Bash Guide for Beginners

Table of Contents

   [2]Introduction

                1. [3]Why this guide?

                2. [4]Who should read this book?

                3. [5]New versions, translations and availability

                4. [6]Revision History

                5. [7]Contributions

                6. [8]Feedback

                7. [9]Copyright information

                8. [10]What do you need?

                9. [11]Conventions used in this document

                10. [12]Organization of this document

   1. [13]Bash and Bash scripts

                1.1. [14]Common shell programs

                1.2. [15]Advantages of the Bourne Again SHell

                1.3. [16]Executing commands

                1.4. [17]Building blocks

                1.5. [18]Developing good scripts

                1.6. [19]Summary

                1.7. [20]Exercises

   2. [21]Writing and debugging scripts

                2.1. [22]Creating and running a script

                2.2. [23]Script basics

                2.3. [24]Debugging Bash scripts

                2.4. [25]Summary

                2.5. [26]Exercises

   3. [27]The Bash environment

                3.1. [28]Shell initialization files

                3.2. [29]Variables

                3.3. [30]Quoting characters

                3.4. [31]Shell expansion

                3.5. [32]Aliases

                3.6. [33]More Bash options

                3.7. [34]Summary

                3.8. [35]Exercises

   4. [36]Regular expressions

                4.1. [37]Regular expressions

                4.2. [38]Examples using grep

                4.3. [39]Pattern matching using Bash features

                4.4. [40]Summary

                4.5. [41]Exercises

   5. [42]The GNU sed stream editor

                5.1. [43]Introduction

                5.2. [44]Interactive editing

                5.3. [45]Non-interactive editing

                5.4. [46]Summary

                5.5. [47]Exercises

   6. [48]The GNU awk programming language

                6.1. [49]Getting started with gawk

                6.2. [50]The print program

                6.3. [51]Gawk variables

                6.4. [52]Summary

                6.5. [53]Exercises

   7. [54]Conditional statements

                7.1. [55]Introduction to if

                7.2. [56]More advanced if usage

                7.3. [57]Using case statements

                7.4. [58]Summary

                7.5. [59]Exercises

   8. [60]Writing interactive scripts

                8.1. [61]Displaying user messages

                8.2. [62]Catching user input

                8.3. [63]Summary

                8.4. [64]Exercises

   9. [65]Repetitive tasks

                9.1. [66]The for loop

                9.2. [67]The while loop

                9.3. [68]The until loop

                9.4. [69]I/O redirection and loops

                9.5. [70]Break and continue

                9.6. [71]Making menus with the select built-in

                9.7. [72]The shift built-in

                9.8. [73]Summary

                9.9. [74]Exercises

   10. [75]More on variables

                10.1. [76]Types of variables

                10.2. [77]Array variables

                10.3. [78]Operations on variables

                10.4. [79]Summary

                10.5. [80]Exercises

   11. [81]Functions

                11.1. [82]Introduction

                11.2. [83]Examples of functions in scripts

                11.3. [84]Summary

                11.4. [85]Exercises

   12. [86]Catching signals

                12.1. [87]Signals

                12.2. [88]Traps

                12.3. [89]Summary

                12.4. [90]Exercises

   A. [91]Shell Features

                A.1. [92]Common features

                A.2. [93]Differing features

   [94]Glossary

   Index

   List of Tables

   1. [95]Typographic and usage conventions

   1-1. [96]Overview of programming terms

   2-1. [97]Overview of set debugging options

   3-1. [98]Reserved Bourne shell variables

   3-2. [99]Reserved Bash variables

   3-3. [100]Special bash variables

   3-4. [101]Arithmetic operators

   4-1. [102]Regular expression operators

   5-1. [103]Sed editing commands

   5-2. [104]Sed options

   6-1. [105]Formatting characters for gawk

   7-1. [106]Primary expressions

   7-2. [107]Combining expressions

   8-1. [108]Escape sequences used by the echo command

   8-2. [109]Options to the read built-in

   10-1. [110]Options to the declare built-in

   12-1. [111]Control signals in Bash

   12-2. [112]Common kill signals

   A-1. [113]Common Shell Features

   A-2. [114]Differing Shell Features

   List of Figures

   1. [115]Bash Guide for Beginners front cover

   2-1. [116]script1.sh

   3-1. [117]Different prompts for different users

   6-1. [118]Fields in awk

   7-1. [119]Testing of a command line argument with if

   7-2. [120]Example using Boolean operators

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 Introduction

                              1. Why this guide?

   The primary reason for writing this document is that a lot of readers
   feel the existing [http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO.html]
   HOWTO to be too short and incomplete, while the
   [http://tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/] Bash Scripting guide is too much of a
   reference work. There is nothing in between these two extremes. I also
   wrote this guide on the general principal that not enough free basic
   courses are available, though they should be.

   This is a practical guide which, while not always being too serious,
   tries to give real-life instead of theoretical examples. I partly wrote
   it because I don't get excited with stripped down and over-simplified
   examples written by people who know what they are talking about, showing
   some really cool Bash feature so much out of its context that you cannot
   ever use it in practical circumstances. You can read that sort of stuff
   after finishing this book, which contains exercises and examples that
   will help you survive in the real world.

   From my experience as UNIX/Linux user, system administrator and trainer,
   I know that people can have years of daily interaction with their
   systems, without having the slightest knowledge of task automation. Thus
   they often think that UNIX is not userfriendly, and even worse, they get
   the impression that it is slow and old-fashioned. This problem is
   another one that can be remedied by this guide.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        2. Who should read this book?

   Everybody working on a UNIX or UNIX-like system who wants to make life
   easier on themselves, power users and sysadmins alike, can benefit from
   reading this book. Readers who already have a grasp of working the
   system using the command line will learn the ins and outs of shell
   scripting that ease execution of daily tasks. System administration
   relies a great deal on shell scripting; common tasks are often automated
   using simple scripts. This document is full of examples that will
   encourage you to write your own and that will inspire you to improve on
   existing scripts.

   Prerequisites/not in this course:

     * You should be an experienced UNIX or Linux user, familiar with basic
       commands, man pages and documentation

     * Being able to use a text editor

     * Understand system boot and shutdown processes, init and initscripts

     * Create users and groups, set passwords

     * Permissions, special modes

     * Understand naming conventions for devices, partitioning,
       mounting/unmounting file systems

     * Adding/removing software on your system

   See [http://tldp.org/LDP/intro-linux/html/] Introduction to Linux (or
   your local [http://www.tldp.org/mirrors.html] TLDP mirror) if you
   haven't mastered one or more of these topics. Additional information can
   be found in your system documentation (man and info pages), or at
   [http://tldp.org] the Linux Documentation Project.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                3. New versions, translations and availability

   The most recent edition can be found at
   [http://tille.garrels.be/training/bash/]
   http://tille.garrels.be/training/bash/. You should find the same version
   at [http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/index.html]
   http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/index.html.

   This guide is available in print from
   [http://store.fultus.com/product_info.php?products_id=66] Fultus.com.

   Figure 1. Bash Guide for Beginners front cover

   This guide has been translated:

     * Chinese translation at [http://xiaowang.net/bgb-cn/]
       http://xiaowang.net/bgb-cn/, by Wang Wei.

     * Ukrainian translation at
       [http://docs.linux.org.ua/index.php/LDP:Bash_beginners_guide]
       http://docs.linux.org.ua/index.php/LDP:Bash_beginners_guide, by
       Yaroslav Fedevych and his team.

   A french translation is in the making and will be linked to as soon as
   it is finished.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             4. Revision History



   Revision History
   Revision 1.11                2008-12-27           Revised by: MG
   Processed input from readers.
   Revision 1.10                2008-06-06           Revised by: MG
   address change
   Revision 1.9                 2006-10-10           Revised by: MG
   Incorporated reader remarks, added index using DocBook tags.
   Revision 1.8                 2006-03-15           Revised by: MG
   clarified example in Chap4, corrected here doc in chap9, general checks
   and correction of typos, added link to Chinese and Ukrainian
   translation, note and stuff to know about awk in chap6.
   Revision 1.7                 2005-09-05           Revised by: MG
   Corrected typos in chapter 3, 6 and 7, incorporated user remarks, added
   a note in chap7.
   Revision 1.6                 2005-03-01           Revised by: MG
   Minor debugging, added more keywords, info about new Bash 3.0, took out
   blank image.
   Revision 1.0                 2004-04-27           Revised by: TM
   Initial release for LDP; more exercises, more markup, less errors and
   abuse; added glossary.
   Revision 1.0-beta            2003-04-20           Revised by: MG
   Pre-release

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               5. Contributions

    Thanks to all the friends who helped (or tried to) and to my husband;
   your encouraging words made this work possible. Thanks to all the people
   who submitted bug reports, examples and remarks - among many, many
   others:

     * Hans Bol, one of the groupies

     * Mike Sim, remarks on style

     * Dan Richter, for array examples

     * Gerg Ferguson, for ideas on the title

     * Mendel Leo Cooper, for making room

     * #linux.be, for keeping my feet on the ground

     * Frank Wang, for his detailed remarks on all the things I did wrong
       ;-)

   Special thanks to Tabatha Marshall, who volunteered to do a complete
   review and spell and grammar check. We make a great team: she works when
   I sleep. And vice versa ;-)

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 6. Feedback

    Missing information, missing links, missing characters, remarks? Mail
   it to

   <[121]tille wants no spam _at_ garrels dot be>

   the maintainer of this document.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           7. Copyright information

* Copyright (c) 2002-2007, Machtelt Garrels
* All rights reserved.
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
*
*     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
*       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
*     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
*       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
*       documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
*     * Neither the name of the author, Machtelt Garrels, nor the
*       names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
*       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY
* EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
* WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
* DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
* DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
* (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
* LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
* ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
* (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
* SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

   The author and publisher have made every effort in the preparation of
   this book to ensure the accuracy of the information. However, the
   information contained in this book is offered without warranty, either
   express or implied. Neither the author nor the publisher nor any dealer
   or distributor will be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to
   be caused either directly or indirectly by this book.

   The logos, trademarks and symbols used in this book are the properties
   of their respective owners.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             8. What do you need?

   bash, available from [http://www.gnu.org/directory/GNU/]
   http://www.gnu.org/directory/GNU/. The Bash shell is available on nearly
   every Linux system, and can these days be found on a wide variety of
   UNIX systems.

   Compiles easily if you need to make your own, tested on a wide variety
   of UNIX, Linux, MS Windows and other systems.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                     9. Conventions used in this document

   The following typographic and usage conventions occur in this text:

   Table 1. Typographic and usage conventions

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Text type                          | Meaning                         |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | "Quoted text"                      | Quotes from people, quoted      |
   |                                    | computer output.                |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   |                                    | Literal computer input and      |
   | terminal view                      | output captured from the        |
   |                                    | terminal, usually rendered with |
   |                                    | a light grey background.        |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | command                            | Name of a command that can be   |
   |                                    | entered on the command line.    |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   |                                    | Name of a variable or pointer   |
   | VARIABLE                           | to content of a variable, as in |
   |                                    | $VARNAME.                       |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | option                             | Option to a command, as in "the |
   |                                    | -a option to the ls command".   |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | argument                           | Argument to a command, as in    |
   |                                    | "read man ls".                  |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | command options arguments          | Command synopsis or general     |
   |                                    | usage, on a separated line.     |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   |                                    | Name of a file or directory,    |
   | filename                           | for example "Change to the      |
   |                                    | /usr/bin directory."            |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | Key                                | Keys to hit on the keyboard,    |
   |                                    | such as "type Q to quit".       |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | Button                             | Graphical button to click, like |
   |                                    | the OK button.                  |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   |                                    | Choice to select from a         |
   | Menu->Choice                       | graphical menu, for instance:   |
   |                                    | "Select Help->About Mozilla in  |
   |                                    | your browser."                  |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   |                                    | Important term or concept: "The |
   | Terminology                        | Linux kernel is the heart of    |
   |                                    | the system."                    |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   |                                    | The backslash in a terminal     |
   |                                    | view or command synopsis        |
   |                                    | indicates an unfinished line.   |
   | \                                  | In other words, if you see a    |
   |                                    | long command that is cut into   |
   |                                    | multiple lines, \ means "Don't  |
   |                                    | press Enter yet!"               |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | See [122]Chapter 1                 | link to related subject within  |
   |                                    | this guide.                     |
   |------------------------------------+---------------------------------|
   | [http://tille.garrels.be] The      | Clickable link to an external   |
   | author                             | web resource.                   |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                      10. Organization of this document

   This guide discusses concepts useful in the daily life of the serious
   Bash user. While a basic knowledge of the usage of the shell is
   required, we start with a discussion of the basic shell components and
   practices in the first three chapters.

   Chapters four to six are discussions of basic tools that are commonly
   used in shell scripts.

   Chapters eight to twelve discuss the most common constructs in shell
   scripts.

   All chapters come with exercises that will test your preparedness for
   the next chapter.

     * [123]Chapter 1: Bash basics: why Bash is so good, building blocks,
       first guidelines on developing good scripts.

     * [124]Chapter 2: Script basics: writing and debugging.

     * [125]Chapter 3: The Bash Environment: initialization files,
       variables, quoting characters, shell expansion order, aliases,
       options.

     * [126]Chapter 4: Regular expressions: an introduction.

     * [127]Chapter 5: Sed: an introduction to the sed line editor.

     * [128]Chapter 6:Awk: introduction to the awk programming language.

     * [129]Chapter 7: Conditional statements: constructs used in Bash to
       test conditions.

     * [130]Chapter 8: Interactive scripts: making scripts user-friendly,
       catching user input.

     * [131]Chapter 9: Executing commands repetitively: constructs used in
       Bash to automate command execution.

     * [132]Chapter 10: Advanced variables: specifying variable types,
       introduction to arrays of variables, operations on variables.

     * [133]Chapter 11: Functions: an introduction.

     * [134]Chapter 12: Catching signals: introduction to process
       signalling, trapping user-sent signals.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       Chapter 1. Bash and Bash scripts

     In this introduction module we

       * Describe some common shells

       * Point out GNU Bash advantages and features

       * Describe the shell's building blocks

       * Discuss Bash initialization files

       * See how the shell executes commands

       * Look into some simple script examples

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          1.1. Common shell programs

1.1.1. General shell functions

   The UNIX shell program interprets user commands, which are either
   directly entered by the user, or which can be read from a file called
   the shell script or shell program. Shell scripts are interpreted, not
   compiled. The shell reads commands from the script line per line and
   searches for those commands on the system (see [135]Section 1.2), while
   a compiler converts a program into machine readable form, an executable
   file - which may then be used in a shell script.

   Apart from passing commands to the kernel, the main task of a shell is
   providing a user environment, which can be configured individually using
   shell resource configuration files.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1.2. Shell types

   Just like people know different languages and dialects, your UNIX system
   will usually offer a variety of shell types:

     * sh or Bourne Shell: the original shell still used on UNIX systems
       and in UNIX-related environments. This is the basic shell, a small
       program with few features. While this is not the standard shell, it
       is still available on every Linux system for compatibility with UNIX
       programs.

     * bash or Bourne Again shell: the standard GNU shell, intuitive and
       flexible. Probably most advisable for beginning users while being at
       the same time a powerful tool for the advanced and professional
       user. On Linux, bash is the standard shell for common users. This
       shell is a so-called superset of the Bourne shell, a set of add-ons
       and plug-ins. This means that the Bourne Again shell is compatible
       with the Bourne shell: commands that work in sh, also work in bash.
       However, the reverse is not always the case. All examples and
       exercises in this book use bash.

     * csh or C shell: the syntax of this shell resembles that of the C
       programming language. Sometimes asked for by programmers.

     * tcsh or TENEX C shell: a superset of the common C shell, enhancing
       user-friendliness and speed. That is why some also call it the Turbo
       C shell.

     * ksh or the Korn shell: sometimes appreciated by people with a UNIX
       background. A superset of the Bourne shell; with standard
       configuration a nightmare for beginning users.

   The file /etc/shells gives an overview of known shells on a Linux
   system:

   mia:~> cat /etc/shells
   /bin/bash
   /bin/sh
   /bin/tcsh
   /bin/csh

   Your default shell is set in the /etc/passwd file, like this line for
   user mia:

   mia:L2NOfqdlPrHwE:504:504:Mia Maya:/home/mia:/bin/bash

   To switch from one shell to another, just enter the name of the new
   shell in the active terminal. The system finds the directory where the
   name occurs using the PATH settings, and since a shell is an executable
   file (program), the current shell activates it and it gets executed. A
   new prompt is usually shown, because each shell has its typical
   appearance:

   mia:~> tcsh
   [mia@post21 ~]$

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  1.2. Advantages of the Bourne Again SHell

1.2.1. Bash is the GNU shell

   The GNU project (GNU's Not UNIX) provides tools for UNIX-like system
   administration which are free software and comply to UNIX standards.

   Bash is an sh-compatible shell that incorporates useful features from
   the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh). It is intended to conform to the
   IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell and Tools standard. It offers
   functional improvements over sh for both programming and interactive
   use; these include command line editing, unlimited size command history,
   job control, shell functions and aliases, indexed arrays of unlimited
   size, and integer arithmetic in any base from two to sixty-four. Bash
   can run most sh scripts without modification.

   Like the other GNU projects, the bash initiative was started to
   preserve, protect and promote the freedom to use, study, copy, modify
   and redistribute software. It is generally known that such conditions
   stimulate creativity. This was also the case with the bash program,
   which has a lot of extra features that other shells can't offer.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2.2. Features only found in bash

  1.2.2.1. Invocation

   In addition to the single-character shell command line options which can
   generally be configured using the set shell built-in command, there are
   several multi-character options that you can use. We will come across a
   couple of the more popular options in this and the following chapters;
   the complete list can be found in the Bash info pages, Bash
   features->Invoking Bash.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.2. Bash startup files

   Startup files are scripts that are read and executed by Bash when it
   starts. The following subsections describe different ways to start the
   shell, and the startup files that are read consequently.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.1. Invoked as an interactive login shell, or with `--login'

   Interactive means you can enter commands. The shell is not running
   because a script has been activated. A login shell means that you got
   the shell after authenticating to the system, usually by giving your
   user name and password.

   Files read:

     * /etc/profile

     * ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login or ~/.profile: first existing
       readable file is read

     * ~/.bash_logout upon logout.

   Error messages are printed if configuration files exist but are not
   readable. If a file does not exist, bash searches for the next.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.2. Invoked as an interactive non-login shell

   A non-login shell means that you did not have to authenticate to the
   system. For instance, when you open a terminal using an icon, or a menu
   item, that is a non-login shell.

   Files read:

     * ~/.bashrc

   This file is usually referred to in ~/.bash_profile:

   if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then . ~/.bashrc; fi

   See [136]Chapter 7 for more information on the if construct.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.3. Invoked non-interactively

   All scripts use non-interactive shells. They are programmed to do
   certain tasks and cannot be instructed to do other jobs than those for
   which they are programmed.

   Files read:

     * defined by BASH_ENV

   PATH is not used to search for this file, so if you want to use it, best
   refer to it by giving the full path and file name.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.4. Invoked with the sh command

   Bash tries to behave as the historical Bourne sh program while
   conforming to the POSIX standard as well.

   Files read:

     * /etc/profile

     * ~/.profile

   When invoked interactively, the ENV variable can point to extra startup
   information.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.5. POSIX mode

   This option is enabled either using the set built-in:

   set -o posix

   or by calling the bash program with the --posix option. Bash will then
   try to behave as compliant as possible to the POSIX standard for shells.
   Setting the POSIXLY_CORRECT variable does the same.

   Files read:

     * defined by ENV variable.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.6. Invoked remotely

   Files read when invoked by rshd:

     * ~/.bashrc

   [137]Warning Avoid use of r-tools
                Be aware of the dangers when using tools such as rlogin,
                telnet, rsh and rcp. They are intrinsically insecure
                because confidential data is sent over the network
                unencrypted. If you need tools for remote execution, file
                transfer and so on, use an implementation of Secure SHell,
                generally known as SSH, freely available from
                [http://www.openssh.org] http://www.openssh.org. Different
                client programs are available for non-UNIX systems as well,
                see your local software mirror.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.2.7. Invoked when UID is not equal to EUID

   No startup files are read in this case.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.3. Interactive shells

    1.2.2.3.1. What is an interactive shell?

   An interactive shell generally reads from, and writes to, a user's
   terminal: input and output are connected to a terminal. Bash interactive
   behavior is started when the bash command is called upon without
   non-option arguments, except when the option is a string to read from or
   when the shell is invoked to read from standard input, which allows for
   positional parameters to be set (see [138]Chapter 3 ).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.3.2. Is this shell interactive?

   Test by looking at the content of the special parameter -, it contains
   an 'i' when the shell is interactive:

   eddy:~> echo $-
   himBH

   In non-interactive shells, the prompt, PS1, is unset.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1.2.2.3.3. Interactive shell behavior

   Differences in interactive mode:

     * Bash reads startup files.

     * Job control enabled by default.

     * Prompts are set, PS2 is enabled for multi-line commands, it is
       usually set to ">". This is also the prompt you get when the shell
       thinks you entered an unfinished command, for instance when you
       forget quotes, command structures that cannot be left out, etc.

     * Commands are by default read from the command line using readline.

     * Bash interprets the shell option ignoreeof instead of exiting
       immediately upon receiving EOF (End Of File).

     * Command history and history expansion are enabled by default.
       History is saved in the file pointed to by HISTFILE when the shell
       exits. By default, HISTFILE points to ~/.bash_history.

     * Alias expansion is enabled.

     * In the absence of traps, the SIGTERM signal is ignored.

     * In the absence of traps, SIGINT is caught and handled. Thus, typing
       Ctrl+C, for example, will not quit your interactive shell.

     * Sending SIGHUP signals to all jobs on exit is configured with the
       huponexit option.

     * Commands are executed upon read.

     * Bash checks for mail periodically.

     * Bash can be configured to exit when it encounters unreferenced
       variables. In interactive mode this behavior is disabled.

     * When shell built-in commands encounter redirection errors, this will
       not cause the shell to exit.

     * Special built-ins returning errors when used in POSIX mode don't
       cause the shell to exit. The built-in commands are listed in
       [139]Section 1.3.2.

     * Failure of exec will not exit the shell.

     * Parser syntax errors don't cause the shell to exit.

     * Simple spell check for the arguments to the cd built-in is enabled
       by default.

     * Automatic exit after the length of time specified in the TMOUT
       variable has passed, is enabled.

   More information:

     * [140]Section 3.2

     * [141]Section 3.6

     * See [142]Chapter 12 for more about signals.

     * [143]Section 3.4 discusses the various expansions performed upon
       entering a command.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.4. Conditionals

   Conditional expressions are used by the [[ compound command and by the
   test and [ built-in commands.

   Expressions may be unary or binary. Unary expressions are often used to
   examine the status of a file. You only need one object, for instance a
   file, to do the operation on.

   There are string operators and numeric comparison operators as well;
   these are binary operators, requiring two objects to do the operation
   on. If the FILE argument to one of the primaries is in the form
   /dev/fd/N, then file descriptor N is checked. If the FILE argument to
   one of the primaries is one of /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout or /dev/stderr,
   then file descriptor 0, 1 or 2 respectively is checked.

   Conditionals are discussed in detail in [144]Chapter 7.

   More information about the file descriptors in [145]Section 8.2.3.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.5. Shell arithmetic

   The shell allows arithmetic expressions to be evaluated, as one of the
   shell expansions or by the let built-in.

   Evaluation is done in fixed-width integers with no check for overflow,
   though division by 0 is trapped and flagged as an error. The operators
   and their precedence and associativity are the same as in the C
   language, see [146]Chapter 3.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.6. Aliases

   Aliases allow a string to be substituted for a word when it is used as
   the first word of a simple command. The shell maintains a list of
   aliases that may be set and unset with the alias and unalias commands.

   Bash always reads at least one complete line of input before executing
   any of the commands on that line. Aliases are expanded when a command is
   read, not when it is executed. Therefore, an alias definition appearing
   on the same line as another command does not take effect until the next
   line of input is read. The commands following the alias definition on
   that line are not affected by the new alias.

   Aliases are expanded when a function definition is read, not when the
   function is executed, because a function definition is itself a compound
   command. As a consequence, aliases defined in a function are not
   available until after that function is executed.

   We will discuss aliases in detail in [147]Section 3.5.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.7. Arrays

   Bash provides one-dimensional array variables. Any variable may be used
   as an array; the declare built-in will explicitly declare an array.
   There is no maximum limit on the size of an array, nor any requirement
   that members be indexed or assigned contiguously. Arrays are zero-based.
   See [148]Chapter 10.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.8. Directory stack

   The directory stack is a list of recently-visited directories. The pushd
   built-in adds directories to the stack as it changes the current
   directory, and the popd built-in removes specified directories from the
   stack and changes the current directory to the directory removed.

   Content can be displayed issuing the dirs command or by checking the
   content of the DIRSTACK variable.

   More information about the workings of this mechanism can be found in
   the Bash info pages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.9. The prompt

   Bash makes playing with the prompt even more fun. See the section
   Controlling the Prompt in the Bash info pages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.2.2.10. The restricted shell

   When invoked as rbash or with the --restricted or -r option, the
   following happens:

     * The cd built-in is disabled.

     * Setting or unsetting SHELL, PATH, ENV or BASH_ENV is not possible.

     * Command names can no longer contain slashes.

     * Filenames containing a slash are not allowed with the . (source)
       built-in command.

     * The hash built-in does not accept slashes with the -p option.

     * Import of functions at startup is disabled.

     * SHELLOPTS is ignored at startup.

     * Output redirection using >, >|, ><, >&, &> and >> is disabled.

     * The exec built-in is disabled.

     * The -f and -d options are disabled for the enable built-in.

     * A default PATH cannot be specified with the command built-in.

     * Turning off restricted mode is not possible.

   When a command that is found to be a shell script is executed, rbash
   turns off any restrictions in the shell spawned to execute the script.

   More information:

     * [149]Section 3.2

     * [150]Section 3.6

     * Info Bash->Basic Shell Features->Redirections

     * [151]Section 8.2.3: advanced redirection

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           1.3. Executing commands

1.3.1. General

   Bash determines the type of program that is to be executed. Normal
   programs are system commands that exist in compiled form on your system.
   When such a program is executed, a new process is created because Bash
   makes an exact copy of itself. This child process has the same
   environment as its parent, only the process ID number is different. This
   procedure is called forking.

   After the forking process, the address space of the child process is
   overwritten with the new process data. This is done through an exec call
   to the system.

   The fork-and-exec mechanism thus switches an old command with a new,
   while the environment in which the new program is executed remains the
   same, including configuration of input and output devices, environment
   variables and priority. This mechanism is used to create all UNIX
   processes, so it also applies to the Linux operating system. Even the
   first process, init, with process ID 1, is forked during the boot
   procedure in the so-called bootstrapping procedure.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3.2. Shell built-in commands

   Built-in commands are contained within the shell itself. When the name
   of a built-in command is used as the first word of a simple command, the
   shell executes the command directly, without creating a new process.
   Built-in commands are necessary to implement functionality impossible or
   inconvenient to obtain with separate utilities.

   Bash supports 3 types of built-in commands:

     * Bourne Shell built-ins:

       :, ., break, cd, continue, eval, exec, exit, export, getopts, hash,
       pwd, readonly, return, set, shift, test, [, times, trap, umask and
       unset.

     * Bash built-in commands:

       alias, bind, builtin, command, declare, echo, enable, help, let,
       local, logout, printf, read, shopt, type, typeset, ulimit and
       unalias.

     * Special built-in commands:

       When Bash is executing in POSIX mode, the special built-ins differ
       from other built-in commands in three respects:

         1. Special built-ins are found before shell functions during
            command lookup.

         2. If a special built-in returns an error status, a
            non-interactive shell exits.

         3. Assignment statements preceding the command stay in effect in
            the shell environment after the command completes.

       The POSIX special built-ins are :, ., break, continue, eval, exec,
       exit, export, readonly, return, set, shift, trap and unset.

   Most of these built-ins will be discussed in the next chapters. For
   those commands for which this is not the case, we refer to the Info
   pages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3.3. Executing programs from a script

   When the program being executed is a shell script, bash will create a
   new bash process using a fork. This subshell reads the lines from the
   shell script one line at a time. Commands on each line are read,
   interpreted and executed as if they would have come directly from the
   keyboard.

   While the subshell processes each line of the script, the parent shell
   waits for its child process to finish. When there are no more lines in
   the shell script to read, the subshell terminates. The parent shell
   awakes and displays a new prompt.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             1.4. Building blocks

1.4.1. Shell building blocks

  1.4.1.1. Shell syntax

   If input is not commented, the shell reads it and divides it into words
   and operators, employing quoting rules to define the meaning of each
   character of input. Then these words and operators are translated into
   commands and other constructs, which return an exit status available for
   inspection or processing. The above fork-and-exec scheme is only applied
   after the shell has analyzed input in the following way:

     * The shell reads its input from a file, from a string or from the
       user's terminal.

     * Input is broken up into words and operators, obeying the quoting
       rules, see [152]Chapter 3. These tokens are separated by
       metacharacters. Alias expansion is performed.

     * The shell parses (analyzes and substitutes) the tokens into simple
       and compound commands.

     * Bash performs various shell expansions, breaking the expanded tokens
       into lists of filenames and commands and arguments.

     * Redirection is performed if necessary, redirection operators and
       their operands are removed from the argument list.

     * Commands are executed.

     * Optionally the shell waits for the command to complete and collects
       its exit status.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.2. Shell commands

   A simple shell command such as touch file1 file2 file3 consists of the
   command itself followed by arguments, separated by spaces.

   More complex shell commands are composed of simple commands arranged
   together in a variety of ways: in a pipeline in which the output of one
   command becomes the input of a second, in a loop or conditional
   construct, or in some other grouping. A couple of examples:

   ls | more

   gunzip file.tar.gz | tar xvf -

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.3. Shell functions

   Shell functions are a way to group commands for later execution using a
   single name for the group. They are executed just like a "regular"
   command. When the name of a shell function is used as a simple command
   name, the list of commands associated with that function name is
   executed.

   Shell functions are executed in the current shell context; no new
   process is created to interpret them.

   Functions are explained in [153]Chapter 11.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.4. Shell parameters

   A parameter is an entity that stores values. It can be a name, a number
   or a special value. For the shell's purpose, a variable is a parameter
   that stores a name. A variable has a value and zero or more attributes.
   Variables are created with the declare shell built-in command.

   If no value is given, a variable is assigned the null string. Variables
   can only be removed with the unset built-in.

