which are real english words, such as
the ??locate?? tool.

key═combinations
Are represented by using a '-' (dash sign) in-between the key(s), which
must be used in combination. All combinations are also printed in italics
to improve clarity. For example CTRL-Z means hold down the Control key
and press the z key.

Admonitions are little pictures used to emphasize something of importance

The five types used are:

Note This is a note
═    Notes often give important information about a tool.

Tip This is a tip
═   This will offer a useful switch or useful way to use a tool.

Important This is something important
═         This is something that is considered very important.
Consider it like a note with extra importance, they are
usually there to save the reader time.

Caution This is a caution
═       This will inform you of something that you be careful

Warning This is a warning
═       This will inform you of something that you shouldn't do
(because it probably will break something within your
system).

code═examples
Code examples are shown for most commands.

Below is an example of what code looks like:
-
Hello World, I'm a code example. :)
-

command═syntax
(or a similar phrase) simply shows how you would normally use the
command. Often real examples are used instead of explaining the command
syntax.

The phrase ?? Command syntax?? is always followed by the way you would
type a command in a shell.

The standard syntax for any tool is usually:
-
command -options file
-

Note Note
═    Note that some tools do not accept options.

wildcards
Also note that most commands, even when not explicitly stated, will work
with standard wildcards (or globbing patterns) such as *, [A-Z] and
various other standard wildcards. Refer to Section 20.4.1 for further
information.

access═keys
Access keys enable navigation through the document, without relying on a
mouse. The following keys have been given special meaning in this
document:

P
Previous page.

N
Next page.

H

U
Up (takes you one level up the section hierarchy).

If you also happen to be reading the document from its original location,
then the following access keys can also be used:

S
Start (takes you to the author's start page).

T
The current (??This??) page, without the Sitemenu on the left.

M
The current page in a frameset, where the left frame contains a Menu.

To use the access keys, you have to simultaneously press a modifier key,
which may vary from browser to browser. For example in NN6/Mozilla, the
modifier key is ALT, so you have to use ALT-N to go to the next page, and ALT
-P to come back. In other browsers such as IE6, the access keys just give
focus to the associated link, so the sequence becomes ALT-N Enter . Try it,
you'll like it!
Inline graphic
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1.5. Resources used to create this document

To create the GNU/Linux Command-Line Tools Summary, I used [http://
www.lyx.org] LyX, the document processor. To convert the LyX files to DocBook
SGML I used the [http://www.karakas-online.de/mySGML/] lyxtox Scripts created
by [http://www.karakas-online.de] Chris Karakas.

You may also want to check out the [http://bgu.chez.tiscali.fr/] db2lyx
package, created by Dr. B Guillion, which can be used to convert LyX files to
XML DocBook and XML DocBook back to LyX.

I also had assistance from various The Linux Documentation Project volunteers
(see the contributors section Section 1.7 for specific details).
-

1.6. Feedback

Feedback is necessary for the advancement of this guide. Positive,
constructive criticism is encouraged. If you have ideas, suggestions, advice,
or problems with this guide, please send an email to the author [mailto:
somecsstudent(at)gmail.com] Gareth Anderson.

Important Contributions
═         If you wish to make contributions it is recommended (if possible)
to read the LyX file(s) for this document. They contain various
notes which you can't see in the other versions.

These notes highlight the areas that need contributions, certain
tools which I cannot understand, tools which have not been added,
or tools which were removed. These notes also explain some of the
structure of this document.
-

1.7. Contributors

As you may be able to see, parts of this guide are based off various advice
columns on GNU/Linux, anything that has being directly quoted from an article
can be found in the references, Bibliography, section of this document.

The following is a list of people who have made a significant contribution to
this document, in a rough chronological order.

[http://www.karakas-online.de] Chris Karakas:
Chris allowed the use of his lyxtox scripts to convert the LyX file of
the document to working DocBook SGML output (to learn how to use the
lyxtox scripts yourself, see [http://www.karakas-online.de/mySGML/]
Document processing with LyX and SGML).

listing for many of the commands.

═══Chris is also responsible for the great looking HTML file for this
document (the CSS file and HTML customisations are completely his
work).

═══Chris has also helped fix up problems in the document (many times),
especially with docbook/sgml, and LyX related issues.

═══Chris has also improved the structure of the document by adding
labels and fixing minor errors.

William═West:
William provided a thorough review of the document as required by the
[http://www.tldp.org] Linux Documentation Project. He is responsible for
a variety of improvements to the quality of this document.

His contributions include:

═══Improvements to the readability of this document.

═══Improvements to the structure and consistency of this document.

═══Various grammar improvements throughout the document.

═══Repair of some minor technical errors.

Tabatha, as the [http://www.tldp.org] Linux Documentation Project Review
Coordinator (at the time) also gave a brief review of this document. Her
general advice was used to improve the structure, language and grammar of
the document.

[http://rahulsundaram.livejournal.com/] Rahul Sundaram:
Rahul provided a brief review of this document for the [http://
www.tldp.org] Linux Documentation Project. Advice from his brief review
was integrated into this document to improve readability and structure,
several references were added as recommended by Rahul.

[http://www.lafn.org/~dave/] David Lawyer:
David's criticism of the document (via the TLDP discuss list) were
listened to, and attempts to improve the document were made. A number of
his criticisms were addressed and improved.

George═Harmon:
George provided a second language review. His detailed review of the
material allowed me to improve the general grammar of the document and
some minor errors.

[http://tille.xalasys.com] Machtelt Garrels (tille):
Machtelt provided tips in regard to referencing the correct LDP documents
from this guide. As well as general advice on improvements to the guide.

Michael═Kerrisk:
Michael pointed out a number of technical errors in the document after
his brief review on behalf of the TLDP during posts to the discussion
list.

-
Chapter 2. Legal

The legal chapter provides information about the disclaimer that applies to
the entire document and the licensing information.
-

2.1. Disclaimer

No liability for the contents of this document can be accepted. Use the
concepts, examples and other content at your own risk. There may be errors
and inaccuracies, that may of course be damaging to your system. Although
this is highly unlikely, you should proceed with caution. The author does not
accept any responsibility for any damage incurred.

All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless specifically noted
otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting
the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
-

Copyright ╘ 2003 - 2006 Gareth Anderson. Permission is granted to copy,
distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license can be found in the
section called the GNU Free Documentation License or at the [http://
-

Chapter 3. The Unix Tools Philosophy

A tool is a simple program, usually designed for a specific purpose, it is
sometimes referred to (at least throughout this document) as a command.

The ?? Unix tools philosophy?? emerged during the creation of the UNIX
operating system, after the breakthrough invention of the pipe '|' (refer to
Chapter 6 for information on using the pipe).

The pipe allowed the output of one program to be sent to the input of
another. The tools philosophy was to have small programs to accomplish a
particular task instead of trying to develop large monolithic programs to do
a large number of tasks. To accomplish more complex tasks, tools would simply
be connected together, using pipes.

All the core UNIX system tools were designed so that they could operate
together. The original text-based editors (and even TeX and LaTeX) use ASCII
(the American text encoding standard; an open standard) and you can use tools
such as; sed, awk, vi, grep, cat, more, tr and various other text-based tools
in conjunction with these editors.

Using this philosophy programmers avoided writing a program (within their
larger program) that had already been written by someone else (this could be
considered a form of code recycling). For example, command-line spell
checkers are used by a number of different applications instead of having
each application create its own own spell checker.

This philosophy lives on today in GNU/Linux and various other UNIX
system-based operating systems (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, etc.).

For further information (articles) on the UNIX tools philosophy please see
the further reading section, here: Section A.2.2.1

-
Chapter 4. Shell Tips

The shell tips chapter provides handy tricks that you may wish to use when
you are using a GNU/Linux shell (the command-line interface). This
information includes handy shortcut key combinations, the shell's command
history and information on virtual terminals.

Tip If you can't boot into your system
═   If your having problems booting into your system you may like to use a
shell so you can boot into your system and attempt to fix things up
again.

To do this you need to pass the ??init=/bin/sh?? to your system before
you boot up.

If you don't know how to do this please see Chapter 14, the technique is
the same except this time you pass "init=bin/sh" rather than "single".
-

4.1. General Shell Tips

Automatic═Command═Completion
Use the TAB key and bash will attempt to complete the command for you
automatically. You can use it to complete command (tool) names. You can
also use it when working with the file-system, when changing directories,
copying files et cetera.

There are also other lesser known ways to use automatic command
completion (for example completing user names):[1]

ESC-Y ═(Y:═special═character)
testing autoindexing Will attempt to complete the command name for
you. If it fails it will either list the possible completions (if
they exist). If there are none it will simply beep (and/or) flash the
screen.

CTRL-X-Y ═(Y:═special═character)
Lists the possible completions (it won't attempt to complete it for
you) or beep if there are no possible completions.

Special-characters:

Use the following special characters combined with either ESC-Y or CTRL-X
-Y , where Y is some special characters. For example ESC-$or CTRL-X-$ to
complete an environment variable name.

═══~ (tilde) complete a user name

═══@ (at sign) complete a machine name

═══$(dollars sign) complete an environment variable name ═══! (exclamation mark) a magic character for completing a command name or a file name. The ! special character has the same function as the TAB key. It works in some other situations; for example when completing man page names. alias The alias command will list your current aliases. You can use unalias to remove the alias (to disable it just for one command add a ??\?? (back-slash) before the command)... An alias allows one command to be substituted for another. This is used to make a command do something else or to automatically add certain options. This can be either be done during one session using the alias command (see below) or the information can be added to the .bashrc file (found in the users home directory). Below is an example of what an alias section (within your .bashrc file) might look like: - # my personal aliases alias cp='cp -vi' #to prompt when copying if you want to overwrite and will tell you where information is going alias rm='rm -i' #Prompts you if you really want to remove it. alias mv='mv -i' #Prompts you if you are going to overwrite something - On any Mandriva GNU/Linux system the global aliases (for all users) are all in /etc/profile.d/alias.sh. The above listed commands already have aliases, as well as several other commonly used commands. set═-x set is one of bash's inbuilt commands, try looking in the bash manual for its many usage options. Using set with the -x option will make bash print out each command it is going to run before it runs it. This can be useful to find out what is happening with certain commands such as things being quoted that contain wildcards or special symbols that could cause problems, or complex aliases. Use set x to turn this back off. Examples After using set -x you can run the command: - ls - The output printed before the command runs (for example): - ls -F color=auto - Which means that the command is really an alias to run ls with the -F and color=auto options. Use a ??\?? (backslash) before the command to run it without the alias. \═(backslash) The backslash escape character can be used before a shell command to override any aliases. For example if rm was made into an alias for rm -i then typing ??rm?? would actually run rm -i. However, typing \rm lets the shell ignore the alias and just run rm (its runs exactly what you type), this way it won't confirm if you want to delete things. Caution Using rm ═ Please note that the alias for the remove command is there for a reason. Using it incorrectly could remove files which you don't want removed. Only use \rm if you know exactly what you are doing (recovering files is not easy, rm does not send things to a recycle bin). The ??\?? character can be used before special characters (such as a space or a wildcard), to stop bash from trying to expand them. You can make a directory name with a space in it using a backslash before the space. For example you could type cd My\ Directory\ With\ Spaces which normally wouldn't work. The ??\?? character can also be used to stop bash from expanding certain symbols (as an alternative you could use single quotation marks, although you may need to use both). Tip The TAB Key ═ Please note that using the TAB key (automatic-command-completion) will automatically use escapes for spaces (so you don't have to type them manually). script The ??script?? command creates a typescript, or "capture log" of a shell session - it writes a copy of your session to a file, including commands you type and their output. ~═(tilde═character) The tilde character is used as an alias to a users home directory. For example, if your user-name was ??fred??, instead of typing cd /home/ fred you could simply type cd ~. Or to get to fred's tmp directory (under his home directory) you could type cd ~/tmp. Tip Home directory shortcut ═ ~ (tilde) can also be used as a shortcut to other users home directories, simply type: ~user_name and it will take you to the users home directory. Note that you need to spell the username exactly correct, no wildcards. ═ set═bell-style═none This particular set command will turn off the system bell from the command-line (use xset -b for X windows). If you want the bell to stay off pernamently (no audible bell) then you can add this command to your ??.bashrc?? or ??.bash_profile?? (just add it to the same one you have your alises in...). reset The reset command re-initializes your current terminal. This can be useful when the text from your terminal becomes garbled, simply type ?? reset?? and this will fix your terminal. exit Closes your current terminal (with x-terminals) or logs-out. Also try CTRL-D . logout Logs out of a terminal, also try CTRL-D . echo A little command that repeats anything you type. Example: - echo ??hello world?? - Simply displays ?? hello world??. Example: - echo rm -R * - This will output what will be passed to the rm command (and therefore what would be deleted), putting echo before a command renders it harmless (it just expands wildcards so you know what it will do). Also try using the -e option with echo. This will allow you to use the escape character sequences to format the output of a line. Such as '\t' for tab, '\n' for newline etc. Tip Using echo to prevent accidents ═ Typing: echo command(s) could save you the trouble of accidentally doing something you didn't expect. Using echo allows you to expand the wildcards to understand what will happen before you actually run the command. - 4.2. The command-line history Using═the═command═history Use the up and down key's to scroll through previously typed commands. Press [Enter] to execute them or use the left and right arrow keys to edit the command first. Also see history (below). The═history═command The history command can be used to list Bash's log of the commands you have typed: This log is called the ??history??. To access it type: - history n - This will only list the last n commands. Type ??history?? (without options) to see the the entire history list. You can also type !n to execute command number n. Use !! to execute the last command you typed. !-n will execute the command n times before (in other words !-1 is equivalent to !!). !string will execute the last command starting with that ??string?? and !?string? will execute the last command containing the word ??string??. For example: - !cd - Will re-run the command that you last typed starting with ??cd??. ?? commandName !*?? will execute the ??commandName?? with any arguments you used on your last command. This maybe useful if you make a spelling mistake, for example. If you typed: - emasc /home/fred/mywork.java /tmp/testme.java - In an attempt to execute emacs on the above two files this will obviously fail. So what you can do is type: - emacs !* - This will execute emacs with the arguments that you last typed on the command-line. In other words this is equivalent to typing: - emacs /home/fred/mywork.java /tmp/testme.java - Searching═through═the═Command═History═( CTRL-R ) Use the CTRL-R key to perform a ??reverse-i-search??. For example, if you wanted to use the command you used the last time you used snort, you would type: CTRL-R then type ??snort??. What you will see in the console window is: - (reverse-i-search)': - After you have typed what you are looking for, use the CTRL-R key combination to scroll backward through the history. Use CTRL-R repeatedly to find every reference to the string you've entered. Once you've found the command you're looking for, use [Enter] to execute it. Alternatively, using the right or left arrow keys will place the command on an actual command-line so you can edit it. - 4.3. Other Key combinations GNU/Linux shells have many shortcut keys which you can use to speed up your work, below is a rough list of some (also see CTRL-R in the history section of the commands, over here, Section 4.2). CTRL-D the ??end-of-file?? (EOF) key combination can be used to quickly log out of any terminal. CTRL-D is also used in programs such as ??at?? to signal that you have finished typing your commands (the EOF command). CTRL-Z key combination is used to stop a process. It can be used to put something in the background temporarily. For example, if you were editing a file with vim or emacs just press CTRL -Z to regain control of the terminal do what you want and then type fg to bring it back. For further information please see Section 9.3. Tip If fg doesn't work ═ If fg doesn't work you may need to type jobs and then fg job_name or fg job_number CTRL-A ═and═ CTRL-E These key combinations are used for going to the start and end of the line on the command line. Use CTRL-A to jump to the start of the line, and CTRL-E to jump to the end of the line. CTRL-K This key combination can be used to cut or delete what is currently in front of the cursor. CTRL-Y This key combination can be used to paste the last thing you deleted (using CTRL-K or CTRL-W ). CTRL-W This key combination can be used to cut or delete the entire line that has being typed. - 4.4. Virtual Terminals and screen Using the key combination ALT-F* keys you may change to different virtual terminals. You will have several (usually 6) virtual terminals setup with shells. Number 7 is usually setup with X you need to use CTRL-ALT-F* to change to a terminal from within X (X as in the X windowing system). screen is a great program that allows you to switch between multiple virtual terminals on the one physical terminal that you are using. Its a command-line based window manager, clearly this isn't that useful if you do have virtual terminals, but its amazingly useful when you log into machines remotely, using ssh and similar, see Section 13.3. It works on key-combinations, you type - screen - On the command-line to begin. Now you start with one virtual terminal by default, but using the key combination CTRL-A and then hitting "C" you can create another virtual terminal to use. Use CTRL-N to go to the next virtual terminal and CTRL-P to go to the previous virtual terminal. Also try hitting CTRL-A to go backwards and forwards between two particular terminals. screen also has various other abilities that you can test out. The documentation and guides are well written so please feel free to read the manual page or try searching the internet. - Chapter 5. Help The help chapter provides information on how you may access the documentation of the GNU/Linux system. There is normally a document describing every single tool you have installed, even if its only brief... man This command displays summary information on a program from an online manual. For example typing man man will bring up the manual page for man (the manual page viewer). Note: q is the quit key. Command syntax: - man program_name - Tip Also try ═ Specifying the section of the manual page, sometimes the man page is different for the same tool in different sections, note sections are numbered 1 to 9. Use apropos to find which section number to look in. The syntax to look at a different section is: man section_number tool_name For example: man 2 time This will show you the man page called time in section 2, the equivalent page in section 1 is completely different man═-K═keyword Search the manual pages for a string, as in it will search all manual pages for a particular string within each individual man page, it will then prompt whether you would like to view each page it will find. Use double quotes ?? and ?? if there are spaces in the string you are typing. Caution Speed issue ═ Please be warned that this method is going to be really, really slow. You are searching *all* man pages for a string man═-f═command This will list details associated with the command. The root user must run makewhatis (see below) before this command will work. Note Equivalent to whatis ═ This command is the same as running whatis info Provides a more detailed hyper-text manual on a particular command, this only works for some commands. Command syntax: - info program_name - whatis Displays a one-line description of what a program does. The string needs to be an exact match, otherwise whatis won't output anything. Relies on the whatis database (see below). Command syntax: - whatis program_name - makewhatis Make the whatis database for apropos, whatis and man -f. Note Root Privileges ═ This takes some time and you require root privileges to do this. apropos Searches the whatis database for strings, similar to whatis except it finds and prints anything matching the string (or any part of the string). Also relies on the whatis database (see above). Command syntax: - apropos string - Note Equivalent to... ═ apropos is the same as doing man -k (lowercase k). Note Please note ═ You need to run makewhatis (as root) so whatis, man -f and apropos will work. Tip Also try ═ Using a program with the -?, h, help, and the -h options, they will display very short summary information on the command usage options. - Chapter 6. Directing Input/Output The directing input/output chapter explains how you can use a program and send its output to a file or to another command that you wish to use. This technique is very powerful and there are a number of ways of doing this. - 6.1. Concept Definitions All three of the following definitions are called ?? File Streams.?? They hold information that is either received from somewhere or sent to somewhere. In a UNIX system, the keyboard input (standard input), information printed to the screen (standard output) and error output (also printed to the screen) are treated as separate File Streams. Standard═output Standard output is the output from the program printed to the screen, not including error output (see below). Standard═input Standard input is the input from the user. Normally the keyboard is used as the standard input device in a UNIX system. Standard═error Standard error is error output from programs. This output is also sent to the screen and will normally be seen mixed in with standard output. The difference between standard output and standard error is that standard error is unbuffered (it appears immediately on the screen) and standard error is only printed when something goes wrong (it will give you details of what went wrong). - 6.2. Usage > The greater than symbol is used to send information somewhere (for example a text file) Example: - cat file1 file2 > file1_and_2.txt - This will concatenate the files together into one big file named ?? file1_and_2.txt??. Note that this will overwrite any existing file. < The less than symbol will insert information from somewhere (a text file) as if you typed it yourself. Often used with commands that are designed to get information from standard input only. For example (using tr): - tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]' < fileName.txt > fileNameNew.txt - The example above would insert the contents of ??fileName.txt?? into the input of tr and output the results to ??fileNameNew.txt??. >> The >> symbol appends (adds) information to the end of a file or creates one if the file doesn't exist. << The << symbol is sometimes used with commands that use standard input to take information. You simply type << word (where word can be any string) at the end of the command. However its main use is in shell scripting. The command takes your input until you type ??word??, which causes the command to terminate and process the input. Using << is similar to using CTRL-D (EOF key), except it uses a string to perform the end-of-file function. This design allows it to be used in shell scripts. For example type "cat" (with no options...) and it will work on standard input. To stop entering standard input you would normally hit CTRL-D . As an alternative you can type "cat << FINISHED", then type what you want. When you are finished, instead of hitting CTRL-D you could type "FINISHED" and it will end (the word FINISHED will not be recorded). 2> Redirects error output. For example, to redirect the error output to /dev /null, so you do not see it, simply append this to the end of another command... For example: - make some_file 2> /dev/null - This will run make on a file and send all error output to /dev/null | The ??pipe?? command allows the output of one command to be sent to the input of another. For example: - cat file1.txt file2.txt less - Concatenates the files together, then runs less on them. If you are only going to look at a single file, you would simply use less on the file... tee Sends output of a program to a file and to standard output. Think of it as a T intersection...it goes two ways. For example: - ls /home/user tee my_directories.txt - Lists the files (displays the output on the screen) and sends the output to a file: ??my_directories.txt??. &> Redirects standard output and error output to a specific location. For example: - make &> /dev/null - Sends both error output and standard output to /dev/null so you won't see anything... - 6.3. Command Substitution Command substitution is basically another way to do a pipe, you can use pipes and command substitution interchangeably, it's up to you which one you find easier... Command substitution can be done in two distinct ways. ═ Method═One═(back-quotes) ═ Simply type: - command_1 command_2 -options - This will execute ??command_2?? and it's output will become the input to ??command_1??. Tip Backquote key ═ The back-quote key is usually located at the same place as the tilde, above the [Tab] key. Method═Two═(dollars═sign) ═ Simply type: - command_1$(command_2)
-

This will execute ??command_2?? and it's output will become the input to
??command_1??.