   Assigning variables is discussed in [154]Section 3.2, advanced use of
   variables in [155]Chapter 10.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.5. Shell expansions

   Shell expansion is performed after each command line has been split into
   tokens. These are the expansions performed:

     * Brace expansion

     * Tilde expansion

     * Parameter and variable expansion

     * Command substitution

     * Arithmetic expansion

     * Word splitting

     * Filename expansion

   We'll discuss these expansion types in detail in [156]Section 3.4.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.6. Redirections

   Before a command is executed, its input and output may be redirected
   using a special notation interpreted by the shell. Redirection may also
   be used to open and close files for the current shell execution
   environment.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.7. Executing commands

   When executing a command, the words that the parser has marked as
   variable assignments (preceding the command name) and redirections are
   saved for later reference. Words that are not variable assignments or
   redirections are expanded; the first remaining word after expansion is
   taken to be the name of the command and the rest are arguments to that
   command. Then redirections are performed, then strings assigned to
   variables are expanded. If no command name results, variables will
   affect the current shell environment.

   An important part of the tasks of the shell is to search for commands.
   Bash does this as follows:

     * Check whether the command contains slashes. If not, first check with
       the function list to see if it contains a command by the name we are
       looking for.

     * If command is not a function, check for it in the built-in list.

     * If command is neither a function nor a built-in, look for it
       analyzing the directories listed in PATH. Bash uses a hash table
       (data storage area in memory) to remember the full path names of
       executables so extensive PATH searches can be avoided.

     * If the search is unsuccessful, bash prints an error message and
       returns an exit status of 127.

     * If the search was successful or if the command contains slashes, the
       shell executes the command in a separate execution environment.

     * If execution fails because the file is not executable and not a
       directory, it is assumed to be a shell script.

     * If the command was not begun asynchronously, the shell waits for the
       command to complete and collects its exit status.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1.4.1.8. Shell scripts

   When a file containing shell commands is used as the first non-option
   argument when invoking Bash (without -c or -s, this will create a
   non-interactive shell. This shell first searches for the script file in
   the current directory, then looks in PATH if the file cannot be found
   there.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         1.5. Developing good scripts

1.5.1. Properties of good scripts

   This guide is mainly about the last shell building block, scripts. Some
   general considerations before we continue:

    1. A script should run without errors.

    2. It should perform the task for which it is intended.

    3. Program logic is clearly defined and apparent.

    4. A script does not do unnecessary work.

    5. Scripts should be reusable.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.2. Structure

   The structure of a shell script is very flexible. Even though in Bash a
   lot of freedom is granted, you must ensure correct logic, flow control
   and efficiency so that users executing the script can do so easily and
   correctly.

   When starting on a new script, ask yourself the following questions:

     * Will I be needing any information from the user or from the user's
       environment?

     * How will I store that information?

     * Are there any files that need to be created? Where and with which
       permissions and ownerships?

     * What commands will I use? When using the script on different
       systems, do all these systems have these commands in the required
       versions?

     * Does the user need any notifications? When and why?

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.3. Terminology

   The table below gives an overview of programming terms that you need to
   be familiar with:

   Table 1-1. Overview of programming terms

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Term               | What is it?                                     |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   |                    | Testing exit status of a command in order to    |
   | Command control    | determine whether a portion of the program      |
   |                    | should be executed.                             |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   | Conditional branch | Logical point in the program when a condition   |
   |                    | determines what happens next.                   |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   |                    | The overall design of the program. Determines   |
   | Logic flow         | logical sequence of tasks so that the result is |
   |                    | successful and controlled.                      |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   | Loop               | Part of the program that is performed zero or   |
   |                    | more times.                                     |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   |                    | Information provided by an external source      |
   | User input         | while the program is running, can be stored and |
   |                    | recalled when needed.                           |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.4. A word on order and logic

   In order to speed up the developing process, the logical order of a
   program should be thought over in advance. This is your first step when
   developing a script.

   A number of methods can be used; one of the most common is working with
   lists. Itemizing the list of tasks involved in a program allows you to
   describe each process. Individual tasks can be referenced by their item
   number.

   Using your own spoken language to pin down the tasks to be executed by
   your program will help you to create an understandable form of your
   program. Later, you can replace the everyday language statements with
   shell language words and constructs.

   The example below shows such a logic flow design. It describes the
   rotation of log files. This example shows a possible repetitive loop,
   controlled by the number of base log files you want to rotate:

    1. Do you want to rotate logs?

         a. If yes:

             i. Enter directory name containing the logs to be rotated.

             ii. Enter base name of the log file.

             iii. Enter number of days logs should be kept.

             iv. Make settings permanent in user's crontab file.

         b. If no, go to step 3.

    2. Do you want to rotate another set of logs?

         a. If yes: repeat step 1.

         b. If no: go to step 3.

    3. Exit

   The user should provide information for the program to do something.
   Input from the user must be obtained and stored. The user should be
   notified that his crontab will change.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.5. An example Bash script: mysystem.sh

   The mysystem.sh script below executes some well-known commands (date, w,
   uname, uptime) to display information about you and your machine.

tom:~> cat -n mysystem.sh
     1  #!/bin/bash
     2  clear
     3  echo "This is information provided by mysystem.sh.  Program starts now."
     4
     5  echo "Hello, $USER"
     6  echo
     7
     8  echo "Today's date is `date`, this is week `date +"%V"`."
     9  echo
    10
    11  echo "These users are currently connected:"
    12  w | cut -d " " -f 1 - | grep -v USER | sort -u
    13  echo
    14
    15  echo "This is `uname -s` running on a `uname -m` processor."
    16  echo
    17
    18  echo "This is the uptime information:"
    19  uptime
    20  echo
    21
    22  echo "That's all folks!"

   A script always starts with the same two characters, "#!". After that,
   the shell that will execute the commands following the first line is
   defined. This script starts with clearing the screen on line 2. Line 3
   makes it print a message, informing the user about what is going to
   happen. Line 5 greets the user. Lines 6, 9, 13, 16 and 20 are only there
   for orderly output display purposes. Line 8 prints the current date and
   the number of the week. Line 11 is again an informative message, like
   lines 3, 18 and 22. Line 12 formats the output of the w; line 15 shows
   operating system and CPU information. Line 19 gives the uptime and load
   information.

   Both echo and printf are Bash built-in commands. The first always exits
   with a 0 status, and simply prints arguments followed by an end of line
   character on the standard output, while the latter allows for definition
   of a formatting string and gives a non-zero exit status code upon
   failure.

   This is the same script using the printf built-in:

  tom:~> cat mysystem.sh
  #!/bin/bash
  clear
  printf "This is information provided by mysystem.sh.  Program starts now.\n"

  printf "Hello, $USER.\n\n"

  printf "Today's date is `date`, this is week `date +"%V"`.\n\n"

  printf "These users are currently connected:\n"
  w | cut -d " " -f 1 - | grep -v USER | sort -u
  printf "\n"

  printf "This is `uname -s` running on a `uname -m` processor.\n\n"

  printf "This is the uptime information:\n"
  uptime
  printf "\n"

  printf "That's all folks!\n"

   Creating user friendly scripts by means of inserting messages is treated
   in [157]Chapter 8.

   [158]Note Standard location of the Bourne Again shell
             This implies that the bash program is installed in /bin.

   [159]Warning If stdout is not available
                If you execute a script from cron, supply full path names
                and redirect output and errors. Since the shell runs in
                non-interactive mode, any errors will cause the script to
                exit prematurely if you don't think about this.

   The following chapters will discuss the details of the above scripts.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.6. Example init script

   An init script starts system services on UNIX and Linux machines. The
   system log daemon, the power management daemon, the name and mail
   daemons are common examples. These scripts, also known as startup
   scripts, are stored in a specific location on your system, such as
   /etc/rc.d/init.d or /etc/init.d. Init, the initial process, reads its
   configuration files and decides which services to start or stop in each
   run level. A run level is a configuration of processes; each system has
   a single user run level, for instance, for performing administrative
   tasks, for which the system has to be in an unused state as much as
   possible, such as recovering a critical file system from a backup.
   Reboot and shutdown run levels are usually also configured.

   The tasks to be executed upon starting a service or stopping it are
   listed in the startup scripts. It is one of the system administrator's
   tasks to configure init, so that services are started and stopped at the
   correct moment. When confronted with this task, you need a good
   understanding of the startup and shutdown procedures on your system. We
   therefore advise that you read the man pages for init and inittab before
   starting on your own initialization scripts.

   Here is a very simple example, that will play a sound upon starting and
   stopping your machine:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script is for /etc/rc.d/init.d
   # Link in rc3.d/S99audio-greeting and rc0.d/K01audio-greeting

   case "$1" in
   'start')
     cat /usr/share/audio/at_your_service.au > /dev/audio
     ;;
   'stop')
     cat /usr/share/audio/oh_no_not_again.au > /dev/audio
     ;;
   esac
   exit 0

   The case statement often used in this kind of script is described in
   [160]Section 7.2.5.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 1.6. Summary

   Bash is the GNU shell, compatible with the Bourne shell and
   incorporating many useful features from other shells. When the shell is
   started, it reads its configuration files. The most important are:

     * /etc/profile

     * ~/.bash_profile

     * ~/.bashrc

   Bash behaves different when in interactive mode and also has a POSIX
   compliant and a restricted mode.

   Shell commands can be split up in three groups: the shell functions,
   shell built-ins and existing commands in a directory on your system.
   Bash supports additional built-ins not found in the plain Bourne shell.

   Shell scripts consist of these commands arranged as shell syntax
   dictates. Scripts are read and executed line per line and should have a
   logical structure.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                1.7. Exercises

   These are some exercises to warm you up for the next chapter:

    1. Where is the bash program located on your system?

    2. Use the --version option to find out which version you are running.

    3. Which shell configuration files are read when you login to your
       system using the graphical user interface and then opening a
       terminal window?

    4. Are the following shells interactive shells? Are they login shells?

          * A shell opened by clicking on the background of your graphical
            desktop, selecting "Terminal" or such from a menu.

          * A shell that you get after issuing the command ssh localhost.

          * A shell that you get when logging in to the console in text
            mode.

          * A shell obtained by the command xterm &.

          * A shell opened by the mysystem.sh script.

          * A shell that you get on a remote host, for which you didn't
            have to give the login and/or password because you use SSH and
            maybe SSH keys.

    5. Can you explain why bash does not exit when you type Ctrl+C on the
       command line?

    6. Display directory stack content.

    7. If it is not yet the case, set your prompt so that it displays your
       location in the file system hierarchy, for instance add this line to
       ~/.bashrc:

       export PS1="\u@\h \w> "

    8. Display hashed commands for your current shell session.

    9. How many processes are currently running on your system? Use ps and
       wc, the first line of output of ps is not a process!

   10. How to display the system hostname? Only the name, nothing more!

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                   Chapter 2. Writing and debugging scripts

     After going through this chapter, you will be able to:

       * Write a simple script

       * Define the shell type that should execute the script

       * Put comments in a script

       * Change permissions on a script

       * Execute and debug a script

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                      2.1. Creating and running a script

2.1.1. Writing and naming

   A shell script is a sequence of commands for which you have a repeated
   use. This sequence is typically executed by entering the name of the
   script on the command line. Alternatively, you can use scripts to
   automate tasks using the cron facility. Another use for scripts is in
   the UNIX boot and shutdown procedure, where operation of daemons and
   services are defined in init scripts.

   To create a shell script, open a new empty file in your editor. Any text
   editor will do: vim, emacs, gedit, dtpad et cetera are all valid. You
   might want to chose a more advanced editor like vim or emacs, however,
   because these can be configured to recognize shell and Bash syntax and
   can be a great help in preventing those errors that beginners frequently
   make, such as forgetting brackets and semi-colons.

   [161]Tip Syntax highlighting in vim
            In order to activate syntax highlighting in vim, use the
            command

            :syntax enable

            or

            :sy enable

            or

            :syn enable

            You can add this setting to your .vimrc file to make it
            permanent.

   Put UNIX commands in the new empty file, like you would enter them on
   the command line. As discussed in the previous chapter (see [162]Section
   1.3), commands can be shell functions, shell built-ins, UNIX commands
   and other scripts.

   Give your script a sensible name that gives a hint about what the script
   does. Make sure that your script name does not conflict with existing
   commands. In order to ensure that no confusion can rise, script names
   often end in .sh; even so, there might be other scripts on your system
   with the same name as the one you chose. Check using which, whereis and
   other commands for finding information about programs and files:

   which -a script_name

   whereis script_name

   locate script_name

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1.2. script1.sh

   In this example we use the echo Bash built-in to inform the user about
   what is going to happen, before the task that will create the output is
   executed. It is strongly advised to inform users about what a script is
   doing, in order to prevent them from becoming nervous because the script
   is not doing anything. We will return to the subject of notifying users
   in [163]Chapter 8.

   Figure 2-1. script1.sh

   Write this script for yourself as well. It might be a good idea to
   create a directory ~/scripts to hold your scripts. Add the directory to
   the contents of the PATH variable:

   export PATH="$PATH:~/scripts"

   If you are just getting started with Bash, use a text editor that uses
   different colours for different shell constructs. Syntax highlighting is
   supported by vim, gvim, (x)emacs, kwrite and many other editors; check
   the documentation of your favorite editor.

   [164]Note Different prompts
             The prompts throughout this course vary depending on the
             author's mood. This resembles much more real life situations
             than the standard educational $ prompt. The only convention we
             stick to, is that the root prompt ends in a hash mark (#).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1.3. Executing the script

   The script should have execute permissions for the correct owners in
   order to be runnable. When setting permissions, check that you really
   obtained the permissions that you want. When this is done, the script
   can run like any other command:

willy:~/scripts> chmod u+x script1.sh

willy:~/scripts> ls -l script1.sh
-rwxrw-r--    1 willy   willy           456 Dec 24 17:11 script1.sh

willy:~> script1.sh
The script starts now.
Hi, willy!

I will now fetch you a list of connected users:

  3:38pm  up 18 days,  5:37,  4 users,  load average: 0.12, 0.22, 0.15
USER     TTY      FROM              LOGIN@   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU  WHAT
root     tty2     -                Sat 2pm  4:25m  0.24s  0.05s  -bash
willy    :0       -                Sat 2pm   ?     0.00s   ?     -
willy    pts/3    -                Sat 2pm  3:33m 36.39s 36.39s  BitchX willy ir
willy    pts/2    -                Sat 2pm  3:33m  0.13s  0.06s  /usr/bin/screen

I'm setting two variables now.
This is a string: black
And this is a number: 9

I'm giving you back your prompt now.

willy:~/scripts> echo $COLOUR

willy:~/scripts> echo $VALUE

willy:~/scripts>

   This is the most common way to execute a script. It is preferred to
   execute the script like this in a subshell. The variables, functions and
   aliases created in this subshell are only known to the particular bash
   session of that subshell. When that shell exits and the parent regains
   control, everything is cleaned up and all changes to the state of the
   shell made by the script, are forgotten.

   If you did not put the scripts directory in your PATH, and . (the
   current directory) is not in the PATH either, you can activate the
   script like this:

   ./script_name.sh

   A script can also explicitly be executed by a given shell, but generally
   we only do this if we want to obtain special behavior, such as checking
   if the script works with another shell or printing traces for debugging:

   rbash script_name.sh

   sh script_name.sh

   bash -x script_name.sh

   The specified shell will start as a subshell of your current shell and
   execute the script. This is done when you want the script to start up
   with specific options or under specific conditions which are not
   specified in the script.

   If you don't want to start a new shell but execute the script in the
   current shell, you source it:

   source script_name.sh

   [165]Tip source = .
            The Bash source built-in is a synonym for the Bourne shell .
            (dot) command.

   The script does not need execute permission in this case. Commands are
   executed in the current shell context, so any changes made to your
   environment will be visible when the script finishes execution:

   willy:~/scripts> source script1.sh
   --output ommitted--

   willy:~/scripts> echo $VALUE
   9

   willy:~/scripts>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              2.2. Script basics

2.2.1. Which shell will run the script?

   When running a script in a subshell, you should define which shell
   should run the script. The shell type in which you wrote the script
   might not be the default on your system, so commands you entered might
   result in errors when executed by the wrong shell.

   The first line of the script determines the shell to start. The first
   two characters of the first line should be #!, then follows the path to
   the shell that should interpret the commands that follow. Blank lines
   are also considered to be lines, so don't start your script with an
   empty line.

   For the purpose of this course, all scripts will start with the line

   #!/bin/bash

   As noted before, this implies that the Bash executable can be found in
   /bin.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2.2. Adding comments

   You should be aware of the fact that you might not be the only person
   reading your code. A lot of users and system administrators run scripts
   that were written by other people. If they want to see how you did it,
   comments are useful to enlighten the reader.

   Comments also make your own life easier. Say that you had to read a lot
   of man pages in order to achieve a particular result with some command
   that you used in your script. You won't remember how it worked if you
   need to change your script after a few weeks or months, unless you have
   commented what you did, how you did it and/or why you did it.

   Take the script1.sh example and copy it to commented-script1.sh, which
   we edit so that the comments reflect what the script does. Everything
   the shell encounters after a hash mark on a line is ignored and only
   visible upon opening the shell script file:

#!/bin/bash
# This script clears the terminal, displays a greeting and gives information
# about currently connected users.  The two example variables are set and displayed.

clear                           # clear terminal window

echo "The script starts now."

echo "Hi, $USER!"               # dollar sign is used to get content of variable
echo

echo "I will now fetch you a list of connected users:"
echo
w                               # show who is logged on and
echo                            # what they are doing

echo "I'm setting two variables now."
COLOUR="black"                                  # set a local shell variable
VALUE="9"                                       # set a local shell variable
echo "This is a string: $COLOUR"                # display content of variable
echo "And this is a number: $VALUE"             # display content of variable
echo

echo "I'm giving you back your prompt now."
echo

   In a decent script, the first lines are usually comment about what to
   expect. Then each big chunk of commands will be commented as needed for
   clarity's sake. Linux init scripts, as an example, in your system's
   init.d directory, are usually well commented since they have to be
   readable and editable by everyone running Linux.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         2.3. Debugging Bash scripts

2.3.1. Debugging on the entire script

   When things don't go according to plan, you need to determine what
   exactly causes the script to fail. Bash provides extensive debugging
   features. The most common is to start up the subshell with the -x
   option, which will run the entire script in debug mode. Traces of each
   command plus its arguments are printed to standard output after the
   commands have been expanded but before they are executed.

   This is the commented-script1.sh script ran in debug mode. Note again
   that the added comments are not visible in the output of the script.

willy:~/scripts> bash -x script1.sh
+ clear

+ echo 'The script starts now.'
The script starts now.
+ echo 'Hi, willy!'
Hi, willy!
+ echo

+ echo 'I will now fetch you a list of connected users:'
I will now fetch you a list of connected users:
+ echo

+ w
  4:50pm  up 18 days,  6:49,  4 users,  load average: 0.58, 0.62, 0.40
USER     TTY      FROM              LOGIN@   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU  WHAT
root     tty2     -                Sat 2pm  5:36m  0.24s  0.05s  -bash
willy    :0       -                Sat 2pm   ?     0.00s   ?     -
willy    pts/3    -                Sat 2pm 43:13  36.82s 36.82s  BitchX willy ir
willy    pts/2    -                Sat 2pm 43:13   0.13s  0.06s  /usr/bin/screen
+ echo

+ echo 'I'\''m setting two variables now.'
I'm setting two variables now.
+ COLOUR=black
+ VALUE=9
+ echo 'This is a string: '
This is a string:
+ echo 'And this is a number: '
And this is a number:
+ echo

+ echo 'I'\''m giving you back your prompt now.'
I'm giving you back your prompt now.
+ echo

   There is now a full-fledged debugger for Bash, available at
   [http://bashdb.sourceforge.net] SourceForge. These debugging features
   are available in most modern versions of Bash, starting from 3.x.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.2. Debugging on part(s) of the script

   Using the set Bash built-in you can run in normal mode those portions of
   the script of which you are sure they are without fault, and display
   debugging information only for troublesome zones. Say we are not sure
   what the w command will do in the example commented-script1.sh, then we
   could enclose it in the script like this:

   set -x                  # activate debugging from here
   w
   set +x                  # stop debugging from here

   Output then looks like this:

willy: ~/scripts> script1.sh
The script starts now.
Hi, willy!

I will now fetch you a list of connected users:

+ w
  5:00pm  up 18 days,  7:00,  4 users,  load average: 0.79, 0.39, 0.33
USER     TTY      FROM              LOGIN@   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU  WHAT
root     tty2     -                Sat 2pm  5:47m  0.24s  0.05s  -bash
willy    :0       -                Sat 2pm   ?     0.00s   ?     -
willy    pts/3    -                Sat 2pm 54:02  36.88s 36.88s  BitchX willyke
willy    pts/2    -                Sat 2pm 54:02   0.13s  0.06s  /usr/bin/screen
+ set +x

I'm setting two variables now.
This is a string:
And this is a number:

I'm giving you back your prompt now.

willy: ~/scripts>

   You can switch debugging mode on and off as many times as you want
   within the same script.

   The table below gives an overview of other useful Bash options:

   Table 2-1. Overview of set debugging options

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Short notation | Long notation  | Result                             |
   |----------------+----------------+------------------------------------|
   | set -f         | set -o noglob  | Disable file name generation using |
   |                |                | metacharacters (globbing).         |
   |----------------+----------------+------------------------------------|
   | set -v         | set -o verbose | Prints shell input lines as they   |
   |                |                | are read.                          |
   |----------------+----------------+------------------------------------|
   | set -x         | set -o xtrace  | Print command traces before        |
   |                |                | executing command.                 |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The dash is used to activate a shell option and a plus to deactivate it.
   Don't let this confuse you!

   In the example below, we demonstrate these options on the command line:

   willy:~/scripts> set -v

   willy:~/scripts> ls
   ls
   commented-scripts.sh    script1.sh

   willy:~/scripts> set +v
   set +v

   willy:~/scripts> ls *
   commented-scripts.sh    script1.sh

   willy:~/scripts> set -f

   willy:~/scripts> ls *
   ls: *: No such file or directory

   willy:~/scripts> touch *

   willy:~/scripts> ls
   *   commented-scripts.sh    script1.sh

   willy:~/scripts> rm *

   willy:~/scripts> ls
   commented-scripts.sh    script1.sh

   Alternatively, these modes can be specified in the script itself, by
   adding the desired options to the first line shell declaration. Options
   can be combined, as is usually the case with UNIX commands:

   #!/bin/bash -xv

   Once you found the buggy part of your script, you can add echo
   statements before each command of which you are unsure, so that you will
   see exactly where and why things don't work. In the example
   commented-script1.sh script, it could be done like this, still assuming
   that the displaying of users gives us problems:

   echo "debug message: now attempting to start w command"; w

   In more advanced scripts, the echo can be inserted to display the
   content of variables at different stages in the script, so that flaws
   can be detected:

   echo "Variable VARNAME is now set to $VARNAME."

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 2.4. Summary

   A shell script is a reusable series of commands put in an executable
   text file. Any text editor can be used to write scripts.

   Scripts start with #! followed by the path to the shell executing the
   commands from the script. Comments are added to a script for your own
   future reference, and also to make it understandable for other users. It
   is better to have too many explanations than not enough.

   Debugging a script can be done using shell options. Shell options can be
   used for partial debugging or for analyzing the entire script. Inserting
   echo commands at strategic locations is also a common troubleshooting
   technique.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                2.5. Exercises

   This exercise will help you to create your first script.

    1. Write a script using your favorite editor. The script should display
       the path to your homedirectory and the terminal type that you are
       using. Additionally it shows all the services started up in runlevel
       3 on your system. (hint: use HOME, TERM and ls /etc/rc3.d/S*)

    2. Add comments in your script.

    3. Add information for the users of your script.

    4. Change permissions on your script so that you can run it.

    5. Run the script in normal mode and in debug mode. It should run
       without errors.

    6. Make errors in your script: see what happens if you misspell
       commands, if you leave out the first line or put something
       unintelligible there, or if you misspell shell variable names or
       write them in lower case characters after they have been declared in
       capitals. Check what the debug comments say about this.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       Chapter 3. The Bash environment

     In this chapter we will discuss the various ways in which the Bash
     environment can be influenced:

       * Editing shell initialization files

       * Using variables

       * Using different quote styles

       * Perform arithmetic calculations

       * Assigning aliases

       * Using expansion and substitution

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       3.1. Shell initialization files

3.1.1. System-wide configuration files

  3.1.1.1. /etc/profile

   When invoked interactively with the --login option or when invoked as
   sh, Bash reads the /etc/profile instructions. These usually set the
   shell variables PATH, USER, MAIL, HOSTNAME and HISTSIZE.

   On some systems, the umask value is configured in /etc/profile; on other
   systems this file holds pointers to other configuration files such as:

     * /etc/inputrc, the system-wide Readline initialization file where you
       can configure the command line bell-style.

     * the /etc/profile.d directory, which contains files configuring
       system-wide behavior of specific programs.

   All settings that you want to apply to all your users' environments
   should be in this file. It might look like this:

# /etc/profile

# System wide environment and startup programs, for login setup

PATH=$PATH:/usr/X11R6/bin

# No core files by default
ulimit -S -c 0 > /dev/null 2>&1

USER="`id -un`"
LOGNAME=$USER
MAIL="/var/spool/mail/$USER"

HOSTNAME=`/bin/hostname`
HISTSIZE=1000

# Keyboard, bell, display style: the readline config file:
if [ -z "$INPUTRC" -a ! -f "$HOME/.inputrc" ]; then
    INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc
fi

PS1="\u@\h \W"

export PATH USER LOGNAME MAIL HOSTNAME HISTSIZE INPUTRC PS1

# Source initialization files for specific programs (ls, vim, less, ...)
for i in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do
    if [ -r "$i" ]; then
        . $i
    fi
done

# Settings for program initialization
source /etc/java.conf
export NPX_PLUGIN_PATH="$JRE_HOME/plugin/ns4plugin/:/usr/lib/netscape/plugins"

PAGER="/usr/bin/less"

unset i

   This configuration file sets some basic shell environment variables as
   well as some variables required by users running Java and/or Java
   applications in their web browser. See [166]Section 3.2.

   See [167]Chapter 7 for more on the conditional if used in this file;
   [168]Chapter 9 discusses loops such as the for construct.

   The Bash source contains sample profile files for general or individual
   use. These and the one in the example above need changes in order for
   them to work in your environment!

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.1.1.2. /etc/bashrc

   On systems offering multiple types of shells, it might be better to put
   Bash-specific configurations in this file, since /etc/profile is also
   read by other shells, such as the Bourne shell. Errors generated by
   shells that don't understand the Bash syntax are prevented by splitting
   the configuration files for the different types of shells. In such
   cases, the user's ~/.bashrc might point to /etc/bashrc in order to
   include it in the shell initialization process upon login.

   You might also find that /etc/profile on your system only holds shell
   environment and program startup settings, while /etc/bashrc contains
   system-wide definitions for shell functions and aliases. The /etc/bashrc
   file might be referred to in /etc/profile or in individual user shell
   initialization files.

   The source contains sample bashrc files, or you might find a copy in
   /usr/share/doc/bash-2.05b/startup-files. This is part of the bashrc that
   comes with the Bash documentation:

   alias ll='ls -l'
   alias dir='ls -ba'
   alias c='clear'
   alias ls='ls --color'

   alias mroe='more'
   alias pdw='pwd'
   alias sl='ls --color'

   pskill()
   {
           local pid

           pid=$(ps -ax | grep $1 | grep -v grep | gawk '{ print $1 }')
           echo -n "killing $1 (process $pid)..."
           kill -9 $pid
           echo "slaughtered."
   }

   Apart from general aliases, it contains useful aliases which make
   commands work even if you misspell them. We will discuss aliases in
   [169]Section 3.5.2. This file contains a function, pskill; functions
   will be studied in detail in [170]Chapter 11.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1.2. Individual user configuration files

   [171]Note I don't have these files?!
             These files might not be in your home directory by default;
             create them if needed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.1.2.1. ~/.bash_profile

   This is the preferred configuration file for configuring user
   environments individually. In this file, users can add extra
   configuration options or change default settings:

   franky~> cat .bash_profile
   #################################################################
   #                                                               #
   #   .bash_profile file                                          #
   #                                                               #
   #   Executed from the bash shell when you log in.               #
   #                                                               #
   #################################################################

   source ~/.bashrc
   source ~/.bash_login
   case "$OS" in
     IRIX)
       stty sane dec
       stty erase
       ;;
   #  SunOS)
   #    stty erase
   #    ;;
     *)
       stty sane
       ;;
   esac

   This user configures the backspace character for login on different
   operating systems. Apart from that, the user's .bashrc and .bash_login
   are read.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.1.2.2. ~/.bash_login

   This file contains specific settings that are normally only executed
   when you log in to the system. In the example, we use it to configure
   the umask value and to show a list of connected users upon login. This
   user also gets the calendar for the current month:

   #######################################################################
   #                                                                     #
   #   Bash_login file                                                   #
   #                                                                     #
   #   commands to perform from the bash shell at login time             #
   #   (sourced from .bash_profile)                                      #
   #                                                                     #
   #######################################################################
   #   file protection
   umask 002       # all to me, read to group and others
   #   miscellaneous
   w
   cal `date +"%m"` `date +"%Y"`

   In the absence of ~/.bash_profile, this file will be read.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.1.2.3. ~/.profile

   In the absence of ~/.bash_profile and ~/.bash_login, ~/.profile is read.
   It can hold the same configurations, which are then also accessible by
   other shells. Mind that other shells might not understand the Bash
   syntax.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.1.2.4. ~/.bashrc

   Today, it is more common to use a non-login shell, for instance when
   logged in graphically using X terminal windows. Upon opening such a
   window, the user does not have to provide a user name or password; no
   authentication is done. Bash searches for ~/.bashrc when this happens,
   so it is referred to in the files read upon login as well, which means
   you don't have to enter the same settings in multiple files.

   In this user's .bashrc a couple of aliases are defined and variables for
   specific programs are set after the system-wide /etc/bashrc is read:

   franky ~> cat .bashrc
   # /home/franky/.bashrc

   # Source global definitions
   if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then
          . /etc/bashrc

   fi

   # shell options

   set -o noclobber

   # my shell variables

   export PS1="\[\033[1;44m\]\u \w\[\033[0m\] "
   export PATH="$PATH:~/bin:~/scripts"

   # my aliases

   alias cdrecord='cdrecord -dev 0,0,0 -speed=8'
   alias ss='ssh octarine'
   alias ll='ls -la'

   # mozilla fix

   MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla
   LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/mozilla:/usr/lib/mozilla/plugins
   MOZ_DIST_BIN=/usr/lib/mozilla
   MOZ_PROGRAM=/usr/lib/mozilla/mozilla-bin
   export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME LD_LIBRARY_PATH MOZ_DIST_BIN MOZ_PROGRAM

   # font fix
   alias xt='xterm -bg black -fg white &'

   # BitchX settings
   export IRCNAME="frnk"

   # THE END
   franky ~>

   More examples can be found in the Bash package. Remember that sample
   files might need changes in order to work in your environment.

   Aliases are discussed in [172]Section 3.5.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.1.2.5. ~/.bash_logout

   This file contains specific instructions for the logout procedure. In
   the example, the terminal window is cleared upon logout. This is useful
   for remote connections, which will leave a clean window after closing
   them.

   franky ~> cat .bash_logout
   #######################################################################
   #                                                                     #
   #   Bash_logout file                                                  #
   #                                                                     #
   #   commands to perform from the bash shell at logout time            #
   #                                                                     #
   #######################################################################
   clear
   franky ~>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1.3. Changing shell configuration files

   When making changes to any of the above files, users have to either
   reconnect to the system or source the altered file for the changes to
   take effect. By interpreting the script this way, changes are applied to
   the current shell session:

   Figure 3-1. Different prompts for different users

   Most shell scripts execute in a private environment: variables are not
   inherited by child processes unless they are exported by the parent
   shell. Sourcing a file containing shell commands is a way of applying
   changes to your own environment and setting variables in the current
   shell.

   This example also demonstrates the use of different prompt settings by
   different users. In this case, red means danger. When you have a green
   prompt, don't worry too much.

   Note that source resourcefile is the same as . resourcefile.

   Should you get lost in all these configuration files, and find yourself
   confronted with settings of which the origin is not clear, use echo
   statements, just like for debugging scripts; see [173]Section 2.3.2. You
   might add lines like this:

   echo "Now executing .bash_profile.."

   or like this:

   echo "Now setting PS1 in .bashrc:"
   export PS1="[some value]"
   echo "PS1 is now set to $PS1"

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                3.2. Variables

3.2.1. Types of variables

   As seen in the examples above, shell variables are in uppercase
   characters by convention. Bash keeps a list of two types of variables:

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.2.1.1. Global variables

   Global variables or environment variables are available in all shells.
   The env or printenv commands can be used to display environment
   variables. These programs come with the sh-utils package.

   Below is a typical output:

franky ~> printenv
CC=gcc
CDPATH=.:~:/usr/local:/usr:/
CFLAGS=-O2 -fomit-frame-pointer
COLORTERM=gnome-terminal
CXXFLAGS=-O2 -fomit-frame-pointer
DISPLAY=:0
DOMAIN=hq.garrels.be
e=
TOR=vi
FCEDIT=vi
FIGNORE=.o:~
G_BROKEN_FILENAMES=1
GDK_USE_XFT=1
GDMSESSION=Default
GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID=Default
GTK_RC_FILES=/etc/gtk/gtkrc:/nethome/franky/.gtkrc-1.2-gnome2
GWMCOLOR=darkgreen
GWMTERM=xterm
HISTFILESIZE=5000
history_control=ignoredups
HISTSIZE=2000
HOME=/nethome/franky
HOSTNAME=octarine.hq.garrels.be
INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc
IRCNAME=franky
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/j2sdk1.4.0
LANG=en_US
LDFLAGS=-s
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/mozilla:/usr/lib/mozilla/plugins
LESSCHARSET=latin1
LESS=-edfMQ
LESSOPEN=|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh %s
LEX=flex
LOCAL_MACHINE=octarine
LOGNAME=franky
LS_COLORS=no=00:fi=00:di=01;34:ln=01;36:pi=40;33:so=01;35:bd=40;33;01:cd=40;33;01:or=01;05;37;41:mi=01;05;37;41:ex=01;32:*.cmd=01;32:*.exe=01;32:*.com=01;32:*.btm=01;32:*.bat=01;32:*.sh=01;32:*.csh=01;32:*.tar=01;31:*.tgz=01;31:*.arj=01;31:*.taz=01;31:*.lzh=01;31:*.zip=01;31:*.z=01;31:*.Z=01;31:*.gz=01;31:*.bz2=01;31:*.bz=01;31:*.tz=01;31:*.rpm=01;31:*.cpio=01;31:*.jpg=01;35:*.gif=01;35:*.bmp=01;35:*.xbm=01;35:*.xpm=01;35:*.png=01;35:*.tif=01;35:
MACHINES=octarine
MAILCHECK=60
MAIL=/var/mail/franky
MANPATH=/usr/man:/usr/share/man/:/usr/local/man:/usr/X11R6/man
MEAN_MACHINES=octarine
MOZ_DIST_BIN=/usr/lib/mozilla
MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla
MOZ_PROGRAM=/usr/lib/mozilla/mozilla-bin
MTOOLS_FAT_COMPATIBILITY=1
MYMALLOC=0
NNTPPORT=119
NNTPSERVER=news
NPX_PLUGIN_PATH=/plugin/ns4plugin/:/usr/lib/netscape/plugins
OLDPWD=/nethome/franky
OS=Linux
PAGER=less
PATH=/nethome/franky/bin.Linux:/nethome/franky/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/sbin:.
PS1=\[\033[1;44m\]franky is in \w\[\033[0m\]
PS2=More input>
PWD=/nethome/franky
SESSION_MANAGER=local/octarine.hq.garrels.be:/tmp/.ICE-unix/22106
SHELL=/bin/bash
SHELL_LOGIN=--login
SHLVL=2
SSH_AGENT_PID=22161
SSH_ASKPASS=/usr/libexec/openssh/gnome-ssh-askpass
SSH_AUTH_SOCK=/tmp/ssh-XXmhQ4fC/agent.22106
START_WM=twm
TERM=xterm
TYPE=type
USERNAME=franky
USER=franky
_=/usr/bin/printenv
VISUAL=vi
WINDOWID=20971661
XAPPLRESDIR=/nethome/franky/app-defaults
XAUTHORITY=/nethome/franky/.Xauthority
XENVIRONMENT=/nethome/franky/.Xdefaults
XFILESEARCHPATH=/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%C%S:/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%C%S:/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/%T/%N%C%S:/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%S:/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%S:/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/%T/%N%S
XKEYSYMDB=/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB
XMODIFIERS=@im=none
XTERMID=
XWINHOME=/usr/X11R6
X=X11R6
YACC=bison -y

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.2.1.2. Local variables

   Local variables are only available in the current shell. Using the set
   built-in command without any options will display a list of all
   variables (including environment variables) and functions. The output
   will be sorted according to the current locale and displayed in a
   reusable format.

   Below is a diff file made by comparing printenv and set output, after
   leaving out the functions which are also displayed by the set command:

franky ~> diff set.sorted printenv.sorted | grep "<" | awk '{ print $2 }'
BASE=/nethome/franky/.Shell/hq.garrels.be/octarine.aliases
BASH=/bin/bash
BASH_VERSINFO=([0]="2"
BASH_VERSION='2.05b.0(1)-release'
COLUMNS=80
DIRSTACK=()
DO_FORTUNE=
EUID=504
GROUPS=()
HERE=/home/franky
HISTFILE=/nethome/franky/.bash_history
HOSTTYPE=i686
IFS=$'
LINES=24
MACHTYPE=i686-pc-linux-gnu
OPTERR=1
OPTIND=1
OSTYPE=linux-gnu
PIPESTATUS=([0]="0")
PPID=10099
PS4='+
PWD_REAL='pwd
SHELLOPTS=braceexpand:emacs:hashall:histexpand:history:interactive-comments:monitor
THERE=/home/franky
UID=504

   [174]Note Awk
             the GNU Awk programming language is explained in [175]Chapter
             6.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.2.1.3. Variables by content

   Apart from dividing variables in local and global variables, we can also
   divide them in categories according to the sort of content the variable
   contains. In this respect, variables come in 4 types:

     * String variables

     * Integer variables

     * Constant variables

     * Array variables

   We'll discuss these types in [176]Chapter 10. For now, we will work with
   integer and string values for our variables.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.2. Creating variables

   Variables are case sensitive and capitalized by default. Giving local
   variables a lowercase name is a convention which is sometimes applied.
   However, you are free to use the names you want or to mix cases.
   Variables can also contain digits, but a name starting with a digit is
   not allowed:

   prompt> export 1number=1
   bash: export: `1number=1': not a valid identifier

   To set a variable in the shell, use

   VARNAME="value"

   Putting spaces around the equal sign will cause errors. It is a good
   habit to quote content strings when assigning values to variables: this
   will reduce the chance that you make errors.

   Some examples using upper and lower cases, numbers and spaces:

   franky ~> MYVAR1="2"

   franky ~> echo $MYVAR1
   2

   franky ~> first_name="Franky"

   franky ~> echo $first_name
   Franky

   franky ~> full_name="Franky M. Singh"

   franky ~> echo $full_name
   Franky M. Singh

   franky ~> MYVAR-2="2"
   bash: MYVAR-2=2: command not found

   franky ~> MYVAR1 ="2"
   bash: MYVAR1: command not found

   franky ~> MYVAR1= "2"
   bash: 2: command not found

   franky ~> unset MYVAR1 first_name full_name

   franky ~> echo $MYVAR1 $first_name $full_name
   <--no output-->

   franky ~>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.3. Exporting variables

   A variable created like the ones in the example above is only available
   to the current shell. It is a local variable: child processes of the
   current shell will not be aware of this variable. In order to pass
   variables to a subshell, we need to export them using the export
   built-in command. Variables that are exported are referred to as
   environment variables. Setting and exporting is usually done in one
   step:

   export VARNAME="value"

   A subshell can change variables it inherited from the parent, but the
   changes made by the child don't affect the parent. This is demonstrated
   in the example:

   franky ~> full_name="Franky M. Singh"

   franky ~> bash

   franky ~> echo $full_name


   franky ~> exit

   franky ~> export full_name

   franky ~> bash

   franky ~> echo $full_name
   Franky M. Singh

   franky ~> export full_name="Charles the Great"

   franky ~> echo $full_name
   Charles the Great

   franky ~> exit

   franky ~> echo $full_name
   Franky M. Singh

   franky ~>

   When first trying to read the value of full_name in a subshell, it is
   not there (echo shows a null string). The subshell quits, and full_name
   is exported in the parent - a variable can be exported after it has been
   assigned a value. Then a new subshell is started, in which the variable
   exported from the parent is visible. The variable is changed to hold
   another name, but the value for this variable in the parent stays the
   same.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.4. Reserved variables

  3.2.4.1. Bourne shell reserved variables

   Bash uses certain shell variables in the same way as the Bourne shell.
   In some cases, Bash assigns a default value to the variable. The table
   below gives an overview of these plain shell variables:

   Table 3-1. Reserved Bourne shell variables

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Variable name | Definition                                           |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | CDPATH        | A colon-separated list of directories used as a      |
   |               | search path for the cd built-in command.             |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   |               | The current user's home directory; the default for   |
   | HOME          | the cd built-in. The value of this variable is also  |
   |               | used by tilde expansion.                             |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | IFS           | A list of characters that separate fields; used when |
   |               | the shell splits words as part of expansion.         |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   |               | If this parameter is set to a file name and the      |
   | MAIL          | MAILPATH variable is not set, Bash informs the user  |
   |               | of the arrival of mail in the specified file.        |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | MAILPATH      | A colon-separated list of file names which the shell |
   |               | periodically checks for new mail.                    |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | OPTARG        | The value of the last option argument processed by   |
   |               | the getopts built-in.                                |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | OPTIND        | The index of the last option argument processed by   |
   |               | the getopts built-in.                                |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | PATH          | A colon-separated list of directories in which the   |
   |               | shell looks for commands.                            |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | PS1           | The primary prompt string. The default value is      |
   |               | "'\s-\v\$ '".                                        |
   |---------------+------------------------------------------------------|
   | PS2           | The secondary prompt string. The default value is    |
   |               | "'> '".                                              |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3.2.4.2. Bash reserved variables

   These variables are set or used by Bash, but other shells do not
   normally treat them specially.

   Table 3-2. Reserved Bash variables

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Variable name   | Definition                                         |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | auto_resume     | This variable controls how the shell interacts     |
   |                 | with the user and job control.                     |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | BASH            | The full pathname used to execute the current      |
   |                 | instance of Bash.                                  |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | If this variable is set when Bash is invoked to    |
   | BASH_ENV        | execute a shell script, its value is expanded and  |
   |                 | used as the name of a startup file to read before  |
   |                 | executing the script.                              |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | BASH_VERSION    | The version number of the current instance of      |
   |                 | Bash.                                              |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | BASH_VERSINFO   | A read-only array variable whose members hold      |
   |                 | version information for this instance of Bash.     |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | Used by the select built-in to determine the       |
   | COLUMNS         | terminal width when printing selection lists.      |
   |                 | Automatically set upon receipt of a SIGWINCH       |
   |                 | signal.                                            |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | COMP_CWORD      | An index into ${COMP_WORDS} of the word containing |
   |                 | the current cursor position.                       |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | COMP_LINE       | The current command line.                          |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | COMP_POINT      | The index of the current cursor position relative  |
   |                 | to the beginning of the current command.           |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | COMP_WORDS      | An array variable consisting of the individual     |
   |                 | words in the current command line.                 |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | An array variable from which Bash reads the        |
   | COMPREPLY       | possible completions generated by a shell function |
   |                 | invoked by the programmable completion facility.   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | DIRSTACK        | An array variable containing the current contents  |
   |                 | of the directory stack.                            |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | EUID            | The numeric effective user ID of the current user. |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | FCEDIT          | The editor used as a default by the -e option to   |
   |                 | the fc built-in command.                           |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | FIGNORE         | A colon-separated list of suffixes to ignore when  |
   |                 | performing file name completion.                   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | FUNCNAME        | The name of any currently-executing shell          |
   |                 | function.                                          |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | A colon-separated list of patterns defining the    |
   | GLOBIGNORE      | set of file names to be ignored by file name       |
   |                 | expansion.                                         |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | GROUPS          | An array variable containing the list of groups of |
   |                 | which the current user is a member.                |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | histchars       | Up to three characters which control history       |
   |                 | expansion, quick substitution, and tokenization.   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HISTCMD         | The history number, or index in the history list,  |
   |                 | of the current command.                            |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HISTCONTROL     | Defines whether a command is added to the history  |
   |                 | file.                                              |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HISTFILE        | The name of the file to which the command history  |
   |                 | is saved. The default value is ~/.bash_history.    |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HISTFILESIZE    | The maximum number of lines contained in the       |
   |                 | history file, defaults to 500.                     |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | A colon-separated list of patterns used to decide  |
   | HISTIGNORE      | which command lines should be saved in the history |
   |                 | list.                                              |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HISTSIZE        | The maximum number of commands to remember on the  |
   |                 | history list, default is 500.                      |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | Contains the name of a file in the same format as  |
   | HOSTFILE        | /etc/hosts that should be read when the shell      |
   |                 | needs to complete a hostname.                      |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HOSTNAME        | The name of the current host.                      |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | HOSTTYPE        | A string describing the machine Bash is running    |
   |                 | on.                                                |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | IGNOREEOF       | Controls the action of the shell on receipt of an  |
   |                 | EOF character as the sole input.                   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | INPUTRC         | The name of the Readline initialization file,      |
   |                 | overriding the default /etc/inputrc.               |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | Used to determine the locale category for any      |
   | LANG            | category not specifically selected with a variable |
   |                 | starting with LC_.                                 |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | LC_ALL          | This variable overrides the value of LANG and any  |
   |                 | other LC_ variable specifying a locale category.   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | This variable determines the collation order used  |
   |                 | when sorting the results of file name expansion,   |
   | LC_COLLATE      | and determines the behavior of range expressions,  |
   |                 | equivalence classes, and collating sequences       |
   |                 | within file name expansion and pattern matching.   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | This variable determines the interpretation of     |
   | LC_CTYPE        | characters and the behavior of character classes   |
   |                 | within file name expansion and pattern matching.   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | This variable determines the locale used to        |
   | LC_MESSAGES     | translate double-quoted strings preceded by a "$"  |
   |                 | sign.                                              |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | LC_NUMERIC      | This variable determines the locale category used  |
   |                 | for number formatting.                             |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | LINENO          | The line number in the script or shell function    |
   |                 | currently executing.                               |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | LINES           | Used by the select built-in to determine the       |
   |                 | column length for printing selection lists.        |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | A string that fully describes the system type on   |
   | MACHTYPE        | which Bash is executing, in the standard GNU       |
   |                 | CPU-COMPANY-SYSTEM format.                         |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | How often (in seconds) that the shell should check |
   | MAILCHECK       | for mail in the files specified in the MAILPATH or |
   |                 | MAIL variables.                                    |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | OLDPWD          | The previous working directory as set by the cd    |
   |                 | built-in.                                          |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | OPTERR          | If set to the value 1, Bash displays error         |
   |                 | messages generated by the getopts built-in.        |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | OSTYPE          | A string describing the operating system Bash is   |
   |                 | running on.                                        |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | An array variable containing a list of exit status |
   | PIPESTATUS      | values from the processes in the most recently     |
   |                 | executed foreground pipeline (which may contain    |
   |                 | only a single command).                            |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | POSIXLY_CORRECT | If this variable is in the environment when bash   |
   |                 | starts, the shell enters POSIX mode.               |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | PPID            | The process ID of the shell's parent process.      |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | If set, the value is interpreted as a command to   |
   | PROMPT_COMMAND  | execute before the printing of each primary prompt |
   |                 | (PS1).                                             |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | PS3             | The value of this variable is used as the prompt   |
   |                 | for the select command. Defaults to "'#? '"        |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | The value is the prompt printed before the command |
   | PS4             | line is echoed when the -x option is set; defaults |
   |                 | to "'+ '".                                         |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | PWD             | The current working directory as set by the cd     |
   |                 | built-in command.                                  |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | Each time this parameter is referenced, a random   |
   | RANDOM          | integer between 0 and 32767 is generated.          |
   |                 | Assigning a value to this variable seeds the       |
   |                 | random number generator.                           |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | REPLY           | The default variable for the read built-in.        |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | SECONDS         | This variable expands to the number of seconds     |
   |                 | since the shell was started.                       |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | SHELLOPTS       | A colon-separated list of enabled shell options.   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | SHLVL           | Incremented by one each time a new instance of     |
   |                 | Bash is started.                                   |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | The value of this parameter is used as a format    |
   | TIMEFORMAT      | string specifying how the timing information for   |
   |                 | pipelines prefixed with the time reserved word     |
   |                 | should be displayed.                               |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   |                 | If set to a value greater than zero, TMOUT is      |
   |                 | treated as the default timeout for the read        |
   |                 | built-in. In an interative shell, the value is     |
   | TMOUT           | interpreted as the number of seconds to wait for   |
   |                 | input after issuing the primary prompt when the    |
   |                 | shell is interactive. Bash terminates after that   |
   |                 | number of seconds if input does not arrive.        |
   |-----------------+----------------------------------------------------|
   | UID             | The numeric, real user ID of the current user.     |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Check the Bash man, info or doc pages for extended information. Some
   variables are read-only, some are set automatically and some lose their
   meaning when set to a different value than the default.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.5. Special parameters

   The shell treats several parameters specially. These parameters may only
   be referenced; assignment to them is not allowed.

   Table 3-3. Special bash variables

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Character | Definition                                               |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   |           | Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. |
   |           | When the expansion occurs within double quotes, it       |
   | $*        | expands to a single word with the value of each          |
   |           | parameter separated by the first character of the IFS    |
   |           | special variable.                                        |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   |           | Expands to the positional parameters, starting from one. |
   | $@        | When the expansion occurs within double quotes, each     |
   |           | parameter expands to a separate word.                    |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | $#        | Expands to the number of positional parameters in        |
   |           | decimal.                                                 |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | $?        | Expands to the exit status of the most recently executed |
   |           | foreground pipeline.                                     |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   |           | A hyphen expands to the current option flags as          |
   | $-        | specified upon invocation, by the set built-in command,  |
   |           | or those set by the shell itself (such as the -i).       |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | $$        | Expands to the process ID of the shell.                  |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | $!        | Expands to the process ID of the most recently executed  |
   |           | background (asynchronous) command.                       |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | $0        | Expands to the name of the shell or shell script.        |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   |           | The underscore variable is set at shell startup and      |
   |           | contains the absolute file name of the shell or script   |
   |           | being executed as passed in the argument list.           |
   | $_        | Subsequently, it expands to the last argument to the     |
   |           | previous command, after expansion. It is also set to the |
   |           | full pathname of each command executed and placed in the |
   |           | environment exported to that command. When checking      |
   |           | mail, this parameter holds the name of the mail file.    |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   [177]Note $* vs. $@
             The implementation of "$*" has always been a problem and
             realistically should have been replaced with the behavior of
             "$@". In almost every case where coders use "$*", they mean
             "$@". "$*" Can cause bugs and even security holes in your
             software.

   The positional parameters are the words following the name of a shell
   script. They are put into the variables $1, $2, $3 and so on. As long as
   needed, variables are added to an internal array. $# holds the total
   number of parameters, as is demonstrated with this simple script:

   #!/bin/bash

   # positional.sh
   # This script reads 3 positional parameters and prints them out.

   POSPAR1="$1"
   POSPAR2="$2"
   POSPAR3="$3"

   echo "$1 is the first positional parameter, \$1."
   echo "$2 is the second positional parameter, \$2."
   echo "$3 is the third positional parameter, \$3."
   echo
   echo "The total number of positional parameters is $#."

   Upon execution one could give any numbers of arguments:

   franky ~> positional.sh one two three four five
   one is the first positional parameter, $1.
   two is the second positional parameter, $2.
   three is the third positional parameter, $3.

   The total number of positional parameters is 5.

   franky ~> positional.sh one two
   one is the first positional parameter, $1.
   two is the second positional parameter, $2.
    is the third positional parameter, $3.

   The total number of positional parameters is 2.

   More on evaluating these parameters is in [178]Chapter 7 and
   [179]Section 9.7.

   Some examples on the other special parameters:

   franky ~> grep dictionary /usr/share/dict/words
   dictionary

   franky ~> echo $_
   /usr/share/dict/words

   franky ~> echo $$
   10662

   franky ~> mozilla &
   [1] 11064

   franky ~> echo $!
   11064

   franky ~> echo $0
   bash

   franky ~> echo $?
   0

   franky ~> ls doesnotexist
   ls: doesnotexist: No such file or directory

   franky ~> echo $?
   1

   franky ~>

   User franky starts entering the grep command, which results in the
   assignment of the _ variable. The process ID of his shell is 10662.
   After putting a job in the background, the ! holds the process ID of the
   backgrounded job. The shell running is bash. When a mistake is made, ?
   holds an exit code different from 0 (zero).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.6. Script recycling with variables

   Apart from making the script more readable, variables will also enable
   you to faster apply a script in another environment or for another
   purpose. Consider the following example, a very simple script that makes
   a backup of franky's home directory to a remote server:

#!/bin/bash

# This script makes a backup of my home directory.

cd /home

# This creates the archive
tar cf /var/tmp/home_franky.tar franky > /dev/null 2>&1

# First remove the old bzip2 file.  Redirect errors because this generates some if the archive
# does not exist.  Then create a new compressed file.
rm /var/tmp/home_franky.tar.bz2 2> /dev/null
bzip2 /var/tmp/home_franky.tar

# Copy the file to another host - we have ssh keys for making this work without intervention.
scp /var/tmp/home_franky.tar.bz2 bordeaux:/opt/backup/franky > /dev/null 2>&1

# Create a timestamp in a logfile.
date >> /home/franky/log/home_backup.log
echo backup succeeded >> /home/franky/log/home_backup.log

   First of all, you are more likely to make errors if you name files and
   directories manually each time you need them. Secondly, suppose franky
   wants to give this script to carol, then carol will have to do quite
   some editing before she can use the script to back up her home
   directory. The same is true if franky wants to use this script for
   backing up other directories. For easy recycling, make all files,
   directories, usernames, servernames etcetera variable. Thus, you only
   need to edit a value once, without having to go through the entire
   script to check where a parameter occurs. This is an example:

#!/bin/bash

# This script makes a backup of my home directory.

# Change the values of the variables to make the script work for you:
BACKUPDIR=/home
BACKUPFILES=franky
TARFILE=/var/tmp/home_franky.tar
BZIPFILE=/var/tmp/home_franky.tar.bz2
SERVER=bordeaux
REMOTEDIR=/opt/backup/franky
LOGFILE=/home/franky/log/home_backup.log

cd $BACKUPDIR

# This creates the archive
tar cf $TARFILE $BACKUPFILES > /dev/null 2>&1

# First remove the old bzip2 file.  Redirect errors because this generates some if the archive
# does not exist.  Then create a new compressed file.
rm $BZIPFILE 2> /dev/null
bzip2 $TARFILE

# Copy the file to another host - we have ssh keys for making this work without intervention.
scp $BZIPFILE $SERVER:$REMOTEDIR > /dev/null 2>&1

# Create a timestamp in a logfile.
date >> $LOGFILE
echo backup succeeded >> $LOGFILE

   [180]Note Large directories and low bandwidth
             The above is purely an example that everybody can understand,
             using a small directory and a host on the same subnet.
             Depending on your bandwidth, the size of the directory and the
             location of the remote server, it can take an awful lot of
             time to make backups using this mechanism. For larger
             directories and lower bandwidth, use rsync to keep the
             directories at both ends synchronized.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           3.3. Quoting characters

3.3.1. Why?

   A lot of keys have special meanings in some context or other. Quoting is
   used to remove the special meaning of characters or words: quotes can
   disable special treatment for special characters, they can prevent
   reserved words from being recognized as such and they can disable
   parameter expansion.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.2. Escape characters

   Escape characters are used to remove the special meaning from a single
   character. A non-quoted backslash, \, is used as an escape character in
   Bash. It preserves the literal value of the next character that follows,
   with the exception of newline. If a newline character appears
   immediately after the backslash, it marks the continuation of a line
   when it is longer that the width of the terminal; the backslash is
   removed from the input stream and effectively ignored.

   franky ~> date=20021226

   franky ~> echo $date
   20021226

   franky ~> echo \$date
   $date

   In this example, the variable date is created and set to hold a value.
   The first echo displays the value of the variable, but for the second,
   the dollar sign is escaped.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.3. Single quotes

   Single quotes ('') are used to preserve the literal value of each
   character enclosed within the quotes. A single quote may not occur
   between single quotes, even when preceded by a backslash.

   We continue with the previous example:

   franky ~> echo '$date'
   $date

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.4. Double quotes

   Using double quotes the literal value of all characters enclosed is
   preserved, except for the dollar sign, the backticks (backward single
   quotes, ``) and the backslash.

   The dollar sign and the backticks retain their special meaning within
   the double quotes.

   The backslash retains its meaning only when followed by dollar,
   backtick, double quote, backslash or newline. Within double quotes, the
   backslashes are removed from the input stream when followed by one of
   these characters. Backslashes preceding characters that don't have a
   special meaning are left unmodified for processing by the shell
   interpreter.

   A double quote may be quoted within double quotes by preceding it with a
   backslash.

   franky ~> echo "$date"
   20021226

   franky ~> echo "`date`"
   Sun Apr 20 11:22:06 CEST 2003

   franky ~> echo "I'd say: \"Go for it!\""
   I'd say: "Go for it!"

   franky ~> echo "\"
   More input>"

   franky ~> echo "\\"
   \

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.5. ANSI-C quoting

   Words in the form "$'STRING'" are treated in a special way. The word
   expands to a string, with backslash-escaped characters replaced as
   specified by the ANSI-C standard. Backslash escape sequences can be
   found in the Bash documentation.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.6. Locales

   A double-quoted string preceded by a dollar sign will cause the string
   to be translated according to the current locale. If the current locale
   is "C" or "POSIX", the dollar sign is ignored. If the string is
   translated and replaced, the replacement is double-quoted.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             3.4. Shell expansion

3.4.1. General

   After the command has been split into tokens (see [181]Section 1.4.1.1),
   these tokens or words are expanded or resolved. There are eight kinds of
   expansion performed, which we will discuss in the next sections, in the
   order that they are expanded.

   After all expansions, quote removal is performed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.2. Brace expansion

   Brace expansion is a mechanism by which arbitrary strings may be
   generated. Patterns to be brace-expanded take the form of an optional
   PREAMBLE, followed by a series of comma-separated strings between a pair
   of braces, followed by an optional POSTSCRIPT. The preamble is prefixed
   to each string contained within the braces, and the postscript is then
   appended to each resulting string, expanding left to right.

   Brace expansions may be nested. The results of each expanded string are
   not sorted; left to right order is preserved:

   franky ~> echo sp{el,il,al}l
   spell spill spall

   Brace expansion is performed before any other expansions, and any
   characters special to other expansions are preserved in the result. It
   is strictly textual. Bash does not apply any syntactic interpretation to
   the context of the expansion or the text between the braces. To avoid
   conflicts with parameter expansion, the string "${" is not considered
   eligible for brace expansion.

   A correctly-formed brace expansion must contain unquoted opening and
   closing braces, and at least one unquoted comma. Any incorrectly formed
   brace expansion is left unchanged.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.3. Tilde expansion

   If a word begins with an unquoted tilde character ("~"), all of the
   characters up to the first unquoted slash (or all characters, if there
   is no unquoted slash) are considered a tilde-prefix. If none of the
   characters in the tilde-prefix are quoted, the characters in the
   tilde-prefix following the tilde are treated as a possible login name.
   If this login name is the null string, the tilde is replaced with the
   value of the HOME shell variable. If HOME is unset, the home directory
   of the user executing the shell is substituted instead. Otherwise, the
   tilde-prefix is replaced with the home directory associated with the
   specified login name.

   If the tilde-prefix is "~+", the value of the shell variable PWD
   replaces the tilde-prefix. If the tilde-prefix is "~-", the value of the
   shell variable OLDPWD, if it is set, is substituted.

   If the characters following the tilde in the tilde-prefix consist of a
   number N, optionally prefixed by a "+" or a "-", the tilde-prefix is
   replaced with the corresponding element from the directory stack, as it
   would be displayed by the dirs built-in invoked with the characters
   following tilde in the tilde-prefix as an argument. If the tilde-prefix,
   without the tilde, consists of a number without a leading "+" or "-",
   "+" is assumed.

   If the login name is invalid, or the tilde expansion fails, the word is
   left unchanged.

   Each variable assignment is checked for unquoted tilde-prefixes
   immediately following a ":" or "=". In these cases, tilde expansion is
   also performed. Consequently, one may use file names with tildes in
   assignments to PATH, MAILPATH, and CDPATH, and the shell assigns the
   expanded value.

   Example:

   franky ~> export PATH="$PATH:~/testdir"

   ~/testdir will be expanded to $HOME/testdir, so if $HOME is
   /var/home/franky, the directory /var/home/franky/testdir will be added
   to the content of the PATH variable.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.4. Shell parameter and variable expansion

   The "$" character introduces parameter expansion, command substitution,
   or arithmetic expansion. The parameter name or symbol to be expanded may
   be enclosed in braces, which are optional but serve to protect the
   variable to be expanded from characters immediately following it which
   could be interpreted as part of the name.

   When braces are used, the matching ending brace is the first "}" not
   escaped by a backslash or within a quoted string, and not within an
   embedded arithmetic expansion, command substitution, or parameter
   expansion.