═

You can of course use pipes to do the same thing, if you don't know what
a pipe is, please see Section 6.2. For example instead of doing:
-
less $cat file1.txt file2.txt - You could do: - cat file1.txt file2.txt less - And end up with exactly the same result, it's up to you which way you find easier. - 6.4. Performing more than one command Executing═the═second═command═only═if═the═first═is═successful ═ To do this you would type: - command1 && command2 - command2 will be executed if command1 successfully completes (if command1 fails command2 won't be run). This is called a logical AND. Executing═the═second═command═only═if═the═first═fails ═ To do this you would type: - command1| command2 - command2 will be executed if command1 does not successfully complete (if command1 is successful command2 won't be run). This is called a logical OR. Executing═commands═sequentially ═ To execute commands sequentially regardless of the success/failure of the previous you simply type: - command1; command2 - command2 will execute once command1 has completed. Tip More than two commands ═ You can continue to use ';' (semicolon) characters to do more and more commands on the one line. - Chapter 7. Working with the file-system The working with the file-system chapter explains a number of commands that you use to move around the file system hierarchy and manipulate the files. Also explained are finding files and how to mass-rename files. - 7.1. Moving around the filesystem cd Change directory. Use ?? cd ..?? to go up one directory. One dot '.' represents the current directory while two dots '..' represent the parent directory. ?? cd -?? will return you to the previous directory (a bit like an ??undo ??). You can also use cd absolute═path or cd relative═path (see below): Absolute═paths An ?? absolute path?? is easily recognised from the leading forward slash, /. The / means that you start at the top level directory and continue down. For example to get to /boot/grub you would type: - cd /boot/grub - This is an absolute path because you start at the top of the hierarchy and go downwards from there (it doesn't matter where in the filesystem you were when you typed the command). Relative═paths A ?? relative path?? doesn't have a preceding slash. Use a relative path when you start from a directory below the top level directory structure. This is dependent on where you are in the filesystem. For example if you are in root's home directory and want to get to / root/music, you type: cd music Please note that there is no / using the above cd command. Using a / would cause this to be an absolute path, working from the top of the hierarchy downward. ls List files and directories. Typing ??ls?? will list files and directories, but will not list hidden files or directories that start with a leading full stop ??.??. Example options: ═══ls -l - long style, this lists permissions, file size, modification date, ownership. ═══ls -a - this means "show all", this shows hidden files, by default any file or directory starting with a '.' will not be shown. ═══ls -d - list directory entires rather than contents (see example below) ═══ls -F - append symbols to particular files, such as * (asterisk) for executable files. ═══ls -S - sort the output of the command in decending order sorted by size. ═══ls -R - (recursive) to list everything in the directories below as well as the current directory. Command syntax, either: - ls -options - This simply lists everything in the current directory, the options are not required (options such as -l, -a et cetera). - ls -options string - This lists files using a certain string. The string can contain standard wildcards to list multiple files, to learn more about standard wildcards please read Section 20.4.1 You can use ls -d to show directories that match an exact string, or use standard wildcards. Type ?? ls -d */?? to list all subdirectories of the current directory. Depending on the setup of your aliases (see Chapter 4) you may simply be able to type lsd as the equivalent to ls -d */. Examples for ls -d: - ls -d */ - Lists all subdirectories of current directory. - ls -d string* - Lists directories that start with "string". - ls -d /usr/*/*/doc - Lists all directories that are two levels below the /usr/ directory and have a directory called ??doc??, this trick can come in quite handy sometimes. Tip You can also use ═ Depending on how your aliases (see Chapter 4) are setup you can also use l, la (list all) and ll (list long) to perform the above commands pwd Print working directory. Print the absolute (complete) path to the directory the user is currently in. Command syntax: - pwd - This will tell you the full path to the directory you are in, for example it may output ??/usr/local/bin?? if you are currently in that directory. tree Outputs an ASCII text tree/graph starting at a given directory (by default the current directory). This command recursively lists all files and all directories. In other words, it will list files within the directories below the current one, as well as all files in the current directory. tree has a large number of options, refer to the manual page for details. Command syntax: - tree - or - tree -option(s) /optional/directory/to/list - - 7.1.1. Finding files find find is a tool which looks for files on a filesystem. find has a large number of options which can be used to customise the search (refer to the manual/info pages). Note that find works with standard wildcards,Section 20.4.1, and can work with regular expressions, Section 20.4.2. Basic example: - find / -name file - This would look for a file named ??file?? and start at the root directory (it will search all directories including those that are mounted filesystems). The -name' option is case sensitive you can use the -iname' option to find something regardless of case. Use the '-regex' and '-iregex' to find something according to a regular expression (either case sensitive or case insensitive respectively). The '-exec' option is one of the more advanced find operations. It executes a command on the files it finds (such as moving or removing it or anything else...). To use the -exec option: use find to find something, then add the -exec option to the end, then: - command_to_be_executed (1) then '{}' (curly brackets) (2) then the arguments (for example a new directory) and finally a ';' (3) . - See below for an example of use this command. (1) This is the tool you want to execute on the files find locates. For example if you wanted to remove everything it finds then you would use -exec rm -f (2) The curly brackets are used in find to represent the current file which has been found. ie. If it found the file shopping.doc then {} would be substituted with shopping.doc. It would then continue to substitute {} for each file it finds. The brackets are normally protected by backslashes (\) or single-quotation marks ('), to stop bash expanding them (trying to interpret them as a special command eg. a wildcard). (3) This is the symbol used by find to signal the end of the commands. It's usually protected by a backslash (\) or quotes to stop bash from trying to expand it. - find / -name '*.doc' -exec cp '{}' /tmp/ ';' - The above command would find any files with the extension '.doc' and copy them to your /tmp directory, obviously this command is quite useless, it's just an example of what find can do. Note that the quotation marks are there to stop bash from trying to interpret the other characters as something. Excluding particular folders with find can be quite confusing, but it may be necessary if you want to search your main disk (without searching every mounted filesystem). Use the -path option to exclude the particular folder (note, you cannot have a '/' (forward slash) on the end) and the -prune option to exclude the subdirectories. An example is below: - find / -path '/mnt/win_c' -prune -o -name "string" -print - This example will search your entire directory tree (everything that is mounted under it) excluding /mnt/win_c and all of the subdirectories under /mnt/win_c. When using the -path option you can use wildcards. Note that you could add more -path '/directory' statements on if you wanted. find has many, many different options, refer to the manual (and info) page for more details. slocate slocate outputs a list of all files on the system that match the pattern, giving their full path name (it doesn't have to be an exact match, anything which contains the word is shown). Note Replaces locate ═ Secure locate is a replacement for locate, both have identical syntax. On most distributions locate is an alias to slocate. Commmand syntax: - slocate string - Note This won't work unless ═ You need to run either updatedb (as root) or slocate -u (as root) for slocate to work. whereis whereis locates the binary, source, and manual page for a particular program, it uses exact matches only, if you only know part of the name use slocate. Command syntax: - whereis program_name - which Virtually the same as whereis, except it only finds the executable (the physical program). It only looks in the PATH (environment variable) of a users shell. Use the -a option to list all occurances of the particular program_name in your path (so if theres more than one you can see it). Command syntax: - which program_name - - 7.2. Working with files and folders mkdir Make a directory. Use mkdir -p to create subdirectories automatically. Note Directories are Folders ═ Directories are sometimes called folders in other operating systems (such as Microsoft Windows) Examples: - mkdir -p /home/matt/work/maths - This would create the directories ??work?? and ??maths?? under matt's home directory (if matt's home directory didn't exist it would create that too). - mkdir foo - This would create a directory in the current path named ??foo??. rm Remove/delete a file(s) or directories(s). You can use standard wildcards with this command Section 20.4.1. Command syntax: - rm -options file_or_folder - You can of course use standard wildcards to delete multiple files or multiple directories and files. Use the -R or -r option to remove recursively, this removes everything within subdirectories. Also try the -f option to force removal (useful when you don't want to be prompted). Tip Disabling Aliases (per execution) ═ On some systems such as Mandrake an alias will send rm to rm -i (prompting you for every file you wish to delete). To override this use: \rm -R directory (using the \ disables the alias for this run only) rmdir Remove an empty directory. If you want to remove a directory with files in it type ?? rm -R directory??, read above for information on rm -R Command syntax: - rmdir directory - This will only remove directory if it's empty otherwise it will exit with an error message. mv Move a file or a directory to a new location or rename a file/directory. Rename example: - mv filename1 filename2 - Renames filename1 to filename2. To move a file or directory, simply type: - mv original_file_or_folder new_location - Note that this command can use standard wildcards Section 20.4.1 to move files (not for renaming). Tip Move and rename ═ Note that you can also move and rename a file in a single command. The difference is with the destination (right hand side) you change the filename to the new name of the file. For example typing: mv /etc/configuration.txt /home/joe/backupconfig This would move the file "configuration.txt" to /home/joe/ and rename it "backupconfig" cp Copy a file. Has a number of useful options, such as -R (or -r) which recursively copies directories and subdirectories. Command syntax: - cp -options file_or_files new_location - Examples: - cp file1 file2 - Simply copy file1 to file2 (in the same directory). - cp /tmp/file1 ~/file2 /mnt/win_c - Where the last option is the directory to be copied to. The above example copies two files from different areas of the file system to /mnt/win_c - cp -R directory_and_or_files new_location - This command will copy directories (and all subdirectories) and/or files to new_location Note that this command can use standard wildcards Section 20.4.1 to copy multiple files. You may also like to try the ??-u?? when moving large directories around, this copies only if the source file is newer than the destination to where you are copying to, or if the destination file does not exist at all. ln Create a link to a file. There are two types of links: Hard═links Hard links are considered pointers to a file (the number is listed by typing ls -l). Each hard-link is a reference to a file. The file itself only goes away when all hard-links are deleted. If you delete the original file and there are hard links to it the original file will remain. Example: ln target_name link_name Will create a ??hard link?? to target_name called link_name, you need to delete both of these to remove the file. Symbolic═links Symbolic links are created by typing ??ln -s??. When you remove the original file the symbolic link becomes broken, a symbolic link is similar to a windows ??short-cut??. The advantage of symbolic links is that the target can be to something on another file-system, while hard-links can only exist on the same file-system. For example: ln -s target_name link_name This creates a symbolic link to ??target_name?? called ??link_name??, if you delete the original file the symbolic link won't work (it becomes a broken link). shred Securely remove a file by overwriting it first. Prevents the data from being recovered by software (and even by most hardware), please be very careful when using shred as you may never be able to retrieve the data you have run the application on. For example: - shred -n 2 -z -v /dev/hda1 - ??What this tells shred, is to overwrite the partition 2 times with random data (- n 2) then finish it up by writing over it with zeroes (-z) and show you its progress (-v). Of course, change /dev/hda1 to the correct partition . Each pass can take some time, which is why I set it to only do 2 random passes instead of the default 25. You can adjust this number, of course, to your particular level of paranoia and the amount of time you have. Since shred writes on such a low-level, it doesn't actually matter what kind of filesystem is on the partitioneverything will be unrecoverable. Once shred is finished, you can shutdown the machine and sell or throw away the drive with peace of mind. ...However, even shre dding devices is not always completely reliable. For example, most disks map out bad sectors invisibly to the application; if the bad sectors contain sensitive data, shred' won't be able to destroy it. [ shred info page ].??[2] Note Shredding files doesn't work with all filesystems ═ Please note that as mentioned in the shred manual page (please see the manual and preferably info pages for more information). shred does not work correctly on log-structured or journaled filesystems, such as JFS, ReiserFS, XFS, Ext3 and many other modern filesystems Tip Alternatives to using shred ═ shred has its disadvantages when run on a filesystem. First of all since it has to be installed you cannot run shred on your operating systems filesystem, you also cannot use shred on a windows machine easily since you cannot install shred on this machine. You may like to try alternatives such as the DBAN project that create self-booting floppy disks that can completely erase a machines hard disk. You may also like to see how chattr can assist you in shredding files once they are removed (it has similar problems to shred, only ext2 and ext3 style filesystems...), please see Section 14.2. du Displays information about file size. Use du filename to display the size of a particular file. If you use it on directories it will display the information on the size of the files in the directory and each subdirectory. Options for du (use du -option(s)): ═══-c this will make du print a grand total after all arguments have being processed. ═══-s summarises for each argument (prints the total). ═══-h prints things in ?? human readable?? mode; for example printing 1M (megabyte) rather than 1,024,000 (bytes). Using the -hs options on a directory will display the total size of the directory and all subdirectories. Command syntax: - du -options file_directory_or_files - Example: - du -hs * - This command will list the size of all files in the current directory and it will list the size of subdirectories, it will list things in human-readable sizes using 1024 Kb is a Megabyte, M for megabyte, K for kilobyte etc. file Attempts to find out what type of file it is, for example it may say it's: binary, an image file (well it will say jpeg, bmp et cetera), ASCII text, C header file and many other kinds of files, it's a very useful utility. Command syntax: - file file_name - stat Tells you detailed information about a file, including inode number creation/access date. Also has many advanced options and uses. For simple use type: - stat file - dd Copies data on a very low level and can be used to create copies of disks Section 20.3 and many other things (for example CD image files). dd can also perform conversions on files and vary the block size used when writing the file. Command syntax, note the block size and count are optional and you can use files instead of devices... Note Please note ═ dd is an advanced and difficult to use command. Its also very powerful, so be careful what you do with it Command syntax: - dd if=/dev/xxx of=/dev/xxx bs=xxxx count=x - Warning Warning ═ The command dd is used to work on a very low level. It can be used to overwrite important information such as your master-boot record or various important sections of your hard-disk. Please be careful when using it (especially when working with devices instead of files). touch This command is used to create empty files, simply do touch file_name. It is also used to update the timestamps on files. touch can be used to change the time and/or date of a file: - touch -t 05070915 my_report.txt[3] - This command would change the timestamp on my_report.txt so that it would look like you created it at 9:15. The first four digits stand for May 7th (0507), in MM-DD (American style), and the last four (0915) the time, 9: 15 in the morning. Instead of using plain numbers to change the time, you can use options similar to that of the date tool. For example: - touch -d '5 May 2000' some_file.txt - You can also use date= instead of -d. Also have a look at the date command under Section 8.1 for examples on using -d and date= (the syntax for the date part is exactly the same when using -d or date). split Splits files into several smaller files. Use the -b═xx option to split into xx bytes, also try -k for kilobytes, and -m for megabytes. You can use it to split text files and any other files... you can use cat to re-combine the files. This may be useful if you have to transfer something to floppy disks or you wish to divide text files into certain sizes. Command syntax: - split -options file - This will split the input file into 1000 lines of input each (thats the default...), and output (using the above example), with the input name file, ??fileaa?? (1st part of file), ??fileab?? (2nd part of file), ?? fileac?? (3rd part of file) etc. until the there is no more of the file left to split. - 7.3. Mass Rename/copy/link Tools There are a few different ways to perform mass renaming of files in GNU/Linux (yes, mass renaming is possible!). There is also a perl script that renames the extentions on files, see Chapter 19. Below are three ways to perform mass renaming of files, using the commands mmv, rename (a perl script) or some bash shell scripting. ═ mmv mmv is a mass move/copy/renaming tool that uses standard wildcards to perform its functions. mmv's manual page is quite difficult to understand, I have only a limited understanding of this tool. However mmv supports some standard wildcards. According to the manual the ??;?? wildcard is useful for matching files at any depth in the directory tree (ie it will go below the current directory, recursively). An example of how to use mmv is shown below: - mmv \*.JPG \#1.jpg - The first pattern matches anything with a ??.JPG?? and renames each file (the ??#1?? matches the first wildcard) to ??.jpg??. Each time you use a \(wildcard) you can use a #x to get that wildcard. Where x is a positive number starting at 1. Tip mmv Homepage ═ You can find mmv on the web [http://linux.maruhn.com/sec/ mmv.html] here. Also be aware that certain options used with mmv are also applicable to other tools in the suite, these include mcp (mass copy), mad (mass append contents of source file to target name), mln (mass link to a source file). Tip Tip: ═ A Java alternative to mmv which runs on both GNU/Linux and Windows is available, [http://www.esomaniac.de/] Esomaniac rename rename is a perl script which can be used to mass rename files according to a regular expression. An example for renaming all ??.JPG?? files to ??.jpg?? is: - rename 's/\.JPG$/.jpg/' *.JPG
-

Note Finding rename
═    You can get rename from various places. I would recommend
trying [http://search.cpan.org] CPAN Search Site, I found
the script here [http://search.cpan.org/~pederst/rename-1.4
/] Rename Script Version 1.4

Bash═scripting
Bash scripting is one way to rename files. You can develop a set of
instructions (a script) to rename files. Scripts are useful if you don't
have mmv or rename...

One way to this is shown below:
-
for i in *.JPG;
do mv $i basename$i JPGjpg;
done
-

Note that the above script came from a usenet post. Unfortunately I do
not know the author's name.

The first line says find everything with the ??.JPG?? extension (capitals
only, because the UNIX system is case sensitive).

The second line uses basename (type man basename for more details) with
the '$i' argument. The '$i' is a string containing the name of the file
that matches. The next portion of the line removes the JPG extension from
the end and adds the jpg extention to each file. The command mv is run on
the output.

An alternative is:
-
for i in *.JPG;
do mv $i${i%%.JPG}.jpg;
done
-

The above script renames files using a built-in bash function. For more
information on bash scripting you may like to see the [http://
www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/] advanced bash scripting guide, authored by
Mendel Cooper.

-
Chapter 8. Finding information about the system

time
If you are looking for how to change the time please refer to date here:
Section 8.1.

time is a utility to measure the amount of time it takes a program to
execute. It also measures CPU usage and displays statistics.

Use time -v (verbose mode) to display even more detailed statistics about
the particular program.

Example usage:
-
time program_name options
-

/proc
The files under the /proc (process information pseudo file-system) show
various information about the system. Consider it a window to the
information that the kernel uses.

For example:
-
cat /proc/cpuinfo
-

-
less /proc/modules
-

Use the above command to view information about what kernel-modules are

dmesg
dmesg can be used to print (or control) the ?? kernel ring buffer??.
dmesg is generally used to print the contents of your bootup messages
displayed by the kernel. This is often useful when debugging problems.

Simply type:
-
dmesg
-

df
Displays information about the space on mounted file-systems. Use the -h
option to have df list the space in a 'human readable' format. ie. if
there are 1024 kilobytes left (approximately) then df will say there is
1MB left.

Command syntax:
-
df -options /dev/hdx
-

The latter part is optional, you can simply use df with or without
options to list space on all file-systems.

who
Displays information on which users are logged into the system including
the time they logged in.

Command syntax:
-
who
-

w
Displays information on who is logged into the system and what they are
doing (ie. the processes they are running). It's similar to who but
displays slightly different information.

Command syntax:
-
w
-

users
Very similar to who except it only prints out the user names who are
currently logged in. (Doesn't need or take any options).

Command syntax:
-
users
-

last
Displays records of when various users have logged in or out. This
includes information on when the computer was rebooted.

To execute this simply type:
-
last
-

lastlog
Displays a list of users and what day/time they logged into the system.

Simply type:
-
lastlog
-

whoami
Tells the user who they are currently logged in as, this is normally the
usename they logged in with but can be changed with commands like su).
whoami does not need or take any options.

Simply type:
-
whoami
-

free
Displays memory statistics (total, free, used, cached, swap). Use the -t
option to display totals of everything and use the -m to display memory
in megabytes.

Example:
-
free -tm
-

This will display the memory usage including totals in megabytes.

uptime
Print how long the computer has been ??up??, how long the computer has
been running. It also displays the number of users and the processor load
(how hard the CPU has been working...).

Tip The w command
═   The w command displays the output of the uptime command when
you run this command. You could use the w command instead of
uptime.

uname
uname is used to print information on the system such as OS type, kernel
version et cetera.

Some uname options:

═══-a - print all the available information.

═══-m - print only information related to the machine itself.

═══-n - print only the machine hostname.

═══-r - print the release number of the current kernel.

═══-s - print the operating system name

═══-p - print the processor type.

Command syntax:
-
uname -options
-

xargs
Note that xargs is an advanced, confusing, yet powerful command. xargs is
a command used to run other commands as many times as necessary, this way
it prevents any kind of overload... When you run a command then add a ??|
xargs command2??. The results of command1 will be passed to command2,
possibly on a line-by-line basis or something similar.

Understanding xargs tends to be very difficult and my explanation is not
the best. Refer to the examples below or try [6] of the Bibliography for
another xargs tutorial.

Note Alternatives to using xargs
═    Please note that the below explanation of xargs is not the
strongest (at the time of writing I could not find anything
better :()).

Alternatives may include writing a simple bash script to do
the job which is not the most difficult task in the world.

Examples:
-
ls xargs grep work
-

The first command is obvious, it will list the files in the current
directory. For each line of output of ls, xargs will run grep on that
particular line and look for the string ??work??. The output have the
each time grep is executed on a new line, the output would look like:
-
file_name: results_of_grep
-

If grep didn't find the word then there would be no output if it had an
error then it will output the error. Obviously this isn't very useful
(you could just do:
-
grep 'word' *
-

This is just a simple example...

xargs also takes various options:

═══-nx - will group the first x commands together

═══-lx - xargs will execute the command for every x number of lines of
input

═══-p - prompt whether or not to execute this particular string

═══-t - (tell) be verbose, echo each command before performing it

═══-i - will use substitution similar to find's -exec option, it will
execute certain commands on something.

Example:
-
ls dir1 xargs -i mv dir1/'{}' dir2/'{}'
-

The {} would be substituted for the current input (in this example the
current file/directory) listed within the directory. The above command
would move every file listed in dir1 to dir2. Obviously this command
won't be too useful, it would be easier to go to dir1 and type mv * ../
dir2

Here is a more useful example:
-
\ls *.wav xargs -i lame -h '{}' '{}'.mp3
-

This would find all wave files within the current directory and convert
them to mp3 files (encoded with lame) and append a ??.mp3?? to the end of
the filename, unfortunately it doesn't remove the .wav and so its not too
useful...but it works.

-
8.1. Date/Time/Calendars

There is one command to change both the date and time on a UNIX like system,
date, there is also a simple calendar utility, cal. If you are looking to
change the timestamps on files please see Chapter 8

date
Tells you the date (and the time) and is also used to set the date/time.

To set the date, type date MM:DD:YYYY (American style date) where MM is
month, DD is the number of days within the month and YYYY is the year.

For example to set the date to the 1st January 2000 you would type:
-
date 01:01:2000
-

To set the time (where the -s option is to set a new time), type:
-
date -s hh:mm:ss
-

Another useful option you can use is date=??string?? (or -d ??string??)
option to display a date from x days ago or in x days (or x weeks,
months, years et cetera). See the examples below.

Examples:
-
date date="3 months 1 day ago"
-

Will print the date 3 months and 1 day ago from the current date. Note
that date=??x month x day ago?? and -d ??x month x day ago?? are
equivalent.
-
date -d "3 days"
-

The above command will print the date 3 days in the future from now.

cal
Typing cal will give you the calendar of the present month on your
screen, in the nice standard calendar format. There are various options
to customise the calendar, refer to the info/man page.

Example:
-
cal -y year
-

Will display a calendar for a specific year, simply use cal -y to print
the calendar for the current year.
-
cal 2 2004
-

This will display the calendar for February 2004

-

There are a number of ways to find out information on your hard disk drives,
for information on mounted partitions also try df in Chapter 8

Using═the═proc═filesystem
You can look through the information in the relevant area of the proc
filesystem, under the directory of either /proc/ide/ or /proc/ide?/hd?
where the first question mark is a number and the second is a letter
(starting with 'a').

For example:
-
cd /proc/ide0/hda
-

Under this directory there will be various information on the hard drive
or cdrom connected.

Using═fdisk
Using fdisk with the -l option will output information on any hard drives
connected to the system and information on their partitions (for example,
the type of partition).

Information relating to using fdisk to partition hard disks can be found
in your distributions documentation, the fdisk manual page or online.

Note Root Access Required

-
Chapter 9. Controlling the system

The controlling the system chapter details commands that you may wish to use
to interact with devices on your system and then details how to control
processes and services/daemons.

eject
eject simply tells a device to open (eject) the drive. Useful for cdrom/
DVD drives.

For example the command below would eject the cdrom-drive (if your cdrom
-
eject /dev/cdrom
-

Note This won't work unless
═    This will only work if the user has permission to mount the
partition. Please see the tip in Section 9.1 for more
information.

-
9.1. Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)

Tip Allowing Users to mount partitions
═   By default a UNIX system will allow normal users to unmount partitions.
However unless given permission by the superuser, users will not be allowed
to mount partitions.

The commands listed below will not work for normal users unless users have
permission to mount that device.

If your particular distribution is setup not to allow users to mount
partitions its not very hard to change this, simply edit the /etc/fstab file
(as root) and:

Replace the word "defaults" with "user" or

Add "user" to the end of the options list for the particular partition(s).|

mount
Mount a device. Attach the device to the file-system hierarchy (the tree
( / )). This needs to be done so you can access the drive (see below,
Section 9.1 for an example).

umount
'Unmount' a device. The command umount (no 'n') unmount's a device. It
removes it from the file-system hierarchy (the tree ( / )). This needs to
be done before you remove a floppy/CDROM or any other removable device
(see below, Section 9.1 for an example).

smbmount═//wincomp/c═/mnt/win
Where ??win?? would be the place you want it mounted and ??wincomp?? is

═    Using ping/smbmount/ssh or other UNIX system programs with a
computer name rather than IP address will only work if you
have the computer listed in your /etc/hosts file. Here is an
example:

192.168.1.100 new

This line says that their is a computer called ??new?? with
IP address 192.168.1.100. Now that it exists in the /etc/
hosts file I don't have to type the IP address anymore, just
the name ??new??.

smbmount is a tool from the samba package, it can mount a remote windows

Un-mounting uses the same syntax as 'umount', as listed above, or you may
like to use:
-
smbumount /mountpoint
-

Here are some more examples of how to mount a file-system:
-
mount -t ext2 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy (1)
mount -t iso9660 /dev/hdb /mnt/cdrom (2)
mount -t iso /tmp/image_file /mnt/iso_file/ -o loop (3)
-

(1) The windows filesystem is known as vfat (standard on Windows 9x) or
NFTS (standard on Windows 2000 and XP).
(2) for CDROM's
(3) This will mount an image file (usually a CD image file) so you can
view/change the files (it will appear to be like any other device).

Note The -t option
═    On any system running a newer version of the Linux kernel
the -t option is not always necessary and can be left out.

Examples of how to unmount a file-system (necessary before you eject/
remove disk):
-
umount /mount_point
-

An example unmount point could be ??/mnt/floppy?? or ??/mnt/cdrom??

-
9.2. Shutting Down/Rebooting the System

shutdown═now
Shutdown the computer immediately (don't power down). Note that in UNIX
systems this kind of shutdown means to go to ?? single-user mode??.
Single-user mode is a mode where only the administrator (root) has access
to the computer, this mode is designed for maintenance and is often used
for repairs.

For example this would take you to single user mode
-
shutdown now
-

shutdown═-h═now
Shutdown (-h = halt) the computer immediately. It begins the shutdown
procedure, press CTRL-C (break-key) to stop it. After the end of the
broad-casted to all users, for example:

shutdown -h now "Warning system malfunction, self-destruct imminent"|

This would halt the system and send the message to anyone who is
currently logged in.

Tip Shutting down at a particular time
═   You can also put a time that the system should shutdown
instead of ??now??. Typing ??x minutes?? (any number of
minutes is appropriate) or you can even set an exact time.
For example to shutdown at 11:50 type:

shutdown -h 11:50

Note Shutdown -h vs poweroff
═    On some systems, shutdown -h and halt do not actually turn
the system's power off. On systems that do not power off
with these commands use the poweroff command

halt
The same as shutdown -h now doesn't take any options, this command simply
shuts down immediately.

shutdown═-r═now
Shutdown ( -r = reboot) the computer immediately. It begins the reboot
procedure, press CTRL-C (break-key) to stop it. After the end of the
broad-casted to all users, for example:
-
shutdown -r now "Warning system rebooting, all files will be destroyed"|
-

This would reboot the system and send the message to anyone who was
logged in.