   The basic form of parameter expansion is "${PARAMETER}". The value of
   "PARAMETER" is substituted. The braces are required when "PARAMETER" is
   a positional parameter with more than one digit, or when "PARAMETER" is
   followed by a character that is not to be interpreted as part of its
   name.

   If the first character of "PARAMETER" is an exclamation point, Bash uses
   the value of the variable formed from the rest of "PARAMETER" as the
   name of the variable; this variable is then expanded and that value is
   used in the rest of the substitution, rather than the value of
   "PARAMETER" itself. This is known as indirect expansion.

   You are certainly familiar with straight parameter expansion, since it
   happens all the time, even in the simplest of cases, such as the one
   above or the following:

   franky ~> echo $SHELL
   /bin/bash

   The following is an example of indirect expansion:

   franky ~> echo ${!N*}
   NNTPPORT NNTPSERVER NPX_PLUGIN_PATH

   Note that this is not the same as echo $N*.

   The following construct allows for creation of the named variable if it
   does not yet exist:

   ${VAR:=value}

   Example:

   franky ~> echo $FRANKY

   franky ~> echo ${FRANKY:=Franky}
   Franky

   Special parameters, among others the positional parameters, may not be
   assigned this way, however.

   We will further discuss the use of the curly braces for treatment of
   variables in [182]Chapter 10. More information can also be found in the
   Bash info pages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.5. Command substitution

   Command substitution allows the output of a command to replace the
   command itself. Command substitution occurs when a command is enclosed
   like this:

   $(command)

   or like this using backticks:

   `command`

   Bash performs the expansion by executing COMMAND and replacing the
   command substitution with the standard output of the command, with any
   trailing newlines deleted. Embedded newlines are not deleted, but they
   may be removed during word splitting.

   franky ~> echo `date`
   Thu Feb 6 10:06:20 CET 2003

   When the old-style backquoted form of substitution is used, backslash
   retains its literal meaning except when followed by "$", "`", or "\".
   The first backticks not preceded by a backslash terminates the command
   substitution. When using the "$(COMMAND)" form, all characters between
   the parentheses make up the command; none are treated specially.

   Command substitutions may be nested. To nest when using the backquoted
   form, escape the inner backticks with backslashes.

   If the substitution appears within double quotes, word splitting and
   file name expansion are not performed on the results.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.6. Arithmetic expansion

   Arithmetic expansion allows the evaluation of an arithmetic expression
   and the substitution of the result. The format for arithmetic expansion
   is:

   $(( EXPRESSION ))

   The expression is treated as if it were within double quotes, but a
   double quote inside the parentheses is not treated specially. All tokens
   in the expression undergo parameter expansion, command substitution, and
   quote removal. Arithmetic substitutions may be nested.

   Evaluation of arithmetic expressions is done in fixed-width integers
   with no check for overflow - although division by zero is trapped and
   recognized as an error. The operators are roughly the same as in the C
   programming language. In order of decreasing precedence, the list looks
   like this:

   Table 3-4. Arithmetic operators

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Operator                       | Meaning                             |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | VAR++ and VAR--                | variable post-increment and         |
   |                                | post-decrement                      |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | ++VAR and --VAR                | variable pre-increment and          |
   |                                | pre-decrement                       |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | - and +                        | unary minus and plus                |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | ! and ~                        | logical and bitwise negation        |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | **                             | exponentiation                      |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | *, / and %                     | multiplication, division, remainder |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | + and -                        | addition, subtraction               |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | << and >>                      | left and right bitwise shifts       |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | <=, >=, < and >                | comparison operators                |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | == and !=                      | equality and inequality             |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | &                              | bitwise AND                         |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | ^                              | bitwise exclusive OR                |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | |                              | bitwise OR                          |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | &&                             | logical AND                         |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | ||                             | logical OR                          |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | expr ? expr : expr             | conditional evaluation              |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | =, *=, /=, %=, +=, -=, <<=,    | assignments                         |
   | >>=, &=, ^= and |=             |                                     |
   |--------------------------------+-------------------------------------|
   | ,                              | separator between expressions       |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Shell variables are allowed as operands; parameter expansion is
   performed before the expression is evaluated. Within an expression,
   shell variables may also be referenced by name without using the
   parameter expansion syntax. The value of a variable is evaluated as an
   arithmetic expression when it is referenced. A shell variable need not
   have its integer attribute turned on to be used in an expression.

   Constants with a leading 0 (zero) are interpreted as octal numbers. A
   leading "0x" or "0X" denotes hexadecimal. Otherwise, numbers take the
   form "[BASE'#']N", where "BASE" is a decimal number between 2 and 64
   representing the arithmetic base, and N is a number in that base. If
   "BASE'#'" is omitted, then base 10 is used. The digits greater than 9
   are represented by the lowercase letters, the uppercase letters, "@",
   and "_", in that order. If "BASE" is less than or equal to 36, lowercase
   and uppercase letters may be used interchangably to represent numbers
   between 10 and 35.

   Operators are evaluated in order of precedence. Sub-expressions in
   parentheses are evaluated first and may override the precedence rules
   above.

   Wherever possible, Bash users should try to use the syntax with square
   brackets:

   $[ EXPRESSION ]

   However, this will only calculate the result of EXPRESSION, and do no
   tests:

   franky ~> echo $[365*24]
   8760

   See [183]Section 7.1.2.2, among others, for practical examples in
   scripts.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.7. Process substitution

   Process substitution is supported on systems that support named pipes
   (FIFOs) or the /dev/fd method of naming open files. It takes the form of

   <(LIST)

   or

   >(LIST)

   The process LIST is run with its input or output connected to a FIFO or
   some file in /dev/fd. The name of this file is passed as an argument to
   the current command as the result of the expansion. If the ">(LIST)"
   form is used, writing to the file will provide input for LIST. If the
   "<(LIST)" form is used, the file passed as an argument should be read to
   obtain the output of LIST. Note that no space may appear between the <
   or > signs and the left parenthesis, otherwise the construct would be
   interpreted as a redirection.

   When available, process substitution is performed simultaneously with
   parameter and variable expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic
   expansion.

   More information in [184]Section 8.2.3.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.8. Word splitting

   The shell scans the results of parameter expansion, command
   substitution, and arithmetic expansion that did not occur within double
   quotes for word splitting.

   The shell treats each character of $IFS as a delimiter, and splits the
   results of the other expansions into words on these characters. If IFS
   is unset, or its value is exactly "'<space><tab><newline>'", the
   default, then any sequence of IFS characters serves to delimit words. If
   IFS has a value other than the default, then sequences of the whitespace
   characters "space" and "Tab" are ignored at the beginning and end of the
   word, as long as the whitespace character is in the value of IFS (an IFS
   whitespace character). Any character in IFS that is not IFS whitespace,
   along with any adjacent IF whitespace characters, delimits a field. A
   sequence of IFS whitespace characters is also treated as a delimiter. If
   the value of IFS is null, no word splitting occurs.

   Explicit null arguments ("""" or "''") are retained. Unquoted implicit
   null arguments, resulting from the expansion of parameters that have no
   values, are removed. If a parameter with no value is expanded within
   double quotes, a null argument results and is retained.

   [185]Note Expansion and word splitting
             If no expansion occurs, no splitting is performed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.9. File name expansion

   After word splitting, unless the -f option has been set (see
   [186]Section 2.3.2), Bash scans each word for the characters "*", "?",
   and "[". If one of these characters appears, then the word is regarded
   as a PATTERN, and replaced with an alphabetically sorted list of file
   names matching the pattern. If no matching file names are found, and the
   shell option nullglob is disabled, the word is left unchanged. If the
   nullglob option is set, and no matches are found, the word is removed.
   If the shell option nocaseglob is enabled, the match is performed
   without regard to the case of alphabetic characters.

   When a pattern is used for file name generation, the character "." at
   the start of a file name or immediately following a slash must be
   matched explicitly, unless the shell option dotglob is set. When
   matching a file name, the slash character must always be matched
   explicitly. In other cases, the "." character is not treated specially.

   The GLOBIGNORE shell variable may be used to restrict the set of file
   names matching a pattern. If GLOBIGNORE is set, each matching file name
   that also matches one of the patterns in GLOBIGNORE is removed from the
   list of matches. The file names . and .. are always ignored, even when
   GLOBIGNORE is set. However, setting GLOBIGNORE has the effect of
   enabling the dotglob shell option, so all other file names beginning
   with a "." will match. To get the old behavior of ignoring file names
   beginning with a ".", make ".*" one of the patterns in GLOBIGNORE. The
   dotglob option is disabled when GLOBIGNORE is unset.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 3.5. Aliases

3.5.1. What are aliases?

   An alias allows a string to be substituted for a word when it is used as
   the first word of a simple command. The shell maintains a list of
   aliases that may be set and unset with the alias and unalias built-in
   commands. Issue the alias without options to display a list of aliases
   known to the current shell.

   franky: ~> alias
   alias ..='cd ..'
   alias ...='cd ../..'
   alias ....='cd ../../..'
   alias PAGER='less -r'
   alias Txterm='export TERM=xterm'
   alias XARGS='xargs -r'
   alias cdrecord='cdrecord -dev 0,0,0 -speed=8'
   alias e='vi'
   alias egrep='grep -E'
   alias ewformat='fdformat -n /dev/fd0u1743; ewfsck'
   alias fgrep='grep -F'
   alias ftp='ncftp -d15'
   alias h='history 10'
   alias fformat='fdformat /dev/fd0H1440'
   alias j='jobs -l'
   alias ksane='setterm -reset'
   alias ls='ls -F --color=auto'
   alias m='less'
   alias md='mkdir'
   alias od='od -Ax -ta -txC'
   alias p='pstree -p'
   alias ping='ping -vc1'
   alias sb='ssh blubber'
   alias sl='ls'
   alias ss='ssh octarine'
   alias tar='gtar'
   alias tmp='cd /tmp'
   alias unaliasall='unalias -a'
   alias vi='eval `resize`;vi'
   alias vt100='export TERM=vt100'
   alias which='type'
   alias xt='xterm -bg black -fg white &'

   franky ~>

   Aliases are useful for specifying the default version of a command that
   exists in several versions on your system, or to specify default options
   to a command. Another use for aliases is for correcting incorrect
   spelling.

   The first word of each simple command, if unquoted, is checked to see if
   it has an alias. If so, that word is replaced by the text of the alias.
   The alias name and the replacement text may contain any valid shell
   input, including shell metacharacters, with the exception that the alias
   name may not contain "=". The first word of the replacement text is
   tested for aliases, but a word that is identical to an alias being
   expanded is not expanded a second time. This means that one may alias ls
   to ls -F, for instance, and Bash will not try to recursively expand the
   replacement text. If the last character of the alias value is a space or
   tab character, then the next command word following the alias is also
   checked for alias expansion.

   Aliases are not expanded when the shell is not interactive, unless the
   expand_aliases option is set using the shopt shell built-in.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5.2. Creating and removing aliases

   Aliases are created using the alias shell built-in. For permanent use,
   enter the alias in one of your shell initialization files; if you just
   enter the alias on the command line, it is only recognized within the
   current shell.

   franky ~> alias dh='df -h'

   franky ~> dh
   Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
   /dev/hda7             1.3G  272M 1018M  22% /
   /dev/hda1             121M  9.4M  105M   9% /boot
   /dev/hda2              13G  8.7G  3.7G  70% /home
   /dev/hda3              13G  5.3G  7.1G  43% /opt
   none                  243M     0  243M   0% /dev/shm
   /dev/hda6             3.9G  3.2G  572M  85% /usr
   /dev/hda5             5.2G  4.3G  725M  86% /var

   franky ~> unalias dh

   franky ~> dh
   bash: dh: command not found

   franky ~>

   Bash always reads at least one complete line of input before executing
   any of the commands on that line. Aliases are expanded when a command is
   read, not when it is executed. Therefore, an alias definition appearing
   on the same line as another command does not take effect until the next
   line of input is read. The commands following the alias definition on
   that line are not affected by the new alias. This behavior is also an
   issue when functions are executed. Aliases are expanded when a function
   definition is read, not when the function is executed, because a
   function definition is itself a compound command. As a consequence,
   aliases defined in a function are not available until after that
   function is executed. To be safe, always put alias definitions on a
   separate line, and do not use alias in compound commands.

   Aliases are not inherited by child processes. Bourne shell (sh) does not
   recognize aliases.

   More about functions is in [187]Chapter 11.

   [188]Tip Functions are faster
            Aliases are looked up after functions and thus resolving is
            slower. While aliases are easier to understand, shell functions
            are preferred over aliases for almost every purpose.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            3.6. More Bash options

3.6.1. Displaying options

   We already discussed a couple of Bash options that are useful for
   debugging your scripts. In this section, we will take a more in-depth
   view of the Bash options.

   Use the -o option to set to display all shell options:

   willy:~> set -o
   allexport               off
   braceexpand             on
   emacs                   on
   errexit                 off
   hashall                 on
   histexpand              on
   history                 on
   ignoreeof               off
   interactive-comments    on
   keyword                 off
   monitor                 on
   noclobber               off
   noexec                  off
   noglob                  off
   nolog                   off
   notify                  off
   nounset                 off
   onecmd                  off
   physical                off
   posix                   off
   privileged              off
   verbose                 off
   vi                      off
   xtrace                  off

   See the Bash Info pages, section Shell Built-in Commands->The Set
   Built-in for a description of each option. A lot of options have
   one-character shorthands: the xtrace option, for instance, is equal to
   specifying set -x.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6.2. Changing options

   Shell options can either be set different from the default upon calling
   the shell, or be set during shell operation. They may also be included
   in the shell resource configuration files.

   The following command executes a script in POSIX-compatible mode:

   willy:~/scripts> bash --posix script.sh

   For changing the current environment temporarily, or for use in a
   script, we would rather use set. Use - (dash) for enabling an option, +
   for disabling:

   willy:~/test> set -o noclobber

   willy:~/test> touch test

   willy:~/test> date > test
   bash: test: cannot overwrite existing file

   willy:~/test> set +o noclobber

   willy:~/test> date > test

   The above example demonstrates the noclobber option, which prevents
   existing files from being overwritten by redirection operations. The
   same goes for one-character options, for instance -u, which will treat
   unset variables as an error when set, and exits a non-interactive shell
   upon encountering such errors:

   willy:~> echo $VAR


   willy:~> set -u

   willy:~> echo $VAR
   bash: VAR: unbound variable

   This option is also useful for detecting incorrect content assignment to
   variables: the same error will also occur, for instance, when assigning
   a character string to a variable that was declared explicitly as one
   holding only integer values.

   One last example follows, demonstrating the noglob option, which
   prevents special characters from being expanded:

   willy:~/testdir> set -o noglob

   willy:~/testdir> touch *

   willy:~/testdir> ls -l *
   -rw-rw-r--    1 willy    willy          0 Feb 27 13:37 *

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 3.7. Summary

   The Bash environment can be configured globally and on a per user basis.
   Various configuration files are used to fine-tune the behavior of the
   shell.

   These files contain shell options, settings for variables, function
   definitions and various other building blocks for creating ourselves a
   cosy environment.

   Except for the reserved Bourne shell, Bash and special parameters,
   variable names can be chosen more or less freely.

   Because a lot of characters have double or even triple meanings,
   depending on the environment, Bash uses a system of quoting to take away
   special meaning from one or multiple characters when special treatment
   is not wanted.

   Bash uses various methods of expanding command line entries in order to
   determine which commands to execute.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                3.8. Exercises

   For this exercise, you will need to read the useradd man pages, because
   we are going to use the /etc/skel directory to hold default shell
   configuration files, which are copied to the home directory of each
   newly added user.

   First we will do some general exercises on setting and displaying
   variables.

    1. Create 3 variables, VAR1, VAR2 and VAR3; initialize them to hold the
       values "thirteen", "13" and "Happy Birthday" respectively.

    2. Display the values of all three variables.

    3. Are these local or global variables?

    4. Remove VAR3.

    5. Can you see the two remaining variables in a new terminal window?

    6. Edit /etc/profile so that all users are greeted upon login (test
       this).

    7. For the root account, set the prompt to something like "Danger!!
       root is doing stuff in \w", preferably in a bright color such as red
       or pink or in reverse video mode.

    8. Make sure that newly created users also get a nice personalized
       prompt which informs them on which system in which directory they
       are working. Test your changes by adding a new user and logging in
       as that user.

    9. Write a script in which you assign two integer values to two
       variables. The script should calculate the surface of a rectangle
       which has these proportions. It should be aired with comments and
       generate elegant output.

   Don't forget to chmod your scripts!

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        Chapter 4. Regular expressions

     In this chapter we discuss:

       * Using regular expressions

       * Regular expression metacharacters

       * Finding patterns in files or output

       * Character ranges and classes in Bash

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           4.1. Regular expressions

4.1.1. What are regular expressions?

   A regular expression is a pattern that describes a set of strings.
   Regular expressions are constructed analogously to arithmetic
   expressions by using various operators to combine smaller expressions.

   The fundamental building blocks are the regular expressions that match a
   single character. Most characters, including all letters and digits, are
   regular expressions that match themselves. Any metacharacter with
   special meaning may be quoted by preceding it with a backslash.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.2. Regular expression metacharacters

   A regular expression may be followed by one of several repetition
   operators (metacharacters):

   Table 4-1. Regular expression operators

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Operator | Effect                                                    |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | .        | Matches any single character.                             |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | ?        | The preceding item is optional and will be matched, at    |
   |          | most, once.                                               |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | *        | The preceding item will be matched zero or more times.    |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | +        | The preceding item will be matched one or more times.     |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | {N}      | The preceding item is matched exactly N times.            |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | {N,}     | The preceding item is matched N or more times.            |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | {N,M}    | The preceding item is matched at least N times, but not   |
   |          | more than M times.                                        |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | -        | represents the range if it's not first or last in a list  |
   |          | or the ending point of a range in a list.                 |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | ^        | Matches the empty string at the beginning of a line; also |
   |          | represents the characters not in the range of a list.     |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | $        | Matches the empty string at the end of a line.            |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \b       | Matches the empty string at the edge of a word.           |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \B       | Matches the empty string provided it's not at the edge of |
   |          | a word.                                                   |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \<       | Match the empty string at the beginning of word.          |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \>       | Match the empty string at the end of word.                |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Two regular expressions may be concatenated; the resulting regular
   expression matches any string formed by concatenating two substrings
   that respectively match the concatenated subexpressions.

   Two regular expressions may be joined by the infix operator "|"; the
   resulting regular expression matches any string matching either
   subexpression.

   Repetition takes precedence over concatenation, which in turn takes
   precedence over alternation. A whole subexpression may be enclosed in
   parentheses to override these precedence rules.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.3. Basic versus extended regular expressions

   In basic regular expressions the metacharacters "?", "+", "{", "|", "(",
   and ")" lose their special meaning; instead use the backslashed versions
   "\?", "\+", "\{", "\|", "\(", and "\)".

   Check in your system documentation whether commands using regular
   expressions support extended expressions.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           4.2. Examples using grep

4.2.1. What is grep?

   grep searches the input files for lines containing a match to a given
   pattern list. When it finds a match in a line, it copies the line to
   standard output (by default), or whatever other sort of output you have
   requested with options.

   Though grep expects to do the matching on text, it has no limits on
   input line length other than available memory, and it can match
   arbitrary characters within a line. If the final byte of an input file
   is not a newline, grep silently supplies one. Since newline is also a
   separator for the list of patterns, there is no way to match newline
   characters in a text.

   Some examples:

   cathy ~> grep root /etc/passwd
   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
   operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

   cathy ~> grep -n root /etc/passwd
   1:root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
   12:operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

   cathy ~> grep -v bash /etc/passwd | grep -v nologin
   sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync
   shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
   halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
   news:x:9:13:news:/var/spool/news:
   mailnull:x:47:47::/var/spool/mqueue:/dev/null
   xfs:x:43:43:X Font Server:/etc/X11/fs:/bin/false
   rpc:x:32:32:Portmapper RPC user:/:/bin/false
   nscd:x:28:28:NSCD Daemon:/:/bin/false
   named:x:25:25:Named:/var/named:/bin/false
   squid:x:23:23::/var/spool/squid:/dev/null
   ldap:x:55:55:LDAP User:/var/lib/ldap:/bin/false
   apache:x:48:48:Apache:/var/www:/bin/false

   cathy ~> grep -c false /etc/passwd
   7

   cathy ~> grep -i ps ~/.bash* | grep -v history
   /home/cathy/.bashrc:PS1="\[\033[1;44m\]$USER is in \w\[\033[0m\] "

   With the first command, user cathy displays the lines from /etc/passwd
   containing the string root.

   Then she displays the line numbers containing this search string.

   With the third command she checks which users are not using bash, but
   accounts with the nologin shell are not displayed.

   Then she counts the number of accounts that have /bin/false as the
   shell.

   The last command displays the lines from all the files in her home
   directory starting with ~/.bash, excluding matches containing the string
   history, so as to exclude matches from ~/.bash_history which might
   contain the same string, in upper or lower cases. Note that the search
   is for the string "ps", and not for the command ps.

   Now let's see what else we can do with grep, using regular expressions.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.2. Grep and regular expressions

   [189]Note If you are not on Linux
             We use GNU grep in these examples, which supports extended
             regular expressions. GNU grep is the default on Linux systems.
             If you are working on proprietary systems, check with the -V
             option which version you are using. GNU grep can be downloaded
             from [http://gnu.org/directory/] http://gnu.org/directory/.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4.2.2.1. Line and word anchors

   From the previous example, we now exclusively want to display lines
   starting with the string "root":

   cathy ~> grep ^root /etc/passwd
   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

   If we want to see which accounts have no shell assigned whatsoever, we
   search for lines ending in ":":

   cathy ~> grep :$ /etc/passwd
   news:x:9:13:news:/var/spool/news:

   To check that PATH is exported in ~/.bashrc, first select "export" lines
   and then search for lines starting with the string "PATH", so as not to
   display MANPATH and other possible paths:

cathy ~> grep export ~/.bashrc | grep '\<PATH'
  export PATH="/bin:/usr/lib/mh:/lib:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/ucb:/usr/dbin:$PATH"

   Similarly, \> matches the end of a word.

   If you want to find a string that is a separate word (enclosed by
   spaces), it is better use the -w, as in this example where we are
   displaying information for the root partition:

   cathy ~> grep -w / /etc/fstab
   LABEL=/                 /                       ext3    defaults        1 1

   If this option is not used, all the lines from the file system table
   will be displayed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4.2.2.2. Character classes

   A bracket expression is a list of characters enclosed by "[" and "]". It
   matches any single character in that list; if the first character of the
   list is the caret, "^", then it matches any character NOT in the list.
   For example, the regular expression "[0123456789]" matches any single
   digit.

   Within a bracket expression, a range expression consists of two
   characters separated by a hyphen. It matches any single character that
   sorts between the two characters, inclusive, using the locale's
   collating sequence and character set. For example, in the default C
   locale, "[a-d]" is equivalent to "[abcd]". Many locales sort characters
   in dictionary order, and in these locales "[a-d]" is typically not
   equivalent to "[abcd]"; it might be equivalent to "[aBbCcDd]", for
   example. To obtain the traditional interpretation of bracket
   expressions, you can use the C locale by setting the LC_ALL environment
   variable to the value "C".

   Finally, certain named classes of characters are predefined within
   bracket expressions. See the grep man or info pages for more information
   about these predefined expressions.

   cathy ~> grep [yf] /etc/group
   sys:x:3:root,bin,adm
   tty:x:5:
   mail:x:12:mail,postfix
   ftp:x:50:
   nobody:x:99:
   floppy:x:19:
   xfs:x:43:
   nfsnobody:x:65534:
   postfix:x:89:

   In the example, all the lines containing either a "y" or "f" character
   are displayed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4.2.2.3. Wildcards

   Use the "." for a single character match. If you want to get a list of
   all five-character English dictionary words starting with "c" and ending
   in "h" (handy for solving crosswords):

   cathy ~> grep '\<c...h\>' /usr/share/dict/words
   catch
   clash
   cloth
   coach
   couch
   cough
   crash
   crush

   If you want to display lines containing the literal dot character, use
   the -F option to grep.

   For matching multiple characters, use the asterisk. This example selects
   all words starting with "c" and ending in "h" from the system's
   dictionary:

   cathy ~> grep '\<c.*h\>' /usr/share/dict/words
   caliph
   cash
   catch
   cheesecloth
   cheetah
   --output omitted--

   If you want to find the literal asterisk character in a file or output,
   use single quotes. Cathy in the example below first tries finding the
   asterisk character in /etc/profile without using quotes, which does not
   return any lines. Using quotes, output is generated:

   cathy ~> grep * /etc/profile

   cathy ~> grep '*' /etc/profile
   for i in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  4.3. Pattern matching using Bash features

4.3.1. Character ranges

   Apart from grep and regular expressions, there's a good deal of pattern
   matching that you can do directly in the shell, without having to use an
   external program.

   As you already know, the asterisk (*) and the question mark (?) match
   any string or any single character, respectively. Quote these special
   characters to match them literally:

   cathy ~> touch "*"

   cathy ~> ls "*"
   *

   But you can also use the square braces to match any enclosed character
   or range of characters, if pairs of characters are separated by a
   hyphen. An example:

   cathy ~> ls -ld [a-cx-z]*
   drwxr-xr-x    2 cathy    cathy          4096 Jul 20  2002 app-defaults/
   drwxrwxr-x    4 cathy    cathy          4096 May 25  2002 arabic/
   drwxrwxr-x    2 cathy    cathy          4096 Mar  4 18:30 bin/
   drwxr-xr-x    7 cathy    cathy          4096 Sep  2  2001 crossover/
   drwxrwxr-x    3 cathy    cathy          4096 Mar 22  2002 xml/

   This lists all files in cathy's home directory, starting with "a", "b",
   "c", "x", "y" or "z".

   If the first character within the braces is "!" or "^", any character
   not enclosed will be matched. To match the dash ("-"), include it as the
   first or last character in the set. The sorting depends on the current
   locale and of the value of the LC_COLLATE variable, if it is set. Mind
   that other locales might interpret "[a-cx-z]" as "[aBbCcXxYyZz]" if
   sorting is done in dictionary order. If you want to be sure to have the
   traditional interpretation of ranges, force this behavior by setting
   LC_COLLATE or LC_ALL to "C".

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3.2. Character classes

   Character classes can be specified within the square braces, using the
   syntax [:CLASS:], where CLASS is defined in the POSIX standard and has
   one of the values

   "alnum", "alpha", "ascii", "blank", "cntrl", "digit", "graph", "lower",
   "print", "punct", "space", "upper", "word" or "xdigit".

   Some examples:

  cathy ~> ls -ld [[:digit:]]*
  drwxrwxr-x    2 cathy   cathy           4096 Apr 20 13:45 2/

  cathy ~> ls -ld [[:upper:]]*
  drwxrwxr--    3 cathy   cathy           4096 Sep 30  2001 Nautilus/
  drwxrwxr-x    4 cathy   cathy           4096 Jul 11  2002 OpenOffice.org1.0/
  -rw-rw-r--    1 cathy   cathy         997376 Apr 18 15:39 Schedule.sdc

   When the extglob shell option is enabled (using the shopt built-in),
   several extended pattern matching operators are recognized. Read more in
   the Bash info pages, section Basic shell features->Shell
   Expansions->Filename Expansion->Pattern Matching.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 4.4. Summary

   Regular expressions are powerful tools for selecting particular lines
   from files or output. A lot of UNIX commands use regular expressions:
   vim, perl, the PostgreSQL database and so on. They can be made available
   in any language or application using external libraries, and they even
   found their way to non-UNIX systems. For instance, regular expressions
   are used in the Excell spreadsheet that comes with the MicroSoft Windows
   Office suite. In this chapter we got the feel of the grep command, which
   is indispensable in any UNIX environment.

   [190]Note The grep command can do much more than the few tasks we
             discussed here; we only used it as an example for regular
             expressions. The GNU grep version comes with plenty of
             documentation, which you are strongly advised to read!

   Bash has built-in features for matching patterns and can recognize
   character classes and ranges.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                4.5. Exercises

   These exercises will help you master regular expressions.

    1. Display a list of all the users on your system who log in with the
       Bash shell as a default.

    2. From the /etc/group directory, display all lines starting with the
       string "daemon".

    3. Print all the lines from the same file that don't contain the
       string.

    4. Display localhost information from the /etc/hosts file, display the
       line number(s) matching the search string and count the number of
       occurrences of the string.

    5. Display a list of /usr/share/doc subdirectories containing
       information about shells.

    6. How many README files do these subdirectories contain? Don't count
       anything in the form of "README.a_string".

    7. Make a list of files in your home directory that were changed less
       that 10 hours ago, using grep, but leave out directories.

    8. Put these commands in a shell script that will generate
       comprehensible output.

    9. Can you find an alternative for wc -l, using grep?

   10. Using the file system table (/etc/fstab for instance), list local
       disk devices.

   11. Make a script that checks whether a user exists in /etc/passwd. For
       now, you can specify the user name in the script, you don't have to
       work with arguments and conditionals at this stage.

   12. Display configuration files in /etc that contain numbers in their
       names.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                     Chapter 5. The GNU sed stream editor

     At the end of this chapter you will know about the following topics:

       * What is sed?

       * Interactive use of sed

       * Regular expressions and stream editing

       * Using sed commands in scripts



     [191]Note This is an introduction
               These explanations are far from complete and certainly not
               meant to be used as the definite user manual for sed. This
               chapter is only included in order to show some more
               interesting topics in the next chapters, and because every
               power user should have a basic knowledge of things that can
               be done with this editor.

               For detailed information, refer to the sed info and man
               pages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              5.1. Introduction

5.1.1. What is sed?

   A Stream EDitor is used to perform basic transformations on text read
   from a file or a pipe. The result is sent to standard output. The syntax
   for the sed command has no output file specification, but results can be
   saved to a file using output redirection. The editor does not modify the
   original input.

   What distinguishes sed from other editors, such as vi and ed, is its
   ability to filter text that it gets from a pipeline feed. You do not
   need to interact with the editor while it is running; that is why sed is
   sometimes called a batch editor. This feature allows use of editing
   commands in scripts, greatly easing repetitive editing tasks. When
   facing replacement of text in a large number of files, sed is a great
   help.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.2. sed commands

   The sed program can perform text pattern substitutions and deletions
   using regular expressions, like the ones used with the grep command; see
   [192]Section 4.2.

   The editing commands are similar to the ones used in the vi editor:

   Table 5-1. Sed editing commands

   +----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Command | Result                                         |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | a\      | Append text below current line.                |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | c\      | Change text in the current line with new text. |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | d       | Delete text.                                   |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | i\      | Insert text above current line.                |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | p       | Print text.                                    |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | r       | Read a file.                                   |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | s       | Search and replace text.                       |
   |---------+------------------------------------------------|
   | w       | Write to a file.                               |
   +----------------------------------------------------------+

   Apart from editing commands, you can give options to sed. An overview is
   in the table below:

   Table 5-2. Sed options

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Option    | Effect                                                   |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | -e SCRIPT | Add the commands in SCRIPT to the set of commands to be  |
   |           | run while processing the input.                          |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   |           | Add the commands contained in the file SCRIPT-FILE to    |
   | -f        | the set of commands to be run while processing the       |
   |           | input.                                                   |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | -n        | Silent mode.                                             |
   |-----------+----------------------------------------------------------|
   | -V        | Print version information and exit.                      |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The sed info pages contain more information; we only list the most
   frequently used commands and options here.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           5.2. Interactive editing

5.2.1. Printing lines containing a pattern

   This is something you can do with grep, of course, but you can't do a
   "find and replace" using that command. This is just to get you started.

   This is our example text file:

   sandy ~> cat -n example
        1  This is the first line of an example text.
        2  It is a text with erors.
        3  Lots of erors.
        4  So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.
        5  This is a line not containing any errors.
        6  This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   We want sed to find all the lines containing our search pattern, in this
   case "erors". We use the p to obtain the result:

   sandy ~> sed  '/erors/p' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   It is a text with erors.
   It is a text with erors.
   Lots of erors.
   Lots of erors.
   So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.
   So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.
   This is a line not containing any errors.
   This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   As you notice, sed prints the entire file, but the lines containing the
   search string are printed twice. This is not what we want. In order to
   only print those lines matching our pattern, use the -n option:

   sandy ~> sed -n '/erors/p' example
   It is a text with erors.
   Lots of erors.
   So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.

   sandy ~>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.2. Deleting lines of input containing a pattern

   We use the same example text file. Now we only want to see the lines not
   containing the search string:

   sandy ~> sed '/erors/d' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   This is a line not containing any errors.
   This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   The d command results in excluding lines from being displayed.

   Matching lines starting with a given pattern and ending in a second
   pattern are showed like this:

   sandy ~> sed -n '/^This.*errors.$/p' example
   This is a line not containing any errors.

   sandy ~>

   Note that the last dot needs to be escaped in order to actually match.
   In our example the expression just matches any character, including the
   last dot.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.3. Ranges of lines

   This time we want to take out the lines containing the errors. In the
   example these are lines 2 to 4. Specify this range to address, together
   with the d command:

   sandy ~> sed '2,4d' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   This is a line not containing any errors.
   This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   To print the file starting from a certain line until the end of the
   file, use a command similar to this:

   sandy ~> sed '3,$d' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   It is a text with erors.

   sandy ~>

   This only prints the first two lines of the example file.

   The following command prints the first line containing the pattern "a
   text", up to and including the next line containing the pattern "a
   line":

   sandy ~> sed -n '/a text/,/This/p' example
   It is a text with erors.
   Lots of erors.
   So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.
   This is a line not containing any errors.

   sandy ~>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.4. Find and replace with sed

   In the example file, we will now search and replace the errors instead
   of only (de)selecting the lines containing the search string.

   sandy ~> sed 's/erors/errors/' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   It is a text with errors.
   Lots of errors.
   So much errors, all these erors are making me sick.
   This is a line not containing any errors.
   This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   As you can see, this is not exactly the desired effect: in line 4, only
   the first occurrence of the search string has been replaced, and there
   is still an 'eror' left. Use the g command to indicate to sed that it
   should examine the entire line instead of stopping at the first
   occurrence of your string:

   sandy ~> sed 's/erors/errors/g' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   It is a text with errors.
   Lots of errors.
   So much errors, all these errors are making me sick.
   This is a line not containing any errors.
   This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   To insert a string at the beginning of each line of a file, for instance
   for quoting:

   sandy ~> sed 's/^/> /' example
   > This is the first line of an example text.
   > It is a text with erors.
   > Lots of erors.
   > So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.
   > This is a line not containing any errors.
   > This is the last line.

   sandy ~>

   Insert some string at the end of each line:

   sandy ~> sed 's/$/EOL/' example
   This is the first line of an example text.EOL
   It is a text with erors.EOL
   Lots of erors.EOL
   So much erors, all these erors are making me sick.EOL
   This is a line not containing any errors.EOL
   This is the last line.EOL

   sandy ~>

   Multiple find and replace commands are separated with individual -e
   options:

   sandy ~> sed -e 's/erors/errors/g' -e 's/last/final/g' example
   This is the first line of an example text.
   It is a text with errors.
   Lots of errors.
   So much errors, all these errors are making me sick.
   This is a line not containing any errors.
   This is the final line.

   sandy ~>

   Keep in mind that by default sed prints its results to the standard
   output, most likely your terminal window. If you want to save the output
   to a file, redirect it:

   sed option 'some/expression' file_to_process > sed_output_in_a_file

   [193]Tip More examples
            Plenty of sed examples can be found in the startup scripts for
            your machine, which are usually in /etc/init.d or
            /etc/rc.d/init.d. Change into the directory containing the
            initscripts on your system and issue the following command:

            grep sed *

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         5.3. Non-interactive editing

5.3.1. Reading sed commands from a file

   Multiple sed commands can be put in a file and executed using the -f
   option. When creating such a file, make sure that:

     * No trailing white spaces exist at the end of lines.

     * No quotes are used.

     * When entering text to add or replace, all except the last line end
       in a backslash.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.2. Writing output files

   Writing output is done using the output redirection operator >. This is
   an example script used to create very simple HTML files from plain text
   files.

sandy ~> cat script.sed
1i\
<html>\
<head><title>sed generated html</title></head>\
<body bgcolor="#ffffff">\
<pre>
$a\
</pre>\
</body>\
</html>

sandy ~> cat txt2html.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This is a simple script that you can use for converting text into HTML.
# First we take out all newline characters, so that the appending only happens
# once, then we replace the newlines.

echo "converting $1..."

SCRIPT="/home/sandy/scripts/script.sed"
NAME="$1"
TEMPFILE="/var/tmp/sed.$PID.tmp"
sed "s/\n/^M/" $1 | sed -f $SCRIPT | sed "s/^M/\n/" > $TEMPFILE
mv $TEMPFILE $NAME

echo "done."

sandy ~>

   $1 holds the first argument to a given command, in this case the name of
   the file to convert:

   sandy ~> cat test
   line1
   line2
   line3

   More on positional parameters in [194]Chapter 7.

   sandy ~> txt2html.sh test
   converting test...
   done.

   sandy ~> cat test
   <html>
   <head><title>sed generated html</title></head>
   <body bgcolor="#ffffff">
   <pre>
   line1
   line2
   line3
   </pre>
   </body>
   </html>

   sandy ~>

   This is not really how it is done; this example just demonstrates sed
   capabilities. See [195]Section 6.3 for a more decent solution to this
   problem, using awk BEGIN and END constructs.

   [196]Note Easy sed
             Advanced editors, supporting syntax highlighting, can
             recognize sed syntax. This can be a great help if you tend to
             forget backslashes and such.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 5.4. Summary

   The sed stream editor is a powerful command line tool, which can handle
   streams of data: it can take input lines from a pipe. This makes it fit
   for non-interactive use. The sed editor uses vi-like commands and
   accepts regular expressions.

   The sed tool can read commands from the command line or from a script.
   It is often used to perform find-and-replace actions on lines containing
   a pattern.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                5.5. Exercises

   These exercises are meant to further demonstrate what sed can do.

    1. Print a list of files in your scripts directory, ending in ".sh".
       Mind that you might have to unalias ls. Put the result in a
       temporary file.

    2. Make a list of files in /usr/bin that have the letter "a" as the
       second character. Put the result in a temporary file.

    3. Delete the first 3 lines of each temporary file.

    4. Print to standard output only the lines containing the pattern "an".

    5. Create a file holding sed commands to perform the previous two
       tasks. Add an extra command to this file that adds a string like
       "*** This might have something to do with man and man pages ***" in
       the line preceding every occurence of the string "man". Check the
       results.

    6. A long listing of the root directory, /, is used for input. Create a
       file holding sed commands that check for symbolic links and plain
       files. If a file is a symbolic link, precede it with a line like
       "--This is a symlink--". If the file is a plain file, add a string
       on the same line, adding a comment like "<--- this is a plain file".

    7. Create a script that shows lines containing trailing white spaces
       from a file. This script should use a sed script and show sensible
       information to the user.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                 Chapter 6. The GNU awk programming language

     In this chapter we will discuss:

       * What is gawk?

       * Using gawk commands on the command line

       * How to format text with gawk

       * How gawk uses regular expressions

       * Gawk in scripts

       * Gawk and variables

     [197]Note To make it more fun
               As with sed, entire books have been written about various
               versions of awk. This introduction is far from complete and
               is only intended for understanding examples in the following
               chapters. For more information, best start with the
               documentation that comes with GNU awk: "GAWK: Effective AWK
               Programming: A User's Guide for GNU Awk".

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        6.1. Getting started with gawk

6.1.1. What is gawk?

   Gawk is the GNU version of the commonly available UNIX awk program,
   another popular stream editor. Since the awk program is often just a
   link to gawk, we will refer to it as awk.

   The basic function of awk is to search files for lines or other text
   units containing one or more patterns. When a line matches one of the
   patterns, special actions are performed on that line.

   Programs in awk are different from programs in most other languages,
   because awk programs are "data-driven": you describe the data you want
   to work with and then what to do when you find it. Most other languages
   are "procedural." You have to describe, in great detail, every step the
   program is to take. When working with procedural languages, it is
   usually much harder to clearly describe the data your program will
   process. For this reason, awk programs are often refreshingly easy to
   read and write.

   [198]Note What does it really mean?
             Back in the 1970s, three programmers got together to create
             this language. Their names were Aho, Kernighan and Weinberger.
             They took the first character of each of their names and put
             them together. So the name of the language might just as well
             have been "wak".

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.2. Gawk commands

   When you run awk, you specify an awk program that tells awk what to do.
   The program consists of a series of rules. (It may also contain function
   definitions, loops, conditions and other programming constructs,
   advanced features that we will ignore for now.) Each rule specifies one
   pattern to search for and one action to perform upon finding the
   pattern.

   There are several ways to run awk. If the program is short, it is
   easiest to run it on the command line:

   awk PROGRAM inputfile(s)

   If multiple changes have to be made, possibly regularly and on multiple
   files, it is easier to put the awk commands in a script. This is read
   like this:

   awk -f PROGRAM-FILE inputfile(s)

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            6.2. The print program

6.2.1. Printing selected fields

   The print command in awk outputs selected data from the input file.

   When awk reads a line of a file, it divides the line in fields based on
   the specified input field separator, FS, which is an awk variable (see
   [199]Section 6.3.2). This variable is predefined to be one or more
   spaces or tabs.

   The variables $1, $2, $3, ..., $N hold the values of the first, second,
   third until the last field of an input line. The variable $0 (zero)
   holds the value of the entire line. This is depicted in the image below,
   where we see six colums in the output of the df command:

   Figure 6-1. Fields in awk

   In the output of ls -l, there are 9 columns. The print statement uses
   these fields as follows:

   kelly@octarine ~/test> ls -l | awk '{ print $5 $9 }'
   160orig
   121script.sed
   120temp_file
   126test
   120twolines
   441txt2html.sh

   kelly@octarine ~/test>

   This command printed the fifth column of a long file listing, which
   contains the file size, and the last column, the name of the file. This
   output is not very readable unless you use the official way of referring
   to columns, which is to separate the ones that you want to print with a
   comma. In that case, the default output separater character, usually a
   space, will be put in between each output field.

   [200]Note Local configuration
             Note that the configuration of the output of the ls -l command
             might be different on your system. Display of time and date is
             dependent on your locale setting.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.2. Formatting fields

   Without formatting, using only the output separator, the output looks
   rather poor. Inserting a couple of tabs and a string to indicate what
   output this is will make it look a lot better:

   kelly@octarine ~/test> ls -ldh * | grep -v total | \
   awk '{ print "Size is " $5 " bytes for " $9 }'
   Size is 160 bytes for orig
   Size is 121 bytes for script.sed
   Size is 120 bytes for temp_file
   Size is 126 bytes for test
   Size is 120 bytes for twolines
   Size is 441 bytes for txt2html.sh

   kelly@octarine ~/test>

   Note the use of the backslash, which makes long input continue on the
   next line without the shell interpreting this as a separate command.
   While your command line input can be of virtually unlimited length, your
   monitor is not, and printed paper certainly isn't. Using the backslash
   also allows for copying and pasting of the above lines into a terminal
   window.

   The -h option to ls is used for supplying humanly readable size formats
   for bigger files. The output of a long listing displaying the total
   amount of blocks in the directory is given when a directory is the
   argument. This line is useless to us, so we add an asterisk. We also add
   the -d option for the same reason, in case asterisk expands to a
   directory.

   The backslash in this example marks the continuation of a line. See
   [201]Section 3.3.2.

   You can take out any number of columns and even reverse the order. In
   the example below this is demonstrated for showing the most critical
   partitions:

   kelly@octarine ~> df -h | sort -rnk 5 | head -3 | \
   awk '{ print "Partition " $6 "\t: " $5 " full!" }'
   Partition /var  : 86% full!
   Partition /usr  : 85% full!
   Partition /home : 70% full!

   kelly@octarine ~>

   The table below gives an overview of special formatting characters:

   Table 6-1. Formatting characters for gawk

   +------------------------------+
   | Sequence | Meaning           |
   |----------+-------------------|
   | \a       | Bell character    |
   |----------+-------------------|
   | \n       | Newline character |
   |----------+-------------------|
   | \t       | Tab               |
   +------------------------------+

   Quotes, dollar signs and other meta-characters should be escaped with a
   backslash.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.3. The print command and regular expressions

   A regular expression can be used as a pattern by enclosing it in
   slashes. The regular expression is then tested against the entire text
   of each record. The syntax is as follows:

   awk 'EXPRESSION { PROGRAM }' file(s)

   The following example displays only local disk device information,
   networked file systems are not shown:

   kelly is in ~> df -h | awk '/dev\/hd/ { print $6 "\t: " $5 }'
   /       : 46%
   /boot   : 10%
   /opt    : 84%
   /usr    : 97%
   /var    : 73%
   /.vol1  : 8%

   kelly is in ~>

   Slashes need to be escaped, because they have a special meaning to the
   awk program.

   Below another example where we search the /etc directory for files
   ending in ".conf" and starting with either "a" or "x", using extended
   regular expressions:

   kelly is in /etc> ls -l | awk '/\<(a|x).*\.conf$/ { print $9 }'
   amd.conf
   antivir.conf
   xcdroast.conf
   xinetd.conf

   kelly is in /etc>

   This example illustrates the special meaning of the dot in regular
   expressions: the first one indicates that we want to search for any
   character after the first search string, the second is escaped because
   it is part of a string to find (the end of the file name).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.4. Special patterns

   In order to precede output with comments, use the BEGIN statement:

   kelly is in /etc> ls -l | \
   awk 'BEGIN { print "Files found:\n" } /\<[a|x].*\.conf$/ { print $9 }'
   Files found:
   amd.conf
   antivir.conf
   xcdroast.conf
   xinetd.conf

   kelly is in /etc>

   The END statement can be added for inserting text after the entire input
   is processed:

   kelly is in /etc> ls -l | \
   awk '/\<[a|x].*\.conf$/ { print $9 } END { print \
   "Can I do anything else for you, mistress?" }'
   amd.conf
   antivir.conf
   xcdroast.conf
   xinetd.conf
   Can I do anything else for you, mistress?

   kelly is in /etc>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.5. Gawk scripts

   As commands tend to get a little longer, you might want to put them in a
   script, so they are reusable. An awk script contains awk statements
   defining patterns and actions.

   As an illustration, we will build a report that displays our most loaded
   partitions. See [202]Section 6.2.2.

   kelly is in ~> cat diskrep.awk
   BEGIN { print "*** WARNING WARNING WARNING ***" }
   /\<[8|9][0-9]%/ { print "Partition " $6 "\t: " $5 " full!" }
   END { print "*** Give money for new disks URGENTLY! ***" }

   kelly is in ~> df -h | awk -f diskrep.awk
   *** WARNING WARNING WARNING ***
   Partition /usr  : 97% full!
   *** Give money for new disks URGENTLY! ***

   kelly is in ~>

   awk first prints a begin message, then formats all the lines that
   contain an eight or a nine at the beginning of a word, followed by one
   other number and a percentage sign. An end message is added.

   [203]Note Syntax highlighting
             Awk is a programming language. Its syntax is recognized by
             most editors that can do syntax highlighting for other
             languages, such as C, Bash, HTML, etc.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             6.3. Gawk variables

   As awk is processing the input file, it uses several variables. Some are
   editable, some are read-only.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.1. The input field separator

   The field separator, which is either a single character or a regular
   expression, controls the way awk splits up an input record into fields.
   The input record is scanned for character sequences that match the
   separator definition; the fields themselves are the text between the
   matches.

   The field separator is represented by the built-in variable FS. Note
   that this is something different from the IFS variable used by
   POSIX-compliant shells.

   The value of the field separator variable can be changed in the awk
   program with the assignment operator =. Often the right time to do this
   is at the beginning of execution before any input has been processed, so
   that the very first record is read with the proper separator. To do
   this, use the special BEGIN pattern.

   In the example below, we build a command that displays all the users on
   your system with a description:

   kelly is in ~> awk 'BEGIN { FS=":" } { print $1 "\t" $5 }' /etc/passwd
   --output omitted--
   kelly   Kelly Smith
   franky  Franky B.
   eddy    Eddy White
   willy   William Black
   cathy   Catherine the Great
   sandy   Sandy Li Wong

   kelly is in ~>

   In an awk script, it would look like this:

   kelly is in ~> cat printnames.awk
   BEGIN { FS=":" }
   { print $1 "\t" $5 }

   kelly is in ~> awk -f printnames.awk /etc/passwd
   --output omitted--

   Choose input field separators carefully to prevent problems. An example
   to illustrate this: say you get input in the form of lines that look
   like this:

   "Sandy L. Wong, 64 Zoo St., Antwerp, 2000X"

   You write a command line or a script, which prints out the name of the
   person in that record:

   awk 'BEGIN { FS="," } { print $1, $2, $3 }' inputfile

   But a person might have a PhD, and it might be written like this:

   "Sandy L. Wong, PhD, 64 Zoo St., Antwerp, 2000X"

   Your awk will give the wrong output for this line. If needed, use an
   extra awk or sed to uniform data input formats.

   The default input field separator is one or more whitespaces or tabs.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.2. The output separators

  6.3.2.1. The output field separator

   Fields are normally separated by spaces in the output. This becomes
   apparent when you use the correct syntax for the print command, where
   arguments are separated by commas:

   kelly@octarine ~/test> cat test
   record1         data1
   record2         data2

   kelly@octarine ~/test> awk '{ print $1 $2}' test
   record1data1
   record2data2

   kelly@octarine ~/test> awk '{ print $1, $2}' test
   record1 data1
   record2 data2

   kelly@octarine ~/test>

   If you don't put in the commas, print will treat the items to output as
   one argument, thus omitting the use of the default output separator,
   OFS.

   Any character string may be used as the output field separator by
   setting this built-in variable.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  6.3.2.2. The output record separator

   The output from an entire print statement is called an output record.
   Each print command results in one output record, and then outputs a
   string called the output record separator, ORS. The default value for
   this variable is "\n", a newline character. Thus, each print statement
   generates a separate line.

   To change the way output fields and records are separated, assign new
   values to OFS and ORS:

   kelly@octarine ~/test> awk 'BEGIN { OFS=";" ; ORS="\n-->\n" } \
   { print $1,$2}' test
   record1;data1
   -->
   record2;data2
   -->

   kelly@octarine ~/test>

   If the value of ORS does not contain a newline, the program's output is
   run together on a single line.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.3. The number of records

   The built-in NR holds the number of records that are processed. It is
   incremented after reading a new input line. You can use it at the end to
   count the total number of records, or in each output record:

   kelly@octarine ~/test> cat processed.awk
   BEGIN { OFS="-" ; ORS="\n--> done\n" }
   { print "Record number " NR ":\t" $1,$2 }
   END { print "Number of records processed: " NR }

   kelly@octarine ~/test> awk -f processed.awk test
   Record number 1:        record1-data1
   --> done
   Record number 2:        record2-data2
   --> done
   Number of records processed: 2
   --> done

   kelly@octarine ~/test>

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.4. User defined variables

   Apart from the built-in variables, you can define your own. When awk
   encounters a reference to a variable which does not exist (which is not
   predefined), the variable is created and initialized to a null string.
   For all subsequent references, the value of the variable is whatever
   value was assigned last. Variables can be a string or a numeric value.
   Content of input fields can also be assigned to variables.

   Values can be assigned directly using the = operator, or you can use the
   current value of the variable in combination with other operators:

   kelly@octarine ~> cat revenues
   20021009        20021013        consultancy     BigComp         2500
   20021015        20021020        training        EduComp         2000
   20021112        20021123        appdev          SmartComp       10000
   20021204        20021215        training        EduComp         5000

   kelly@octarine ~> cat total.awk
   { total=total + $5 }
   { print "Send bill for " $5 " dollar to " $4 }
   END { print "---------------------------------\nTotal revenue: " total }

   kelly@octarine ~> awk -f total.awk test
   Send bill for 2500 dollar to BigComp
   Send bill for 2000 dollar to EduComp
   Send bill for 10000 dollar to SmartComp
   Send bill for 5000 dollar to EduComp
   ---------------------------------
   Total revenue: 19500

   kelly@octarine ~>

   C-like shorthands like VAR+= value are also accepted.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.5. More examples

   The example from [204]Section 5.3.2 becomes much easier when we use an
   awk script:

kelly@octarine ~/html> cat make-html-from-text.awk
BEGIN { print "<html>\n<head><title>Awk-generated HTML</title></head>\n<body bgcolor=\"#ffffff\">\n<pre>" }
{ print $0 }
END { print "</pre>\n</body>\n</html>" }

   And the command to execute is also much more straightforward when using
   awk instead of sed:

   kelly@octarine ~/html> awk -f make-html-from-text.awk testfile > file.html

   [205]Tip Awk examples on your system
            We refer again to the directory containing the initscripts on
            your system. Enter a command similar to the following to see
            more practical examples of the widely spread usage of the awk
            command:

            grep awk /etc/init.d/*

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.6. The printf program

   For more precise control over the output format than what is normally
   provided by print, use printf. The printf command can be used to specify
   the field width to use for each item, as well as various formatting
   choices for numbers (such as what output base to use, whether to print
   an exponent, whether to print a sign, and how many digits to print after
   the decimal point). This is done by supplying a string, called the
   format string, that controls how and where to print the other arguments.

   The syntax is the same as for the C-language printf statement; see your
   C introduction guide. The gawk info pages contain full explanations.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 6.4. Summary

   The gawk utility interprets a special-purpose programming language,
   handling simple data-reformatting jobs with just a few lines of code. It
   is the free version of the general UNIX awk command.

   This tools reads lines of input data and can easily recognize columned
   output. The print program is the most common for filtering and
   formatting defined fields.

   On-the-fly variable declaration is straightforward and allows for simple
   calculation of sums, statistics and other operations on the processed
   input stream. Variables and commands can be put in awk scripts for
   background processing.

   Other things you should know about awk:

     * The language remains well-known on UNIX and alikes, but for
       executing similar tasks, Perl is now more commonly used. However,
       awk has a much steeper learning curve (meaning that you learn a lot
       in a very short time). In other words, Perl is more difficult to
       learn.

     * Both Perl and awk share the reputation of being incomprehensible,
       even to the actual authors of the programs that use these languages.
       So document your code!

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                6.5. Exercises

   These are some practical examples where awk can be useful.

    1. For the first exercise, your input is lines in the following form:

       Username:Firstname:Lastname:Telephone number

       Make an awk script that will convert such a line to an LDAP record
       in this format:

       dn: uid=Username, dc=example, dc=com
       cn: Firstname Lastname
       sn: Lastname
       telephoneNumber: Telephone number

       Create a file containing a couple of test records and check.

    2. Create a Bash script using awk and standard UNIX commands that will
       show the top three users of disk space in the /home file system (if
       you don't have the directory holding the homes on a separate
       partition, make the script for the / partition; this is present on
       every UNIX system). First, execute the commands from the command
       line. Then put them in a script. The script should create sensible
       output (sensible as in readable by the boss). If everything proves
       to work, have the script email its results to you (use for instance
       mail -s Disk space usage <[206]you@your_comp> < result).

       If the quota daemon is running, use that information; if not, use
       find.

    3. Create XML-style output from a Tab-separated list in the following
       form:

Meaning very long line with a lot of description

meaning another long line

othermeaning    more longline

testmeaning     looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooong line, but i mean really looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooong.


       The output should read:

<row>
<entry>Meaning</entry>
<entry>
very long line
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>meaning</entry>
<entry>
long line
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entryothermeaning</entry>
<entry>
more longline
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entrytestmeaning</entry>
<entry>
looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooong line, but i mean really looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooong.
</entry>
</row>

       Additionally, if you know anything about XML, write a BEGIN and END
       script to complete the table. Or do it in HTML.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                      Chapter 7. Conditional statements

     In this chapter we will discuss the use of conditionals in Bash
     scripts. This includes the following topics:



       * The if statement

       * Using the exit status of a command

       * Comparing and testing input and files

       * if/then/else constructs

       * if/then/elif/else constructs

       * Using and testing the positional parameters

       * Nested if statements

       * Boolean expressions

       * Using case statements

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           7.1. Introduction to if

7.1.1. General

   At times you need to specify different courses of action to be taken in
   a shell script, depending on the success or failure of a command. The if
   construction allows you to specify such conditions.

   The most compact syntax of the if command is:

   if TEST-COMMANDS; then CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS; fi

   The TEST-COMMAND list is executed, and if its return status is zero, the
   CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list is executed. The return status is the exit
   status of the last command executed, or zero if no condition tested
   true.

   The TEST-COMMAND often involves numerical or string comparison tests,
   but it can also be any command that returns a status of zero when it
   succeeds and some other status when it fails. Unary expressions are
   often used to examine the status of a file. If the FILE argument to one
   of the primaries is of the form /dev/fd/N, then file descriptor "N" is
   checked. stdin, stdout and stderr and their respective file descriptors
   may also be used for tests.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.1.1.1. Expressions used with if

   The table below contains an overview of the so-called "primaries" that
   make up the TEST-COMMAND command or list of commands. These primaries
   are put between square brackets to indicate the test of a conditional
   expression.

   Table 7-1. Primary expressions

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Primary               | Meaning                                      |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -a FILE ]           | True if FILE exists.                         |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -b FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a block-special   |
   |                       | file.                                        |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -c FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a                 |
   |                       | character-special file.                      |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -d FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a directory.      |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -e FILE ]           | True if FILE exists.                         |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -f FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a regular file.   |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -g FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and its SGID bit is set. |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -h FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a symbolic link.  |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -k FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and its sticky bit is    |
   |                       | set.                                         |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -p FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a named pipe      |
   |                       | (FIFO).                                      |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -r FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is readable.         |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -s FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and has a size greater   |
   |                       | than zero.                                   |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -t FD ]             | True if file descriptor FD is open and       |
   |                       | refers to a terminal.                        |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -u FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and its SUID (set user   |
   |                       | ID) bit is set.                              |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -w FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is writable.         |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -x FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is executable.       |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -O FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is owned by the      |
   |                       | effective user ID.                           |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -G FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is owned by the      |
   |                       | effective group ID.                          |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -L FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a symbolic link.  |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -N FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and has been modified    |
   |                       | since it was last read.                      |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -S FILE ]           | True if FILE exists and is a socket.         |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   |                       | True if FILE1 has been changed more recently |
   | [ FILE1 -nt FILE2 ]   | than FILE2, or if FILE1 exists and FILE2     |
   |                       | does not.                                    |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ FILE1 -ot FILE2 ]   | True if FILE1 is older than FILE2, or is     |
   |                       | FILE2 exists and FILE1 does not.             |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ FILE1 -ef FILE2 ]   | True if FILE1 and FILE2 refer to the same    |
   |                       | device and inode numbers.                    |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -o OPTIONNAME ]     | True if shell option "OPTIONNAME" is         |
   |                       | enabled.                                     |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -z STRING ]         | True of the length if "STRING" is zero.      |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ -n STRING ] or [    | True if the length of "STRING" is non-zero.  |
   | STRING ]              |                                              |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ STRING1 == STRING2  | True if the strings are equal. "=" may be    |
   | ]                     | used instead of "==" for strict POSIX        |
   |                       | compliance.                                  |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ STRING1 != STRING2  | True if the strings are not equal.           |
   | ]                     |                                              |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ STRING1 < STRING2 ] | True if "STRING1" sorts before "STRING2"     |
   |                       | lexicographically in the current locale.     |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   | [ STRING1 > STRING2 ] | True if "STRING1" sorts after "STRING2"      |
   |                       | lexicographically in the current locale.     |
   |-----------------------+----------------------------------------------|
   |                       | "OP" is one of -eq, -ne, -lt, -le, -gt or    |
   |                       | -ge. These arithmetic binary operators       |
   |                       | return true if "ARG1" is equal to, not equal |
   | [ ARG1 OP ARG2 ]      | to, less than, less than or equal to,        |
   |                       | greater than, or greater than or equal to    |
   |                       | "ARG2", respectively. "ARG1" and "ARG2" are  |
   |                       | integers.                                    |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Expressions may be combined using the following operators, listed in
   decreasing order of precedence:

   Table 7-2. Combining expressions

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Operation          | Effect                                          |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   | [ ! EXPR ]         | True if EXPR is false.                          |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   | [ ( EXPR ) ]       | Returns the value of EXPR. This may be used to  |
   |                    | override the normal precedence of operators.    |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   | [ EXPR1 -a EXPR2 ] | True if both EXPR1 and EXPR2 are true.          |
   |--------------------+-------------------------------------------------|
   | [ EXPR1 -o EXPR2 ] | True if either EXPR1 or EXPR2 is true.          |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The [ (or test) built-in evaluates conditional expressions using a set
   of rules based on the number of arguments. More information about this
   subject can be found in the Bash documentation. Just like the if is
   closed with fi, the opening square bracket should be closed after the
   conditions have been listed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.1.1.2. Commands following the then statement

   The CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list that follows the then statement can be any
   valid UNIX command, any executable program, any executable shell script
   or any shell statement, with the exception of the closing fi. It is
   important to remember that the then and fi are considered to be
   separated statements in the shell. Therefore, when issued on the command
   line, they are separated by a semi-colon.

   In a script, the different parts of the if statement are usually
   well-separated. Below, a couple of simple examples.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.1.1.3. Checking files

   The first example checks for the existence of a file:

   anny ~> cat msgcheck.sh
   #!/bin/bash

   echo "This scripts checks the existence of the messages file."
   echo "Checking..."
   if [ -f /var/log/messages ]
     then
       echo "/var/log/messages exists."
   fi
   echo
   echo "...done."

   anny ~> ./msgcheck.sh
   This scripts checks the existence of the messages file.
   Checking...
   /var/log/messages exists.