Tip Rebooting at a particular time
═   You can also put a time that the system should reboot instead
of ??now??. Typing ??x minutes?? (any number of minutes is
appropriate) or you can even set an exact time. For example
to reboot at 11:50 type:

shutdown -r 11:50

reboot
The same as shutdown -r now, doesn't take any options, simply reboots the
computer immediately.

CTRL-ALT-DEL
(key-combination) May be used from a terminal to reboot or shutdown, it
depends on your system configuration. Note that this doesn't work from an
xterminal. CTRL-ALT-DEL begins the reboot/shutdown immediately, the user
does not have to be logged in.

Tip You can change the behaviour of CTRL-ALT-DEL from rebooting
═   To disable CTRL-ALT-DEL from rebooting your computer (or to
have it do something different), you can edit the /etc/
inittab file (as root).

Here is how it looks on a Mandrake/Mandriva Linux system:

# Trap
CTRL-ALT-DEL

ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now

Note that the # means a comment (and is not used). If you
simply put a # (hash) before the command it would disable it
(it would become a comment).

You could also change the command it runs for example if you
changed the -r to a -h the computer would turn off instead of
rebooting, or you could have it do anything you want. It's up
to your creativity to make it do something interesting.

-
9.3. Controlling Processes

ps
Will give you a list of the processes running on your system. With no
options, ps will list processes that belong to the current user and have
a controlling terminal.

Example options include:

═══-aux - list all running processes (by all users with some
information).

═══-a - list all processes from all users.

%mem usage et cetera.

═══-x - list processes without controlling terminals.

═══-l - display different information including UID and nice value.

═══forest - this makes it easier to see the process hierarchy, which
will give you an indication of how the various processes on your
system interrelate (although you should also try pstree).

For example to list all running processes with additional information,
simply type:
-
ps -aux
-

pstree
Displays the processes in the form of a tree structure (similar to how
tree does it for directories).

Use the -p option to show process id's.

Example:
-
pstree -p
-

This would list all processes and their id's.

pgrep
This command is useful for finding the process id of a particular process
when you know part of its name.

Use the -l option to list the name of the process as well and the -u
option to search via a particular user(s).

Normally pgrep will only return the pid number; this way you can use it
with other commands.

Examples:
-
kill $(pgrep mozilla) - This would kill any process name that starts with mozilla. Note that this is the same as using pkill (see below). If you are unfamiliar with the$(═) part of this command, please refer to
Section 6.4.

To list processes id's and names type:
-
pgrep -l process_name
-

top
Displays the 'top' (as in CPU usage) processes, provides more detail than
ps.

top also provides an updated display, it has many options that make it
fully customisable, refer to the manual or info page for details.

kill
To kill processes on your system, you will need their pid's or id's . Use
ps or pstree to find out the process id's (pid's), or use jobs to find
out id's.

Tip killall and pkill - kill a process by name
═   pkill and killall can be a lot easier to use than kill. pkill
allows you to type part of the name of a process to kill it,
while killall requires the full process name. See below for

Examples:
-
kill pid
-

Simply kill a process (allow it time to save it's files and exit)
-
kill %id
-

Same as above, except it uses an id instead of a pid, you need to use a %
(percent) when using an id to kill.
-
kill -kill pid
-

Force a process to be killed (won't allow files to be saved or updated);
only use when necessary because all data that the program had will be
lost.

There are also many other kill options such as kill -HUP (hangup)...

killall
Kill a process by it's name, uses names instead of process id's (pid's).
Use -v to have killall report whether the kill was successful or not and
-i for interactive mode (will prompt you before attempting to kill).

Tip pkill - a little like a killall with regular expressions
═   pkill is another command that allows processes to be killed
but does so using regular expressions. See below for more
information.

For example:
-
killall -iv mozilla
-

Would kill anything named ??mozilla?? and prompt you before each kill and
report whether the kill was successful or not. Unfortunately you need to
get the name exactly right for killall to work, you would need to use ??
mozilla-bin?? to kill the mozilla browser. If you want something where
you don't need to know the exact name try pkill (below).

pkill
pkill is used to kill processes according to an extended regular
expression. Use the -u option to kill using a user name(s) and process
name (for example to only kill a process of a certain user). pkill can
also send specific signals to processes.

For normal usage simply type:
-
pkill process_name
-

Note that the ??process_name?? doesn't have to be an exact match...

Or to kill the ??process_name?? of only the users ??fred?? and ??anon??
type:
-
pkill -u fred anon process_name
-

skill
skill is used to send a command/username/tty a particular signal.

skill has a number of options available to ensure correct interpretation
(otherwise it just guesses what it is), simply type skill -option(s)

═══-L - list the various signals that can be sent

═══-u - specify a username; this is obviously followed by the user
name or a space-seperated list of usernames.

═══-p - process id (followed by the process id)

═══-c - command name (this is the same as killall)

═══-t - (tty number)

═══-v - verbose mode

═══-i - interactive mode.

skill can be used to stop, continue, or kill processes using the
username, command name or process id (or send them any variety of signals
you like).

Useful example:
-
skill -STOP abusive_user_name
-

The above command will stop all of that users processes, this will cause
his screen to freeze until you type:
-
skill -CONT abusive_user_name
-

This would tell that all processes may continue as before. Note that this
would only work if you are root. Also note you can list more than one
user name with the command so it will apply to multiple users.

CTRL-C
The break key, will kill (break, stop) something that's running on your
terminal.

jobs
Prints currently running jobs, as in processes you have executed within
the shell.

bg
Backgrounds a process. To start a program in the background (so it
doesn't take over the terminal) use an ??&?? (ampersand) sign at the end
of the command. You usually use CTRL-Z to suspend something you are
currently using. You can simply use bg to resume in the background the
last job suspended...

Command syntax:
-
bg job_number
-

or
-
bg job_name
-

fg
Bring a process to the foreground, so you can interact with it. The
process will use your current terminal. Note simply use fg to foreground
the last job number suspended...

You can bring jobs to the foreground by name or by number (use jobs to
find the number).

Command syntax:
-
fg job_number
-

or
-
fg job_name
-

nice
Sets the priority for a process. nice -20 is the maximum priority (only
administrative users can assign negative priorities), nice 20 is the
minimum priority. You must be root to give a process a higher priority,
but you can always lower the priority of your own processes...

Example:
-
nice -20 make
-

Would execute make and it would run at maximum priority.

renice
Changes the priority of an existing command. You may use the options -u
to change the priorities of all processes for a particular user name and
-g to change priorities for all processes of a particular group. The
default is to change via the process id number.

Example:
-
renice 20 2222
-

This would change the priority of process 2222 to 20 (minimum priority).

snice
snice works very similarly to skill, only it changes the priority of the
process(es). Its function is similar to that of renice.

To use options (to ensure correct interpretation) you simply type snice
-option(s):

═══-u - specify a username; this is obviously followed by the user
name or a space-seperated list of usernames.

═══-p - process id (followed by the process id)

═══-c - command name (this is the same as killall)

═══-t - tty number

═══-v - verbose mode

═══-i - interactive mode.

Example:
-
snice -10 -u root
-

This would increase the priority of all root's processes.

-
9.4. Controlling services

Concept═Definitions
═

UNIX systems use scripts to control ??daemons?? which provide ??services
?? (for example your sound output) to run a UNIX system. UNIX systems
consist of a variety of services (daemons).

A ??daemon?? is a system process which runs in the background (zero

Daemons normally have a ??d?? on the end of their name and either listen
for certain events or perform a system task, for example sshd listens for
secure shell requests to the particular machine and handles them when
they occur.

Daemons usually perform critical system tasks such as control swap-space,
memory management and various other tasks.

service
service is a shell script available on Mandrake/Mandriva and Redhat
systems which allows you to perform various tasks on services.

═══Use the -s option to print the status of all services available

═══Use the -f option followed by a service name to restart that
particular service.

═══Use the -R option to restart all services (note that this will kill
any current services running, including the X windows system).

For example to restart the daemon sshd you would type:
-
service -f sshd
-

Using═the═script═directly
You may also execute the shell script directly from /etc/init.d. Simply
go to that directory then type ./script_name.

Executing the script should return the options it can take, by default
they will be:

═══restart - this will make the service stop and then start again.

═══start - this option will start a service (assuming its not
running).

═══stop - this option will stop a service (assuming its running).

═══status - this option will tell you about the service

-
Chapter 10. Managing users

(Switch User), change to a different user.

Use su═- to switch to root or su username, to switch to a different

Tip Using sudo
═   Its often considered better practice to use the sudo command
rather than switch to the root user

The sudo command allows you to perform actions as root but
logs the actions you take (so you can trace anything that was
done to the system by yourself or others). sudo has a very
good manual page which provides plenty of information about
it.

You use sudo similar to how you execute a normal command with
sudo prepended to it, for example:

sudo rpm -U myrpm.i386.rpm

This would allow you to install a rpm even if you have the
correct sudo access

again, type exit or press CTRL-D .

Simply typing su will give you some root privileges, but there are minor
complications relating to environment variables. It's generally
considered better practice to use su═- because it has no restrictions.

root
The superuser. This user has power over everything and all, and can do
anything with the system (including destroy it, and of course fix it :)).
This user is used to perform most administration functions on the system.

-
10.1. Users/Groups

All user information is normally listed in the ??/etc/passwd?? file and the
group information in the ??/etc/groups?? file.

If you need to edit either file it is recommended that you use vipw to edit
the password file and vigr to edit the group file. These particular commands
take care of any processing and locking of the files before and after editing
them.

groups, this information is only the minimal information required.

chsh

To list the shells available type:
-
chsh list-shells
-

Simply type chsh then [Enter], then type the name of the shell you would
like to use every time you login.

chfn
Change finger information.

The information this command changes is reflected in the /etc/passwd
file, use this utility to update your real name, office and home phone
numbers (if they exist).

Use the -f option to change a users full name. Use this tool as either
chfn or chfn user_name (usable by root only).

Command syntax:
-
chfn user_name
-

passwd
Changes the password of a user. You will need to be root if you want to

Simply type passwd to change your own password or to change another users
-
-

-
Chapter 11. Text Related Tools

The text related tools chapter is the largest in this guide, most of the time
on a GNU/Linux machine you will spend time interacting with text. This
chapter briefly covers text editors and goes into more depth on viewing text,
using tools to manipulate text, finding text within files and changing text
formats between windows based systems and GNU/Linux based systems.
-

11.1. Text Editors

vi
A traditional UNIX system text editor, should be on any UNIX system. It
requires learning a few key combinations, but is very powerful, and it is
also quite small. vi is well known for its minimal use of resources.

Note vim
═    vim - vi improved. A newer version of the vulnerable vi
editor. Many systems use vim rather than vi.

emacs
More than just a text editor. This text editor has a steep learning curve
but is also very powerful, it is both advanced and quite large. emacs can
do anything, surf the internet, chat, play games and many other tasks.

Others
There are too many different text editors to list here. Have a look on
the internet, either search for them using any search engine or you will
find many of them at [http://sourceforge.net/] Sourceforge or [http://
freshmeat.net/] Freshmeat.

-
11.2. Text Viewing Tools

With no options it shows the first ten lines of a text file.

Use head -n x (where ??x?? is a number) to display the first x lines.

Try head -F to use a continually updated version of head (if the file
changes it will be reloaded and displayed), please note that using this
option will run head is a continuous loop so you'll need to use CTRL-C to
exit.

For example:
-
-

Will display the top 20 entries of the file ??somelog.txt??.

tail
With no options it shows the last ten lines of a file.

Use tail -n x (where ??x?? is a number) to display the last x lines.

Try tail -F to use a continually updated version of tail (if the file
changes it will be reloaded and displayed), please note that using this
option will run tail is a continuous loop so you'll need to use CTRL-C to
exit.

For example:
-
tail -n 20 somelog.txt
-

Will display the last 20 entries of the file ??somelog.txt??.

less
Views text, can scroll backwards and forwards. Has many different options
which are all described in the manual page.

When less is already running, use :n and :p (type a colon then the
character) to move to the next and previous files (when there are
multiple open files).

Command syntax:
-
less filename.txt
-

Or using a tool (in this example cat):
-
cat file.txt less
-

more
Displays text, one page full at a time, more limited than less. In this
case less is better than more.
-
more filename.txt
-

Or using a tool (is this example cat):
-
cat file.txt more
-

cat
Combines (concatenates) multiple documents into one document. Can be used
on individual files as well.

Some useful options:

═══-b - number all non-blank lines

═══-n - number all lines.

Also try using nl to number lines (it can do more complex numbering), you
will find it under under this section, Section 11.4

Example:
-
cat filepart1 filepart2 filepart3 > wholefile.txt
-

This will combine (concatenate) filepart1, filepart2 and filepart3 into
the single file ??wholefile.txt??.

tac
Combines (concatenates) multiple documents into one document and outputs
them in reverse order. Can also be used on individual files. Notice that
tac is cat written backwards.

Example:
-
tac filepart1 filepart2 filepart3 > wholefile.txt
-

This will combine (concatenate) filepart1, filepart2 and filepart3 into
the single file but have each of the files written in reverse.

z*═commands
Many commands can be prefixed with a ??z?? to read/work within a gzip
compressed file.

Some examples are zcat, zless, zmore, zgrep, zcmp, zdiff.

There are many utilities for working with text within compressed files
without trying to manually de-compress them somewhere first...most begin
with a ??z??. You will find some of them mentioned over here, Section
15.3.

bz*═commands
There are also a few commands that prefixed with a ??bz?? to read/work
within a file compressed with bzip2.

The tools are bzcat, bzless, bzgrep. You will find some of them mentioned
over here, Section 15.3.

-
11.3. Text Information Tools

wc
Word count, count how many words you have in a text document. Can also be
used to count the lines or bytes within the file.

Use the options -w for words, -l for lines and -c for bytes. Or simply
run wc with no options to get all three.

Command syntax:
-
wc -option file.txt
-

style
To run various readability tests on a particular text file. Will output
scores on a number of different readability tests (with no options).

Command syntax:
-
style -options text_file
-

Note Find style in the diction package
═    This command is part of the diction package and does not
appear to be used too often these days

cmp
Determines whether or not two files differ, works on any type of file.
Very similar to diff only it compares on the binary level instead of just
the text.

diff
Compares two text files and output a difference report (sometimes called
a "diff") containing the text that differs between two files.

Can be used to create a 'patch' file (which can be used by patch).

Example:
-
diff file1.txt file2.txt
-

diff will output a '>' (followed by the line) for each line that isn't in
the first file but is in the second file, and it will output a '<'
(followed by the line) for each line that is in the first file but not in
the second file.

sdiff
Instead of giving a difference report, it outputs the files in two
columns, side by side, separated by spaces.

diff3
Same as diff except for three files.

═

comm
Compares two files, line-by-line and prints lines that are unique to
file1 (1st column), unique to file2 (2nd column) and common to both files
(3rd column).

Use comm with the -1, -2, or -3 to suppress the printing of those
particular lines. Simply run comm to have all three listed (ie. unique to
files 1 and 2 and common to both).

Command syntax:
-
comm file1 file2
-

look
To output a list of words in the system dictionary that begin with a
given string  this is useful for finding words that begin with a
particular phrase or prefix.

Give the string as an argument; it is not case sensitive.

Command syntax:
-
look string
-

-
11.4. Text manipulation tools

Tip Also see
═   Also see tac, and cat over in this section, Section 11.2, as they can
perform text manipulation too

sort
Sorting text with no options the sort is alphabetical. Can be run on text
files to sort them alphabetically (note it also concatenates files), can
also be used with a pipe '|' to sort the output of a command.

Use sort -r to reverse the sort output, use the -g option to sort
'numerically' (ie read the entire number, not just the first digit).

Examples:
-
cat shoppinglist.txt sort
-

The above command would run cat on the shopping list then sort the
results and display them in alphabetical order.
-
sort -r shoppinglist.txt
-

The above command would run sort on a file and sort the file in reverse
alphabetical order.

sort is a powerful utility, here are some of the more hard to learn (and
lesser used) commands. Use the -t option to use a particular symbol as
the separator then use the -k option to specify which column you would
like to sort by, where column 1 is the first column before the separator.
Also use the -g option if numeric sorting is not working correctly
(without the -g option sort just looks at the first digit of the number).
Here is a complex example:
-
sort -t : -k 4 -k 1 -g /etc/passwd more
-

This will sort the ??/etc/passwd?? file, using the colon ':' as the
separator. It will sort via the 4th column (GID section, in the file) and
then sort within that sort using the first (name) to resolve any ties.
The -g is there so it sorts via full numbers, otherwise it will have 4000
before 50 (it will just look at the first digit...).

join
Will put two lines together assuming they share at least one common value
on the relevant line. It won't print lines if they don't have a common
value.

Command syntax:
-
join file1 file2
-

cut
Prints selected parts of lines (of a text file), or, in other words,
removes certain sections of a line. You may wish to remove things
according to tabs or commas, or anything else you can think of...

Options for cut:

═══-d - allows you to specify another delimiter, for example ':' is
often used with /etc/passwd:

cut -d ':' (and probably some more options here) /etc/passwd|

═══-f - this option works with the text by columns, separated
according to the delimiter. For example if your file had lines like
??result,somethingelse,somethingelse?? and you only wanted result you
would use:

cut -d ',' -f 1 /etc/passwd

This would get you only the usernames in /etc/passwd

═══??,?? (commas) - used to separate numbers, these allow you to cut
particular columns. For example:

cut -d ':' -f 1,7 /etc/passwd

This would only show the username and the shell that each person is
setup for in /etc/passwd.

═══??-?? (hyphen) - used to show from line x to line y, for example
1-4, (would be from lines 1 to line 4).

cut -c 1-50 file1.txt

This would cut (display) characters (columns) 1 to 50 of each line
(and anything else on that line is ignored)

═══-x - where x is a number, to cut from line 1 to ??x??

═══x- - where x is a number, to cut from ??x?? to the end.

cut -5, 20-, 8 file2.txt

This would display (??cut??) characters (columns) 1 to 5, 8 and from
20 to the end.

ispell/aspell
To spell check a file interactively, prompts for you to replace word or
continue. aspell is said to be better at suggesting replacement words,
but its probably best to find out for yourself.

aspell example:
-
aspell -c FILE.txt
-

This will run aspell on a particular file called ??FILE.txt??, aspell
will run interactively and prompt for user input.

ispell example:
-
ispell FILE.txt
-

This will run ispell on a particular file called ??FILE.txt?? ispell will
run interactively and prompt for user input.

chcase
Is used to change the uppercase letters in a file name to lowercase (or
vice versa).

You could also use tr to do the same thing...
-
cat fileName.txt tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'  > newFileName.txt
-

The above would convert uppercase to lowercase using the the file ??
fileName.txt?? as input and outputting the results to ??newFileName.txt
??.
-
cat fileName.txt tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]' > newFileName.txt
-

The above would convert lowercase to uppercase using the the file ??
fileName.txt?? as input and outputting the results to ??newFileName.txt
??.

chcase (a perl script) can be found at the [http://www.blemished.net/
chcase.html] chcase homepage.

fmt
(format) a simple text formatter. Use fmt with the -u option to output
text with "uniform spacing", where the space between words is reduced to
one space character and the space between sentences is reduced to two
space characters.

Example:
-
fmt -u myessay.txt
-

Will make sure the amount of space between sentences is two spaces and
the amount of space between words is one space.

paste
Puts lines from two files together, either lines of each file side by
side (normally separated by a tab-stop but you can have any symbols(s)
you like...) or it can have words from each file (the first file then the
second file) side by side.

To obtain a list of lines side by side, the first lines from the first
file on the left side separated by a tab-stop then the first lines from
the second file. You would type:
-
paste file1.txt file2.txt
-

To have the list displayed in serial, first line from first file, [Tab],
second line from first file, then third and fourth until the end of the
first file type:
-
paste serial file1.txt file2.txt
-

Tip This command is very simple to understand if you make
yourself an example
═   Its much easier if you create an example for yourself. With
just a couple of lines, I used "first line first file" and
"first line second file" et cetera for a quick example.

expand
Will convert tabs to spaces and output it. Use the option -t num to
specify the size of a ??tapstop??, the number of characters between each
tab.

Command syntax:
-
expand file_name.txt
-

unexpand
Will convert spaces to tabs and output it.

Command syntax:
-
unexpand file_name.txt
-

uniq
Eliminates duplicate entries from a file and it sometimes greatly
simplifies the display.

uniq options:

═══-c - count the number of occurances of each duplicate

═══-u - list only unique entries

═══-d - list only duplicate entries

For example:
-
uniq -cd phone_list.txt
-

This would display any duplicate entries only and a count of the number
of times that entry has appeared.

tr
(translation). A filter useful to replace all instances of characters in
a text file or "squeeze" the whitespace.

Example:
-
cat some_file tr '3' '5' > new_file
-

This will run the cat program on some file, the output of this command
will be sent to the tr command, tr will replace all the instances of 3
with 5, like a search and replace. You can also do other things such as:
-
cat some_file tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]' > new_file
-

This will run cat on some_file and convert any capital letters to
lowercase letters (you could use this to change the case of file names
too...).

Tip Alternatives
═   You can also do a search and replace with a one line Perl

nl
The number lines tool, it's default action is to write it's input (either
the file names given as an argument, or the standard input) to the
standard output.

Line numbers are added to every line and the text is indented.

This command can do take some more advanced numbering options, simply
read the info page on it.

These advanced options mainly relate to customisation of the numbering,
including different forms of separation for sections/pages/footers etc.

Also try cat -n (number all lines) or cat -b (number all non-blank
lines). For more info on cat check under this section: Section 11.2

There are two ways you can use nl:
-
nl some_text_file.txt
-

The above command would add numbers to each line of some_text_file. You
could use nl to number the output of something as shown in the example
below;
-
grep some_string some_file nl
-

Perl═search═and═replace═text
To search and replace text in a file is to use the following one-line
Perl command[4]:
-
$perl -pi -e "s/oldstring/newstring/g;" filespec [RET] - In this example, ??oldstring?? is the string to search, ??newstring?? is the string to replace it with, and ??filespec?? is the name of the file or files to work on. You can use this for more than one file. Example: To replace the string ??helpless?? with the string ??helpful?? in all files in the current directory, type: -$ perl -pi -e "s/helpless/helpful/g;" * [RET]
-

Also try using tr to do the same thing (see further above in this
section).

Tip If these tools are too primitive
═   If these text tools are too simple for your purposes then you are
probably looking at doing some programming or scripting.

authored by Mendel Cooper.

sed and awk are traditional UNIX system tools for working with text, this
guide does not provide an explanation of them. sed works on a
line-by-line basis performing substitution and awk can perform a similar
task or assist by working on a file and printing out certain information
(its a programming language).

You will normally find them installed on your GNU/Linux system and will
find many tutorials all over the internet, feel free to look them up if
you ever have to perform many similar operations on a text file.
-

11.5. Text Conversion/Filter Tools

Filters═(UNIX═System/dos═formats)
The following filters allow you to change text from Dos-style to UNIX
system style and vice-versa, or convert a file to other formats. Also
note that many modern text editors can do this for you...

Why═use═filters?
Because UNIX systems and Microsoft use two different standards to
represent the end-of-line in an ASCII text file.

This can sometimes causes problems in editors or viewers which aren't
familiar with the other operating systems end-of-line style. The
following tools allow you to get around this difference.

Whats═the═difference?
The difference is very simple, on a Windows text file, a newline is
signalled by a carriage return followed by a newline, '\r\n' in ASCII
.

On a UNIX system a newline is simply a newline, '\n' in ASCII.

dos2unix
This converts Microsoft-style end-of-line characters to UNIX system style
end-of-line characters.

Simply type:
-
dos2unix file.txt
-

fromdos
This does the same as dos2unix (above).

Simply type:
-
fromdos file.txt
-

fromdos can be obtained from [http://www.thefreecountry.com/tofrodos/]
the from/to dos website.

unix2dos
This converts UNIX system style end-of-line characters to Microsoft-style
end-of-line characters.

Simply type:
-
unix2dos file.txt
-

todos
This does the same as unix2dos (above).

Simply type:
-
todos file.txt
-

todos can be obtained from [http://www.thefreecountry.com/tofrodos/] the
from/to dos website.

antiword
This filter converts Microsoft word documents into plain ASCII text
documents.

Simply type:
-
antiword file.doc
-

You can get antiword from [http://www.winfield.demon.nl/] the antiword
homepage.

recode
Converts text files between various formats including HTML and dozens of
different forms of text encodings.

Use recode -l for a full listing. It can also be used to convert text to
and from Windows and UNIX system formats (so you don't get the weird
symbols).

Caution Warning
═       By default recode overwrites the input file, use '<' to
use recode as a filter only (and to not overwrite the
file).

Examples:
═

UNIX system text to Windows text:
-
recode ..pc file_name
-

Windows text to UNIX system text:
-
recode ..pc/ file_name
-

UNIX system text to Windows text without overwriting the original file
(and creating a new output file):
-
recode ..pc < file_name > recoded_file
-

tr
(Windows to UNIX system style conversion only). While tr is not
specifically designed to convert files from Windows-format to UNIX system
format by doing:
-
tr -d '\r' < inputFile.txt > outputFile.txt
-

The -d switch means to simply delete any occurances of the string. Since
we are looking for '\r', carriage returns it will remove any it finds,
making the file a UNIX system text file. You can read more about tr over
here, Section 11.4.

-
11.5.1. Conversion tools

enscript
Converts text files to postscript, rtf, HTML (use ghostview to view the
postscript file). enscript has a large number of options which can be
used to customise the output.

Examples:[5]
-
enscript language=html input_file.txt -o output_file.html
-

This will take some file and output it as a html file.
-
enscript help-highlight
-

Display help on using the highlight feature (list all different types of
highlighting available)
-
enscript help-highlight
-

Highlight (pretty print), example:

enscript -E color language=html toc output=foo.html *.h *.c

Add all the files with a .h and a .c (C source and header files) into a

For further options refer to the well written manual page of enscript.

figlet
Used to create ASCII ??art??. Figlet can create several different forms
(fonts) of ASCII art, its one of the more unusual programs around.

-
11.6. Finding Text Within Files

grep
Looks for text within files. For example:
-
grep this_word this_file.txt
-

Example options:

═══-v - this option is used to display lines which do not contain the
string.

═══-n - this option displays the line numbers

═══-w - this option makes grep match the whole word

═══-A x or -B x (where x is a number) - display ??x?? lines After or
Before the section where the particular word is found.

═══-r or rgrep - search for text within files recursively.

Section 20.4.2.

For example, this command would look in the file ??rpmlist.txt?? for
anything starting with ??rpm??:
-
grep rpm rpmlist.txt
-

Or you could use it like this, to search through the output of another
file:
-
rpm -qa grep ogg
-

The first command lists all RPM's installed on your system, the second
finds any containing the string ??ogg?? and outputs them.

rgrep
A "recursive" version of grep (this is a different program to grep). This
will search all the files in the current directory and all it's
subdirectories and print the names of the files and the matching line.
Follows similar syntax to grep (see above). You could also use grep with
the -r option to achieve the same affect.

fgrep
This version of grep calls grep with the -F option. This will look for
literal strings only, it won't use or expand any kind of regular
expression.

For example you could type:
-
fgrep 'a$*b?' file.txt - And fgrep would look for the string ??a$*b??? in the file ??file.txt??.

Tip Other Versions
═   There are various versions of grep which are designed to do different
things try searching for them on the internet or within your
distribution.
-

Chapter 12. Mathematical tools

Note num-utils homepage
═    The ??num-utils?? homepage, [http://suso.suso.org/programs/num-utils/]
Num Utils, contains a variety of command line programs that could be
useful when performing maths on your GNU/Linux machine.

units
Convert units of measurement between different scales. For example,
centimeters to inches, litres to gallons.

Simply run the program, I recommend running it as follows:
-
units verbose
-

This will run the program and it will tell you exactly what it is doing.

Example: you enter ??60 meters?? then you want it worked out in ??
kilometers??. The first line will tell you what this evaluates to.

If you wanted the conversion rate for ??meters?? to ??kilometers?? read
the second line of the output (which will tell you meters/1000).

Note To exit
═    Press CTRL-D (end-of-file key) when you are finished using
units.

python
Python is a very powerful, easy to learn, general purpose, interpreted
programming language. And it makes a great calculator! If you don't have
a calculator installed then simply type python, then hit [Enter].

This will execute the Python interpreter in interactive mode. Type your
sums just like you would use a calculator. Note that if you want to work
out fractions make sure you use a decimal point and a zero to obtain the
correct answer (otherwise it will use integer division).

To start python in interactive mode, simply type:
-
python
-

Once python is started you can use it to add up sums or maybe do some
python programming.

Use CTRL-D (end-of-file key) to exit the Python interpreter.

numgrep
A little bit like grep only this is designed for numbers only.

Use '/' (forward slashes) to contain each expression.

Use m<n> to find multiples of the number n and use f<n> to find factors
of the number n.

Use commas to seperate expressions and .. (two dots) to represent a
range.

For example, to input from standard input you could simply type:
-
numgrep
-

To input from a file and look for numbers between 1 and 1000 you could
type:
-
numgrep /1..1000/ file_name
-

Note This tool comes from the num-utils package
═    Please note that this tool is part of the num-utils package.

-
Chapter 13. Network Commands

The network commands chapter explains various tools which can be useful when
networking with other computers both within the network and accross the
includes information on tools for network configuration, file transfer and
working with remote machines.

netstat
Displays contents of /proc/net files. It works with the Linux Network
Subsystem, it will tell you what the status of ports are ie. open,
closed, waiting, masquerade connections. It will also display various
other things. It has many different options.

tcpdump
This is a sniffer, a program that captures packets off a network
interface and interprets them for you. It understands all basic internet
protocols, and can be used to save entire packets for later inspection.

ping
The ping command (named after the sound of an active sonar system) sends
echo requests to the host you specify on the command line, and lists the
responses received their round trip time.

You simply use ping as:
-
ping ip_or_host_name
-

Note to stop ping (otherwise it goes forever) use CTRL-C (break).

═    Using ping/smbmount/ssh or other UNIX system programs with a
computer name rather than IP address will only work if you
have the computer listed in your /etc/hosts file. Here is an
example:

192.168.1.100 new

This line says that their is a computer called ??new?? with
IP address 192.168.1.100. Now that it exists in the /etc/
hosts file I don't have to type the IP address anymore, just
the name ??new??.

hostname
Tells the user the host name of the computer they are logged into. Note:
may be called host.

traceroute
traceroute will show the route of a packet. It attempts to list the
series of hosts through which your packets travel on their way to a given
destination. Also have a look at xtraceroute (one of several graphical
equivalents of this program).

Command syntax:
-
traceroute machine_name_or_ip
-

tracepath
tracepath performs a very simlar function to traceroute the main
difference is that tracepath doesn't take complicated options.

Command syntax:
-
tracepath machine_name_or_ip
-

findsmb
findsmb is used to list info about machines that respond to SMB name
queries (for example windows based machines sharing their hard disk's).

Command syntax:
-
findsmb
-

This would find all machines possible, you may need to specify a
particular subnet to query those machines only...

nmap
?? network exploration tool and security scanner??. nmap is a very
advanced network tool used to query machines (local or remote) as to
whether they are up and what ports are open on these machines.

A simple usage example:
-
nmap machine_name
-

This would query your own machine as to what ports it keeps open. nmap is
a very powerful tool, documentation is available on the [http://
www.insecure.org/nmap/] nmap site as well as the information in the
manual page.

-
13.1. Network Configuration

ifconfig
This command is used to configure network interfaces, or to display their
current configuration. In addition to activating and deactivating
interfaces with the ??up?? and ??down?? settings, this command is
necessary for setting an interface's address information if you don't
have the ifcfg script.

Use ifconfig as either:
-
ifconfig
-

This will simply list all information on all network devices currently
up.
-
ifconfig eth0 down
-

This will take eth0 (assuming the device exists) down, it won't be able
to receive or send anything until you put the device back ??up?? again.

Clearly there are a lot more options for this tool, you will need to read

ifup
Use ifup device-name to bring an interface up by following a script
(which will contain your default networking settings). Simply type ifup
and you will get help on using the script.

For example typing:
-
ifup eth0
-

Will bring eth0 up if it is currently down.

ifdown
Use ifdown device-name to bring an interface down using a script (which
will contain your default network settings). Simply type ifdown and you
will get help on using the script.

For example typing:
-
ifdown eth0
-

Will bring eth0 down if it is currently up.

ifcfg
Use ifcfg to configure a particular interface. Simply type ifcfg to get
help on using this script.

For example, to change eth0 from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.0.2 you could do:
-
ifcfg eth0 del 192.168.0.1
-

The first command takes eth0 down and removes that stored IP address and
the second one brings it back up with the new address.

route
The route command is the tool used to display or modify the routing
table. To add a gateway as the default you would type:
-
-

-
13.2. Internet Specific Commands

Note that should DNS not be configured correctly on your machine, you need to
edit ??/etc/resolv.conf?? to make things work...

host
Performs a simple lookup of an internet address (using the Domain Name
System, DNS). Simply type:
-
-

or
-
host domain_name
-

dig
The "domain information groper" tool. More advanced then host... If you
give a hostname as an argument to output information about that host,
including it's IP address, hostname and various other information.

For example, to look up information about ??www.amazon.com?? type:
-
dig www.amazon.com
-

To find the host name for a given IP address (ie a reverse lookup), use
dig with the -x' option.
-
dig -x 100.42.30.95
-

This will look up the address (which may or may not exist) and returns
the address of the host, for example if that was the address of ??http://
slashdot.org?? then it would return ??http://slashdot.org??.

dig takes a huge number of options (at the point of being too many),

whois
(now BW whois) is used to look up the contact information from the ??
whois?? databases, the servers are only likely to hold major sites. Note
that contact information is likely to be hidden or restricted as it is
often abused by crackers and others looking for a way to cause malicious
damage to organisation's.

wget
(GNU Web get) used to download files from the World Wide Web.

To archive a single web-site, use the -m or mirror (mirror) option.

Use the -nc (no clobber) option to stop wget from overwriting a file if

Use the -c or continue option to continue a file that was unfinished by
wget or another program.

Simple usage example:
-
wget url_for_file
-

This would simply get a file from a site.

wget can also retrieve multiple files using standard wildcards, the same
as the type used in bash, like *, [ ], ?. Simply use wget as per normal
but use single quotation marks (' ') on the URL to prevent bash from
expanding the wildcards. There are complications if you are retrieving
from a http site (see below...).

Advanced usage example, (used from wget manual page):
-
wget spider force-html -i bookmarks.html
-

This will parse the file bookmarks.html and check that all the links
exist.

(using a wildcard...).

does so you may use wildcards with ftp and it will work fine. A
work-around for this http limitation is shown below:
-
wget -r -l1 no-parent -A.gif http://www.website.com[6]
-

This will download (recursively), to a depth of one, in other words in
the current directory and not below that. This command will ignore
??.gif??. If you wanted to download say, anything that ends with ??.pdf??
as well than add a -A.pdf before the website address. Simply change the
something else. Note that doing -A.gif is the same as doing -A ??*.gif??
(double quotes only, single quotes will not work).

wget has many more options refer to the examples section of the manual
page, this tool is very well documented.

═    You may like to try alternatives like httrack. A full GUI
Linux

curl
work without user interaction and supports a variety of protocols, can
things. It can access dictionary servers (dict), ldap servers, ftp, http,
gopher, see the manual page for full details.

To access the full manual (which is huge) for this command type:
-
curl -M
-

For general usage you can use it like wget. You can also login using a
like this:
-
-

To upload using ftp you the -T option:
-
-

To continue a file use the -C option:
-
curl -C - -o file http://www.site.com
-

-

ssh
Secure shell, remotely login on a machine running the sshd daemon. Once
you are logged in you have a secure shell and are able to execute various
commands on that computer such as copy files, reboot the computer, just
like it was your own GNU/Linux PC.

Or you can use ssh with a full hostname to connect to a remote machine
(as in across the internet).

Examples:
-
ssh hostname
-

Connect to a remote system with your current username, you will obviously
need the password of the user on the other machine.
-
-

Connect to a remote system with your a different username, you will
obviously need the password of the user on the other machine.

scp
Secure copy, part of the ssh package. Allows you to copy files from one
computer to another computer, use -r to copy recursively (copy entire
directories and subdirectories).

scp's syntax is always
-
scp machineToBeCopiedFrom machineToBeCopiedTo
-

Where either machine can be a local directory (on the current filesystem
/) or a remote machine. Remote machines are usually machinesFullName:/
directory (if you omit the directory part it will just assume the home
directory of the username you are logging in with).

The example below copies all files from the current directory (not
including any directories), the command will login to ??new?? using the
username of the person currently logged in on the local computer, the
files will be copied to the root directory of the remote computer called
??new?? (which is probably on the LAN):
-
scp * new:/
-

You could also copy files from another computer to another computer.
Let's say you are on a computer called ??p100??. And you want to copy
files (and directories) from ??hp166?? (in the /tmp directory and
anything below that) to ??new?? and put the files in new's temporary
directory. You could do:
-
scp -r hp166:/tmp new:/tmp
-

Assuming you were logged in as ??fred?? you would need passwords for user
??fred?? on the computers hp166 and new. Add an user_name@ before the
computer name to login under a different user name.

For example to perform the above command with user ??root?? on hp166 and
??anon?? on new you would type:
-
scp -r root@hp166:/tmp anon@new:/tmp
-

To copy from a remote machine to a local computer you simply do things in
reverse:
-
scp remoteMachine:/mystuff/* .
-

This will copy files on the remote machine in the directory ??mystuff??

Note Remote Machines
═    Please note that when working with a remote machine you need
to have a : (colon) after the machine name even if you want
the files in their home directory. Otherwise the command
will fail.

sftp
Secure ftp, another part of the ssh package. This command is similar to
ftp but uses an encrypted tunnel to connect to an ftp server and is
therefore more secure than just plain ftp.

The command usage is very similar to ftp (the command-line tool), sftp
(once running) uses commands such as help (for help), put (send files to
refer to the manual page and internal documentation for further details.

Tip Graphical programs
═   Sometimes its easier to manage files with a GUI, many of
these programs do have good GUI equivalents, try searching
the internet or sites like [http://sourceforge.net]
Sourceforge or [http://freshmeat.net] Freshmeat.

-
Chapter 14. Security

The security chapter is designed to give the user a very basic level of
understanding of security within the GNU/Linux operating system. This chapter
also has information on the UNIX system style file permissions used on most
GNU/Linux machines.

More comprehensive guides can be found at the [http://www.tldp.org] Linux
Documentation Project, such as the [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Security-HOWTO
/] Linux Security howto authored by Kevin Fenzi and Dave Wreski.

There are also sites such as [http://www.linuxsecurity.com] Linux Security.
If your looking for a program to assist in locking down your operating system
you may want to check [http://www.bastille-linux.org] Bastille Linux that
runs on RPM based distributions (Redhat/Mandriva/SuSE).

This trick works well if you have forgotten your superuser password, type
linux single at a LILO/Grub prompt. Then passwd once the system has
started and you are at a console.

Grub:
If you are using grub go to the relevant line (the one with the
kernel and various options) then press 'e' for edit and add ??single
?? on to the end of the lines that boot the kernel. Then hit [Enter]
and press 'b' (to boot).

Lilo:
If you are using lilo press escape and type ?? linux single?? and
then hit [Enter] to boot.

Caution Security Warning
═       This is also a basic security hazard if you have others
using your computer and security is a concern, you may
stop this from being done.

The umask is a value set by the shell. It controls the default
permissions of any file created during that shell session. This
information is inherited from the shell's parent and is normally set in
some configuration file by the root user (in my case /etc/profile).

umask has an unusual way of doing things ...to set the umask you must
describe file permissions by saying what will be disabled.

You can do this by doing 777 minus the file permissions you want. Note
Section 14.2

For example:

You want the default during a particular shell session to be equivalent
to chmod 750 (user has r/w/x, group has r/x and other has no
permissions), then the command you would use would be:
-
-

-
14.1. Some basic Security Tools

md5sum
Compute an md5 checksum (128-bit) for file ??file_name?? to verify it's
integrity. You normally use the ?? md5sum -c?? option to check against a
given file (often with a ??.asc?? extention) to check whether the various
checking is automated for you.

Command syntax:
-
md5sum file_name
-

mkpasswd═-l═10
This command will make a random password of length ten characters. This
guess. There are similar alternatives to this program scattered around
the internet.

-
14.2. File Permissions

Use ls -l to see the permissions of files (list-long). They will appear like
this, note that I have added spaces between permissions to make it easier to

Where: r = read, w = write, x = execute
-
|  -  rwx   rw-   r  1 (1)  newuser newuser
|type(2) owner(3) group(4) others(5)
-

(1) This number is the number of hard links (pointers) to this file. You can
use ln to create another hard-link to the file.
(2) This is the type of file. '-' means a regular file, 'd' would mean a
directory, 'l' would mean a link. There are also other types such as 'c'
for character device and 'b' for block device (found in the /dev/
directory).
(3) These are the permissions for the owner of the file (the user who created
the file).
(4) These are the permissions for the group, any users who belong is the same
group as the user who created the file will have these permissions.
(5) These are the permissions for everyone else. Any user who is outside the
group will have these permissions to the file.

The two names at the end are the username and group respectively.

chmod
Change file access permissions for a file(s).

There are two methods to change permissions using chmod; letters or
numbers.

Letters═Method:
use a  or - (plus or minus sign) to add or remove permissions for a
file respectively. Use an equals sign =, to specify new permissions
and remove the old ones for the particular type of user(s).

You can use chmod letter where the letters are:

a (all (everyone)), u (user), g (group) and o (other).

Examples:
-
chmod urw somefile
-

This would give the user read and write permission.
-
chmod o-rwx somefile
-

This will remove read/write/execute permissions from other users (doesn't
-
chmod ar somefile
-

This will give everyone read permission for the file.
-
chmod a=rx somefile
-

This would give everyone execute and read permission to the file, if
anyone had write permission it would be removed.

Numbers═Method:
you can also use numbers (instead of letters) to change file
permissions. Where:

r (read) = 4 w (write) = 2 x (execute) = 1

Examples:
-
chmod 777 somefile
-

This would give everyone read/write/execute permission on ??this_file??.
The first number is user, second is group and third is everyone else
(other).
-
chmod 521 somefile
-

This would give the user read and execute permission, and the group write
permission (but not read permission!) and everyone else execute
permission. (Note that it's just an example, settings like that don't
really make sense...).

chown
Changes the ownership rights of a file (hence the name 'chown' - change
owner). This program can only be used by root.

Use the -R option to change things recursively, in other words, all
matching files including those in subdirectories.

Command syntax:
-
chown owner:group the_file_name
-

sticky═bit
Only the person who created the file within a directory may delete it,
even if other people have write permission. You can turn it on by typing:
-
chmod 1700 somedirectory (where 1 = sticky bit)
-

or (where t represents the sticky bit)
-
chmod t somedirectory
-

To turn it off you would need to type:
-
chmod 0700 somefile (where the zero would mean no sticky bit)
-

or (where t represents the sticky bit)
-
chmod -t somefile
-

Note that the permissions aren't relevant in the numbers example, only
the first number (1 = on, 0 = off).

An example of a sticky directory is usually /tmp

suid
Allow SUID/SGID (switch user ID/switch group ID) access. You would
normally use chmod to turn this on or off for a particular file, suid is
generally considered a security hazard so be careful when using this.

Example:
-
chmod us file_name
-

This will give everyone permission to execute the file with the
permissions of the user who set the s switch.

Caution Security Hazard
═       This is obviously a security hazard. You should avoid
using the suid flag unless necessary.

chattr
Change file system attributes (works on ext2fs and possibly others...).
Use the -R option to change files recursively, chattr has a large number
of attributes which can be set on a file, read the manual page for
further information.

Example:
-
chattr i /sbin/lilo.conf[7]
-

This sets the 'immutable' flag on a file. Use a '' to add attributes and
a '-' to take them away. The i will prevent any changes (accidental or
otherwise) to the ??lilo.conf?? file. If you wish to modify the lilo.conf
file you will need to unset the immutable flag: chattr -i. Note some
flags can only be used by root; -i, -a and probably many others.

Note there are many different attributes that chattr can change, here are
a few more which may be useful:

═══A (no Access time) - if a file or directory has this attribute set,
whenever it is accessed, either for reading of for writing, it's last
access time will not be updated. This can be useful, for example, on
files or directories which are very often accessed for reading,
especially since this parameter is the only one which changes on an
inode when it's opened.

═══a (append only) - if a file has this attribute set and is open for
writing, the only operation possible will be to append data to it's
previous contents. For a directory, this means that you can only add
files to it, but not rename or delete any existing file. Only root
can set or clear this attribute.

═══s (secure deletion) - when such a file or directory with this
attribute set is deleted, the blocks it was occupying on disk are
written back with zeroes (similar to using shred). Note that this
does work on the ext2, and ext3 filesystems but is unlikely to work
on others (please see the documentation for the filesystem you are
using). You may also like to see shred, please see Chapter 7

lsattr
(list attributes). This will list if whether a file has any special
attributes (as set by chattr). Use the -R option to list recursively and
try using the -d option to list directories like other files rather than
listing their contents.

Command syntax:
-
lsattr
-

This will list files in the current directory, you may also like to
specify a directory or a file:
-
lsattr /directory/or/file
-

-
Chapter 15. Archiving Files

The archiving files chapter provides some basic information on the simple
programs that you can use to archive files. You will often see these programs
used when you try to install programs without using a package management
tool.

Note This is not a backup guide
═    Please note that while tar is useful for regular purposes, and possibly
combined with bash sciprting or similar it can become useful, it is not
a great program for performing real backups of data.

You should try searching the internet if you are looking for backup
programs on GNU/Linux or try [http://sourceforge.net] Sourceforge or
[http://freshmeat.net] Freshmeat for programs that you can use. You may
also like to see rsync, Section 15.2.
-

15.1. tar (tape archiver)

Type tar then -option(s)

Options list:

-c - create.

-v - verbose, give more output, show what files are being worked with

-f - file (create or extract from file) - should always be the last
option otherwise the command will not work.

-z - put the file though gzip or use gunzip on the file first.

-x - extract the files from the tarball.

-p - preserves dates, permissions of the original files.

-j - send archive through bzip2.

exclude=pattern - this will stop certain files from being archived
(using a standard wild-card pattern) or a single file name.

tar═examples
═
-
tar -cvpf name_of_file.tar files_to_be_backed_up
-

This would create a tape archive (no compressing).
-
tar -zxvpf my_tar_file.tar.gz
-

This would extract files (verbosely) from a gzipped tape archive.

-
15.2. rsync

rsync
rsync is a replacement for the old rcp (remote-copy) command. It can use
ssh for encryption and is a very flexible tool, it can copy from local
machine to local machine, from local to remote (and vice-versa), and to
and from rsync servers.

rsync uses an advanced differencing algorithm, so when to copies or syncs
something it will (a) only copy new/changed files and (b) if the files
have being changed it will copy the differences between the files (not
the entire file). Using this method rsync saves time and bandwidth.

rsync also has advanced exclusion options similar to GNU tar. rsync has a
well written manual page, for further information read the rsync
documentation online or type:
-
man rsync
-

If you wish to visit the rsync site you will find it over [http://
www.samba.org/rsync/] here

-
15.3. Compression

There are two main compression utilities used in GNU/Linux. It's normal to
first ??tar?? a bunch of files (using the tar program of course) and then
compress them with either bzip2 or gzip. Of course either of these tools
could be used without tar, although they are not designed to work on more
than one file (they use the UNIX tools philosophy, let tar group the files,
they will do the compression...this simplifies their program). It's normal to
use tar and then use these tools on them, or use tar with the correct options
to use these compression programs.

GNU═zip═(gzip)
gzip is the GNU zip compression program and probably the most common
compression format on UNIX-like operating systems.
-
gzip your_tar_file.tar
-

This will compress a tar archive with GNU zip, usually with a .gz
extension. Gzip can compress any type of file, it doesn't have to be a
tar archive.
-
gunzip your_file.gz
-

This will decompress a gzipped file, and leave the contents in the
current directory.

bzip2
bzip2 is a newer compression program taht offers superior compression to
gzip at the cost of more processor time.
-
bzip2 your_tar_file.tar
-

This will compress a tar archive with the bzip2 compression program,
usually with a .bz extension. bzip2 can compress any type of file, it
doesn't have to be a tar archive.
-
bunzip2 your_file.tar.bz2
-

This will decompress a file compressed by bzip2, and leave the contents
in the current directory.

zipinfo
Use zipinfo to find detailed information about a zip archive (the ones
usually generally used by ms-dos and windows, for example winzip).

Command syntax:
-
zipinfo zip_file.zip
-

zipgrep
Will run grep to look for files within a zip file (ms-dos style, for
example winzip) without manually decompressing the file first.

Command syntax:
-
zipgrep pattern zip_file.zip
-

bzip2recover
Used to recover files from a damaged bzip2 archive. It simply extracts
out all the working blocks as there own bzip2 archives, you can than use
bzip2 -t on each file to test the integrity of them and extract the
working files.

bzme
Will convert a file that is zipped or gzipped to a file compressed using
bzip2.

Command syntax:
-
bzme filename
-

Tip Tip
═   Both gzip and bzip2 supply tools to work within compressed files for
example listing the files within the archive, running less on them, using
grep to find files within the archive et cetera.

For gzip the commands are prefixed with z, zcat, zless, zgrep.

For bzip2 the commands are prefixed with bz, bzcat, bzless, bzgrep.
-

Chapter 16. Graphics tools (command line based)

The graphics tools chapter explains some image programs that can be called
from the command-line. While I have found image programs that can be used
from the command-line, zgv is the only one I've ever heard of, I did not find
them very useful. All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and
simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if
necessary).

montage
Creates a 'montage', an image created of many other images, arranged in a
random fashion.

Command syntax:
-
montage r34.jpg r32.jpg skylines* skyline_images.miff
-

The above would create a ??montage?? of images (it would tile a certain
number of images) into a composite image called ??skyline_images.miff??,
you could always use display to view the image.