   ...done.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.1.1.4. Checking shell options

   To add in your Bash configuration files:

# These lines will print a message if the noclobber option is set:

if [ -o noclobber ]
  then
        echo "Your files are protected against accidental overwriting using redirection."
fi

[207]Note The environment
          The above example will work when entered on the command line:

          anny ~> if [ -o noclobber ] ; then echo ; echo "your files are protected
          against overwriting." ; echo ; fi

          your files are protected against overwriting.

          anny ~>

          However, if you use testing of conditions that depend on the
          environment, you might get different results when you enter the same
          command in a script, because the script will open a new shell, in which
          expected variables and options might not be set automatically.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.2. Simple applications of if

  7.1.2.1. Testing exit status

   The ? variable holds the exit status of the previously executed command
   (the most recently completed foreground process).

   The following example shows a simple test:

   anny ~> if [ $? -eq 0 ]
   More input> then echo 'That was a good job!'
   More input> fi
   That was a good job!

   anny ~>

   The following example demonstrates that TEST-COMMANDS might be any UNIX
   command that returns an exit status, and that if again returns an exit
   status of zero:

   anny ~> if ! grep $USER /etc/passwd
   More input> then echo "your user account is not managed locally"; fi
   your user account is not managed locally

   anny > echo $?
   0

   anny >

   The same result can be obtained as follows:

   anny > grep $USER /etc/passwd

   anny > if [ $? -ne 0 ] ; then echo "not a local account" ; fi
   not a local account

   anny >

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.1.2.2. Numeric comparisons

   The examples below use numerical comparisons:

   anny > num=`wc -l work.txt`

   anny > echo $num
   201

   anny > if [ "$num" -gt "150" ]
   More input> then echo ; echo "you've worked hard enough for today."
   More input> echo ; fi

   you've worked hard enough for today.


   anny >

   This script is executed by cron every Sunday. If the week number is
   even, it reminds you to put out the garbage cans:

#!/bin/bash

# Calculate the week number using the date command:

WEEKOFFSET=$[ $(date +"%V") % 2 ]

# Test if we have a remainder.  If not, this is an even week so send a message.
# Else, do nothing.

if [ $WEEKOFFSET -eq "0" ]; then
  echo "Sunday evening, put out the garbage cans." | mail -s "Garbage cans out" your@your_domain.org
fi

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.1.2.3. String comparisons

   An example of comparing strings for testing the user ID:

   if [ "$(whoami)" != 'root' ]; then
           echo "You have no permission to run $0 as non-root user."
           exit 1;
   fi

   With Bash, you can shorten this type of construct. The compact
   equivalent of the above test is as follows:

[ "$(whoami)" != 'root' ] && ( echo you are using a non-privileged account; exit 1 )

   Similar to the "&&" expression which indicates what to do if the test
   proves true, "||" specifies what to do if the test is false.

   Regular expressions may also be used in comparisons:

   anny > gender="female"

   anny > if [[ "$gender" == f* ]]
   More input> then echo "Pleasure to meet you, Madame."; fi
   Pleasure to meet you, Madame.

   anny >

[208]Note Real Programmers
          Most programmers will prefer to use the test built-in command, which is equivalent
          to using square brackets for comparison, like this:

          test "$(whoami)" != 'root' && (echo you are using a non-privileged account; exit 1)

   [209]Note No exit?
             If you invoke the exit in a subshell, it will not pass
             variables to the parent. Use { and } instead of ( and ) if you
             do not want Bash to fork a subshell.

   See the info pages for Bash for more information on pattern matching
   with the "(( EXPRESSION ))" and "[[ EXPRESSION ]]" constructs.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         7.2. More advanced if usage

7.2.1. if/then/else constructs

  7.2.1.1. Dummy example

   This is the construct to use to take one course of action if the if
   commands test true, and another if it tests false. An example:

   freddy scripts> gender="male"

   freddy scripts> if [[ "$gender" == "f*" ]]
   More input> then echo "Pleasure to meet you, Madame."
   More input> else echo "How come the lady hasn't got a drink yet?"
   More input> fi
   How come the lady hasn't got a drink yet?

   freddy scripts>

   [210]Important [] vs. [[]]
                  Contrary to [, [[ prevents word splitting of variable
                  values. So, if VAR="var with spaces", you do not need to
                  double quote $VAR in a test - eventhough using quotes
                  remains a good habit. Also, [[ prevents pathname
                  expansion, so literal strings with wildcards do not try
                  to expand to filenames. Using [[, == and != interpret
                  strings to the right as shell glob patterns to be matched
                  against the value to the left, for instance: [[ "value"
                  == val* ]].

   Like the CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list following the then statement, the
   ALTERNATE-CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list following the else statement can hold
   any UNIX-style command that returns an exit status.

   Another example, extending the one from [211]Section 7.1.2.1:

   anny ~> su -
   Password:
   [root@elegance root]# if ! grep ^$USER /etc/passwd 1> /dev/null
   > then echo "your user account is not managed locally"
   > else echo "your account is managed from the local /etc/passwd file"
   > fi
   your account is managed from the local /etc/passwd file
   [root@elegance root]#

   We switch to the root account to demonstrate the effect of the else
   statement - your root is usually a local account while your own user
   account might be managed by a central system, such as an LDAP server.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.2.1.2. Checking command line arguments

   Instead of setting a variable and then executing a script, it is
   frequently more elegant to put the values for the variables on the
   command line.

   We use the positional parameters $1, $2, ..., $N for this purpose. $#
   refers to the number of command line arguments. $0 refers to the name of
   the script.

   The following is a simple example:

   Figure 7-1. Testing of a command line argument with if

   Here's another example, using two arguments:

   anny ~> cat weight.sh
   #!/bin/bash

   # This script prints a message about your weight if you give it your
   # weight in kilos and height in centimeters.

   weight="$1"
   height="$2"
   idealweight=$[$height - 110]

   if [ $weight -le $idealweight ] ; then
     echo "You should eat a bit more fat."
   else
     echo "You should eat a bit more fruit."
   fi

   anny ~> bash -x weight.sh 55 169
   + weight=55
   + height=169
   + idealweight=59
   + '[' 55 -le 59 ']'
   + echo 'You should eat a bit more fat.'
   You should eat a bit more fat.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.2.1.3. Testing the number of arguments

   The following example shows how to change the previous script so that it
   prints a message if more or less than 2 arguments are given:

   anny ~> cat weight.sh
   #!/bin/bash

   # This script prints a message about your weight if you give it your
   # weight in kilos and height in centimeters.

   if [ ! $# == 2 ]; then
     echo "Usage: $0 weight_in_kilos length_in_centimeters"
     exit
   fi

   weight="$1"
   height="$2"
   idealweight=$[$height - 110]

   if [ $weight -le $idealweight ] ; then
     echo "You should eat a bit more fat."
   else
     echo "You should eat a bit more fruit."
   fi

   anny ~> weight.sh 70 150
   You should eat a bit more fruit.

   anny ~> weight.sh 70 150 33
   Usage: ./weight.sh weight_in_kilos length_in_centimeters

   The first argument is referred to as $1, the second as $2 and so on. The
   total number of arguments is stored in $#.

   Check out [212]Section 7.2.5 for a more elegant way to print usage
   messages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.2.1.4. Testing that a file exists

   This test is done in a lot of scripts, because there's no use in
   starting a lot of programs if you know they're not going to work:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script gives information about a file.

   FILENAME="$1"

   echo "Properties for $FILENAME:"

   if [ -f $FILENAME ]; then
     echo "Size is $(ls -lh $FILENAME | awk '{ print $5 }')"
     echo "Type is $(file $FILENAME | cut -d":" -f2 -)"
     echo "Inode number is $(ls -i $FILENAME | cut -d" " -f1 -)"
     echo "$(df -h $FILENAME | grep -v Mounted | awk '{ print "On",$1", \
   which is mounted as the",$6,"partition."}')"
   else
     echo "File does not exist."
   fi

   Note that the file is referred to using a variable; in this case it is
   the first argument to the script. Alternatively, when no arguments are
   given, file locations are usually stored in variables at the beginning
   of a script, and their content is referred to using these variables.
   Thus, when you want to change a file name in a script, you only need to
   do it once.

   [213]Tip Filenames with spaces
            The above example will fail if the value of $1 can be parsed as
            multiple words. In that case, the if command can be fixed
            either using double quotes around the filename, or by using [[
            instead of [.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.2. if/then/elif/else constructs

  7.2.2.1. General

   This is the full form of the if statement:

   if TEST-COMMANDS; then

   CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS;

   elif MORE-TEST-COMMANDS; then

   MORE-CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS;

   else ALTERNATE-CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS;

   fi

   The TEST-COMMANDS list is executed, and if its return status is zero,
   the CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list is executed. If TEST-COMMANDS returns a
   non-zero status, each elif list is executed in turn, and if its exit
   status is zero, the corresponding MORE-CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS is executed
   and the command completes. If else is followed by an
   ALTERNATE-CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list, and the final command in the final
   if or elif clause has a non-zero exit status, then
   ALTERNATE-CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS is executed. The return status is the exit
   status of the last command executed, or zero if no condition tested
   true.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  7.2.2.2. Example

   This is an example that you can put in your crontab for daily execution:

anny /etc/cron.daily> cat disktest.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This script does a very simple test for checking disk space.

space=`df -h | awk '{print $5}' | grep % | grep -v Use | sort -n | tail -1 | cut -d "%" -f1 -`
alertvalue="80"

if [ "$space" -ge "$alertvalue" ]; then
  echo "At least one of my disks is nearly full!" | mail -s "daily diskcheck" root
else
  echo "Disk space normal" | mail -s "daily diskcheck" root
fi

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.3. Nested if statements

   Inside the if statement, you can use another if statement. You may use
   as many levels of nested ifs as you can logically manage.

   This is an example testing leap years:

   anny ~/testdir> cat testleap.sh
   #!/bin/bash
   # This script will test if we're in a leap year or not.

   year=`date +%Y`

   if [ $[$year % 400] -eq "0" ]; then
     echo "This is a leap year.  February has 29 days."
   elif [ $[$year % 4] -eq 0 ]; then
           if [ $[$year % 100] -ne 0 ]; then
             echo "This is a leap year, February has 29 days."
           else
             echo "This is not a leap year.  February has 28 days."
           fi
   else
     echo "This is not a leap year.  February has 28 days."
   fi

   anny ~/testdir> date
   Tue Jan 14 20:37:55 CET 2003

   anny ~/testdir> testleap.sh
   This is not a leap year.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.4. Boolean operations

   The above script can be shortened using the Boolean operators "AND" (&&)
   and "OR" (||).

   Figure 7-2. Example using Boolean operators

   We use the double brackets for testing an arithmetic expression, see
   [214]Section 3.4.6. This is equivalent to the let statement. You will
   get stuck using square brackets here, if you try something like $[$year
   % 400], because here, the square brackets don't represent an actual
   command by themselves.

   Among other editors, gvim is one of those supporting colour schemes
   according to the file format; such editors are useful for detecting
   errors in your code.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2.5. Using the exit statement and if

   We already briefly met the exit statement in [215]Section 7.2.1.3. It
   terminates execution of the entire script. It is most often used if the
   input requested from the user is incorrect, if a statement did not run
   successfully or if some other error occurred.

   The exit statement takes an optional argument. This argument is the
   integer exit status code, which is passed back to the parent and stored
   in the $? variable.

   A zero argument means that the script ran successfully. Any other value
   may be used by programmers to pass back different messages to the
   parent, so that different actions can be taken according to failure or
   success of the child process. If no argument is given to the exit
   command, the parent shell uses the current value of the $? variable.

   Below is an example with a slightly adapted penguin.sh script, which
   sends its exit status back to the parent, feed.sh:

anny ~/testdir> cat penguin.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This script lets you present different menus to Tux.  He will only be happy
# when given a fish.  We've also added a dolphin and (presumably) a camel.

if [ "$menu" == "fish" ]; then
  if [ "$animal" == "penguin" ]; then
    echo "Hmmmmmm fish... Tux happy!"
  elif [ "$animal" == "dolphin" ]; then
    echo "Pweetpeettreetppeterdepweet!"
  else
    echo "*prrrrrrrt*"
  fi
else
  if [ "$animal" == "penguin" ]; then
    echo "Tux don't like that.  Tux wants fish!"
    exit 1
  elif [ "$animal" == "dolphin" ]; then
    echo "Pweepwishpeeterdepweet!"
    exit 2
  else
    echo "Will you read this sign?!"
    exit 3
  fi
fi

   This script is called upon in the next one, which therefore exports its
   variables menu and animal:

anny ~/testdir> cat feed.sh
#!/bin/bash
# This script acts upon the exit status given by penguin.sh

export menu="$1"
export animal="$2"

feed="/nethome/anny/testdir/penguin.sh"

$feed $menu $animal

case $? in

1)
  echo "Guard: You'd better give'm a fish, less they get violent..."
  ;;
2)
  echo "Guard: It's because of people like you that they are leaving earth all the time..."
  ;;
3)
  echo "Guard: Buy the food that the Zoo provides for the animals, you ***, how
do you think we survive?"
  ;;
*)
  echo "Guard: Don't forget the guide!"
  ;;
esac

anny ~/testdir> ./feed.sh apple penguin
Tux don't like that.  Tux wants fish!
Guard: You'd better give'm a fish, less they get violent...

   As you can see, exit status codes can be chosen freely. Existing
   commands usually have a series of defined codes; see the programmer's
   manual for each command for more information.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          7.3. Using case statements

7.3.1. Simplified conditions

   Nested if statements might be nice, but as soon as you are confronted
   with a couple of different possible actions to take, they tend to
   confuse. For the more complex conditionals, use the case syntax:

   case EXPRESSION in CASE1) COMMAND-LIST;; CASE2) COMMAND-LIST;; ...
   CASEN) COMMAND-LIST;; esac

   Each case is an expression matching a pattern. The commands in the
   COMMAND-LIST for the first match are executed. The "|" symbol is used
   for separating multiple patterns, and the ")" operator terminates a
   pattern list. Each case plus its according commands are called a clause.
   Each clause must be terminated with ";;". Each case statement is ended
   with the esac statement.

   In the example, we demonstrate use of cases for sending a more selective
   warning message with the disktest.sh script:

anny ~/testdir> cat disktest.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This script does a very simple test for checking disk space.

space=`df -h | awk '{print $5}' | grep % | grep -v Use | sort -n | tail -1 | cut -d "%" -f1 -`

case $space in
[1-6]*)
  Message="All is quiet."
  ;;
[7-8]*)
  Message="Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff.  There's a partition that is $space % full."
  ;;
9[1-8])
  Message="Better hurry with that new disk...  One partition is $space % full."
  ;;
99)
  Message="I'm drowning here!  There's a partition at $space %!"
  ;;
*)
  Message="I seem to be running with an nonexistent amount of disk space..."
  ;;
esac

echo $Message | mail -s "disk report `date`" anny

anny ~/testdir>
You have new mail.

anny ~/testdir> tail -16 /var/spool/mail/anny
From anny@octarine Tue Jan 14 22:10:47 2003
Return-Path: <anny@octarine>
Received: from octarine (localhost [127.0.0.1])
        by octarine (8.12.5/8.12.5) with ESMTP id h0ELAlBG020414
        for <anny@octarine>; Tue, 14 Jan 2003 22:10:47 +0100
Received: (from anny@localhost)
        by octarine (8.12.5/8.12.5/Submit) id h0ELAltn020413
        for anny; Tue, 14 Jan 2003 22:10:47 +0100
Date: Tue, 14 Jan 2003 22:10:47 +0100
From: Anny <anny@octarine>
Message-Id: <200301142110.h0ELAltn020413@octarine>
To: anny@octarine
Subject: disk report Tue Jan 14 22:10:47 CET 2003

Start thinking about cleaning out some stuff.  There's a partition that is 87 % full.

anny ~/testdir>

   Of course you could have opened your mail program to check the results;
   this is just to demonstrate that the script sends a decent mail with
   "To:", "Subject:" and "From:" header lines.

   Many more examples using case statements can be found in your system's
   init script directory. The startup scripts use start and stop cases to
   run or stop system processes. A theoretical example can be found in the
   next section.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3.2. Initscript example

   Initscripts often make use of case statements for starting, stopping and
   querying system services. This is an excerpt of the script that starts
   Anacron, a daemon that runs commands periodically with a frequency
   specified in days.

   case "$1" in
           start)
               start
               ;;

           stop)
               stop
               ;;

           status)
               status anacron
               ;;
           restart)
               stop
               start
               ;;
           condrestart)
               if test "x`pidof anacron`" != x; then
                   stop
                   start
               fi
               ;;

           *)
               echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|condrestart|status}"
               exit 1

   esac

   The tasks to execute in each case, such as stopping and starting the
   daemon, are defined in functions, which are partially sourced from the
   /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions file. See [216]Chapter 11 for more
   explanation.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 7.4. Summary

   In this chapter we learned how to build conditions into our scripts so
   that different actions can be undertaken upon success or failure of a
   command. The actions can be determined using the if statement. This
   allows you to perform arithmetic and string comparisons, and testing of
   exit code, input and files needed by the script.

   A simple if/then/fi test often preceeds commands in a shell script in
   order to prevent output generation, so that the script can easily be run
   in the background or through the cron facility. More complex definitions
   of conditions are usually put in a case statement.

   Upon successful condition testing, the script can explicitly inform the
   parent using the exit 0 status. Upon failure, any other number may be
   returned. Based on the return code, the parent program can take
   appropriate action.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                7.5. Exercises

   Here are some ideas to get you started using if in scripts:

    1. Use an if/then/elif/else construct that prints information about the
       current month. The script should print the number of days in this
       month, and give information about leap years if the current month is
       February.

    2. Do the same, using a case statement and an alternative use of the
       date command.

    3. Modify /etc/profile so that you get a special greeting message when
       you connect to your system as root.

    4. Edit the leaptest.sh script from [217]Section 7.2.4 so that it
       requires one argument, the year. Test that exactly one argument is
       supplied.

    5. Write a script called whichdaemon.sh that checks if the httpd and
       init daemons are running on your system. If an httpd is running, the
       script should print a message like, "This machine is running a web
       server." Use ps to check on processes.

    6. Write a script that makes a backup of your home directory on a
       remote machine using scp. The script should report in a log file,
       for instance ~/log/homebackup.log. If you don't have a second
       machine to copy the backup to, use scp to test copying it to the
       localhost. This requires SSH keys between the two hosts, or else you
       have to supply a password. The creation of SSH keys is explained in
       man ssh-keygen.

    7. Adapt the script from the first example in [218]Section 7.3.1 to
       include the case of exactly 90% disk space usage, and lower than 10%
       disk space usage.

       The script should use tar cf for the creation of the backup and gzip
       or bzip2 for compressing the .tar file. Put all filenames in
       variables. Put the name of the remote server and the remote
       directory in a variable. This will make it easier to re-use the
       script or to make changes to it in the future.

       The script should check for the existence of a compressed archive.
       If this exists, remove it first in order to prevent output
       generation.

       The script should also check for available diskspace. Keep in mind
       that at any given moment you could have the data in your home
       directory, the data in the .tar file and the data in the compressed
       archive all together on your disk. If there is not enough diskspace,
       exit with an error message in the log file.

       The script should clean up the compressed archive before it exits.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                    Chapter 8. Writing interactive scripts

     In this chapter we will discuss how to interact with the users of our
     scripts:



       * Printing user friendly messages and explanations

       * Catching user input

       * Prompting for user input

       * Using the file descriptors to read from and write to multiple
         files

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        8.1. Displaying user messages

8.1.1. Interactive or not?

   Some scripts run without any interaction from the user at all.
   Advantages of non-interactive scripts include:

     * The script runs in a predictable way every time.

     * The script can run in the background.

   Many scripts, however, require input from the user, or give output to
   the user as the script is running. The advantages of interactive scripts
   are, among others:

     * More flexible scripts can be built.

     * Users can customize the script as it runs or make it behave in
       different ways.

     * The script can report its progress as it runs.

   When writing interactive scripts, never hold back on comments. A script
   that prints appropriate messages is much more user-friendly and can be
   more easily debugged. A script might do a perfect job, but you will get
   a whole lot of support calls if it does not inform the user about what
   it is doing. So include messages that tell the user to wait for output
   because a calculation is being done. If possible, try to give an
   indication of how long the user will have to wait. If the waiting should
   regularly take a long time when executing a certain task, you might want
   to consider integrating some processing indication in the output of your
   script.

   When prompting the user for input, it is also better to give too much
   than too little information about the kind of data to be entered. This
   applies to the checking of arguments and the accompanying usage message
   as well.

   Bash has the echo and printf commands to provide comments for users, and
   although you should be familiar with at least the use of echo by now, we
   will discuss some more examples in the next sections.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1.2. Using the echo built-in command

   The echo built-in command outputs its arguments, separated by spaces and
   terminated with a newline character. The return status is always zero.
   echo takes a couple of options:

     * -e: interprets backslash-escaped characters.

     * -n: suppresses the trailing newline.

   As an example of adding comments, we will make the feed.sh and
   penguin.sh from [219]Section 7.2.1.2 a bit better:

michel ~/test> cat penguin.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This script lets you present different menus to Tux.  He will only be happy
# when given a fish.  To make it more fun, we added a couple more animals.

if [ "$menu" == "fish" ]; then
  if [ "$animal" == "penguin" ]; then
    echo -e "Hmmmmmm fish... Tux happy!\n"
  elif [ "$animal" == "dolphin" ]; then
    echo -e "\a\a\aPweetpeettreetppeterdepweet!\a\a\a\n"
  else
    echo -e "*prrrrrrrt*\n"
  fi
else
  if [ "$animal" == "penguin" ]; then
    echo -e "Tux don't like that.  Tux wants fish!\n"
    exit 1
  elif [ "$animal" == "dolphin" ]; then
    echo -e "\a\a\a\a\a\aPweepwishpeeterdepweet!\a\a\a"
    exit 2
  else
    echo -e "Will you read this sign?!  Don't feed the "$animal"s!\n"
    exit 3
  fi
fi

michel ~/test> cat feed.sh
#!/bin/bash
# This script acts upon the exit status given by penguin.sh

if [ "$#" != "2" ]; then
  echo -e "Usage of the feed script:\t$0 food-on-menu animal-name\n"
  exit 1
else

  export menu="$1"
  export animal="$2"

  echo -e "Feeding $menu to $animal...\n"

  feed="/nethome/anny/testdir/penguin.sh"

  $feed $menu $animal

result="$?"

  echo -e "Done feeding.\n"

case "$result" in

  1)
    echo -e "Guard: \"You'd better give'm a fish, less they get violent...\"\n"
    ;;
  2)
    echo -e "Guard: \"No wonder they flee our planet...\"\n"
    ;;
  3)
    echo -e "Guard: \"Buy the food that the Zoo provides at the entry, you ***\"\n"
    echo -e "Guard: \"You want to poison them, do you?\"\n"
    ;;
  *)
    echo -e "Guard: \"Don't forget the guide!\"\n"
    ;;
  esac

fi

echo "Leaving..."
echo -e "\a\a\aThanks for visiting the Zoo, hope to see you again soon!\n"

michel ~/test> feed.sh apple camel
Feeding apple to camel...

Will you read this sign?!  Don't feed the camels!

Done feeding.

Guard: "Buy the food that the Zoo provides at the entry, you ***"

Guard: "You want to poison them, do you?"

Leaving...
Thanks for visiting the Zoo, hope to see you again soon!

michel ~/test> feed.sh apple
Usage of the feed script:       ./feed.sh food-on-menu animal-name

   More about escape characters can be found in [220]Section 3.3.2. The
   following table gives an overview of sequences recognized by the echo
   command:

   Table 8-1. Escape sequences used by the echo command

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Sequence | Meaning                                                   |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \a       | Alert (bell).                                             |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \b       | Backspace.                                                |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \c       | Suppress trailing newline.                                |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \e       | Escape.                                                   |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \f       | Form feed.                                                |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \n       | Newline.                                                  |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \r       | Carriage return.                                          |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \t       | Horizontal tab.                                           |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \v       | Vertical tab.                                             |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \\       | Backslash.                                                |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \0NNN    | The eight-bit character whose value is the octal value    |
   |          | NNN (zero to three octal digits).                         |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \NNN     | The eight-bit character whose value is the octal value    |
   |          | NNN (one to three octal digits).                          |
   |----------+-----------------------------------------------------------|
   | \xHH     | The eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal    |
   |          | value (one or two hexadecimal digits).                    |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   For more information about the printf command and the way it allows you
   to format output, see the Bash info pages. Keep in mind that there might
   be differences between different versions of Bash.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           8.2. Catching user input

8.2.1. Using the read built-in command

   The read built-in command is the counterpart of the echo and printf
   commands. The syntax of the read command is as follows:

   read [options] NAME1 NAME2 ... NAMEN

   One line is read from the standard input, or from the file descriptor
   supplied as an argument to the -u option. The first word of the line is
   assigned to the first name, NAME1, the second word to the second name,
   and so on, with leftover words and their intervening separators assigned
   to the last name, NAMEN. If there are fewer words read from the input
   stream than there are names, the remaining names are assigned empty
   values.

   The characters in the value of the IFS variable are used to split the
   input line into words or tokens; see [221]Section 3.4.8. The backslash
   character may be used to remove any special meaning for the next
   character read and for line continuation.

   If no names are supplied, the line read is assigned to the variable
   REPLY.

   The return code of the read command is zero, unless an end-of-file
   character is encountered, if read times out or if an invalid file
   descriptor is supplied as the argument to the -u option.

   The following options are supported by the Bash read built-in:

   Table 8-2. Options to the read built-in

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Option     | Meaning                                                 |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   |            | The words are assigned to sequential indexes of the     |
   | -a ANAME   | array variable ANAME, starting at 0. All elements are   |
   |            | removed from ANAME before the assignment. Other NAME    |
   |            | arguments are ignored.                                  |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   | -d DELIM   | The first character of DELIM is used to terminate the   |
   |            | input line, rather than newline.                        |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   | -e         | readline is used to obtain the line.                    |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   | -n NCHARS  | read returns after reading NCHARS characters rather     |
   |            | than waiting for a complete line of input.              |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   |            | Display PROMPT, without a trailing newline, before      |
   | -p PROMPT  | attempting to read any input. The prompt is displayed   |
   |            | only if input is coming from a terminal.                |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   |            | If this option is given, backslash does not act as an   |
   | -r         | escape character. The backslash is considered to be     |
   |            | part of the line. In particular, a backslash-newline    |
   |            | pair may not be used as a line continuation.            |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   | -s         | Silent mode. If input is coming from a terminal,        |
   |            | characters are not echoed.                              |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   |            | Cause read to time out and return failure if a complete |
   | -t TIMEOUT | line of input is not read within TIMEOUT seconds. This  |
   |            | option has no effect if read is not reading input from  |
   |            | the terminal or from a pipe.                            |
   |------------+---------------------------------------------------------|
   | -u FD      | Read input from file descriptor FD.                     |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   This is a straightforward example, improving on the leaptest.sh script
   from the previous chapter:

michel ~/test> cat leaptest.sh
#!/bin/bash
# This script will test if you have given a leap year or not.

echo "Type the year that you want to check (4 digits), followed by [ENTER]:"

read year

if (( ("$year" % 400) == "0" )) || (( ("$year" % 4 == "0") && ("$year" % 100 !=
"0") )); then
  echo "$year is a leap year."
else
  echo "This is not a leap year."
fi

michel ~/test> leaptest.sh
Type the year that you want to check (4 digits), followed by [ENTER]:
2000
2000 is a leap year.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2.2. Prompting for user input

   The following example shows how you can use prompts to explain what the
   user should enter.

michel ~/test> cat friends.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This is a program that keeps your address book up to date.

friends="/var/tmp/michel/friends"

echo "Hello, "$USER".  This script will register you in Michel's friends database."

echo -n "Enter your name and press [ENTER]: "
read name
echo -n "Enter your gender and press [ENTER]: "
read -n 1 gender
echo

grep -i "$name" "$friends"

if  [ $? == 0 ]; then
  echo "You are already registered, quitting."
  exit 1
elif [ "$gender" == "m" ]; then
  echo "You are added to Michel's friends list."
  exit 1
else
  echo -n "How old are you? "
  read age
  if [ $age -lt 25 ]; then
    echo -n "Which colour of hair do you have? "
    read colour
    echo "$name $age $colour" >> "$friends"
    echo "You are added to Michel's friends list.  Thank you so much!"
  else
    echo "You are added to Michel's friends list."
    exit 1
  fi
fi

michel ~/test> cp friends.sh /var/tmp; cd /var/tmp

michel ~/test> touch friends; chmod a+w friends

michel ~/test> friends.sh
Hello, michel.  This script will register you in Michel's friends database.
Enter your name and press [ENTER]: michel
Enter your gender and press [ENTER] :m
You are added to Michel's friends list.

michel ~/test> cat friends

   Note that no output is omitted here. The script only stores information
   about the people Michel is interested in, but it will always say you are
   added to the list, unless you are already in it.

   Other people can now start executing the script:

   [anny@octarine tmp]$ friends.sh
   Hello, anny.  This script will register you in Michel's friends database.
   Enter your name and press [ENTER]: anny
   Enter your gender and press [ENTER] :f
   How old are you? 22
   Which colour of hair do you have? black
   You are added to Michel's friends list.

   After a while, the friends list begins to look like this:

   tille 24 black
   anny 22 black
   katya 22 blonde
   maria 21 black
   --output omitted--

   Of course, this situation is not ideal, since everybody can edit (but
   not delete) Michel's files. You can solve this problem using special
   access modes on the script file, see
   [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/intro-linux/html/sect_04_01.html#sect_04_01_06]
   SUID and SGID in the Introduction to Linux guide.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2.3. Redirection and file descriptors

  8.2.3.1. General

   As you know from basic shell usage, input and output of a command may be
   redirected before it is executed, using a special notation - the
   redirection operators - interpreted by the shell. Redirection may also
   be used to open and close files for the current shell execution
   environment.

   Redirection can also occur in a script, so that it can receive input
   from a file, for instance, or send output to a file. Later, the user can
   review the output file, or it may be used by another script as input.

   File input and output are accomplished by integer handles that track all
   open files for a given process. These numeric values are known as file
   descriptors. The best known file descriptors are stdin, stdout and
   stderr, with file descriptor numbers 0, 1 and 2, respectively. These
   numbers and respective devices are reserved. Bash can take TCP or UDP
   ports on networked hosts as file descriptors as well.