Note Note
═    Note that the images are converted to the same size (scaled)
so they can be tiled together.

convert
To convert the file format of an image to another image format. convert
is used to change a files format, for example from a jpeg to a bitmap or
one of many other formats. convert can also manipulate the images as well
(see the man page or the ImageMagick site).

Example from Jpeg to PNG format:
-
convert JPEG: thisfile.jpg PNG: thisfile.png
-

import
Captures screen-shots from the X server and saves them to a file. A
screen-dump of what X is doing.

Command syntax:
-
import file_name
-

display
display is used to display (output) images on the screen. Once open you
are can also perform editing functions and are able to read/write images.
It has various interesting options such as the ability to display images
as a slide show and the ability to capture screenshots of a single window
on-screen.

Command syntax (for displaying an image):
-
display image_name
-

To display a slide show of images, open the images you want possibly
using a wildcard, for example:
-
display *.jpg
-

And then click on the image to bring up the menu and then look under the
miscellaneous menu for the slide show option.

Caution Speed Warning
═       Be careful when opening multiple large sized images
(especially on a slow machine) and putting the slide show
on a small delay between image changes. Your processor
will be overloaded and it will take a significant amount
of time to be able to close ImageMagick.

identify
Will identify the type of image as well as it's size, colour depth and
various other information. Use the -verbose option to show detailed
information on the particular file(s).

Command syntax:
-
identify image_name
-

mogrify
mogrify is another ImageMagick command which is used to transform images
in a number of different ways, including scaling, rotation and various
other effects. This command can work on a single file or in batch.

For example, to convert a large number of tiff files to jpeg files you
could type:
-
mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff
-

This command has the power to do a number of things in batch including
making thumbnails of sets of images.

For this you could type:[8]
-
mogrify -geometry 120x120 *.jpg
-

showrgb
showrgb is used to uncompile an rgb colour-name database. The default is
the one that X was built with. This database can be used to find the
correct colour combination for a particular colour (well it can be used
as a rough guide anyway).

To list the colours from the X database, simply type:
-
showrgb
-

═    All tools listed, excluding showrgb are part of the ImageMagick package.
Type man ImageMagick for a full list of available commands. Or see the
ImageMagick site [http://www.imagemagick.org] ImageMagick for further
information.
-

Chapter 17. Working with MS-DOS files

Use the mtools programs to work with ms-dos based files, execute mtools for a
full listing of available m* tools. There are a lot of files within the
mtools package for working with ms-dos disks, also try the info documentation
of mtools for more details.

Note The use of slashes
═    Note that with mtools commands you can use the slashes on the a: part
either way (ie. backslash (windows-style) or forward slash (UNIX system
style)).

mformat
Formats an unmounted disk as an ms-dos floppy disk. Usage is similar to
the ms-dos format utility, to format the first floppy disk you can type:
-
mformat a:
-

mcopy
Copies files from an ms-dos disk when it's not mounted. Similar to the
ms-dos copy command except it's more advanced.

Command syntax:
-
mcopy a:/file_or_files /destination/directory
-

mmount
Mount an ms-dos disk, without using the normal UNIX system mount.

For example:
-
mmount a: /mnt/floppy
-

This will mount the floppy under /mnt/floppy (this option may or may not
be necessary, it depends on your /etc/fstab setup).

Scans an ms-dos (fat formatted disk) for bad blocks, it marks any unused

Example:
-
-

dosfsck
This program is used to check and repair ms-dos based filesystems. Use
the -a option to automatically repair the filesystem (ie don't ask the
user questions), the -t option to mark un-readable clusters as bad and

Example:
-
dosfsck -at /dev/fd0
-

This would check your floppy disk for any errors (and bad sectors) and
repair them automatically.

-
Chapter 18. Scheduling Commands to run in the background

There are two main tools used to perform scheduled tasks, at and cron. You
may also like to try [http://anacron.sourceforge.net] anacron if your
computer does not run continuously, as cron will only work if your computer
is left on (anacron can catch up with the scheduled tasks the next time the
computer is on...).

at
'at' executes a command once on a particular day, at a particular time.
at will add a particular command to be executed.

Examples:
-
at 21:30
-

You then type the commands you want executed then press the end-of-file
key (normally CTRL-D ). Also try:
-
at now  time
-

This will run at the current time  the hours/mins/seconds you specify
(use at now  1 hour to have command(s) run in 1 hour from now...)

You can also use the -f option to have at execute a particular file (a
shell script).
-
at -f shell_script now  1 hour
-

This would run the shell script 1 hour from now.

atq
Will list jobs currently in queue for the user who executed it, if root
executes at it will list all jobs in queue for the at daemon. Doesn't
need or take any options.

atrm
Will remove a job from the 'at' queue.

Command syntax:
-
atrm job_no
-

Will delete the job ??job_no?? (use atq to find out the number of the
job)

cron
cron can be used to schedule a particular function to occur every minute,
hour, day, week, or month.

It's normal to use the crontab to perform the editing functions as this
automates the process for the cron daemon and makes it easier for normal
users to use cron.

Tip Anacron
═   anacron is another tool designed for systems which are not
always on, such as home computers

While cron will not run if the computer is off, anacron will
simply run the command when the computer is next on (it
catches up with things).

crontab
crontab is used to edit, read and remove the files which the cron daemon

Options for crontab (use crontab -option(s)):

═══-e - to edit the file.

═══-l - to list the contents of the file.

═══-u username - use the -u with a username argument to work with
another users crontab file.

When using crontab -e you have a number of fields (6) what they mean is
listed below:

--
Field                        Allowed Values
--
minute                             0-59
--
hour                              0-23
--
day of month                          1-31
--
month                  1-12 (or names, see below)
--
day of week            0-7 (0 or 7 is Sun, or use three
letter names)
--

There are also a number of shortcut methods for common tasks, including:
[9]

═══@reboot - run command at reboot

═══@yearly - same as 0 0 1 1 *

═══@annually - same as @yearly

═══@monthly - same as 0 0 1 * *

═══@weekly - same as 0 0 * * 0

═══@daily - same as 0 0 * * *

═══@midnight - same as @daily

═══@hourly - same as 0 * * * *

[10]

Note that * (asterisk) is used to mean anything (similar to the
wildcard). For example if you leave the day part (the 5th place) with an
asterisk it would mean everyday.

Lists are allowed. A list is a set of numbers (or ranges) separated by
commas. Examples: 1,2,5,9'', 0-4,8-12??.

Step values can be used in conjunction with ranges. Following a range
with /<number>'' specifies skips of the number's value through the
range. For example, 0-23/2'' can be used in the hours field to specify
command execution every other hour (the alternative in the V7 standard is
0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22''). Steps are also permitted after an
asterisk, so if you want to say every two hours'', just use */2''.

When writing a crontab entry you simply type in six fields separated by
spaces, the first five are those listed in the table (using numbers or
letters and numbers as appropriate), the 6th field is the command to be
executed and any options, cron will read everything up until the newline.

Example:
-
5 4 * * sun echo "run at 5 after 4 every sunday"
-

This would run the echo command with the string shown at 4:05 every
Sunday.

-
Chapter 19. Miscellaneous

The miscellaneous chapter contains commands that don't really fit into the
other sections of this guide.

renaming═extensions
To rename all of the files in the current directory with a '.htm'
extension to '.html', type:
-
$chcase -x 's/htm/html/' '*.htm' - You can get a copy of the chcase perl script [http://www.blemished.net/ chcase.html] here. For more complex renaming you should read Section 7.3 rel[11] Use rel to analyze text files for relevance to a given set of keywords. It outputs the names of those files that are relevant to the given keywords, ranked in order of relevance; if a file does not meet the criteria, it is not outputted in the relevance listing. units═man═page There is a man page, part of the Linux Programmers Manual called ??units ??. It displays various information on the various scientific measurements (such as mega, giga et cetera). This manual page also has a short discussion about the argument over which standard should be used to measure data (ie. the kibibyte vs kilobyte). To access this man page type: - man 7 units - fortune fortune is a tool which will print a random, hopefully interesting quote or entertaining short piece of writing. There are options to customise which area the epigrams should come from. Just type fortune to get a random epigram from any section. Simply type: - fortune - - Chapter 20. Mini-Guides The mini-guides chapter is a section of the document that describes certain concepts in more depth than the usual command descriptions. The information listed is fairly specific as I have tried to avoid the duplication of too much information that is already online. - 20.1. RPM: Redhat Package Management System Checking Installed RPM's Use the rpm -V option to check whether or not a package has been modified. For example: - |rpm -V textutils - If none of the files from the textutils package have changed then rpm will exit without outputting any data. If, on the other hand, the program has changed, you may see something like this: - |U.5....T /bin/cat - This isn't as cryptic as it appears. The line returned from rpm -V contains any number of eight characters plus the full path to the file. Here are the characters and their meaning:[12] S - File size differs M - Mode differs (includes permissions and file type) 5 - MD5 sum differs D - Device major/minor number mis-match L - ReadLink(2) path mis-match U - User ownership differs G - Group ownership differs T - mTime differs Tip Mandriva Users Note ═ Mandriva Linux uses a customised version of RPM called urpmi (It consists of the urpm* commands, urpmi to install, urpme to remove and urpmf and urpmq to query). This customised version has advantages over standard RPM, including automatic-dependency solving and Debian apt-get style functions (ability to download programs over the internet and have all dependencies resolved automatically). The urpm* commands are all described in detail in Mandriva's documentation and various sources online. - 20.2. Checking the Hard Disk for errors Checking the hard disk for errors on your primary drive is very, very rarely required in GNU/Linux, most checking is automated on start-up if it is required. If you do need to check the hard disk for errors you will first need to unmount it. Then use the file system checker, fsck. - |fsck.file_system_type - If you had an ext3 file-system then it would be: - |fsck.ext3 - Tip Also try ═ You can also try using: - fsck -t file_system_type - - 20.3. Duplicating disks This simple technique shows you how you would duplicate floppy disks in a GNU /Linux system using dd. This technique is not as useful as it used to be but can still be used for creating an image of a cd (although that is best done through the cd burning program). This information has been taken from the Linux Online Classroom, see [4] in the Bibliography for further details. - |$ dd if=/dev/fd0 of=floppy-image
|$dd if=floppy-image of=/dev/fd0 - The first dd makes an exact image of the floppy to the file floppy-image, the second one writes the image to the floppy. (The user has presumably switched the floppy before the second command. Otherwise the command pair is of doubtful usefulness). Similar techinques can be used when creating bootdisks, you simply use dd to transfer the image to the floppy disk. - 20.4. Wildcards Wildcards are useful in many ways for a GNU/Linux system and for various other uses. Commands can use wildcards to perform actions on more than one file at a time, or to find part of a phrase in a text file. There are many uses for wildcards, there are two different major ways that wildcards are used, they are globbing patterns/standard wildcards that are often used by the shell. The alternative is regular expressions, popular with many other commands and popular for use with text searching and manipulation. Tip Tip ═ If you have a file with wildcard expressions in it then you can use single quotes to stop bash expanding them or use backslashes (escape characters), or both. For example if you wanted to create a file called 'fo*' (fo and asterisk) you would have to do it like this (note that you shouldn't create files with names like this, this is just an example): - touch 'fo*' - Note that parts of both subsections on wildcards are based (at least in part) off the grep manual and info pages. Please see the Bibliography for further information. - 20.4.1. Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) Standard wildcards (also known as globbing patterns) are used by various command-line utilities to work with multiple files. For more information on standard wildcards (globbing patterns) refer to the manual page by typing: - |man 7 glob - Note Can be used by ═ Standard wildcards are used by nearly any command (including mv, cp, rm and many others). ?═(question═mark) this can represent any single character. If you specified something at the command line like "hd?" GNU/Linux would look for hda, hdb, hdc and every other letter/number between a-z, 0-9. *═(asterisk) this can represent any number of characters (including zero, in other words, zero or more characters). If you specified a "cd*" it would use "cda", "cdrom", "cdrecord" and anything that starts with ??cd?? also including ??cd?? itself. "m*l" could by mill, mull, ml, and anything that starts with an m and ends with an l. [═]═(square═brackets) specifies a range. If you did m[a,o,u]m it can become: mam, mum, mom if you did: m[a-d]m it can become anything that starts and ends with m and has any character a to d inbetween. For example, these would work: mam, mbm, mcm, mdm. This kind of wildcard specifies an ??or?? relationship (you only need one to match). {═}═(curly═brackets) terms are separated by commas and each term must be the name of something or a wildcard. This wildcard will copy anything that matches either wildcard(s), or exact name(s) (an ??or?? relationship, one or the other). For example, this would be valid: - cp {*.doc,*.pdf} ~ - This will copy anything ending with .doc or .pdf to the users home directory. Note that spaces are not allowed after the commas (or anywhere else). [!] This construct is similar to the [═] construct, except rather than matching any characters inside the brackets, it'll match any character, as long as it is not listed between the [ and ]. This is a logical NOT. For example rm myfile[!9] will remove all myfiles* (ie. myfiles1, myfiles2 etc) but won't remove a file with the number 9 anywhere within it's name. \═(backslash) is used as an "escape" character, i.e. to protect a subsequent special character. Thus, "\\?? searches for a backslash. Note you may need to use quotation marks and backslash(es). - 20.4.2. Regular Expressions Regular expressions are a type of globbing pattern used when working with text. They are used for any form of manipulation of multiple parts of text and by various programming languages that work with text. For more information on regular expressions refer to the manual page or try an online tutorial, for example IBM Developerworks [https://www6.software.ibm.com/ developerworks/education/l-regexp/index.html] using regular expressions. For the manual page type: Type: - |man 7 regex - Note Regular expressions can be used by ═ Regular Expressions are used by grep (and can be used) by find and many other programs. Tip Tip ═ If your regular expressions don't seem to be working then you probably need to use single quotation marks over the sentence and then use backslashes on every single special character. .═(dot) will match any single character, equivalent to ? (question mark) in standard wildcard expressions. Thus, "m.a" matches "mpa" and "mea" but not "ma" or "mppa". \═(backslash) is used as an "escape" character, i.e. to protect a subsequent special character. Thus, "\\" searches for a backslash. Note you may need to use quotation marks and backslash(es). .*═(dot═and═asterisk) is used to match any string, equivalent to * in standard wildcards. *═(asterisk) the proceeding item is to be matched zero or more times. ie. n* will match n, nn, nnnn, nnnnnnn but not na or any other character. ^═(caret) means "the beginning of the line". So "^a" means find a line starting with an "a".$═(dollar═sign)
means "the end of the line". So "a$" means find a line ending with an "a". For example, this command searches the file myfile for lines starting with an "s" and ending with an "n", and prints them to the standard output (screen): - cat myfile grep '^s.*n$'
-

[═]═(square═brackets)
specifies a range. If you did m[a,o,u]m it can become: mam, mum, mom if
you did: m[a-d]m it can become anything that starts and ends with m and
has any character a to d inbetween. For example, these would work: mam,
mbm, mcm, mdm. This kind of wildcard specifies an ??or?? relationship
(you only need one to match).

|
This wildcard makes a logical OR relationship between wildcards. This way
you can search for something or something else (possibly using two
different regular expressions). You may need to add a '\' (backslash)
before this command to work, because the shell may attempt to interpret
this as a pipe.

[^]
This is the equivalent of [!] in standard wildcards. This performs a
logical ??not??. This will match anything that is not listed within those
square brackets. For example, rm myfile[^9] will remove all myfiles* (ie.
myfiles1, myfiles2 etc) but won't remove a file with the number 9
anywhere within it's name.

-
20.4.3. Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)

This information has been taken from the grep info page with a tiny amount of
editing, see [10] in the Bibliography for further information.

[:upper:] uppercase letters

[:lower:] lowercase letters

[:alpha:] alphabetic (letters) meaning upperlower (both uppercase and
lowercase letters)

[:digit:] numbers in decimal, 0 to 9

[:alnum:] alphanumeric meaning alphadigits (any uppercase or lowercase
letters or any decimal digits)

[:space:] whitespace meaning spaces, tabs, newlines and similar

[:graph:] graphically printable characters excluding space

[:print:] printable characters including space

[:punct:] punctuation characters meaning graphical characters minus alpha
and digits

[:cntrl:] control characters meaning non-printable characters

[:xdigit:] characters that are hexadecimal digits.

Note These are used with
═    The above commands will work with most tools which work with text (for
example: tr).

For example (advanced example), this command scans the output of the dir
command, and prints lines containing a capital letter followed by a digit:
-
|ls -l grep '[[:upper:]][[:digit:]]'
-

The command greps for [upper_case_letter][any_digit], meaning any uppercase
letter followed by any digit. If you remove the [═] (square brackets) in the
middle it would look for an uppercase letter or a digit, because it would
become [upper_case_letter═any_digit]
-

Appendix A. Appendix

A.1. Finding Packages/Tools

A.1.1. Finding more useful tools

If you are looking to find more tools, the GNU project (GNU's Not Unix)
maintains a directory, a website listing categorized links to various
free-software tools (which they consider useful) called the GNU Directory.

Also try sites such as [http://www.sweet.org] Sweet Code which offer mailing
lists of useful tools which they find.

You may also try looking at the most highly rated, most active or most
www.freshmeat.net] FreshMeat.
-

A.1.2. Finding a particular tool(s)

Many of the tools listed in this guide are part of a package of tools, such
as diffutils which contains the various tools used to find differences
between files, such as diff, sdiff, diff3, cmp. Most small tools are bundled
together in this fashion. Most major distribution's will offer a search
function to help you search the packages by file, you can of course do this
via the command-line interface or a GUI.

If you need to search the distribution's available packages via the
command-line, the method will vary depending on the distribution you are
using, see the subsections below or consult your distribution's documentation
(or of course the internet):
-

A.1.2.1. Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm based)

To find where a particular file came from use urpmf.

Command syntax:
-
|urpmf file_name
-

The results are often overwhelming as this particular command will take a
string and list every file of every package in it's database that contains
the particular keyword (ie. both uninstalled and installed packages). To
refine the results you may want to add a pipe to it and send it through grep
-w file_name (the -w option will only show you only exact (whole word)
matches). How you would do this is shown below:
-
|urpmf file_name grep -w file_name
-

the end of this section: Section 20.1.
-

A.1.2.2. Red Hat (rpm)

To find which package a particular file came from use rpm with the -qf
option.

Command syntax:
-
|rpm -qf /path/to/the/file
-

This will find which package the file came from. You need to use rpm -qf not
with a keyword but with the location of the actual file. To find more
information on the particular package listed use rpm with the -qi option.

Command syntax:
-
|rpm -qi package_name
-

Note that the package name is the name of the package without the .arch.rpm
(often .i386.rpm) extension on the end.

Section 20.1.
-

A.1.2.3. Debian (deb)

To find where a particular file came from use dpkg with the -S option.

There are two ways to do this:
-
|dpkg -S file_name
-

or:
-
|dpkg -S /path/to/file
-

You may also like to try (if it's installed, it's generally a lot faster than
the dpkg search):
-
|dlocate -S file_name
-

pages and online sources of information.
-

A.1.3. Finding package(s)

Packages can be found via the internet utilizing sites such as:

[http://rpmfind.net/linux/rpm] RPMFind for RPM based packages.

[http://www.debian.org/distrib/packages] Debian Package Listfor deb
packages.

[http://www.rpmseek.com] RPMSeek, this site intends to index Debian
packages as well as RPM.

[http://www.tuxfinder.org] TuxFinder where you can search for deb, rpm,
tgz, iso and even documentation.

Also try the author's homepage and large sites such as [http://
www.freshmeat.net] FreshMeat and [http://www.sourceforge.net] SourceForge.
-

This guide is simply a short summary of some of the available tools of a GNU/
Linux based distribution. If you find a particular command interesting and
useful, you can look up the on-line manual, or/and info page to learn more
about how to use this command or check the HOWTO's online at [http://
www.tldp.org] Linux Documentation Project.

The manual/info pages will always be an up-to-date source of information on
how to use the command. Also have a look at the documentation installed on
your distribution, its normally located in /usr/share/doc.

Check the references section of this document, Bibliography, for some links
to useful resources which were used in the creation of this document.

Of course if you are having trouble with a particular command try using a
www.alltheweb.com] AllTheWeb, or search the usenet groups [http://
look for a mailing list which is related to the topic you are having trouble
with, or try a forum which is related to the topic.

Readers who would like another reference to commands may want to have at:

[http://www.onlamp.com/linux/cmd/] Commands from "Linux in a Nutshell 3rd
Edition" as published by Orielly - this document was not used in the
creation of this guide, however it is a comprehensive guide to GNU/Linux
Commands (it's an indexed listing). It lists and explains 379 commands
taken from Linux in a Nutshell 3rd Edition.

The Linux Newbie Admin guide list of commands - another list of
commands from an excellent system administration guide for GNU/Linux.

Comptechdoc's Linux Command Quickreference Guide - a good list of
commands but only one line explanations of what they actually do...

lists commands and links to their man pages online.

developerworks/linux/] IBM Developerworks.

If you are looking for a general reference to everything GNU/Linux try the
[http://www.icon.co.za/~psheer/book/index.html.gz] Rute User's Tutorial and
Exposition. Or take a look at your distributions documentation, Debian
maintains comprehensive documentation, [http://debian.org/doc] debian
documentation site.
-

The most obvious place to look for documentation is to find the homepage of
the program. Although sometimes there are other sources of information such
as the [www.tldp.org] Linux Documentation Project or various online HOWTO's
or similar guides. They are usually easily found using search engines. Try
large sites such as [http://www.ibiblio.org] (ibiblio) the publics library
and digital archive or [http;//www.tuxfinder.org] TuxFinder which can search
for documentation.

Below is a very short list of some further reading for a few of the more
complex tools:

OpenSSH [http://www.openssh.com/manual.html] OpenSSH manual page

vim [http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Vim-HOWTO/index.html] The Vim HOWTO

emacs [www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Emacs-Beginner-HOWTO.html] The Emacs HOWTO

RPM [http://tldp.org/HOWTO/RPM-HOWTO/index.html] RPM HOWTO

Samba [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/] Samba documentation site

ImageMagick [http://www.imagemagick.org/script/command-line-tools.php]
ImageMagick command-line tools

BASH [http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/bashref.html] BASH
reference manual

scripting guide

rsync [http://www.samba.org/rsync/] rsync homepage

-
A.2.2.1. The UNIX tools philosophy further reading

An article within the coreutils documentation (installed on nearly every
GNU/Linux distro) provides further explanation of the UNIX tools
philosophy. To access the article simply type:
-
info coreutils
-

Then type / (slash; runs a search) then the string ??toolbox?? (toolbox
is the string to be searched for) then hit enter (follow hyperlink) and
then go down to the ??Toolbox introduction?? section and hit enter. This

Other articles online include an: Orielly article on the UNIX tools
philosophy.

[http://cbbrowne.com/info/unix.html#UNIXPHILOSOPHY] A listing of
important qualities of the philosophy.

[http://www.linuxexposed.com/Articles/General/
The-Unix-Philosophy-Explained-2.html ] Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy
Explained

Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward
understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built. The
book is called ??The Unix Philosophy?? ISBN: 1555581234.

-
A.2.3. Online Manual And Info Pages

While manual pages and info pages are usually installed with the program
itself they are also available online if you need them, the listed links are
usually listed by category or by the man page sections.
-

A.2.3.1. Online Manual Page Websites:

Manual Page Resource Links (from the Linux Documentation Project)

[http://linux.ctyme.com/] A RedHat Based Searchable Index

[http://www2.linuxpakistan.net/man.php] Another Searchable Index

[http://techpubs.sgi.com/tpl.cgi/linux/man/] Another Manual Page Site
(searchable)

-

Pages hosted by Ibiblio

-
A.2.3.3. Online Info Page Website:

[http://www.gnu.org/manual/manual.html] GNU Manual's

-

Version 1.1, March 2000

Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330,
Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute
verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
-

A.3.1. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
software.

software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-

A.3.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics,
a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could
be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related
matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers
is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for
human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
-

A.3.3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-

A.3.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-

A.3.5. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if
there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may
use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that
version gives permission.

B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of
its principal authors, if it has less than five).

C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,
as the publisher.

D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this

G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an
item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled
"History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item
describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These
may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a
work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if
the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of
each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
considered part of the section titles.

M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
included in the Modified Version.

N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
title with any Invariant Section.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various partiesfor example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-

A.3.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
-

A.3.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-

A.3.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
-

A.3.9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
-

A.3.10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-

A.3.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft] Copyleft.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-

Bibliography

(1) Tony Steidler-Dennison, [http://www.lockergnome.com] Lockergnome Penguin
Shell Series, Lockergnome.

Responsible for many of the commands listed in this document. In particular
Lockergnome inspired much of the wildcards section: Section 20.4

(2) Brandon Rhodes, [http://rak.isternet.sk/linux-netman/commands.html] Linux
Network Commands Page.

Responsible for parts of the network commands section: Chapter 13

(3) Michael Stutz, [http://dsl.org/cookbook/] Linux Cookbook Homepage, No
Starch Press.

Many of these commands have come from the Linux Cookbook (version 1.2). I
highly recommend this book to any novice or intermediate GNU/Linux user, have
a look at it online, and then of course buy it :).

(4) Michael Jordan, [http://www.linux.org/lessons/] Linux Online Classroom,
Linux Online.

Some very small sections of this document were taken from the Beginner's
course on the [http://www.linux.org] Linux Online Website.

(5) man and info pages.

The man and info pages of various tools listed in this document have been
used as a resource to assist in the creation of this document. They are a
useful resource of up-to-date information on a program and should be
consulted when you require information about a particular tool.

Some of the tutorials under the [http://unix.about.com/library/misc/
blpowercmds.htm] power commands section of the unix.about.com site were used
in the construction of this guide. In particular parts of the xargs command:
Chapter 8 and parts of the cut command: Section 11.4 were used from their
tutorials.

(7) [http://www.mandrakelinux.com/en/fdoc.php3] MandrakeSoft Command Line
Manual, [http://www.mandrakesoft.com] MandrakeSoft.

The Command Line Manual developed for Mandake Linux 9.0 was used in the
creation of this document. A small section (in regard to command-line
completion) was used from this document. If you are running mandrake you will
most likely find this guide [file:///usr/share/doc/mandrake/en/
Command-Line.html/cmdline-completion.html#id2873770] here.

(8) [http://www.mandrakelinux.com/en/fdoc.php3] MandrakeSoft Starter Guide,
[http://www.mandrakesoft.com] MandrakeSoft.

The MandrakeSoft Starter Guide, a guide developed for Mandake Linux 9.0 was
used in the creation of this document. A small section (in regard to how to
recover from a system freeze) was used from this document. If you are running
a mandrake system you will most likely find the document [file:///usr/share/
doc/mandrake/en/Starter.html/index.html] here.

(9) Hrvoje Niksic, [http://www.gnu.org/manual/wget-1.5.3/] Wget Manual page,
Free Software Foundation.

A section of the wget manual page was used in this guide, from this page,
[http://www.gnu.org/manual/wget-1.5.3/html_chapter/wget_7.html] Wget Manual
http protocol.

(10) Grep, Free Software Foundation.

Both wildcards subsections are based off the grep manual and info pages. The
Useful Categories of Characters (as defined from the POSIX standard) was
taken from the grep info page.

(11) Marc Ewing, Jeff Johnson, and Erik Troan, RPM Manual Page, Red Hat.

A small section of the RPM manual page was used in the creation of the RPM
verifying subsection, without any kind of editing.

(12) Markku Rossi, Enscript Manual Page, Free Software Foundation.

The examples for enscript are based off those shown in the enscript manual
page.

(13) Paul Vixie, Cron Manual Page, 4th Berkeley Distribution.

The information from the crontab section (below and including the table) was
taken (unedited, but with small additions) from the crontab manual pages.
Type man 1 crontab and man 5 crontab to access the 2 different manual pages.

(14) [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/] IBM Developerworks.

Some parts of the IBM Developerworks tutorials have been used in the creation
of this document. IBM Developerworks frequently publishes new tutorials on a
variety of subjects, visit the IBM Developerworks Linux site (see link above)

(15) Suso Banderas, [http://suso.suso.org/programs/num-utils/] Num-utils
homepage.

The num-utils manual pages were used in the creation of the maths section. In
particular all the description of the num-utils tools are based off the
manual pages on the [http://suso.suso.org/programs/num-utils/] num-utils
homepage.

(16) Carla Schroder, [http://mailman.linuxchix.org/pipermail/courses/
2004-February/001397.htm] Archive of the LinuxChix posting.

This particular LinuxChix posting was made through a mailing list discussion
about cron under the TechTalk mailing list. The posters homepage is
[TuxComputing] http://www.tuxcomputing.com.

(17) Joe Barr, [http://www.linux.com/article.pl?sid=04/02/22/227231] CLI for
noobies: import, display, mogrify.

This particular article by Joe Barr was used in the description of the
mogrify tool in particular the example on creating thumbnails.

(18) Kyle Rankin, [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-1487674,00.html]
Please, For the Love of All That's Recoverable, Shred Your Hard Drive!.

This particular article by Kyle Rankin was used (only a paragraph) for
information on the shred command.
-

Index

Symbols

!, General Shell Tips
!!, The command-line history
!-n, The command-line history
!n, The command-line history
!string, The command-line history
$, General Shell Tips, Regular Expressions %cpu, Controlling Processes %mem, Controlling Processes &&, Performing more than one command &>, Usage *, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions color=auto, General Shell Tips date=, Working with files and folders, Date/Time/Calendars forest, Controlling Processes h, Help help, Help mirror, Internet Specific Commands verbose, Mathematical tools -?, Help -a, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, Finding Text Within Files, Internet Specific Commands, Working with MS-DOS files -b, Working with files and folders, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools, Finding Text Within Files -c, Working with files and folders, Controlling Processes, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands, Some basic Security Tools, tar (tape archiver) -CONT, Controlling Processes -d, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Date/Time/ Calendars, Text manipulation tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, File Permissions -e, General Shell Tips, Scheduling Commands to run in the background -exec, Finding files, Finding information about the system -F, General Shell Tips, Help, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Controlling services, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools, tar (tape archiver), Scheduling Commands to run in the background -format, Graphics tools (command line based) -g, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools -geometry, Graphics tools (command line based) -h, Help, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System -HUP, Controlling Processes -i, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, File Permissions -iregex, Finding files -jj, tar (tape archiver) -k, Working with files and folders, Text manipulation tools -kill, Controlling Processes -l, Moving around the filesystem, Finding information about partitions, Controlling Processes, Text Information Tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background -lx, Finding information about the system -m, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Internet Specific Commands -n, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools, Finding Text Within Files, Internet Specific Commands -name, Finding files -nx, Finding information about the system -o, Finding files -p, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, tar (tape archiver) -path, Finding files -print, Finding files -prune, Finding files -q, Finding Text Within Files -R, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Controlling services, Text manipulation tools, Finding Text Within Files, Remote Administration Related, File Permissions -regex, Finding files -S, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Date/Time/Calendars, Controlling services -STOP, Controlling Processes -t, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands, File Permissions, Compression, Working with MS-DOS files, Checking the Hard Disk for errors -u, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands, Scheduling Commands to run in the background -v, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, Finding Text Within Files, tar (tape archiver), RPM: Redhat Package Management System -verbose, Graphics tools (command line based) -w, Text Information Tools, Finding Text Within Files -x, General Shell Tips, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands, tar (tape archiver), Miscellaneous -y, Date/Time/Calendars -z, Working with files and folders, tar (tape archiver) ., Moving around the filesystem, Regular Expressions .*, Regular Expressions .bz, Compression .doc, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) .gz, Compression .h, Conversion tools .pdf, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) /, Moving around the filesystem /dev/null, Usage /etc/groups, Users/Groups /etc/hosts, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Network Commands /etc/init.d, Controlling services /etc/inittab, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System /etc/passwd, Users/Groups, Text manipulation tools /etc/profile, Security /etc/resolv.conf, Internet Specific Commands /proc, Finding information about the system, Finding information about partitions /proc/net, Network Commands 192.168.0.1, Network Configuration 192.168.0.2, Network Configuration 192.168.1.100, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Network Commands 1MB, Finding information about the system 2>, Usage :n, Text Viewing Tools :p, Text Viewing Tools ;, Performing more than one command, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools <, Usage <<, Usage >, Usage >>, Usage ?, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) @, General Shell Tips [ ], Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions [!], Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions [http://www.linuxexposed.com/Articles/General/Linux Exposed, The UNIX tools philosophy further reading [http://www.tldp.org/dman pages, Online Manual Page Websites: [^], Regular Expressions \, General Shell Tips, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions \r, Text Conversion/Filter Tools ^, Regular Expressions { }, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) |, Usage, Regular Expressions ||, Performing more than one command ~, General Shell Tips - A A, File Permissions a-z, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) abilities, Virtual Terminals and screen ability, Graphics tools (command line based) able, Working with files and folders, Network Configuration , Remote Administration Related, Graphics tools (command line based) absolute, Moving around the filesystem Absolute path, Moving around the filesystem access, The command-line history, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/ Hard-drive Partitions), Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Internet Specific Commands, File Permissions, Miscellaneous access keys, Conventions used in this guide access time, File Permissions accessed, File Permissions add, General Shell Tips, Finding files, Text manipulation tools, Conversion tools, Mathematical tools, Network Configuration , Internet Specific Commands, Remote Administration Related, Security, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Regular Expressions addition, Network Configuration additional, Controlling Processes address, Network Configuration , Internet Specific Commands addressed, Contributors adjust, Working with files and folders administration, Managing users administrative, Controlling Processes administrator, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System administrators, Who would want to read this guide? admonitions, Conventions used in this guide advanced, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Text Editors, Text manipulation tools, Network Commands , Internet Specific Commands, rsync, Working with MS-DOS files advanced bash scripting, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools advanced bash scripting guide, Text manipulation tools advancement, Feedback advantage, Working with files and folders advice, Feedback, Contributors affect, Finding Text Within Files algorithm, rsync alias, General Shell Tips aliases, General Shell Tips allow, General Shell Tips, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools allowed, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) allows, Virtual Terminals and screen, Controlling services, Text manipulation tools AllTheWeb, General Further Reading alpha, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) alphabetic, Useful═categories═of═characters═ (as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) alphabetical, Text manipulation tools alphabetically, Text manipulation tools alphanumeric, Useful═categories═of═characters═ (as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) alternative, General Shell Tips, Usage, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Wildcards alternatively, The command-line history alternatives, Some basic Security Tools American text encoding standard, The Unix Tools Philosophy amount, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═ (as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) anacron, Scheduling Commands to run in the background analyze, Miscellaneous AND, Performing more than one command antiword, Text Conversion/Filter Tools antiword homepage, Text Conversion/Filter Tools append, Moving around the filesystem, Finding information about the system, File Permissions appendix, Introduction, Who would want to read this guide? application, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Working with files and folders apply, Controlling Processes apropos, Help apt-get, RPM: Redhat Package Management System archive, Internet Specific Commands, Archiving Files, Compression archived, tar (tape archiver) archives, Compression archiving, Archiving Files argument, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Miscellaneous arguments, The command-line history, Working with files and folders arranged, Graphics tools (command line based) arrow, The command-line history arrow keys, The command-line history art, Conversion tools article, Contributors ASCII, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Conversion tools aspell, Text manipulation tools assign, Controlling Processes assist, Working with files and folders, Security assistance, Resources used to create this document associated, Help asterisk, Scheduling Commands to run in the background at, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Scheduling Commands to run in the background atq, Scheduling Commands to run in the background atrm, Scheduling Commands to run in the background Attach, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions) attempt, General Shell Tips, The command-line history, Regular Expressions attempting, Controlling Processes Attempts, Working with files and folders, Network Commands attribute, File Permissions attributes, File Permissions audible, General Shell Tips author, Feedback, Disclaimer authored, Who would want to read this guide?, Security authors, Who would want to read this guide? authors opinion, Who would want to read this guide? automated, Some basic Security Tools, Checking the Hard Disk for errors automates, Scheduling Commands to run in the background Automatic Command Completion, General Shell Tips automatically, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Working with MS-DOS files available, Availability of sources, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, Controlling services, Users/Groups, Network Commands, Working with MS-DOS files avoid, Mini-Guides - B back off, General Shell Tips Back-Cover, License background, Controlling Processes, Controlling services Backgrounds, Controlling Processes backslash, General Shell Tips, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions bandwidth, rsync based off, Contributors bash, Introduction, General Shell Tips, Finding files, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Internet Specific Commands, Specific Further reading bash scripting, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Specific Further reading Basic, Finding files, Network Commands, Security, Archiving Files Bastille Linux, Security batch, Graphics tools (command line based) beep, General Shell Tips beginners, Who would want to read this guide? beginning, Regular Expressions bell, General Shell Tips bg, Controlling Processes binary, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Text Information Tools bit, Mathematical tools, File Permissions bitmap, Graphics tools (command line based) block, Working with files and folders blocks, File Permissions, Compression, Working with MS-DOS files bmp, Working with files and folders book, Who would want to read this guide?, Availability of sources bookmarks.html, Internet Specific Commands boot, Security bootdisks, Duplicating disks boots, Security bootup, Finding information about the system Bourne-Again-SHell, Introduction brackets, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) brands, Disclaimer break key, Controlling Processes broad-casted, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System broken, Working with files and folders built, Graphics tools (command line based) built-in, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools bunch, Compression burning, Duplicating disks bytes, Working with files and folders, Text Information Tools bz* commands, Text Viewing Tools bzgrep, Text Viewing Tools bzip2, Text Viewing Tools , tar (tape archiver), Compression bzip2recover, Compression bzless, Text Viewing Tools bzme, Compression - C cached, Finding information about the system cal, Date/Time/Calendars calculator, Mathematical tools calendar, Date/Time/Calendars calls, Finding Text Within Files capital, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═ (as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) capture, Graphics tools (command line based) captures, Network Commands careful, Working with files and folders, File Permissions carriage, Text Conversion/Filter Tools carriage returns, Text Conversion/Filter Tools cat, Usage, Text manipulation tools catch, Scheduling Commands to run in the background cause, General Shell Tips, Moving around the filesystem, Controlling Processes, Internet Specific Commands causes, Text Conversion/Filter Tools caution, Disclaimer cd, General Shell Tips, Moving around the filesystem, Duplicating disks cdrecord, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) cdrom, Finding information about partitions, Controlling the system, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) cdrom-drive, Controlling the system centimeters, Mathematical tools change, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Date/Time/Calendars, Controlling Processes, Managing users, Users/Groups, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Network Configuration , Internet Specific Commands, File Permissions, Graphics tools (command line based) change owner, File Permissions character, General Shell Tips, Text manipulation tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions character sequences, General Shell Tips characters, Finding files, Text manipulation tools, Some basic Security Tools , RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Useful═categories═of═characters═ (as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) chat, Text Editors chattr, Working with files and folders, File Permissions chcase, Text manipulation tools, Miscellaneous chcase homepage, Text manipulation tools check, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands, Security, Some basic Security Tools, Working with MS-DOS files, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Checking the Hard Disk for errors checker, The Unix Tools Philosophy checking, Some basic Security Tools, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Checking the Hard Disk for errors chfn, Users/Groups chmod, Security, File Permissions chown, File Permissions Chris Karakas, Availability of sources, Resources used to create this document chronological, Contributors chsh, Users/Groups clarity, Conventions used in this guide CLI, Who would want to read this guide? click, Graphics tools (command line based) closed, Network Commands clusters, Working with MS-DOS files cmp, Text Information Tools, Finding a particular tool(s) Code, Conventions used in this guide, The Unix Tools Philosophy colon, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools colour, Conversion tools, Graphics tools (command line based) colours, Graphics tools (command line based) column, Text manipulation tools columns, Contributors , Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools combination, Conventions used in this guide combinations, Conventions used in this guide combine, Text Viewing Tools Combines, Text Viewing Tools comm, Text Information Tools command history, Shell Tips, The command-line history command line-interface, Who would want to read this guide? command list, Who would want to read this guide? command name, General Shell Tips command number, The command-line history command substitution, Command Substitution command syntax, Conventions used in this guide command-line, Who would want to read this guide?, Who would not want to read this guide?, Resources used to create this document , The Unix Tools Philosophy, Shell Tips, General Shell Tips, The command-line history, Virtual Terminals and screen, Graphics tools (command line based), Finding a particular tool(s) command-line interface, Who would not want to read this guide?, Finding a particular tool(s) command-line-based, Introduction command-lists, General Further Reading command1, Performing more than one command, Finding information about the system command2, Performing more than one command, Finding information about the system commandName, The command-line history commas, Text manipulation tools, Mathematical tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns) Commmand, Finding files common, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, Compression, Scheduling Commands to run in the background commonly, General Shell Tips compares, Text Information Tools complete, Who would not want to read this guide?, General Shell Tips completions, General Shell Tips complex, Introduction, The Unix Tools Philosophy, General Shell Tips, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools, Miscellaneous complicated, Network Commands composite, Graphics tools (command line based) comprehensive, Who would want to read this guide?, Security compress, Compression compressed, Text Viewing Tools , Compression compression, Compression Comptechdoc's Linux Command Quickreference, General Further Reading computer, Finding information about the system, Remote Administration Related , Scheduling Commands to run in the background computers, Network Commands concatenate, Usage Concatenates, Usage, Text manipulation tools concepts, Disclaimer, Mini-Guides configuration, Network Configuration , Security configure, Network Configuration confirm, General Shell Tips confusing, Finding information about the system conjunction, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Scheduling Commands to run in the background connect, Remote Administration Related connected, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Finding information about partitions consistency, Contributors console, The command-line history, Security contact, Internet Specific Commands content, Disclaimer contents, Disclaimer, Usage, Moving around the filesystem, Finding information about the system, Conversion tools, Network Commands, File Permissions, Compression, Scheduling Commands to run in the background continuous, Text Viewing Tools contribution, Contributors contributions, Contributors contributors, Resources used to create this document control, Controlling the system, Controlling services, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard) Control key, Conventions used in this guide controlling, Controlling the system, Controlling Processes controls, Security conventions, Conventions used in this guide conversion, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Mathematical tools convert, Resources used to create this document , Finding information about the system, Text manipulation tools, Mathematical tools, Compression converts, Text Conversion/Filter Tools copies, Working with files and folders, Remote Administration Related, rsync copy, License, General Shell Tips, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Remote Administration Related, Miscellaneous copying, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders Copyright, License copyrights, Disclaimer core, The Unix Tools Philosophy coreutils, The UNIX tools philosophy further reading correct, Contributors , Controlling Processes, Mathematical tools, Some basic Security Tools, Compression, Graphics tools (command line based) correctly, Internet Specific Commands cost, Compression count, Working with files and folders, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools cp, Working with files and folders CPU, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes crackers, Internet Specific Commands criteria, Miscellaneous critical, Controlling services criticism, Feedback, Contributors criticisms, Contributors cron, Scheduling Commands to run in the background crontab, Scheduling Commands to run in the background cryptic, RPM: Redhat Package Management System CSS, Contributors CTRL-A, Other Key combinations, Virtual Terminals and screen CTRL-ALT-DEL, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System CTRL-ALT-F*, Virtual Terminals and screen CTRL-C, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Controlling Processes, Text Viewing Tools , Network Commands CTRL-D, General Shell Tips, Other Key combinations, Usage, Managing users, Mathematical tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background CTRL-E, Other Key combinations CTRL-K, Other Key combinations CTRL-N, Virtual Terminals and screen CTRL-P, Virtual Terminals and screen CTRL-R, The command-line history, Other Key combinations CTRL-W, Other Key combinations CTRL-X-$, General Shell Tips
CTRL-X-Y, General Shell Tips
CTRL-Y, Other Key combinations
CTRL-Z, Conventions used in this guide, Other Key combinations, Controlling
Processes
curl, Internet Specific Commands
current, Conventions used in this guide, Moving around the filesystem,
Finding information about the system, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/
CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific
Commands, File Permissions, Compression, Miscellaneous
current directory, Moving around the filesystem
customisable, Controlling Processes
customisation, Text manipulation tools
customisations, Contributors
customise, Finding files, Date/Time/Calendars, Conversion tools,
Miscellaneous
cut, Text manipulation tools

-
D

daemon, Controlling services, Remote Administration Related, Scheduling
Commands to run in the background
Daemons, Controlling services
damage, Disclaimer, Internet Specific Commands
damaged, Compression
dash sign, Conventions used in this guide
data, Working with files and folders, Controlling Processes, File Permissions
, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
database, Graphics tools (command line based)
databases, Internet Specific Commands
date, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Date/Time
/Calendars
dates, tar (tape archiver)
Dave Wreski, Security
David Lawyer, Contributors
day, Date/Time/Calendars, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
days, Date/Time/Calendars
db2lyx, Resources used to create this document
dd, Working with files and folders, Date/Time/Calendars, Duplicating disks
deactivating, Network Configuration
deb, Debian (deb), Finding package(s)
Debian Package List, Finding package(s)
debugging, Finding information about the system
decending, Moving around the filesystem
decimal, Mathematical tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
decompress, Compression
default, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders,
Controlling Processes, Controlling services, Text manipulation tools,
Network Configuration , Security, Graphics tools (command line based)
definitions, Concept Definitions
delete, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Text Conversion/
Filter Tools, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the
background
deleted, Working with files and folders, File Permissions
delimiter, Text manipulation tools
dependent, Moving around the filesystem
Depending, Moving around the filesystem
depth, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text Related Tools, Internet Specific
Commands, Mini-Guides
describe, Security
described, Text Viewing Tools
describes, Mini-Guides
description, Introduction, Help
descriptions, Mini-Guides
designed, Who would want to read this guide?, The Unix Tools Philosophy,
Usage, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Mathematical tools, Internet
Specific Commands, Security, Some basic Security Tools, Compression
destination, Working with files and folders, Network Commands
destroy, Working with files and folders, Managing users
detail, Controlling Processes
detailed, Introduction, Who would not want to read this guide?, Contributors
, Help, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the
system, Compression, Graphics tools (command line based)
details, Help, Moving around the filesystem, Controlling the system, Internet
Specific Commands, Working with MS-DOS files, Duplicating disks
device, Controlling the system, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/
Hard-drive Partitions), Network Configuration , RPM: Redhat Package
Management System
devices, Working with files and folders, Controlling the system
partitions
dictionary, Internet Specific Commands
diff, Text Information Tools, Finding a particular tool(s)
diff3, Text Information Tools, Finding a particular tool(s)
difference, Concept Definitions, Text Information Tools, Text Conversion/
Filter Tools, Network Commands
differences, rsync
different, Finding files, Managing users, Text Information Tools, Text
Conversion/Filter Tools, Finding Text Within Files, Remote Administration
Related, File Permissions, Wildcards
diffutils, Finding a particular tool(s)
dig, Internet Specific Commands
digit, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
digits, Working with files and folders, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
dir, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
dir1, Finding information about the system
dir2, Finding information about the system
directories, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Working with files
and folders, Remote Administration Related, File Permissions
directory, General Shell Tips, Moving around the filesystem, Working with
files and folders, Finding information about the system, Finding
information about partitions, Controlling services, Text manipulation
tools, Finding Text Within Files, Internet Specific Commands, Compression
, Miscellaneous, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
disable, General Shell Tips
disabled, Security
disclaimer, Legal
discuss list, Contributors
disk, Finding files, Finding information about partitions, File Permissions,
Working with MS-DOS files, Checking the Hard Disk for errors
disks, Working with files and folders, Finding information about partitions,
Working with MS-DOS files, Duplicating disks
display, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system
, Date/Time/Calendars, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools,
Finding Text Within Files, Network Configuration , Graphics tools
(command line based)
distinct, Command Substitution
distributions, Finding information about partitions, Security
divide, Working with files and folders
dlocate, Debian (deb)
dmesg, Finding information about the system
DNS, Internet Specific Commands
DocBook, Resources used to create this document
document, Introduction, Contributors , Help, Text Viewing Tools , Mini-Guides
document processor, Availability of sources, Resources used to create this
document
documentation, Virtual Terminals and screen, Help, Finding information about
partitions, Network Commands, Remote Administration Related, File
Permissions, rsync, Working with MS-DOS files
documents, Contributors , Disclaimer, Text Viewing Tools , Text Conversion/
Filter Tools
domain information groper, Internet Specific Commands
Dos-style, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
dos2unix, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
dosfsck, Working with MS-DOS files
dot, Moving around the filesystem
dots, Moving around the filesystem
double, Help
downwards, Moving around the filesystem
dpkg, Debian (deb)
dpkg -S, Debian (deb)
Dr. B. Guillion, Resources used to create this document
drive, Working with files and folders, Finding information about partitions,
Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
drives, Finding information about partitions, Controlling the system
du, Working with files and folders
duplicate, Text manipulation tools, Duplicating disks
duplication, Mini-Guides