   The output below shows how the reserved file descriptors point to actual
   devices:

michel ~> ls -l /dev/std*
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root    root     17 Oct  2 07:46 /dev/stderr -> ../proc/self/fd/2
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root    root     17 Oct  2 07:46 /dev/stdin -> ../proc/self/fd/0
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root    root     17 Oct  2 07:46 /dev/stdout -> ../proc/self/fd/1

michel ~> ls -l /proc/self/fd/[0-2]
lrwx------  1 michel  michel   64 Jan 23 12:11 /proc/self/fd/0 -> /dev/pts/6
lrwx------  1 michel  michel   64 Jan 23 12:11 /proc/self/fd/1 -> /dev/pts/6
lrwx------  1 michel  michel   64 Jan 23 12:11 /proc/self/fd/2 -> /dev/pts/6

   Note that each process has its own view of the files under /proc/self,
   as it is actually a symbolic link to /proc/<process_ID>.

   You might want to check info MAKEDEV and info proc for more information
   about /proc subdirectories and the way your system handles standard file
   descriptors for each running process.

   When excuting a given command, the following steps are excuted, in
   order:

     * If the standard output of a previous command is being piped to the
       standard input of the current command, then
       /proc/<current_process_ID>/fd/0 is updated to target the same
       anonymous pipe as /proc/<previous_process_ID/fd/1.

     * If the standard output of the current command is being piped to the
       standard input of the next command, then
       /proc/<current_process_ID>/fd/1 is updated to target another
       anonymous pipe.

     * Redirection for the current command is processed from left to right.

     * Redirection "N>&M" or "N<&M" after a command has the effect of
       creating or updating the symbolic link /proc/self/fd/N with the same
       target as the symbolic link /proc/self/fd/M.

     * The redirections "N> file" and "N< file" have the effect of creating
       or updating the symbolic link /proc/self/fd/N with the target file.

     * File descriptor closure "N>&-" has the effect of deleting the
       symbolic link /proc/self/fd/N.

     * Only now is the current command executed.

   When you run a script from the command line, nothing much changes
   because the child shell process will use the same file descriptors as
   the parent. When no such parent is available, for instance when you run
   a script using the cron facility, the standard file descriptors are
   pipes or other (temporary) files, unless some form of redirection is
   used. This is demonstrated in the example below, which shows output from
   a simple at script:

michel ~> date
Fri Jan 24 11:05:50 CET 2003

michel ~> at 1107
warning: commands will be executed using (in order)
a) $SHELL b) login shell c)/bin/sh
at> ls -l /proc/self/fd/ > /var/tmp/fdtest.at
at> <EOT>
job 10 at 2003-01-24 11:07

michel ~> cat /var/tmp/fdtest.at
total 0
lr-x------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:07 0 -> /var/spool/at/!0000c010959eb (deleted)
l-wx------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:07 1 -> /var/tmp/fdtest.at
l-wx------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:07 2 -> /var/spool/at/spool/a0000c010959eb
lr-x------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:07 3 -> /proc/21949/fd

   And one with cron:

   michel ~> crontab -l
   # DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - edit the master and reinstall.
   # (/tmp/crontab.21968 installed on Fri Jan 24 11:30:41 2003)
   # (Cron version -- $Id: chap8.xml,v 1.9 2006/09/28 09:42:45 tille Exp $)
   32 11 * * * ls -l /proc/self/fd/ > /var/tmp/fdtest.cron

   michel ~> cat /var/tmp/fdtest.cron
   total 0
   lr-x------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:32 0 -> pipe:[124440]
   l-wx------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:32 1 -> /var/tmp/fdtest.cron
   l-wx------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:32 2 -> pipe:[124441]
   lr-x------    1 michel michel  64 Jan 24 11:32 3 -> /proc/21974/fd

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  8.2.3.2. Redirection of errors

   From the previous examples, it is clear that you can provide input and
   output files for a script (see [222]Section 8.2.4 for more), but some
   tend to forget about redirecting errors - output which might be depended
   upon later on. Also, if you are lucky, errors will be mailed to you and
   eventual causes of failure might get revealed. If you are not as lucky,
   errors will cause your script to fail and won't be caught or sent
   anywhere, so that you can't start to do any worthwhile debugging.

   When redirecting errors, note that the order of precedence is
   significant. For example, this command, issued in /var/spool

   ls -l * 2> /var/tmp/unaccessible-in-spool

   will redirect standard output of the ls command to the file
   unaccessible-in-spool in /var/tmp. The command

   ls -l * > /var/tmp/spoollist 2>&1

   will direct both standard input and standard error to the file
   spoollist. The command

   ls -l * 2 >& 1 > /var/tmp/spoollist

   directs only the standard output to the destination file, because the
   standard error is copied to standard output before the standard output
   is redirected.

   For convenience, errors are often redirected to /dev/null, if it is sure
   they will not be needed. Hundreds of examples can be found in the
   startup scripts for your system.

   Bash allows for both standard output and standard error to be redirected
   to the file whose name is the result of the expansion of FILE with this
   construct:

   &> FILE

   This is the equivalent of > FILE 2>&1, the construct used in the
   previous set of examples. It is also often combined with redirection to
   /dev/null, for instance when you just want a command to execute, no
   matter what output or errors it gives.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2.4. File input and output

  8.2.4.1. Using /dev/fd

   The /dev/fd directory contains entries named 0, 1, 2, and so on. Opening
   the file /dev/fd/N is equivalent to duplicating file descriptor N. If
   your system provides /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout and /dev/stderr, you will
   see that these are equivalent to /dev/fd/0, /dev/fd/1 and /dev/fd/2,
   respectively.

   The main use of the /dev/fd files is from the shell. This mechanism
   allows for programs that use pathname arguments to handle standard input
   and standard output in the same way as other pathnames. If /dev/fd is
   not available on a system, you'll have to find a way to bypass the
   problem. This can be done for instance using a hyphen (-) to indicate
   that a program should read from a pipe. An example:

michel ~> filter body.txt.gz | cat header.txt - footer.txt
This text is printed at the beginning of each print job and thanks the sysadmin
for setting us up such a great printing infrastructure.

Text to be filtered.

This text is printed at the end of each print job.

   The cat command first reads the file header.txt, next its standard input
   which is the output of the filter command, and last the footer.txt file.
   The special meaning of the hyphen as a command-line argument to refer to
   the standard input or standard output is a misconception that has crept
   into many programs. There might also be problems when specifying hyphen
   as the first argument, since it might be interpreted as an option to the
   preceding command. Using /dev/fd allows for uniformity and prevents
   confusion:

   michel ~> filter body.txt | cat header.txt /dev/fd/0 footer.txt | lp

   In this clean example, all output is additionally piped through lp to
   send it to the default printer.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  8.2.4.2. Read and exec

    8.2.4.2.1. Assigning file descriptors to files

   Another way of looking at file descriptors is thinking of them as a way
   to assign a numeric value to a file. Instead of using the file name, you
   can use the file descriptor number. The exec built-in command can be
   used to replace the shell of the current process or to alter the file
   descriptors of the current shell. For example, it can be used to assign
   a file descriptor to a file. Use

   exec fdN> file

   for assigning file descriptor N to file for output, and

   exec fdN< file

   for assigning file descriptor N to file for input. After a file
   descriptor has been assigned to a file, it can be used with the shell
   redirection operators, as is demonstrated in the following example:

michel ~> exec 4> result.txt

michel ~> filter body.txt | cat header.txt /dev/fd/0 footer.txt >& 4

michel ~> cat result.txt
This text is printed at the beginning of each print job and thanks the sysadmin
for setting us up such a great printing infrastructure.

Text to be filtered.

This text is printed at the end of each print job.

   [223]Note File descriptor 5
             Using this file descriptor might cause problems, see
             [http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/io-redirection.html] the
             Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide, chapter 16. You are strongly
             advised not to use it.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    8.2.4.2.2. Read in scripts

   The following is an example that shows how you can alternate between
   file input and command line input:

 michel ~/testdir> cat sysnotes.sh
 #!/bin/bash

 # This script makes an index of important config files, puts them together in
 # a backup file and allows for adding comment for each file.

 CONFIG=/var/tmp/sysconfig.out
 rm "$CONFIG" 2>/dev/null

 echo "Output will be saved in $CONFIG."

 # create fd 7 with same target as fd 0 (save stdin "value")
 exec 7<&0

 # update fd 0 to target file /etc/passwd
 exec < /etc/passwd

 # Read the first line of /etc/passwd
 read rootpasswd

 echo "Saving root account info..."
 echo "Your root account info:" >> "$CONFIG"
 echo $rootpasswd >> "$CONFIG"

 # update fd 0 to target fd 7 target (old fd 0 target); delete fd 7
 exec 0<&7 7<&-

 echo -n "Enter comment or [ENTER] for no comment: "
 read comment; echo $comment >> "$CONFIG"

 echo "Saving hosts information..."

 # first prepare a hosts file not containing any comments
 TEMP="/var/tmp/hosts.tmp"
 cat /etc/hosts | grep -v "^#" > "$TEMP"

 exec 7<&0
 exec < "$TEMP"

 read ip1 name1 alias1
 read ip2 name2 alias2

 echo "Your local host configuration:" >> "$CONFIG"

 echo "$ip1 $name1 $alias1" >> "$CONFIG"
 echo "$ip2 $name2 $alias2" >> "$CONFIG"

 exec 0<&7 7<&-

 echo -n "Enter comment or [ENTER] for no comment: "
 read comment; echo $comment >> "$CONFIG"
 rm "$TEMP"

 michel ~/testdir> sysnotes.sh
 Output will be saved in /var/tmp/sysconfig.out.
 Saving root account info...
 Enter comment or [ENTER] for no comment: hint for password: blue lagoon
 Saving hosts information...
 Enter comment or [ENTER] for no comment: in central DNS

 michel ~/testdir> cat /var/tmp/sysconfig.out
 Your root account info:
 root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
 hint for password: blue lagoon
 Your local host configuration:
 127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost
 192.168.42.1 tintagel.kingarthur.com tintagel
 in central DNS

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  8.2.4.3. Closing file descriptors

   Since child processes inherit open file descriptors, it is good practice
   to close a file descriptor when it is no longer needed. This is done
   using the

   exec fd<&-

   syntax. In the above example, file descriptor 7, which has been assigned
   to standard input, is closed each time the user needs to have access to
   the actual standard input device, usually the keyboard.

   The following is a simple example redirecting only standard error to a
   pipe:

   michel ~> cat listdirs.sh
   #!/bin/bash

   # This script prints standard output unchanged, while standard error is
   # redirected for processing by awk.

   INPUTDIR="$1"

   # fd 6 targets fd 1 target (console out) in current shell
   exec 6>&1

   # fd 1 targets pipe, fd 2 targets fd 1 target (pipe),
   # fd 1 targets fd 6 target (console out), fd 6 closed, execute ls
   ls "$INPUTDIR"/* 2>&1 >&6 6>&- \
                                   # Closes fd 6 for awk, but not for ls.

   | awk 'BEGIN { FS=":" } { print "YOU HAVE NO ACCESS TO" $2 }' 6>&-

   # fd 6 closed for current shell
   exec 6>&-

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  8.2.4.4. Here documents

   Frequently, your script might call on another program or script that
   requires input. The here document provides a way of instructing the
   shell to read input from the current source until a line containing only
   the search string is found (no trailing blanks). All of the lines read
   up to that point are then used as the standard input for a command.

   The result is that you don't need to call on separate files; you can use
   shell-special characters, and it looks nicer than a bunch of echo's:

   michel ~> cat startsurf.sh
   #!/bin/bash

   # This script provides an easy way for users to choose between browsers.

   echo "These are the web browsers on this system:"

   # Start here document
   cat << BROWSERS
   mozilla
   links
   lynx
   konqueror
   opera
   netscape
   BROWSERS
   # End here document

   echo -n "Which is your favorite? "
   read browser

   echo "Starting $browser, please wait..."
   $browser &

   michel ~> startsurf.sh
   These are the web browsers on this system:
   mozilla
   links
   lynx
   konqueror
   opera
   netscape
   Which is your favorite? opera
   Starting opera, please wait...

   Although we talk about a here document, it is supposed to be a construct
   within the same script. This is an example that installs a package
   automatically, eventhough you should normally confirm:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script installs packages automatically, using yum.

   if [ $# -lt 1 ]; then
           echo "Usage: $0 package."
           exit 1
   fi

   yum install $1 << CONFIRM
   y
   CONFIRM

   And this is how the script runs. When prompted with the "Is this ok
   [y/N]" string, the script answers "y" automatically:

   [root@picon bin]# ./install.sh tuxracer
   Gathering header information file(s) from server(s)
   Server: Fedora Linux 2 - i386 - core
   Server: Fedora Linux 2 - i386 - freshrpms
   Server: JPackage 1.5 for Fedora Core 2
   Server: JPackage 1.5, generic
   Server: Fedora Linux 2 - i386 - updates
   Finding updated packages
   Downloading needed headers
   Resolving dependencies
   Dependencies resolved
   I will do the following:
   [install: tuxracer 0.61-26.i386]
   Is this ok [y/N]: EnterDownloading Packages
   Running test transaction:
   Test transaction complete, Success!
   tuxracer 100 % done 1/1
   Installed:  tuxracer 0.61-26.i386
   Transaction(s) Complete

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 8.3. Summary

   In this chapter, we learned how to provide user comments and how to
   prompt for user input. This is usually done using the echo/read
   combination. We also discussed how files can be used as input and output
   using file descriptors and redirection, and how this can be combined
   with getting input from the user.

   We stressed the importance of providing ample message for the users of
   our scripts. As always when others use your scripts, it is better to
   give too much information than not enough. Here documents is a type of
   shell construct that allows creation of lists, holding choices for the
   users. This construct can also be used to execute otherwise interactive
   tasks in the background, without intervention.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                8.4. Exercises

   These exercises are practical applications of the constructs discussed
   in this chapter. When writing the scripts, you may test by using a test
   directory that does not contain too much data. Write each step, then
   test that portion of code, rather than writing everything at once.

    1. Write a script that asks for the user's age. If it is equal to or
       higher than 16, print a message saying that this user is allowed to
       drink alcohol. If the user's age is below 16, print a message
       telling the user how many years he or she has to wait before legally
       being allowed to drink.

       As an extra, calculate how much beer an 18+ user has drunk
       statistically (100 liters/year) and print this information for the
       user.

    2. Write a script that takes one file as an argument. Use a here
       document that presents the user with a couple of choices for
       compressing the file. Possible choices could be gzip, bzip2,
       compress and zip.

    3. Write a script called homebackup that automates tar so the person
       executing the script always uses the desired options (cvp) and
       backup destination directory (/var/backups) to make a backup of his
       or her home directory. Implement the following features:

          * Test for the number of arguments. The script should run without
            arguments. If any arguments are present, exit after printing a
            usage message.

          * Determine whether the backups directory has enough free space
            to hold the backup.

          * Ask the user whether a full or an incremental backup is wanted.
            If the user does not have a full backup file yet, print a
            message that a full backup will be taken. In case of an
            incremental backup, only do this if the full backup is not
            older than a week.

          * Compress the backup using any compression tool. Inform the user
            that the script is doing this, because it might take some time,
            during which the user might start worrying if no output appears
            on the screen.

          * Print a message informing the user about the size of the
            compressed backup.

       See info tar or
       [http://tille.garrels.be/training/tldp/c4540.html#sect_09_01_01]
       Introduction to Linux, chapter 9: "Preparing your data" for
       background information.

    4. Write a script called simple-useradd.sh that adds a local user to
       the system. This script should:

          * Take only one argument, or else exit after printing a usage
            message.

          * Check /etc/passwd and decide on the first free user ID. Print a
            message containing this ID.

          * Create a private group for this user, checking the /etc/group
            file. Print a message containing the group ID.

          * Gather information from the operator user: a comment describing
            this user, choice from a list of shells (test for
            acceptability, else exit printing a message), expiration date
            for this account, extra groups of which the new user should be
            a member.

          * With the obtained information, add a line to /etc/passwd,
            /etc/group and /etc/shadow; create the user's home directory
            (with correct permissions!); add the user to the desired
            secondary groups.

          * Set the password for this user to a default known string.

    5. Rewrite the script from [224]Section 7.2.1.4 so that it reads input
       from the user instead of taking it from the first argument.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Chapter 9. Repetitive tasks

     Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to



       * Use for, while and until loops, and decide which loop fits which
         occasion.

       * Use the break and continue Bash built-ins.

       * Write scripts using the select statement.

       * Write scripts that take a variable number of arguments.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              9.1. The for loop

9.1.1. How does it work?

   The for loop is the first of the three shell looping constructs. This
   loop allows for specification of a list of values. A list of commands is
   executed for each value in the list.

   The syntax for this loop is:

   for NAME [in LIST ]; do COMMANDS; done

   If [in LIST] is not present, it is replaced with in $@ and for executes
   the COMMANDS once for each positional parameter that is set (see
   [225]Section 3.2.5 and [226]Section 7.2.1.2).

   The return status is the exit status of the last command that executes.
   If no commands are executed because LIST does not expand to any items,
   the return status is zero.

   NAME can be any variable name, although i is used very often. LIST can
   be any list of words, strings or numbers, which can be literal or
   generated by any command. The COMMANDS to execute can also be any
   operating system commands, script, program or shell statement. The first
   time through the loop, NAME is set to the first item in LIST. The second
   time, its value is set to the second item in the list, and so on. The
   loop terminates when NAME has taken on each of the values from LIST and
   no items are left in LIST.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.1.2. Examples

  9.1.2.1. Using command substitution for specifying LIST items

   The first is a command line example, demonstrating the use of a for loop
   that makes a backup copy of each .xml file. After issuing the command,
   it is safe to start working on your sources:

  [carol@octarine ~/articles] ls *.xml
  file1.xml  file2.xml  file3.xml

  [carol@octarine ~/articles] ls *.xml > list

  [carol@octarine ~/articles] for i in `cat list`; do cp "$i" "$i".bak ; done

  [carol@octarine ~/articles] ls *.xml*
  file1.xml  file1.xml.bak  file2.xml  file2.xml.bak  file3.xml  file3.xml.bak

   This one lists the files in /sbin that are just plain text files, and
   possibly scripts:

   for i in `ls /sbin`; do file /sbin/$i | grep ASCII; done

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.1.2.2. Using the content of a variable to specify LIST items

   The following is a specific application script for converting HTML
   files, compliant with a certain scheme, to PHP files. The conversion is
   done by taking out the first 25 and the last 21 lines, replacing these
   with two PHP tags that provide header and footer lines:

   [carol@octarine ~/html] cat html2php.sh
   #!/bin/bash
   # specific conversion script for my html files to php
   LIST="$(ls *.html)"
   for i in "$LIST"; do
        NEWNAME=$(ls "$i" | sed -e 's/html/php/')
        cat beginfile > "$NEWNAME"
        cat "$i" | sed -e '1,25d' | tac | sed -e '1,21d'| tac >> "$NEWNAME"
        cat endfile >> "$NEWNAME"
   done

   Since we don't do a line count here, there is no way of knowing the line
   number from which to start deleting lines until reaching the end. The
   problem is solved using tac, which reverses the lines in a file.

   [227]Tip The basename command
            Instead of using sed to replace the html suffix with php, it
            would be cleaner to use the basename command. Read the man page
            for more info.

   [228]Warning Odd characters
                You will run into problems if the list expands to file
                names containing spaces and other irregular characters. A
                more ideal construct to obtain the list would be to use the
                shell's globbing feature, like this:

                for i in $PATHNAME/*; do
                        commands
                done

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             9.2. The while loop

9.2.1. What is it?

   The while construct allows for repetitive execution of a list of
   commands, as long as the command controlling the while loop executes
   successfully (exit status of zero). The syntax is:

   while CONTROL-COMMAND; do CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS; done

   CONTROL-COMMAND can be any command(s) that can exit with a success or
   failure status. The CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS can be any program, script or
   shell construct.

   As soon as the CONTROL-COMMAND fails, the loop exits. In a script, the
   command following the done statement is executed.

   The return status is the exit status of the last CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS
   command, or zero if none was executed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2.2. Examples

  9.2.2.1. Simple example using while

   Here is an example for the impatient:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script opens 4 terminal windows.

   i="0"

   while [ $i -lt 4 ]
   do
   xterm &
   i=$[$i+1]
   done

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.2.2.2. Nested while loops

   The example below was written to copy pictures that are made with a
   webcam to a web directory. Every five minutes a picture is taken. Every
   hour, a new directory is created, holding the images for that hour.
   Every day, a new directory is created containing 24 subdirectories. The
   script runs in the background.

#!/bin/bash

# This script copies files from my homedirectory into the webserver directory.
# (use scp and SSH keys for a remote directory)
# A new directory is created every hour.

PICSDIR=/home/carol/pics
WEBDIR=/var/www/carol/webcam

while true; do
        DATE=`date +%Y%m%d`
        HOUR=`date +%H`
        mkdir $WEBDIR/"$DATE"

        while [ $HOUR -ne "00" ]; do
                DESTDIR=$WEBDIR/"$DATE"/"$HOUR"
                mkdir "$DESTDIR"
                mv $PICDIR/*.jpg "$DESTDIR"/
                sleep 3600
                HOUR=`date +%H`
        done
done

   Note the use of the true statement. This means: continue execution until
   we are forcibly interrupted (with kill or Ctrl+C).

   This small script can be used for simulation testing; it generates
   files:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This generates a file every 5 minutes

   while true; do
   touch pic-`date +%s`.jpg
   sleep 300
   done

   Note the use of the date command to generate all kinds of file and
   directory names. See the man page for more.

   [229]Note Use the system
             The previous example is for the sake of demonstration. Regular
             checks can easily be achieved using the system's cron
             facility. Do not forget to redirect output and errors when
             using scripts that are executed from your crontab!

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.2.2.3. Using keyboard input to control the while loop

   This script can be interrupted by the user when a Ctrl+C sequence is
   entered:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script provides wisdom

   FORTUNE=/usr/games/fortune

   while true; do
   echo "On which topic do you want advice?"
   cat << topics
   politics
   startrek
   kernelnewbies
   sports
   bofh-excuses
   magic
   love
   literature
   drugs
   education
   topics

   echo
   echo -n "Make your choice: "
   read topic
   echo
   echo "Free advice on the topic of $topic: "
   echo
   $FORTUNE $topic
   echo

   done

   A here document is used to present the user with possible choices. And
   again, the true test repeats the commands from the CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS
   list over and over again.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.2.2.4. Calculating an average

   This script calculates the average of user input, which is tested before
   it is processed: if input is not within range, a message is printed. If
   q is pressed, the loop exits:

   #!/bin/bash

   # Calculate the average of a series of numbers.

   SCORE="0"
   AVERAGE="0"
   SUM="0"
   NUM="0"

   while true; do

     echo -n "Enter your score [0-100%] ('q' for quit): "; read SCORE;

     if (("$SCORE" < "0"))  || (("$SCORE" > "100")); then
       echo "Be serious.  Common, try again: "
     elif [ "$SCORE" == "q" ]; then
       echo "Average rating: $AVERAGE%."
       break
     else
       SUM=$[$SUM + $SCORE]
       NUM=$[$NUM + 1]
       AVERAGE=$[$SUM / $NUM]
     fi

   done

   echo "Exiting."

   Note how the variables in the last lines are left unquoted in order to
   do arithmetic.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             9.3. The until loop

9.3.1. What is it?

   The until loop is very similar to the while loop, except that the loop
   executes until the TEST-COMMAND executes successfully. As long as this
   command fails, the loop continues. The syntax is the same as for the
   while loop:

   until TEST-COMMAND; do CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS; done

   The return status is the exit status of the last command executed in the
   CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS list, or zero if none was executed. TEST-COMMAND
   can, again, be any command that can exit with a success or failure
   status, and CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS can be any UNIX command, script or shell
   construct.

   As we already explained previously, the ";" may be replaced with one or
   more newlines wherever it appears.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.3.2. Example

   An improved picturesort.sh script (see [230]Section 9.2.2.2), which
   tests for available disk space. If not enough disk space is available,
   remove pictures from the previous months:

#!/bin/bash

# This script copies files from my homedirectory into the webserver directory.
# A new directory is created every hour.
# If the pics are taking up too much space, the oldest are removed.

while true; do
        DISKFUL=$(df -h $WEBDIR | grep -v File | awk '{print $5 }' | cut -d "%" -f1 -)

        until [ $DISKFUL -ge "90" ]; do

                DATE=`date +%Y%m%d`
                HOUR=`date +%H`
                mkdir $WEBDIR/"$DATE"

                while [ $HOUR -ne "00" ]; do
                        DESTDIR=$WEBDIR/"$DATE"/"$HOUR"
                        mkdir "$DESTDIR"
                        mv $PICDIR/*.jpg "$DESTDIR"/
                        sleep 3600
                        HOUR=`date +%H`
                done

        DISKFULL=$(df -h $WEBDIR | grep -v File | awk '{ print $5 }' | cut -d "%" -f1 -)
        done

        TOREMOVE=$(find $WEBDIR -type d -a -mtime +30)
        for i in $TOREMOVE; do
                rm -rf "$i";
        done

done

   Note the initialization of the HOUR and DISKFULL variables and the use
   of options with ls and date in order to obtain a correct listing for
   TOREMOVE.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        9.4. I/O redirection and loops

9.4.1. Input redirection

   Instead of controlling a loop by testing the result of a command or by
   user input, you can specify a file from which to read input that
   controls the loop. In such cases, read is often the controlling command.
   As long as input lines are fed into the loop, execution of the loop
   commands continues. As soon as all the input lines are read the loop
   exits.

   Since the loop construct is considered to be one command structure (such
   as while TEST-COMMAND; do CONSEQUENT-COMMANDS; done), the redirection
   should occur after the done statement, so that it complies with the form

   command < file

   This kind of redirection also works with other kinds of loops.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.4.2. Output redirection

   In the example below, output of the find command is used as input for
   the read command controlling a while loop:

 [carol@octarine ~/testdir] cat archiveoldstuff.sh
 #!/bin/bash

 # This script creates a subdirectory in the current directory, to which old
 # files are moved.
 # Might be something for cron (if slightly adapted) to execute weekly or
 # monthly.

 ARCHIVENR=`date +%Y%m%d`
 DESTDIR="$PWD/archive-$ARCHIVENR"

 mkdir "$DESTDIR"

 # using quotes to catch file names containing spaces, using read -d for more
 # fool-proof usage:
 find "$PWD" -type f -a -mtime +5 | while read -d $'\000' file

 do
 gzip "$file"; mv "$file".gz "$DESTDIR"
 echo "$file archived"
 done

   Files are compressed before they are moved into the archive directory.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           9.5. Break and continue

9.5.1. The break built-in

   The break statement is used to exit the current loop before its normal
   ending. This is done when you don't know in advance how many times the
   loop will have to execute, for instance because it is dependent on user
   input.

   The example below demonstrates a while loop that can be interrupted.
   This is a slightly improved version of the wisdom.sh script from
   [231]Section 9.2.2.3.

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script provides wisdom
   # You can now exit in a decent way.

   FORTUNE=/usr/games/fortune

   while true; do
   echo "On which topic do you want advice?"
   echo "1.  politics"
   echo "2.  startrek"
   echo "3.  kernelnewbies"
   echo "4.  sports"
   echo "5.  bofh-excuses"
   echo "6.  magic"
   echo "7.  love"
   echo "8.  literature"
   echo "9.  drugs"
   echo "10. education"
   echo

   echo -n "Enter your choice, or 0 for exit: "
   read choice
   echo

   case $choice in
        1)
        $FORTUNE politics
        ;;
        2)
        $FORTUNE startrek
        ;;
        3)
        $FORTUNE kernelnewbies
        ;;
        4)
        echo "Sports are a waste of time, energy and money."
        echo "Go back to your keyboard."
        echo -e "\t\t\t\t -- \"Unhealthy is my middle name\" Soggie."
        ;;
        5)
        $FORTUNE bofh-excuses
        ;;
        6)
        $FORTUNE magic
        ;;
        7)
        $FORTUNE love
        ;;
        8)
        $FORTUNE literature
        ;;
        9)
        $FORTUNE drugs
        ;;
        10)
        $FORTUNE education
        ;;
        0)
        echo "OK, see you!"
        break
        ;;
        *)
        echo "That is not a valid choice, try a number from 0 to 10."
        ;;
   esac
   done

   Mind that break exits the loop, not the script. This can be demonstrated
   by adding an echo command at the end of the script. This echo will also
   be executed upon input that causes break to be executed (when the user
   types "0").

   In nested loops, break allows for specification of which loop to exit.
   See the Bash info pages for more.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.5.2. The continue built-in

   The continue statement resumes iteration of an enclosing for, while,
   until or select loop.

   When used in a for loop, the controlling variable takes on the value of
   the next element in the list. When used in a while or until construct,
   on the other hand, execution resumes with TEST-COMMAND at the top of the
   loop.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.5.3. Examples

   In the following example, file names are converted to lower case. If no
   conversion needs to be done, a continue statement restarts execution of
   the loop. These commands don't eat much system resources, and most
   likely, similar problems can be solved using sed and awk. However, it is
   useful to know about this kind of construction when executing heavy
   jobs, that might not even be necessary when tests are inserted at the
   correct locations in a script, sparing system resources.

[carol@octarine ~/test] cat tolower.sh
#!/bin/bash

# This script converts all file names containing upper case characters into file# names containing only lower cases.

LIST="$(ls)"

for name in "$LIST"; do

if [[ "$name" != *[[:upper:]]* ]]; then
continue
fi

ORIG="$name"
NEW=`echo $name | tr 'A-Z' 'a-z'`

mv "$ORIG" "$NEW"
echo "new name for $ORIG is $NEW"
done

   This script has at least one disadvantage: it overwrites existing files.
   The noclobber option to Bash is only useful when redirection occurs. The
   -b option to the mv command provides more security, but is only safe in
   case of one accidental overwrite, as is demonstrated in this test:

   [carol@octarine ~/test] rm *

   [carol@octarine ~/test] touch test Test TEST

   [carol@octarine ~/test] bash -x tolower.sh
   ++ ls
   + LIST=test
   Test
   TEST
   + [[ test != *[[:upper:]]* ]]
   + continue
   + [[ Test != *[[:upper:]]* ]]
   + ORIG=Test
   ++ echo Test
   ++ tr A-Z a-z
   + NEW=test
   + mv -b Test test
   + echo 'new name for Test is test'
   new name for Test is test
   + [[ TEST != *[[:upper:]]* ]]
   + ORIG=TEST
   ++ echo TEST
   ++ tr A-Z a-z
   + NEW=test
   + mv -b TEST test
   + echo 'new name for TEST is test'
   new name for TEST is test

   [carol@octarine ~/test] ls -a
   ./  ../  test  test~

   The tr is part of the textutils package; it can perform all kinds of
   character transformations.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  9.6. Making menus with the select built-in

9.6.1. General

  9.6.1.1. Use of select

   The select construct allows easy menu generation. The syntax is quite
   similar to that of the for loop:

   select WORD [in LIST]; do RESPECTIVE-COMMANDS; done

   LIST is expanded, generating a list of items. The expansion is printed
   to standard error; each item is preceded by a number. If in LIST is not
   present, the positional parameters are printed, as if in $@ would have
   been specified. LIST is only printed once.