-
E

echo, General Shell Tips, Finding information about the system, Scheduling
Commands to run in the background
edit, The command-line history, Users/Groups, Internet Specific Commands,
Security, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
editing, Users/Groups, Graphics tools (command line based), Scheduling
Commands to run in the background, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
editor, Text Editors
editors, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Text Related Tools, Text Editors, Text
Conversion/Filter Tools
effects, Graphics tools (command line based)
efficient, Who would want to read this guide?
eject, Controlling the system
emacs, The command-line history, Text Editors, Specific Further reading
email, Feedback
emerged, The Unix Tools Philosophy
emphasize, Conventions used in this guide
emphasized, Conventions used in this guide
empty, Working with files and folders
enable, Introduction, Conventions used in this guide
encodings, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
encouraged, Feedback
encryption, rsync
end, Usage, Finding files, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text manipulation
tools, Security, Regular Expressions
end-of-file, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
end-of-line, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
ending, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
endorsements, Disclaimer
ends, Internet Specific Commands, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns),
Regular Expressions
english, Conventions used in this guide
enhancements, Availability of sources
enscript, Conversion tools
enter, Mathematical tools
entered, The command-line history
entries, Text Viewing Tools
entry, Text manipulation tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
environment, Managing users
environment variable, General Shell Tips
epigram, Miscellaneous
epigrams, Miscellaneous
equals, File Permissions
equivalent, The command-line history, Moving around the filesystem, Date/Time
/Calendars, Security, Regular Expressions
error, Concept Definitions, Working with files and folders, Finding
Error output, Concept Definitions, Usage
errors, Contributors , Disclaimer, Working with MS-DOS files, Checking the
Hard Disk for errors
ESC-\$, General Shell Tips
ESC-Y, General Shell Tips
escape, General Shell Tips, Security
escape character, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
eth0, Network Configuration
evaluates, Mathematical tools
events, Controlling services
everyday, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
everyone, File Permissions
everything, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders,
Managing users, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
exact, Help, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Shutting Down/
Rebooting the System, Controlling Processes, Duplicating disks, Standard
Wildcards (globbing patterns)
exactly, General Shell Tips, Command Substitution, Working with files and
folders, Controlling Processes, Mathematical tools
examples, Introduction, Conventions used in this guide, Disclaimer, Moving
around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Finding
information about the system, Text Viewing Tools , Scheduling Commands to
run in the background
exclude, Finding files
exclude=pattern, tar (tape archiver)
Excluding, Finding files, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
executable, Conventions used in this guide, Moving around the filesystem,
Finding files
execute, The command-line history, Command Substitution, Finding information
about the system, Controlling Processes, Mathematical tools, Remote
Administration Related, File Permissions, Working with MS-DOS files
execution, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
exist, Usage, Working with files and folders, Internet Specific Commands
existing, Usage, Controlling Processes, File Permissions
exit, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Text Viewing Tools
, Mathematical tools, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
expand, General Shell Tips, Text manipulation tools, Finding Text Within
Files
expanding, General Shell Tips, Internet Specific Commands
expands, General Shell Tips
expert, Who would not want to read this guide?
explaining, Conventions used in this guide
explains, Directing Input/Output, Network Commands, Graphics tools (command
line based)
explanation, Finding information about the system, Security
explanations, Who would want to read this guide?
explicitly, Conventions used in this guide
expression, Mathematical tools
expressions, Mathematical tools, Regular Expressions
ext2, Working with files and folders, File Permissions
ext3, Working with files and folders, File Permissions, Checking the Hard
Disk for errors
extended, Controlling Processes
extension, Finding files, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Miscellaneous
extract, tar (tape archiver), Compression

-
F

factors, Mathematical tools
fail, The command-line history
fails, Performing more than one command
familiar, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
Feedback, Feedback
fg, Other Key combinations, Controlling Processes
fgrep, Finding Text Within Files
field, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
fields, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
figlet, Conversion tools
file access, File Permissions
file name, General Shell Tips
file permissions, Security
File Streams, Concept Definitions
file system, Working with the file-system
file-system, General Shell Tips, Working with the file-system, Working with
files and folders, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive
Partitions)
file-systems, Finding information about the system
file1, Working with files and folders, Text Information Tools
file2, Working with files and folders, Text Information Tools
filename1, Working with files and folders
filename2, Working with files and folders
filepart1, Text Viewing Tools
filepart2, Text Viewing Tools
filepart3, Text Viewing Tools
filespec, Text manipulation tools
filesystem, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Working with files
Related, File Permissions, Working with MS-DOS files
filesystems, Working with MS-DOS files
filter, Text manipulation tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
filters, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
find, General Shell Tips, The command-line history, Finding files, Working
with files and folders, Finding information about the system, Controlling
Processes, Text manipulation tools, Mathematical tools, rsync, Graphics
tools (command line based), Wildcards
finding, Working with the file-system, Controlling Processes, Text
Information Tools
finding tools, Finding a particular tool(s)
finds, Help, Finding files, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Finding Text Within
Files
findsmb, Network Commands
finger, Users/Groups
finish, Working with files and folders
finished, Usage, Working with files and folders, Mathematical tools
five, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
fix, General Shell Tips, Managing users
fixing, Contributors
flag, File Permissions
flags, File Permissions
flash, General Shell Tips
flexible, rsync
floppy, Working with files and folders, Working with MS-DOS files,
Duplicating disks
floppy-image, Duplicating disks
fmt, Text manipulation tools
folders, Finding files
followed, Controlling Processes, Controlling services,
Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
following, General Shell Tips, Concept Definitions, Text manipulation tools,
Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the
background
Follows, Finding Text Within Files, Mathematical tools
force, Working with files and folders, Controlling Processes
foreground, Controlling Processes
forgotten, Security
form, Controlling Processes, Regular Expressions
format, Availability of sources, General Shell Tips, Finding information
about the system, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Compression, Graphics
tools (command line based), Working with MS-DOS files
formats, Text Related Tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Graphics tools
(command line based), Working with MS-DOS files
formatted, Working with MS-DOS files
forms, Text manipulation tools
fortune, Miscellaneous
forwards, Text Viewing Tools
found, Contributors , The command-line history, Finding information about
partitions, Text manipulation tools, Finding Text Within Files, Security,
Graphics tools (command line based)
fractions, Mathematical tools
frame, Conventions used in this guide
frameset, Conventions used in this guide
free, Finding information about the system
FreeBSD, The Unix Tools Philosophy
freeze, Controlling Processes
Freshmeat, Text Editors, Archiving Files, Finding more useful tools, Finding
package(s)
from/to dos website, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
fromdos, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
ftp, Internet Specific Commands
full, Text manipulation tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Internet
Specific Commands, Working with MS-DOS files, RPM: Redhat Package
Management System
function, Introduction, General Shell Tips, Controlling Processes, Network
Commands, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
functions, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Managing users

-
G

gallons, Mathematical tools
garbled, General Shell Tips
gateway, Network Configuration
general, Contributors , Mathematical tools, Internet Specific Commands
generator, Some basic Security Tools
George Harmon, Contributors
giga, Miscellaneous
global aliases, General Shell Tips
globbing, Wildcards
globbing pattern, Regular Expressions
globbing patterns, Conventions used in this guide, Standard Wildcards
(globbing patterns)
GNU, License, Compression, Finding more useful tools
GNU Directory, Finding more useful tools
GNU Manual's, Online Info Page Website:
GNU/Linux Tools Summary Homepage, Availability of sources
gopher, Internet Specific Commands
grammar, Contributors
grand, Working with files and folders
graph, Moving around the filesystem
graphical, Network Commands, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
graphically printable, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
Graphics, Introduction, Graphics tools (command line based)
great, Mathematical tools
greater, Usage
greatly, Text manipulation tools
grep, Finding information about the system, Finding Text Within Files,
Mathematical tools, Wildcards, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard), Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm based)
group, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, Users/
Groups, Security, File Permissions, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
groups, Users/Groups
grub, Security
GUI, Introduction, Who would want to read this guide?, Finding a particular
tool(s)
guide, Introduction, Contributors , Text Related Tools, Graphics tools
(command line based)
gunzip, tar (tape archiver)
gzip, Text Viewing Tools , tar (tape archiver), Compression
gzipped, tar (tape archiver), Compression

-
H

halt, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
hand, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
handles, Controlling services
handy, Shell Tips, Some basic Security Tools
hard links, Working with files and folders
hard-link, Working with files and folders
hard-links, Working with files and folders
harmless, General Shell Tips
hda, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
hdb, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
hdc, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
header, Working with files and folders, Conversion tools
help, Help, Network Configuration , Remote Administration Related
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
hidden, Moving around the filesystem, Internet Specific Commands
hierarchy, Working with the file-system, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/
CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
higher, Controlling Processes
highlight, Conversion tools
highlighting, Conversion tools
highly, Disclaimer
history, The command-line history, Other Key combinations
hit, Mathematical tools, Security
hitting, Usage
Home, Conventions used in this guide, General Shell Tips, Moving around the
filesystem, Working with files and folders, Users/Groups, Remote
Administration Related, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
host, Network Commands, Internet Specific Commands
hosted, Availability of sources
hostname, Network Commands, Internet Specific Commands, Remote Administration
Related
hosts, Network Commands
hour, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
hours, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
HTML, Contributors , Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Conversion tools
http, Internet Specific Commands
http://slashdot.org, Internet Specific Commands
httrack, Internet Specific Commands
huge, Internet Specific Commands
human readable, Working with files and folders
human-readable, Working with files and folders

-
I

IBM Developerworks, Regular Expressions, General Further Reading
id, Controlling Processes
id's, Controlling Processes
idea, Who would want to read this guide?
ideas, Feedback
identify, Graphics tools (command line based)
ifcfg, Network Configuration
ifconfig, Network Configuration
ifdown, Network Configuration
ifup, Network Configuration
image, Working with files and folders, Graphics tools (command line based),
Duplicating disks
ImageMagick, Graphics tools (command line based), Specific Further reading
images, Graphics tools (command line based)
immutable, File Permissions
import, Graphics tools (command line based)
importance, Conventions used in this guide
improve, Contributors
improved, Contributors
improvements, Contributors
inaccuracies, Disclaimer
inbuilt, General Shell Tips
inches, Mathematical tools
include, Contributors , File Permissions
includes, Finding information about the system, Network Commands
including, General Shell Tips, Finding files, Working with files and folders,
Finding information about the system, Text manipulation tools, Internet
Specific Commands, Remote Administration Related, File Permissions,
Graphics tools (command line based), Scheduling Commands to run in the
background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns),
Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
increase, Controlling Processes
indented, Text manipulation tools
index, Who would want to read this guide?, Contributors
indication, Controlling Processes
individual, Help, Text Viewing Tools
info, Help, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Network Commands,
Working with MS-DOS files, Wildcards, Useful═categories═of═characters═
Info Pages, Online Info Page Website:
information, Who would not want to read this guide?, Legal, General Shell
Tips, Help, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools,
partitions, Controlling Processes, Users/Groups, Finding Text Within
Files, Network Commands, Network Configuration , Internet Specific
Commands, Security, Archiving Files, rsync, Miscellaneous, Mini-Guides,
Duplicating disks, Regular Expressions
inode, File Permissions
input, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Concept Definitions, Usage, Working with
files and folders, Finding information about the system, Text
manipulation tools, Mathematical tools
insensitive, Finding files
insert, Usage
inside, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
inspection, Network Commands
install, Archiving Files
installed, Help, Finding Text Within Files, Mathematical tools, RPM: Redhat
Package Management System
instances, Text manipulation tools
integer, Mathematical tools
integrated, Contributors
integrity, Some basic Security Tools, Compression
interact, Controlling the system, Controlling Processes
interactive, Controlling Processes, Mathematical tools
interchangeably, Introduction, Command Substitution
interface, Network Commands, Network Configuration
interfaces, Network Configuration
intermediate, Who would want to read this guide?
internet, Virtual Terminals and screen, Text Editors, Network Commands,
Internet Specific Commands, Some basic Security Tools
interpret, Finding files, Regular Expressions
interpreted, Mathematical tools
interprets, Network Commands
interrelate, Controlling Processes
Introduction to Linux guide, Who would want to read this guide?
invention, The Unix Tools Philosophy
IP address, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions),
Network Configuration
ispell, Text manipulation tools
issues, Contributors
italic, Conventions used in this guide
italics, Conventions used in this guide

-
J

job, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
jobs, Controlling Processes, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
join, Text manipulation tools
jpeg, Working with files and folders, Graphics tools (command line based)
judged, Who would want to read this guide?

-
K

Kb, Working with files and folders
kernel, Finding information about the system, Security
kernel ring buffer, Finding information about the system
kernel version, Finding information about the system
kernel-modules, Finding information about the system
Kevin Fenzi, Security
key, The command-line history, Text Editors
key combination, The command-line history, Other Key combinations
key combinations, Conventions used in this guide, Shell Tips
key-combinations, Virtual Terminals and screen
keyboard, Concept Definitions
keyword, Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm based), Red Hat (rpm)
keywords, Miscellaneous
kibibyte, Miscellaneous
kill, Controlling Processes, Controlling services
killall, Controlling Processes
killed, Controlling Processes
kilobyte, Working with files and folders
kilobytes, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the
system
knowledge, Who would not want to read this guide?

-
L

lang, Conversion tools
language, Contributors
language review, Contributors
last, The command-line history, Working with files and folders, Finding
information about the system, Text Viewing Tools , File Permissions
lastlog, Finding information about the system
LaTeX, Availability of sources, The Unix Tools Philosophy
ldap, Internet Specific Commands
learn, Who would want to read this guide?, Contributors , Moving around the
filesystem, Text manipulation tools, Mathematical tools, Network
Configuration
learning, Who would want to read this guide?, Text Editors
least, Text manipulation tools, Wildcards
legal, Legal
length, Some basic Security Tools
less, Usage, Text Viewing Tools
lesser, General Shell Tips, Text manipulation tools
let, Compression
Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
letters, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background,
Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
level, Conventions used in this guide, Security
levels, Moving around the filesystem
liability, Disclaimer
licensing, Legal
lilo, Security
line, General Shell Tips, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Finding information
about the system, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools,
Finding Text Within Files, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Regular
Expressions
line-by-line, Text Information Tools
lines, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system,
Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, Finding Text Within
Files, Regular Expressions, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
link, Working with files and folders
links, Working with files and folders, Internet Specific Commands
link_name, Working with files and folders
linux, Security
Linux Cookbook, Who would want to read this guide?
Linux Documentation Project, Contributors , Security, General Further Reading
Linux in a Nutshell, General Further Reading
Linux in a Nutshell 3rd Edition, Who would want to read this guide?
Linux Online Classroom, Duplicating disks
Linux Security, Security
Linux Security howto, Security
list, Who would want to read this guide?, Contributors , General Shell Tips,
The command-line history, Help, Moving around the filesystem, Finding
files, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the
system, Controlling Processes, Users/Groups, Text manipulation tools,
Network Commands, File Permissions, tar (tape archiver), Graphics tools
(command line based), Scheduling Commands to run in the background
listed, Introduction, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders,
Finding information about the system, Text Information Tools, Network
Commands, Graphics tools (command line based), Scheduling Commands to run
in the background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
listen, Controlling services
listens, Controlling services
listing, Who would not want to read this guide?, Contributors , Text
Conversion/Filter Tools, File Permissions, Working with MS-DOS files
lists, Who would not want to read this guide?, Usage, Moving around the
filesystem, Finding Text Within Files, Network Commands, Scheduling
Commands to run in the background
literal, Finding Text Within Files
litres, Mathematical tools
ln, Working with files and folders
locates, Finding files
location, Usage
locking, Users/Groups, Security
log, The command-line history, Virtual Terminals and screen
logged, Finding information about the system, Shutting Down/Rebooting the
System, Network Commands, Remote Administration Related
logical, Performing more than one command, Standard Wildcards (globbing
patterns), Regular Expressions
Related
logout, General Shell Tips
logs-out, General Shell Tips
long, Moving around the filesystem, Finding information about the system,
Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
look, Usage, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Finding
Information Tools, Finding Text Within Files, Mathematical tools,
Compression, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
looking, Introduction, Finding information about the system, Date/Time/
Calendars, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Internet Specific Commands,
Security
looks, Finding files, Text manipulation tools
lookup, Internet Specific Commands
lost, Controlling Processes
low, Working with files and folders
low-level, Working with files and folders
lowercase, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
ls, General Shell Tips, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and
folders, File Permissions
lsattr, File Permissions
lsd, Moving around the filesystem
LyX, Availability of sources, Contributors
lyxtox, Resources used to create this document , Contributors

-
M

machine, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system
, Controlling services, Text Related Tools, Network Commands, Internet
Specific Commands, rsync
machine name, General Shell Tips
Machine-translated, Availability of sources
machines, Network Commands, Security
Machtelt Garrels, Who would want to read this guide?, Contributors
magic character, General Shell Tips
maintainers, Availability of sources
maintenance, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
major, Internet Specific Commands, Wildcards
majority, Introduction
makewhatis, Help
man, Help, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Graphics tools (command line based)
man -f, Help
man -K, Help
man page, General Shell Tips
man pages, Who would not want to read this guide?
management, Controlling services
Mandrake, Controlling services
Mandriva, Controlling services, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
manipulate, Working with the file-system, Text Related Tools, Graphics tools
(command line based)
manipulation, Wildcards, Regular Expressions
manual, Virtual Terminals and screen, Help, Moving around the filesystem,
Viewing Tools , Network Commands, Internet Specific Commands, File
Permissions, Miscellaneous, Wildcards, Regular Expressions, General
manually, Compression
map, Working with files and folders
mark, Working with MS-DOS files
marks, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Working with MS-DOS files
markup language, Availability of sources
mass-rename, Working with the file-system
match, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Standard Wildcards
(globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
matched, Regular Expressions
matching, Help, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Finding Text Within Files, File
Permissions, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
material, Contributors
maximum, Controlling Processes
mbm, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
mcm, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
mcopy, Working with MS-DOS files
md5, Some basic Security Tools, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
md5sum, Some basic Security Tools
mdm, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
measure, Finding information about the system, Miscellaneous
measurement, Mathematical tools
measurements, Miscellaneous
measures, Finding information about the system
mega, Miscellaneous
Megabyte, Working with files and folders
megabytes, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the
system
memory, Finding information about the system, Controlling services
Mendel Cooper, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text manipulation tools
Menu, Conventions used in this guide, Graphics tools (command line based)
message, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
meters, Mathematical tools
method, rsync
methods, File Permissions
mformat, Working with MS-DOS files
Michael Kerrisk, Contributors
Microsoft, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
middle, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
mind, Working with files and folders
mini-guide, Introduction
mini-guides, Introduction, Mini-Guides
mini-tutorials, Introduction
minimal, Users/Groups, Text Editors
minimum, Controlling Processes
minor, Contributors , Managing users
minus, Security, File Permissions, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
minute, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
minutes, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
mis-match, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
miscellaneous, Graphics tools (command line based), Miscellaneous
mixed, Concept Definitions
mkdir, Working with files and folders
mmount, Working with MS-DOS files
mode, Working with files and folders, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System,
Controlling Processes
modifiable, Availability of sources
modification, Moving around the filesystem
modified, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
modify, License, Network Configuration , File Permissions
mogrify, Graphics tools (command line based)
mom, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
montage, Graphics tools (command line based)
month, Date/Time/Calendars, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
months, Date/Time/Calendars
more, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Finding information
about the system, Controlling Processes, Text Related Tools, Text
manipulation tools, Conversion tools, Network Commands, Network
Configuration , Remote Administration Related, Compression, Working with
MS-DOS files, Miscellaneous, Wildcards, Regular Expressions
morning, Working with files and folders
motivation, Who would want to read this guide?
mount, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Working
with MS-DOS files
mounted, Finding files, Finding information about the system, Finding
information about partitions, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/
Hard-drive Partitions), Working with MS-DOS files
mouse, Conventions used in this guide
move, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Finding
information about the system, Text Viewing Tools
moving, Finding files, Working with files and folders
mozilla, Controlling Processes
mp3, Finding information about the system
ms-dos, Compression, Working with MS-DOS files
mTime, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
mtools, Working with MS-DOS files
mull, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
multiple, Working with files and folders, Controlling Processes, Text Viewing
Tools , Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
mum, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
must, Controlling Processes
mv, Working with files and folders
myfile, Regular Expressions
myfiles1, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
myfiles2, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions

-
N

named, Finding files, Controlling Processes
Naming, Disclaimer
NetBSD, The Unix Tools Philosophy
netstat, Network Commands
network, Network Commands, Network Configuration
networking, Network Commands, Network Configuration
new, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system,
Date/Time/Calendars, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive
Partitions), Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Network Commands, Network
Configuration , Remote Administration Related, File Permissions
newer, Working with files and folders, Compression
newline, General Shell Tips, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Scheduling
Commands to run in the background
newlines, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
newstring, Text manipulation tools
new_location, Working with files and folders
Next, Conventions used in this guide, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text
Viewing Tools
NFTS, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
nice, Date/Time/Calendars, Controlling Processes
nl, Text manipulation tools
nmap, Network Commands
nmap site, Network Commands
nn, Regular Expressions
nnnn, Regular Expressions
nnnnnnn, Regular Expressions
non-blank, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools
none, General Shell Tips, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
normal, Controlling Processes, Internet Specific Commands, Compression,
Working with MS-DOS files, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
NOT, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
number, Directing Input/Output, Working with the file-system, Finding files,
Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system,
Finding information about partitions, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System,
Controlling Processes, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools,
Mathematical tools, Internet Specific Commands, File Permissions,
Graphics tools (command line based), Scheduling Commands to run in the
background, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Regular Expressions
number lines, Text manipulation tools
numbering, Text manipulation tools
numbers, Users/Groups, Mathematical tools, Security, File Permissions,
Scheduling Commands to run in the background,
Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
numeric, Text manipulation tools
numgrep, Mathematical tools

-
O

occupying, File Permissions
occurances, Finding files, Text manipulation tools, Text Conversion/Filter
Tools
off, Network Commands, File Permissions, Wildcards
office, Users/Groups
official, Availability of sources
old, File Permissions, rsync
oldstring, Text manipulation tools
on-screen, Graphics tools (command line based)
one-line, Text manipulation tools
online, Help, Finding information about partitions, Mini-Guides
online info pages, Online Manual And Info Pages
online man pages, Online Manual And Info Pages
open, Controlling the system, Text Viewing Tools , Network Commands, Graphics
tools (command line based)
OpenBSD, The Unix Tools Philosophy
opened, File Permissions
operate, The Unix Tools Philosophy
operating, Finding information about the system, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
, Security
operations, Finding files
option, General Shell Tips, Finding files, Working with files and folders,
Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, Controlling
services, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools, Finding Text
Within Files, Internet Specific Commands, Some basic Security Tools, File
Permissions, Graphics tools (command line based), Working with MS-DOS
files, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
optional, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the
system
options, Introduction, Who would not want to read this guide?, General Shell
Tips, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders,
Finding information about the system, Date/Time/Calendars, Shutting Down/
Rebooting the System, Controlling Processes, Text Viewing Tools , Text
manipulation tools, Conversion tools, Network Commands, Internet Specific
Commands, rsync, Graphics tools (command line based), Scheduling Commands
to run in the background, Miscellaneous
OR, Performing more than one command, Regular Expressions
order, Moving around the filesystem, Text manipulation tools, Miscellaneous
Orielly, The UNIX tools philosophy further reading
original, Availability of sources, Conventions used in this guide, Working
with files and folders, Managing users, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, tar
(tape archiver)
OS, Finding information about the system
output, The Unix Tools Philosophy, General Shell Tips, Help, Command
Substitution, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and
folders, Finding information about the system, Text Information Tools,
Finding Text Within Files, Mathematical tools, Internet Specific Commands
, tar (tape archiver), Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
Outputs, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Text Viewing Tools ,
Text Information Tools, Finding Text Within Files, Miscellaneous
override, General Shell Tips
overwrite, Usage, Working with files and folders
overwriting, Working with files and folders, Text Conversion/Filter Tools,
Internet Specific Commands
ownership, Moving around the filesystem, File Permissions, RPM: Redhat
Package Management System

-
P

package, Resources used to create this document , Remote Administration
Related, Working with MS-DOS files, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
, Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm based), Red Hat (rpm)
package management, Archiving Files
packages, Finding a particular tool(s), Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm based),
Finding package(s)
packet, Network Commands
packets, Network Commands
page, Conventions used in this guide, Virtual Terminals and screen, Moving
around the filesystem, Finding files, Working with files and folders,
Date/Time/Calendars, Controlling Processes, Text Viewing Tools , Text
manipulation tools, Conversion tools, Network Commands, Internet Specific
Commands, File Permissions, rsync, Graphics tools (command line based),
Miscellaneous, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular
Expressions, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
pages, Controlling Processes
paranoia, Working with files and folders
parent, Internet Specific Commands, Security
parent directory, Moving around the filesystem
parse, Internet Specific Commands
part, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Finding information
particular, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Finding
information about the system, Controlling Processes, Controlling services
, Users/Groups, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, Finding
Text Within Files, Network Commands, File Permissions, Graphics tools
(command line based), Scheduling Commands to run in the background
partition, Working with files and folders, Finding information about
partitions
parts, Contributors , Wildcards, Regular Expressions
pass, Working with files and folders
passed, General Shell Tips, Finding information about the system
passes, Working with files and folders
passwd, Users/Groups
Tools
Tools
paste, Text manipulation tools
path, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Working with files and
folders, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
pattern, Finding files, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools
peace, Working with files and folders
people, Contributors , File Permissions
perform, The command-line history, Usage, Working with files and folders,
Controlling services, Remote Administration Related, Graphics tools
(command line based), Scheduling Commands to run in the background,
Wildcards
performing, Finding information about the system, Controlling services
performs, Network Commands, Regular Expressions
perl, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text manipulation tools, Miscellaneous
permissions, Security, File Permissions, RPM: Redhat Package Management
System
permitted, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
person, Text manipulation tools, Remote Administration Related, File
Permissions
pgrep, Controlling Processes
philosophy, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Compression
phrase, Text Information Tools, Wildcards
physical, Virtual Terminals and screen, Finding files
pictures, Conventions used in this guide
pid, Controlling Processes
pid's, Controlling Processes
piece, Miscellaneous
ping, Network Commands
pipe, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Usage, Command Substitution, Text
manipulation tools, Regular Expressions
pipes, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Command Substitution
pkill, Controlling Processes
place, The command-line history, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/
Hard-drive Partitions)
plain, Working with files and folders, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Remote
play, Text Editors
PNG, Graphics tools (command line based)
pointers, Working with files and folders
popular, Wildcards
ports, Network Commands
possible, General Shell Tips, Network Commands
possibly, Graphics tools (command line based)
postscript, Conversion tools
power, Managing users, Graphics tools (command line based)
power down, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
power users, Who would want to read this guide?
powerful, Directing Input/Output, Finding information about the system, Text
Editors, Text manipulation tools, Mathematical tools, Network Commands
poweroff, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
practice, Managing users
preceding, Moving around the filesystem
prefix, Text Information Tools
prefixed, Text Viewing Tools
present, Date/Time/Calendars
preserves, tar (tape archiver)
press, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Managing users, Mathematical tools
, Security, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
prevent, Internet Specific Commands, File Permissions
Prevents, Working with files and folders
Previous, Conventions used in this guide, Performing more than one command,
Moving around the filesystem, Text Viewing Tools
primary, Checking the Hard Disk for errors
Print, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Finding
information about the system, Controlling services, Text manipulation
tools, Finding Text Within Files, Miscellaneous
print working directory, Moving around the filesystem
printable, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
printed, Conventions used in this guide, General Shell Tips, Concept
Definitions
printing, Working with files and folders, Text Information Tools
prints, Help, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the
system, Controlling Processes, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation
tools, Regular Expressions, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
priorities, Controlling Processes
priority, Controlling Processes
privileges, Managing users
probably, Text manipulation tools, Remote Administration Related, File
Permissions, Compression
problems, Feedback, Contributors , Working with files and folders, Finding
information about the system, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
proc filesystem, Finding information about partitions
procedure, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
proceed, Disclaimer
proceeding, Regular Expressions
process, Usage, Controlling Processes, Scheduling Commands to run in the
background
process id, Controlling Processes
process information, Finding information about the system
processed, Working with files and folders
processes, Finding information about the system, Controlling the system,
Controlling Processes
processing, Users/Groups
processor, Finding information about the system, Compression
products, Disclaimer
program, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Help, Finding information about the
system, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Mathematical
tools, Internet Specific Commands, Security, Compression, Working with
MS-DOS files, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
programmers, Who would want to read this guide?, The Unix Tools Philosophy,
Miscellaneous
programming, Mathematical tools, Regular Expressions
programs, Concept Definitions, Conversion tools, Archiving Files, Compression
, Graphics tools (command line based), Working with MS-DOS files
program_name, Finding files
prompt, Help, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes,
Text manipulation tools, Security
prompts, Text manipulation tools
protect, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
protocols, Network Commands, Internet Specific Commands
provide, Controlling services
provided, Introduction, Contributors
provides, Help, Controlling Processes, Archiving Files
ps, Controlling Processes
pstree, Controlling Processes
punctuation, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
purpose, Who would not want to read this guide?
putting, General Shell Tips
pwd, Moving around the filesystem
python, Mathematical tools

-
Q

quality, Contributors
queries, Network Commands
query, Network Commands
queue, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
quickest, Who would want to read this guide?
quit, Help
quite, Finding files, Text Editors
quotation, General Shell Tips, Finding files, Shutting Down/Rebooting the
System, Internet Specific Commands, Standard Wildcards (globbing
patterns), Regular Expressions
quote, Miscellaneous
quoted, Contributors , General Shell Tips
quotes, Internet Specific Commands

-
R

r, File Permissions
Rahul Sundaram, Contributors
random, Working with files and folders, Some basic Security Tools, Graphics
tools (command line based), Miscellaneous
range, Mathematical tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background,
Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
ranges, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
ranked, Miscellaneous
rcp, rsync
re-combine, Working with files and folders
readability, Contributors , Text Information Tools
reader, Conventions used in this guide
reading, Conventions used in this guide, File Permissions
reads, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
reboot, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
rebooted, Finding information about the system
reboots, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
recode, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
recognised, Moving around the filesystem
recommend, Mathematical tools
recommended, Contributors , Users/Groups
records, Finding information about the system
recover, Compression
recovered, Working with files and folders
recursive, Finding Text Within Files
recursively, Working with files and folders, File Permissions
Redhat, Controlling services
redirect, Usage
Refer, Conventions used in this guide, Moving around the filesystem, Finding
files, Finding information about the system, Date/Time/Calendars,
Controlling Processes, Internet Specific Commands, Remote Administration
Related, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
reference, Who would want to read this guide?, Who would not want to read
this guide?, The command-line history, Working with files and folders
references, Contributors , Internet Specific Commands, General Further
referencing, Contributors
referred, The Unix Tools Philosophy
reflected, Users/Groups
regarded, Disclaimer
regardless, Finding files
regular, Finding Text Within Files
regular expression, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Controlling Processes
regular expressions, Finding files, Finding Text Within Files
rel, Miscellaneous
relationship, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
Relative paths, Moving around the filesystem
release number, Finding information about the system
relevance, Miscellaneous
relevant, Finding information about partitions, Text manipulation tools,
Security, File Permissions, Miscellaneous
reliable, Working with files and folders
remote, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions),
Internet Specific Commands, Remote Administration Related, rsync
remote machines, Network Commands
removable, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
remove, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Mounting and
Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Text manipulation tools,
Text Conversion/Filter Tools, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to
run in the background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular
Expressions
removes, Working with files and folders, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/
CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Text manipulation tools, Network
Configuration
removing, Finding files
rename, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, File
Permissions, Miscellaneous
Renames, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools
renaming extensions, Miscellaneous
renders, General Shell Tips
renice, Controlling Processes
Repair, Contributors , Working with MS-DOS files
repairs, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
repeatedly, The command-line history
repeats, General Shell Tips
replace, Text manipulation tools
replacement, rsync
report, Controlling Processes
represent, Moving around the filesystem, Text Conversion/Filter Tools,
Mathematical tools, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
represents, Moving around the filesystem, File Permissions
requests, Network Commands
required, Contributors , Moving around the filesystem, Checking the Hard Disk
for errors
reset, General Shell Tips
resources, Text Editors
respective owners, Disclaimer
respectively, File Permissions
respond, Network Commands
responses, Network Commands
responsibility, Disclaimer
responsible, Contributors
restart, Controlling services
restricted, Internet Specific Commands
restrictions, Managing users
result, Command Substitution, Text manipulation tools
results, Usage, Finding information about the system, Text manipulation tools
retrieve, Working with files and folders, Internet Specific Commands
return, Moving around the filesystem, Controlling Processes, Controlling
services, Managing users, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Internet Specific
Commands
returned, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
returns, Internet Specific Commands
reverse, Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific
review, Contributors
Review Coordinator, Contributors
rgb, Graphics tools (command line based)
rgrep, Finding Text Within Files
rights, File Permissions
risk, Disclaimer
rm, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Standard Wildcards
(globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
rm -i, General Shell Tips
rmdir, Working with files and folders
root, Help, Controlling Processes, Managing users, Remote Administration
Related, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
root directory, Finding files
rotation, Graphics tools (command line based)
rough, Contributors , Graphics tools (command line based)
round, Network Commands
route, Network Commands, Network Configuration
routing, Network Configuration
RPM, Security, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Red Hat (rpm), Finding
rpm -qf, Red Hat (rpm)
rpm -qi, Red Hat (rpm)
RPMFind, Finding package(s)
RPMSeek, Finding package(s)
rsync, Archiving Files, rsync, Specific Further reading
rsync site, rsync
rtf, Conversion tools
run, General Shell Tips, Help, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/
copy/link Tools, Controlling Processes, Text Viewing Tools , Text
Information Tools, Mathematical tools, Compression, Graphics tools
(command line based), Scheduling Commands to run in the background
running, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes,
Controlling services, Text Viewing Tools , Mathematical tools, Remote
Rute User's Tutorial and Exposition, General Further Reading

-
S

s, File Permissions
samba, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Specific
save, Controlling Processes, Network Commands
saved, Controlling Processes
saves, rsync, Graphics tools (command line based)
scales, Mathematical tools
scaling, Graphics tools (command line based)
scanner, Network Commands
Scans, Working with MS-DOS files, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
scattered, Some basic Security Tools
schedule, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
scheduled, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
scientific, Miscellaneous
scores, Text Information Tools
screen, General Shell Tips, Virtual Terminals and screen, Concept Definitions
, Date/Time/Calendars, Controlling Processes, Graphics tools (command
line based)
screen-dump, Graphics tools (command line based)
screen-shots, Graphics tools (command line based)
script, General Shell Tips, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Controlling services
, Network Configuration
scripts, Contributors , Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Controlling services
scroll, The command-line history, Text Viewing Tools
sdiff, Text Information Tools, Finding a particular tool(s)
search, Help, Finding files, Controlling Processes, Text Editors, Text
manipulation tools, Regular Expressions
search and replace text, Text manipulation tools
Searches, Help, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
searching, Virtual Terminals and screen, Finding files, Wildcards
section, Conventions used in this guide, Resources used to create this
document , Contributors , Text Viewing Tools , Text manipulation tools,
Finding Text Within Files, Security, Miscellaneous, Mini-Guides
Sections, License, Text manipulation tools, Miscellaneous
sectors, Working with files and folders
Security, Shell Tips, Network Commands, Security, File Permissions
selected, Text manipulation tools
sell, Working with files and folders
send, Feedback, Directing Input/Output, Usage, Shutting Down/Rebooting the
System, Controlling Processes, Network Configuration , tar (tape
archiver)
sends, Usage, Network Commands
sensitive, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Text Information
Tools
sentences, Text manipulation tools
separate, Text manipulation tools
separated, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, Scheduling
Commands to run in the background, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
separation, Text manipulation tools
separator, Text manipulation tools
sequentially, Performing more than one command
serial, Text manipulation tools
series, Network Commands
server, Remote Administration Related, Graphics tools (command line based)
servers, Internet Specific Commands, rsync
service, Controlling services
service mark, Disclaimer
services, Controlling services
session, General Shell Tips, Security
set, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/
link Tools, Date/Time/Calendars, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System,
Security, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
set bell-style, General Shell Tips
Sets, Controlling Processes, File Permissions, Graphics tools (command line
based)
setting, Network Configuration
settings, Network Configuration
setup, Moving around the filesystem, Text manipulation tools
several, Contributors , General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders,
Conversion tools, Network Commands
SGML, Availability of sources, Resources used to create this document ,
Contributors
sharing, Network Commands
shell, Conventions used in this guide, Shell Tips, Finding files, Controlling
Processes, Text manipulation tools, Security, Scheduling Commands to run
in the background, Wildcards
shell scripting, Usage
shell scripts, Usage
shells, Introduction, Other Key combinations, Users/Groups
shopping, Text manipulation tools
shortcut, Shell Tips, Other Key combinations, Scheduling Commands to run in
the background
show, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Finding
information about the system, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation
tools, Network Commands, tar (tape archiver), Graphics tools (command
line based)
shown, Moving around the filesystem, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text
manipulation tools, Internet Specific Commands
showrgb, Graphics tools (command line based)
shows, Moving around the filesystem, Text Viewing Tools
shred, Working with files and folders, File Permissions
shredding, Working with files and folders
shutdown, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
shutdown -h, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
shutdown -r, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
sign, Controlling Processes
signal, Controlling Processes
signalled, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
signals, Controlling Processes
single-user, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
site, Internet Specific Commands
Sitemenu, Conventions used in this guide
sites, Security
six, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
size, Moving around the filesystem, Working with files and folders, Text
manipulation tools, Graphics tools (command line based)
sizes, Working with files and folders
skill, Controlling Processes
slide, Graphics tools (command line based)
slocate, Finding files
smaller, Working with files and folders
SMB, Network Commands
smbmount, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
smbumount, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
snice, Controlling Processes
sniffer, Network Commands
snort, The command-line history
software, Who would want to read this guide?, Working with files and folders
some_file, Text manipulation tools
some_text_file, Text manipulation tools
sort, Moving around the filesystem, Text manipulation tools
sorted, Moving around the filesystem
Sorting, Text manipulation tools
sound, Controlling services, Network Commands
source, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Conversion tools
Sourceforge, Text Editors, Remote Administration Related, Archiving Files,
Finding more useful tools, Finding package(s)
sources, Availability of sources
space, General Shell Tips, Finding information about the system, Text
manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
space-seperated, Controlling Processes
spaces, Help, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools, File
Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Standard
Wildcards (globbing patterns), Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
special, Conventions used in this guide, File Permissions
special character, General Shell Tips, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
special characters, General Shell Tips
special symbols, General Shell Tips
specialcharacter, Regular Expressions
specific, Introduction, Resources used to create this document , Usage, Date/
Time/Calendars, Mini-Guides
specifically, Disclaimer, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
specified, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
specifies, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Standard Wildcards
(globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
specify, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Network Commands,
File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
speed, Other Key combinations
spell, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Text manipulation tools
spelling, The command-line history
spend, Text Related Tools
split, Working with files and folders
Splits, Working with files and folders
square, Regular Expressions
squeeze, Text manipulation tools
SS64.com list of commands, General Further Reading
ssh, Virtual Terminals and screen, Remote Administration Related
sshd, Controlling services
standard, Conventions used in this guide, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text
manipulation tools, Mathematical tools, Miscellaneous
Standard error, Concept Definitions
Standard input, Concept Definitions, Usage, Mathematical tools
Standard output, Concept Definitions, Usage, Regular Expressions
standard wild-card, tar (tape archiver)
standard wildcard, Regular Expressions
standard wildcards, Conventions used in this guide, Moving around the
filesystem, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/
copy/link Tools, Internet Specific Commands, Standard Wildcards (globbing
patterns), Regular Expressions
standards, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
Start, Conventions used in this guide, Moving around the filesystem,
Controlling Processes, Mathematical tools
start-up, Checking the Hard Disk for errors
started, Mathematical tools, Security
starting, The command-line history, Moving around the filesystem, Mass Rename
/copy/link Tools, Finding Text Within Files, Regular Expressions
starts, Controlling Processes, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns),
Regular Expressions
stat, Working with files and folders
statements, Finding files
statistics, Finding information about the system
status, Controlling services, Network Commands
steep, Text Editors
Step, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
Steps, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
sticky, File Permissions
stop, General Shell Tips, Usage, Finding files, Shutting Down/Rebooting the
System, Controlling Processes, Controlling services, Network Commands,
Internet Specific Commands, tar (tape archiver)
stored, Network Configuration
Streams, Concept Definitions
string, The command-line history, Help, Usage, Moving around the filesystem,
Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation
tools, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Regular Expressions
strings, Help
structure, Contributors
style, Moving around the filesystem, Text Information Tools, Text Conversion/
Filter Tools, Compression
su, Finding information about the system, Managing users
subdirectories, Moving around the filesystem, Finding files, Working with
files and folders, File Permissions
subdirectory, Working with files and folders
subsections, Wildcards
subsequent, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular Expressions
substituted, General Shell Tips, Finding information about the system
substitution, Finding information about the system
Subsystem, Network Commands
successful, Performing more than one command, Controlling Processes
sudo, Managing users
suggesting, Text manipulation tools
suggestions, Feedback, Contributors
suid, File Permissions
suited, Who would want to read this guide?, Who would not want to read this
guide?
sum, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
summarise, Introduction
summarised, Who would want to read this guide?
summarises, Working with files and folders
summary, Who would not want to read this guide?, Resources used to create
this document , Help
sums, Mathematical tools
superior, Compression
superuser, Managing users, Security
support, Internet Specific Commands
supports, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Internet Specific Commands
suppress, Text Information Tools
surf, Text Editors
suspend, Controlling Processes
Sweet Code, Finding more useful tools
switch, Virtual Terminals and screen, Managing users, File Permissions
switched, Duplicating disks
symbol, Usage, Text manipulation tools
symbolic, Working with files and folders
symbolic link, Working with files and folders
Symbolic links, Working with files and folders
symbols, General Shell Tips, Moving around the filesystem
syncs, rsync
syntax, Conventions used in this guide, Finding files, Working with files and
folders, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions),
Finding Text Within Files, Remote Administration Related
system bell, General Shell Tips

-
T

TAB, General Shell Tips, Text manipulation tools
TAB key, General Shell Tips
tab-stop, Text manipulation tools
Tabatha Marshall, Contributors
table, Conversion tools, Network Configuration , Scheduling Commands to run
in the background
tabs, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
tac, Text Viewing Tools
tail, Text Viewing Tools
tape, tar (tape archiver)
tar, rsync, Compression
tarball, tar (tape archiver)
target_name, Working with files and folders
tasks, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Controlling services, Text Editors
tcpdump, Network Commands
techinques, Duplicating disks
technique, Directing Input/Output, Duplicating disks
tee, Usage
tell, Controlling Processes, Controlling services, Mathematical tools,
Network Commands
tells, Controlling the system
tends, Finding information about the system
term, Disclaimer, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
terminal, General Shell Tips, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System, Controlling
Processes
terminate, Usage
terms, License, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
test, Virtual Terminals and screen, Compression
TeX, The Unix Tools Philosophy
text, General Shell Tips, Working with files and folders, Text Related Tools,
Text Information Tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools, Finding Text Within
Files, Wildcards, Regular Expressions
text-based, The Unix Tools Philosophy
textutils, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
The Linux Documentation Project, Resources used to create this document
The Open Group, Disclaimer
The Unix Philosophy, The UNIX tools philosophy further reading
throw, Working with files and folders
thumbnails, Graphics tools (command line based)
ties, Text manipulation tools
tiff, Graphics tools (command line based)
tilde, General Shell Tips
tile, Graphics tools (command line based)
tille, Contributors
time, Working with files and folders, Date/Time/Calendars, Controlling
Processes, Users/Groups, Text Viewing Tools , rsync, Scheduling Commands
to run in the background, Wildcards
times, The command-line history, Finding information about the system, Text
manipulation tools, Regular Expressions
timestamp, Working with files and folders
timestamps, Working with files and folders, Date/Time/Calendars
tiny, Useful═categories═of═characters═(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
TLDP, Contributors
today, The Unix Tools Philosophy
todos, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
top, Moving around the filesystem, Controlling Processes
total, Working with files and folders
totals, Finding information about the system
touch, Working with files and folders
tr, Usage, Text manipulation tools, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
tracepath, Network Commands
traceroute, Network Commands
transfer, Working with files and folders, Network Commands, Duplicating disks
transform, Graphics tools (command line based)
translators, Availability of sources
travel, Network Commands
tree, Moving around the filesystem, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/
Hard-drive Partitions), Controlling Processes
trick, Moving around the filesystem, Security
turn, General Shell Tips, File Permissions
turn off, General Shell Tips
tutorial, Finding information about the system
TuxFinder, Finding package(s), Specific Further reading
types, Working with files and folders, Conversion tools
typescript, General Shell Tips

-
U

UID, Controlling Processes
umount, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
unalias, General Shell Tips
uname, Finding information about the system
unbuffered, Concept Definitions
uncompile, Graphics tools (command line based)
unexpand, Text manipulation tools
unfamiliar, Controlling Processes
unfinished, Internet Specific Commands
Unfortunately, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Controlling Processes
uniq, Text manipulation tools
unique, Text Information Tools, Text manipulation tools
units, Mathematical tools
units man page, Miscellaneous
UNIX, Disclaimer, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Concept Definitions, Mass Rename
/copy/link Tools, Date/Time/Calendars, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
, Controlling services, Text Editors, Text Conversion/Filter Tools,
Security, Compression
UNIX system, Who would want to read this guide?, The Unix Tools Philosophy
UNIX tools, The UNIX tools philosophy further reading
UNIX Tools Philosophy, Introduction, The Unix Tools Philosophy, The UNIX
UNIX-like, Compression
unix-tools, The UNIX tools philosophy further reading
unix2dos, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
unmount, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions),
Checking the Hard Disk for errors
unmounted, Working with MS-DOS files
unrecoverable, Working with files and folders
unset, File Permissions
unusual, Conversion tools
Up, Conventions used in this guide
update, Working with files and folders, Users/Groups
updated, Controlling Processes, Text Viewing Tools , File Permissions
uppercase, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
uptime, Finding information about the system
URL, Internet Specific Commands
urpm*, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm
based)
urpme, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
urpmf, RPM: Redhat Package Management System, Mandriva (urpm* commands, rpm
based)
urpmi, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
urpmq, RPM: Redhat Package Management System
usage, General Shell Tips, Internet Specific Commands, Working with MS-DOS
files
user name, General Shell Tips
user-name, General Shell Tips
username, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Internet Specific
Commands, File Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
usernames, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools
utilities, Text Viewing Tools , Compression, Standard Wildcards (globbing
patterns)
utility, Working with files and folders, Finding information about the system
, Users/Groups, Text manipulation tools, Working with MS-DOS files

-
V

V7, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
valid, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns)
validity, Disclaimer
value, Controlling Processes, Text manipulation tools, Security, Scheduling
Commands to run in the background
values, Scheduling Commands to run in the background
variety, Controlling Processes, Controlling services, Internet Specific
Commands
verbose, Finding information about the system, Controlling Processes, tar
(tape archiver), Working with MS-DOS files
verify, Some basic Security Tools
version, Availability of sources, License, Text Viewing Tools , Finding Text
Within Files
versions, Availability of sources
vfat, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
vi, Text Editors
vice-versa, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
view, Help, Finding information about the system, Conversion tools, Graphics
tools (command line based)
viewers, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
viewing, Text Related Tools
virtual terminals, Shell Tips, Virtual Terminals and screen
visit, rsync
volunteers, Resources used to create this document

-
W

w, Finding information about the system, File Permissions
waiting, Network Commands
wave, Finding information about the system
wc, Text Information Tools
website, Internet Specific Commands
wget, Internet Specific Commands
whatis, Help
whereis, Finding files
which, Finding files, Working with files and folders, Mass Rename/copy/link
Tools, Controlling Processes, Network Commands, Miscellaneous
whitespace, Text manipulation tools, Useful═categories═of═characters═
(as═defined═by═the═POSIX═standard)
who, Finding information about the system, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
, File Permissions
whoami, Finding information about the system
whois, Internet Specific Commands
wildcard, General Shell Tips, Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Regular
Expressions
wildcards, Conventions used in this guide, General Shell Tips, Finding files,
Mass Rename/copy/link Tools, Internet Specific Commands, Wildcards,
Regular Expressions
William West, Contributors
window, The command-line history, Finding information about the system,
Graphics tools (command line based)
window manager, Virtual Terminals and screen
windowing, Graphics tools (command line based)
windows, Working with files and folders, Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/
CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions), Text Related Tools, Text Conversion/Filter
Tools, Network Commands, Compression
Windows-format, Text Conversion/Filter Tools
work-around, Internet Specific Commands
write, Text manipulation tools, File Permissions
writing, The Unix Tools Philosophy, Working with files and folders, File
Permissions, Scheduling Commands to run in the background, Miscellaneous

-
X

X windowing, Introduction
xargs, Finding information about the system
XML, Resources used to create this document
xset, General Shell Tips
xterminal, Shutting Down/Rebooting the System

-
Y

year, Date/Time/Calendars
years, Date/Time/Calendars
YYYY, Date/Time/Calendars

-
Z

z* commands, Text Viewing Tools
zcmp, Text Viewing Tools
zdiff, Text Viewing Tools
zero, Mathematical tools, Standard Wildcards (globbing patterns), Regular
Expressions
zeroes, Working with files and folders, File Permissions
zgrep, Text Viewing Tools
zgv, Graphics tools (command line based)
zip, Compression
zipgrep, Compression
zipinfo, Compression
zipped, Compression
zless, Text Viewing Tools
zmore, Text Viewing Tools

Notes

[1]  This information was adopted (with editing) from Mandrakesoft's Command
Line Manual, see [7] in the Bibliography for further information.
[2]  This information (as quoted) has come from the ??Please, For the Love of
All That's Recoverable, Shred Your Hard Drive!?? article, number 18 in
the Bibliography
[3]  This particular command and explanation has been used (with editing)
from the Linux Online Classroom, see [4] in the Bibliography for further
information.
[4]  This information has been taken from the Linux Cookbook (without
editing). See [3] in the Bibliography for further information.
[5]  These examples are based off information from the enscript manual page,
see [12] in the Bibliography for further information.
[6]  This way around the wildcard limitation has been adopted (with a tiny
amount of editing) from [http://www.lns.cornell.edu/public/COMP/info/
wget/wget_7.html] wget manual page, see [9] in the Bibliography for
further information.
[7]  This example and tiny parts of the explanation have been taken from the
Linux Online Classroom, see [4] in the Bibliography for further
information.
[8]  This example has come been used from (unedited) ??CLI for noobies:
import, display, mogrify??, see [16] in the Bibliography for further
information.
[9]  This information has come from (without editing) a post on the LinuxChix
techtalk mailing list, please see [16] in the Bibliography for further
information.
[10] This information comes from the cron manual page with small additions
(no changes to original content), refer to [13] in the Bibliography for
further information.
[11] This information information comes from the Linux Cookbook (without
editing). See [3] in the Bibliography for further information.
[12] Note that the list under section 24.1.2 comes from the RPM manual page,
see [11] in the Bibliography for further details.                       `