   Upon printing all the items, the PS3 prompt is printed and one line from
   standard input is read. If this line consists of a number corresponding
   to one of the items, the value of WORD is set to the name of that item.
   If the line is empty, the items and the PS3 prompt are displayed again.
   If an EOF (End Of File) character is read, the loop exits. Since most
   users don't have a clue which key combination is used for the EOF
   sequence, it is more user-friendly to have a break command as one of the
   items. Any other value of the read line will set WORD to be a null
   string.

   The read line is saved in the REPLY variable.

   The RESPECTIVE-COMMANDS are executed after each selection until the
   number representing the break is read. This exits the loop.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9.6.1.2. Examples

   This is a very simple example, but as you can see, it is not very
   user-friendly:

  [carol@octarine testdir] cat private.sh
  #!/bin/bash

  echo "This script can make any of the files in this directory private."
  echo "Enter the number of the file you want to protect:"

  select FILENAME in *;
  do
       echo "You picked $FILENAME ($REPLY), it is now only accessible to you."
       chmod go-rwx "$FILENAME"
  done

  [carol@octarine testdir] ./private.sh
  This script can make any of the files in this directory private.
  Enter the number of the file you want to protect:
  1) archive-20030129
  2) bash
  3) private.sh
  #? 1
  You picked archive-20030129 (1)
  #?

   Setting the PS3 prompt and adding a possibility to quit makes it better:

   #!/bin/bash

   echo "This script can make any of the files in this directory private."
   echo "Enter the number of the file you want to protect:"

   PS3="Your choice: "
   QUIT="QUIT THIS PROGRAM - I feel safe now."
   touch "$QUIT"

   select FILENAME in *;
   do
     case $FILENAME in
           "$QUIT")
             echo "Exiting."
             break
             ;;
           *)
             echo "You picked $FILENAME ($REPLY)"
             chmod go-rwx "$FILENAME"
             ;;
     esac
   done
   rm "$QUIT"

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.6.2. Submenus

   Any statement within a select construct can be another select loop,
   enabling (a) submenu(s) within a menu.

   By default, the PS3 variable is not changed when entering a nested
   select loop. If you want a different prompt in the submenu, be sure to
   set it at the appropriate time(s).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           9.7. The shift built-in

9.7.1. What does it do?

   The shift command is one of the Bourne shell built-ins that comes with
   Bash. This command takes one argument, a number. The positional
   parameters are shifted to the left by this number, N. The positional
   parameters from N+1 to $# are renamed to variable names from $1 to $# -
   N+1.

   Say you have a command that takes 10 arguments, and N is 4, then $4
   becomes $1, $5 becomes $2 and so on. $10 becomes $7 and the original $1,
   $2 and $3 are thrown away.

   If N is zero or greater than $#, the positional parameters are not
   changed (the total number of arguments, see [232]Section 7.2.1.2) and
   the command has no effect. If N is not present, it is assumed to be 1.
   The return status is zero unless N is greater than $# or less than zero;
   otherwise it is non-zero.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.7.2. Examples

   A shift statement is typically used when the number of arguments to a
   command is not known in advance, for instance when users can give as
   many arguments as they like. In such cases, the arguments are usually
   processed in a while loop with a test condition of (( $# )). This
   condition is true as long as the number of arguments is greater than
   zero. The $1 variable and the shift statement process each argument. The
   number of arguments is reduced each time shift is executed and
   eventually becomes zero, upon which the while loop exits.

   The example below, cleanup.sh, uses shift statements to process each
   file in the list generated by find:

   #!/bin/bash

   # This script can clean up files that were last accessed over 365 days ago.

   USAGE="Usage: $0 dir1 dir2 dir3 ... dirN"

   if [ "$#" == "0" ]; then
           echo "$USAGE"
           exit 1
   fi

   while (( "$#" )); do

   if [[ $(ls "$1") == "" ]]; then
           echo "Empty directory, nothing to be done."
     else
           find "$1" -type f -a -atime +365 -exec rm -i {} \;
   fi

   shift

   done

   [233]Note -exec vs. xargs
             The above find command can be replaced with the following:

             find options | xargs [commands_to_execute_on_found_files]

             The xargs command builds and executes command lines from
             standard input. This has the advantage that the command line
             is filled until the system limit is reached. Only then will
             the command to execute be called, in the above example this
             would be rm. If there are more arguments, a new command line
             will be used, until that one is full or until there are no
             more arguments. The same thing using find -exec calls on the
             command to execute on the found files every time a file is
             found. Thus, using xargs greatly speeds up your scripts and
             the performance of your machine.

   In the next example, we modified the script from [234]Section 8.2.4.4 so
   that it accepts multiple packages to install at once:

   #!/bin/bash
   if [ $# -lt 1 ]; then
           echo "Usage: $0 package(s)"
           exit 1
   fi
   while (($#)); do
           yum install "$1" << CONFIRM
   y
   CONFIRM
   shift
   done

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 9.8. Summary

   In this chapter, we discussed how repetitive commands can be
   incorporated in loop constructs. Most common loops are built using the
   for, while or until statements, or a combination of these commands. The
   for loop executes a task a defined number of times. If you don't know
   how many times a command should execute, use either until or while to
   specify when the loop should end.

   Loops can be interrupted or reiterated using the break and continue
   statements.

   A file can be used as input for a loop using the input redirection
   operator, loops can also read output from commands that is fed into the
   loop using a pipe.

   The select construct is used for printing menus in interactive scripts.
   Looping through the command line arguments to a script can be done using
   the shift statement.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                9.9. Exercises

   Remember: when building scripts, work in steps and test each step before
   incorporating it in your script.

    1. Create a script that will take a (recursive) copy of files in /etc
       so that a beginning system administrator can edit files without
       fear.

    2. Write a script that takes exactly one argument, a directory name. If
       the number of arguments is more or less than one, print a usage
       message. If the argument is not a directory, print another message.
       For the given directory, print the five biggest files and the five
       files that were most recently modified.

    3. Can you explain why it is so important to put the variables in
       between double quotes in the example from [235]Section 9.4.2?

    4. Write a script similar to the one in [236]Section 9.5.1, but think
       of a way of quitting after the user has executed 3 loops.

    5. Think of a better solution than move -b for the script from
       [237]Section 9.5.3 to prevent overwriting of existing files. For
       instance, test whether or not a file exists. Don't do unnecessary
       work!

    6. Rewrite the whichdaemon.sh script from [238]Section 7.2.4, so that
       it:

          * Prints a list of servers to check, such as Apache, the SSH
            server, the NTP daemon, a name daemon, a power management
            daemon, and so on.

          * For each choice the user can make, print some sensible
            information, like the name of the web server, NTP trace
            information, and so on.

          * Optionally, build in a possibility for users to check other
            servers than the ones listed. For such cases, check that at
            least the given process is running.

          * Review the script from [239]Section 9.2.2.4. Note how character
            input other than q is processed. Rebuild this script so that it
            prints a message if characters are given as input.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        Chapter 10. More on variables

     In this chapter, we will discuss the advanced use of variables and
     arguments. Upon completion, you will be able to:



       * Declare and use an array of variables

       * Specify the sort of variable you want to use

       * Make variables read-only

       * Use set to assign a value to a variable

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           10.1. Types of variables

10.1.1. General assignment of values

   As we already saw, Bash understands many different kinds of variables or
   parameters. Thus far, we haven't bothered much with what kind of
   variables we assigned, so our variables could hold any value that we
   assigned to them. A simple command line example demonstrates this:

   [bob in ~] VARIABLE=12

   [bob in ~] echo $VARIABLE
   12

   [bob in ~] VARIABLE=string

   [bob in ~] echo $VARIABLE
   string

   There are cases when you want to avoid this kind of behavior, for
   instance when handling telephone and other numbers. Apart from integers
   and variables, you may also want to specify a variable that is a
   constant. This is often done at the beginning of a script, when the
   value of the constant is declared. After that, there are only references
   to the constant variable name, so that when the constant needs to be
   changed, it only has to be done once. A variable may also be a series of
   variables of any type, a so-called array of variables (VAR0VAR1, VAR2,
   ... VARN).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.1.2. Using the declare built-in

   Using a declare statement, we can limit the value assignment to
   variables.

   The syntax for declare is the following:

   declare OPTION(s) VARIABLE=value

   The following options are used to determine the type of data the
   variable can hold and to assign it attributes:

   Table 10-1. Options to the declare built-in

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Option | Meaning                                                     |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   | -a     | Variable is an array.                                       |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   | -f     | Use function names only.                                    |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   |        | The variable is to be treated as an integer; arithmetic     |
   | -i     | evaluation is performed when the variable is assigned a     |
   |        | value (see [240]Section 3.4.6).                             |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   | -p     | Display the attributes and values of each variable. When -p |
   |        | is used, additional options are ignored.                    |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   |        | Make variables read-only. These variables cannot then be    |
   | -r     | assigned values by subsequent assignment statements, nor    |
   |        | can they be unset.                                          |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   | -t     | Give each variable the trace attribute.                     |
   |--------+-------------------------------------------------------------|
   | -x     | Mark each variable for export to subsequent commands via    |
   |        | the environment.                                            |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Using + instead of - turns off the attribute instead. When used in a
   function, declare creates local variables.

   The following example shows how assignment of a type to a variable
   influences the value.

   [bob in ~] declare -i VARIABLE=12

   [bob in ~] VARIABLE=string

   [bob in ~] echo $VARIABLE
   0

   [bob in ~] declare -p VARIABLE
   declare -i VARIABLE="0"

   Note that Bash has an option to declare a numeric value, but none for
   declaring string values. This is because, by default, if no
   specifications are given, a variable can hold any type of data:

   [bob in ~] OTHERVAR=blah

   [bob in ~] declare -p OTHERVAR
   declare -- OTHERVAR="blah"

   As soon as you restrict assignment of values to a variable, it can only
   hold that type of data. Possible restrictions are either integer,
   constant or array.

   See the Bash info pages for information on return status.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.1.3. Constants

   In Bash, constants are created by making a variable read-only. The
   readonly built-in marks each specified variable as unchangeable. The
   syntax is:

   readonly OPTION VARIABLE(s)

   The values of these variables can then no longer be changed by
   subsequent assignment. If the -f option is given, each variable refers
   to a shell function; see [241]Chapter 11. If -a is specified, each
   variable refers to an array of variables. If no arguments are given, or
   if -p is supplied, a list of all read-only variables is displayed. Using
   the -p option, the output can be reused as input.

   The return status is zero, unless an invalid option was specified, one
   of the variables or functions does not exist, or -f was supplied for a
   variable name instead of for a function name.

   [bob in ~] readonly TUX=penguinpower

   [bob in ~] TUX=Mickeysoft
   bash: TUX: readonly variable

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            10.2. Array variables

10.2.1. Creating arrays

   An array is a variable containing multiple values. Any variable may be
   used as an array. There is no maximum limit to the size of an array, nor
   any requirement that member variables be indexed or assigned
   contiguously. Arrays are zero-based: the first element is indexed with
   the number 0.

   Indirect declaration is done using the following syntax to declare a
   variable:

   ARRAY[INDEXNR]=value

   The INDEXNR is treated as an arithmetic expression that must evaluate to
   a positive number.

   Explicit declaration of an array is done using the declare built-in:

   declare -a ARRAYNAME

   A declaration with an index number will also be accepted, but the index
   number will be ignored. Attributes to the array may be specified using
   the declare and readonly built-ins. Attributes apply to all variables in
   the array; you can't have mixed arrays.

   Array variables may also be created using compound assignments in this
   format:

   ARRAY=(value1 value2 ... valueN)

   Each value is then in the form of [indexnumber=]string. The index number
   is optional. If it is supplied, that index is assigned to it; otherwise
   the index of the element assigned is the number of the last index that
   was assigned, plus one. This format is accepted by declare as well. If
   no index numbers are supplied, indexing starts at zero.

   Adding missing or extra members in an array is done using the syntax:

   ARRAYNAME[indexnumber]=value

   Remember that the read built-in provides the -a option, which allows for
   reading and assigning values for member variables of an array.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2.2. Dereferencing the variables in an array

   In order to refer to the content of an item in an array, use curly
   braces. This is necessary, as you can see from the following example, to
   bypass the shell interpretation of expansion operators. If the index
   number is @ or *, all members of an array are referenced.

   [bob in ~] ARRAY=(one two three)

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]}
   one two three

   [bob in ~] echo $ARRAY[*]
   one[*]

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[2]}
   three

   [bob in ~] ARRAY[3]=four

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]}
   one two three four

   Referring to the content of a member variable of an array without
   providing an index number is the same as referring to the content of the
   first element, the one referenced with index number zero.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2.3. Deleting array variables

   The unset built-in is used to destroy arrays or member variables of an
   array:

   [bob in ~] unset ARRAY[1]

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]}
   one three four

   [bob in ~] unset ARRAY

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]}
   <--no output-->

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2.4. Examples of arrays

   Practical examples of the usage of arrays are hard to find. You will
   find plenty of scripts that don't really do anything on your system but
   that do use arrays to calculate mathematical series, for instance. And
   that would be one of the more interesting examples...most scripts just
   show what you can do with an array in an oversimplified and theoretical
   way.

   The reason for this dullness is that arrays are rather complex
   structures. You will find that most practical examples for which arrays
   could be used are already implemented on your system using arrays,
   however on a lower level, in the C programming language in which most
   UNIX commands are written. A good example is the Bash history built-in
   command. Those readers who are interested might check the built-ins
   directory in the Bash source tree and take a look at fc.def, which is
   processed when compiling the built-ins.

   Another reason good examples are hard to find is that not all shells
   support arrays, so they break compatibility.

   After long days of searching, I finally found this example operating at
   an Internet provider. It distributes Apache web server configuration
   files onto hosts in a web farm:

   #!/bin/bash

   if [ $(whoami) != 'root' ]; then
           echo "Must be root to run $0"
           exit 1;
   fi
   if [ -z $1 ]; then
           echo "Usage: $0 </path/to/httpd.conf>"
           exit 1
   fi

   httpd_conf_new=$1
   httpd_conf_path="/usr/local/apache/conf"
   login=htuser

   farm_hosts=(web03 web04 web05 web06 web07)

   for i in ${farm_hosts[@]}; do
           su $login -c "scp $httpd_conf_new ${i}:${httpd_conf_path}"
           su $login -c "ssh $i sudo /usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl graceful"

   done
   exit 0

   First two tests are performed to check whether the correct user is
   running the script with the correct arguments. The names of the hosts
   that need to be configured are listed in the array farm_hosts. Then all
   these hosts are provided with the Apache configuration file, after which
   the daemon is restarted. Note the use of commands from the Secure Shell
   suite, encrypting the connections to remote hosts.

   Thanks, Eugene and colleague, for this contribution.

   Dan Richter contributed the following example. This is the problem he
   was confronted with:

   "...In my company, we have demos on our web site, and every week someone
   has to test all of them. So I have a cron job that fills an array with
   the possible candidates, uses date +%W to find the week of the year, and
   does a modulo operation to find the correct index. The lucky person gets
   notified by e-mail."

   And this was his way of solving it:

#!/bin/bash
# This is get-tester-address.sh
#
# First, we test whether bash supports arrays.
# (Support for arrays was only added recently.)
#
whotest[0]='test' || (echo 'Failure: arrays not supported in this version of
bash.' && exit 2)

#
# Our list of candidates. (Feel free to add or
# remove candidates.)
#
wholist=(
     'Bob Smith <bob@example.com>'
     'Jane L. Williams <jane@example.com>'
     'Eric S. Raymond <esr@example.com>'
     'Larry Wall <wall@example.com>'
     'Linus Torvalds <linus@example.com>'
   )
#
# Count the number of possible testers.
# (Loop until we find an empty string.)
#
count=0
while [ "x${wholist[count]}" != "x" ]
do
   count=$(( $count + 1 ))
done

#
# Now we calculate whose turn it is.
#
week=`date '+%W'`       # The week of the year (0..53).
week=${week#0}          # Remove possible leading zero.

let "index = $week % $count"   # week modulo count = the lucky person

email=${wholist[index]}     # Get the lucky person's e-mail address.

echo $email             # Output the person's e-mail address.

   This script is then used in other scripts, such as this one, which uses
   a here document:

email=`get-tester-address.sh`   # Find who to e-mail.
hostname=`hostname`             # This machine's name.

#
# Send e-mail to the right person.
#
mail $email -s '[Demo Testing]' <<EOF
The lucky tester this week is: $email

Reminder: the list of demos is here:
    http://web.example.com:8080/DemoSites

(This e-mail was generated by $0 on ${hostname}.)
EOF

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        10.3. Operations on variables

10.3.1. Arithmetic on variables

   We discussed this already in [242]Section 3.4.6.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.3.2. Length of a variable

   Using the ${#VAR} syntax will calculate the number of characters in a
   variable. If VAR is "*" or "@", this value is substituted with the
   number of positional parameters or number of elements in an array in
   general. This is demonstrated in the example below:

   [bob in ~] echo $SHELL
   /bin/bash

   [bob in ~] echo ${#SHELL}
   9

   [bob in ~] ARRAY=(one two three)

   [bob in ~] echo ${#ARRAY}
   3

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.3.3. Transformations of variables

  10.3.3.1. Substitution

   ${VAR:-WORD}

   If VAR is not defined or null, the expansion of WORD is substituted;
   otherwise the value of VAR is substituted:

   [bob in ~] echo ${TEST:-test}
   test

   [bob in ~] echo $TEST


   [bob in ~] export TEST=a_string

   [bob in ~] echo ${TEST:-test}
   a_string

   [bob in ~] echo ${TEST2:-$TEST}
   a_string

   This form is often used in conditional tests, for instance in this one:

   [ -z "${COLUMNS:-}" ] && COLUMNS=80

   It is a shorter notation for

   if [ -z "${COLUMNS:-}" ]; then
           COLUMNS=80
   fi

   See [243]Section 7.1.2.3 for more information about this type of
   condition testing.

   If the hyphen (-) is replaced with the equal sign (=), the value is
   assigned to the parameter if it does not exist:

   [bob in ~] echo $TEST2


   [bob in ~] echo ${TEST2:=$TEST}
   a_string

   [bob in ~] echo $TEST2
   a_string

   The following syntax tests the existence of a variable. If it is not
   set, the expansion of WORD is printed to standard out and
   non-interactive shells quit. A demonstration:

   [bob in ~] cat vartest.sh
   #!/bin/bash

   # This script tests whether a variable is set.  If not,
   # it exits printing a message.

   echo ${TESTVAR:?"There's so much I still wanted to do..."}
   echo "TESTVAR is set, we can proceed."

   [bob in testdir] ./vartest.sh
   ./vartest.sh: line 6: TESTVAR: There's so much I still wanted to do...

   [bob in testdir] export TESTVAR=present

   [bob in testdir] ./vartest.sh
   present
   TESTVAR is set, we can proceed.

   Using "+" instead of the exclamation mark sets the variable to the
   expansion of WORD; if it does not exist, nothing happens.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  10.3.3.2. Removing substrings

   To strip a number of characters, equal to OFFSET, from a variable, use
   this syntax:

   ${VAR:OFFSET:LENGTH}

   The LENGTH parameter defines how many characters to keep, starting from
   the first character after the offset point. If LENGTH is omitted, the
   remainder of the variable content is taken:

   [bob in ~] export STRING="thisisaverylongname"

   [bob in ~] echo ${STRING:4}
   isaverylongname

   [bob in ~] echo ${STRING:6:5}
   avery

   ${VAR#WORD}

   and

   ${VAR##WORD}

   These constructs are used for deleting the pattern matching the
   expansion of WORD in VAR. WORD is expanded to produce a pattern just as
   in file name expansion. If the pattern matches the beginning of the
   expanded value of VAR, then the result of the expansion is the expanded
   value of VAR with the shortest matching pattern ("#") or the longest
   matching pattern (indicated with "##").

   If VAR is * or @, the pattern removal operation is applied to each
   positional parameter in turn, and the expansion is the resultant list.

   If VAR is an array variable subscribed with "*" or "@", the pattern
   removal operation is applied to each member of the array in turn, and
   the expansion is the resultant list. This is shown in the examples
   below:

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]}
   one two one three one four

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]#one}
   two three four

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]#t}
   one wo one hree one four

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]#t*}
   one wo one hree one four

   [bob in ~] echo ${ARRAY[*]##t*}
   one one one four

   The opposite effect is obtained using "%" and "%%", as in this example
   below. WORD should match a trailing portion of string:

   [bob in ~] echo $STRING
   thisisaverylongname

   [bob in ~] echo ${STRING%name}
   thisisaverylong

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  10.3.3.3. Replacing parts of variable names

   This is done using the

   ${VAR/PATTERN/STRING}

   or

   ${VAR//PATTERN/STRING}

   syntax. The first form replaces only the first match, the second
   replaces all matches of PATTERN with STRING:

   [bob in ~] echo ${STRING/name/string}
   thisisaverylongstring

   More information can be found in the Bash info pages.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                10.4. Summary

   Normally, a variable can hold any type of data, unless variables are
   declared explicitly. Constant variables are set using the readonly
   built-in command.

   An array holds a set of variables. If a type of data is declared, then
   all elements in the array will be set to hold only this type of data.

   Bash features allow for substitution and transformation of variables "on
   the fly". Standard operations include calculating the length of a
   variable, arithmetic on variables, substituting variable content and
   substituting part of the content.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               10.5. Exercises

   Here are some brain crackers:

    1. Write a script that does the following:

          * Display the name of the script being executed.

          * Display the first, third and tenth argument given to the
            script.

          * Display the total number of arguments passed to the script.

          * If there were more than three positional parameters, use shift
            to move all the values 3 places to the left.

          * Print all the values of the remaining arguments.

          * Print the number of arguments.

       Test with zero, one, three and over ten arguments.

    2. Write a script that implements a simple web browser (in text mode),
       using wget and links -dump to display HTML pages to the user. The
       user has 3 choices: enter a URL, enter b for back and q to quit. The
       last 10 URLs entered by the user are stored in an array, from which
       the user can restore the URL by using the back functionality.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            Chapter 11. Functions

     In this chapter, we will discuss



       * What functions are

       * Creation and displaying of functions from the command line

       * Functions in scripts

       * Passing arguments to functions

       * When to use functions

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              11.1. Introduction

11.1.1. What are functions?

   Shell functions are a way to group commands for later execution, using a
   single name for this group, or routine. The name of the routine must be
   unique within the shell or script. All the commands that make up a
   function are executed like regular commands. When calling on a function
   as a simple command name, the list of commands associated with that
   function name is executed. A function is executed within the shell in
   which it has been declared: no new process is created to interpret the
   commands.

   Special built-in commands are found before shell functions during
   command lookup. The special built-ins are: break, :, ., continue, eval,
   exec, exit, export, readonly, return, set, shift, trap and unset.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.1.2. Function syntax

   Functions either use the syntax

   function FUNCTION { COMMANDS; }

   or

   FUNCTION () { COMMANDS; }

   Both define a shell function FUNCTION. The use of the built-in command
   function is optional; however, if it is not used, parentheses are
   needed.

   The commands listed between curly braces make up the body of the
   function. These commands are executed whenever FUNCTION is specified as
   the name of a command. The exit status is the exit status of the last
   command executed in the body.

   [244]Note Common mistakes
             The curly braces must be separated from the body by spaces,
             otherwise they are interpreted in the wrong way.

             The body of a function should end in a semicolon or a newline.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.1.3. Positional parameters in functions

   Functions are like mini-scripts: they can accept parameters, they can
   use variables only known within the function (using the local shell
   built-in) and they can return values to the calling shell.

   A function also has a system for interpreting positional parameters.
   However, the positional parameters passed to a function are not the same
   as the ones passed to a command or script.

   When a function is executed, the arguments to the function become the
   positional parameters during its execution. The special parameter # that
   expands to the number of positional parameters is updated to reflect the
   change. Positional parameter 0 is unchanged. The Bash variable FUNCNAME
   is set to the name of the function, while it is executing.

   If the return built-in is executed in a function, the function completes
   and execution resumes with the next command after the function call.
   When a function completes, the values of the positional parameters and
   the special parameter # are restored to the values they had prior to the
   function's execution. If a numeric argument is given to return, that
   status is returned. A simple example:

[lydia@cointreau ~/test] cat showparams.sh
#!/bin/bash

echo "This script demonstrates function arguments."
echo

echo "Positional parameter 1 for the script is $1."
echo

test ()
{
echo "Positional parameter 1 in the function is $1."
RETURN_VALUE=$?
echo "The exit code of this function is $RETURN_VALUE."
}

test other_param

[lydia@cointreau ~/test] ./showparams.sh parameter1
This script demonstrates function arguments.

Positional parameter 1 for the script is parameter1.

Positional parameter 1 in the function is other_param.
The exit code of this function is 0.

[lydia@cointreau ~/test]

   Note that the return value or exit code of the function is often storen
   in a variable, so that it can be probed at a later point. The init
   scripts on your system often use the technique of probing the RETVAL
   variable in a conditional test, like this one:

   if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]; then
           <start the daemon>

   Or like this example from the /etc/init.d/amd script, where Bash's
   optimization features are used:

   [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/amd

   The commands after && are only executed when the test proves to be true;
   this is a shorter way to represent an if/then/fi structure.

   The return code of the function is often used as exit code of the entire
   script. You'll see a lot of initscripts ending in something like exit
   $RETVAL.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.1.4. Displaying functions

   All functions known by the current shell can be displayed using the set
   built-in without options. Functions are retained after they are used,
   unless they are unset after use. The which command also displays
   functions:

   [lydia@cointreau ~] which zless
   zless is a function
   zless ()
   {
       zcat "$@" | "$PAGER"
   }

   [lydia@cointreau ~] echo $PAGER
   less

   This is the sort of function that is typically configured in the user's
   shell resource configuration files. Functions are more flexible than
   aliases and provide a simple and easy way of adapting the user
   environment.

   Here's one for DOS users:

   dir ()
   {
       ls -F --color=auto -lF --color=always "$@" | less -r
   }

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                    11.2. Examples of functions in scripts

11.2.1. Recycling

   There are plenty of scripts on your system that use functions as a
   structured way of handling series of commands. On some Linux systems,
   for instance, you will find the /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions definition
   file, which is sourced in all init scripts. Using this method, common
   tasks such as checking if a process runs, starting or stopping a daemon
   and so on, only have to be written once, in a general way. If the same
   task is needed again, the code is recycled.

   You could make your own /etc/functions file that contains all functions
   that you use regularly on your system, in different scripts. Just put
   the line

   . /etc/functions

   somewhere at the start of the script and you can recycle functions.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2.2. Setting the path

   This section might be found in your /etc/profile file. The function
   pathmunge is defined and then used to set the path for the root and
   other users:

   pathmunge () {
           if ! echo $PATH | /bin/egrep -q "(^|:)$1($|:)" ; then
              if [ "$2" = "after" ] ; then
                 PATH=$PATH:$1
              else
                 PATH=$1:$PATH
              fi
           fi
   }

   # Path manipulation
   if [ `id -u` = 0 ]; then
           pathmunge /sbin
           pathmunge /usr/sbin
           pathmunge /usr/local/sbin
   fi

   pathmunge /usr/X11R6/bin after

   unset pathmunge

   The function takes its first argument to be a path name. If this path
   name is not yet in the current path, it is added. The second argument to
   the function defines if the path will be added in front or after the
   current PATH definition.

   Normal users only get /usr/X11R6/bin added to their paths, while root
   gets a couple of extra directories containing system commands. After
   being used, the function is unset so that it is not retained.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2.3. Remote backups

   The following example is one that I use for making backups of the files
   for my books. It uses SSH keys for enabling the remote connection. Two
   functions are defined, buplinux and bupbash, that each make a .tar file,
   which is then compressed and sent to a remote server. After that, the
   local copy is cleaned up.

   On Sunday, only bupbash is executed.

#/bin/bash

LOGFILE="/nethome/tille/log/backupscript.log"
echo "Starting backups for `date`" >> "$LOGFILE"

buplinux()
{
DIR="/nethome/tille/xml/db/linux-basics/"
TAR="Linux.tar"
BZIP="$TAR.bz2"
SERVER="rincewind"
RDIR="/var/www/intra/tille/html/training/"

cd "$DIR"
tar cf "$TAR" src/*.xml src/images/*.png src/images/*.eps
echo "Compressing $TAR..." >> "$LOGFILE"
bzip2 "$TAR"
echo "...done." >> "$LOGFILE"
echo "Copying to $SERVER..." >> "$LOGFILE"
scp "$BZIP" "$SERVER:$RDIR" > /dev/null 2>&1
echo "...done." >> "$LOGFILE"
echo -e "Done backing up Linux course:\nSource files, PNG and EPS images.\nRubbish removed." >> "$LOGFILE"
rm "$BZIP"
}

bupbash()
{
DIR="/nethome/tille/xml/db/"
TAR="Bash.tar"
BZIP="$TAR.bz2"
FILES="bash-programming/"
SERVER="rincewind"
RDIR="/var/www/intra/tille/html/training/"

cd "$DIR"
tar cf "$TAR" "$FILES"
echo "Compressing $TAR..." >> "$LOGFILE"
bzip2 "$TAR"
echo "...done." >> "$LOGFILE"
echo "Copying to $SERVER..." >> "$LOGFILE"
scp "$BZIP" "$SERVER:$RDIR" > /dev/null 2>&1
echo "...done." >> "$LOGFILE"

echo -e "Done backing up Bash course:\n$FILES\nRubbish removed." >> "$LOGFILE"
rm "$BZIP"
}

DAY=`date +%w`

if [ "$DAY" -lt "2" ]; then
  echo "It is `date +%A`, only backing up Bash course." >> "$LOGFILE"
  bupbash
else
  buplinux
  bupbash
fi


echo -e "Remote backup `date` SUCCESS\n----------" >> "$LOGFILE"

   This script runs from cron, meaning without user interaction, so we
   redirect standard error from the scp command to /dev/null.

   It might be argued that all the separate steps can be combined in a
   command such as

   tar c dir_to_backup/ | bzip2 | ssh server "cat > backup.tar.bz2"

   However, if you are interested in intermediate results, which might be
   recovered upon failure of the script, this is not what you want.

   The expression

   command &> file

   is equivalent to

   command > file 2>&1

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                11.3. Summary

   Functions provide an easy way of grouping commands that you need to
   execute repetitively. When a function is running, the positional
   parameters are changed to those of the function. When it stops, they are
   reset to those of the calling program. Functions are like mini-scripts,
   and just like a script, they generate exit or return codes.

   While this was a short chapter, it contains important knowledge needed
   for achieving the ultimate state of laziness that is the typical goal of
   any system administrator.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               11.4. Exercises

   Here are some useful things you can do using functions:

    1. Add a function to your ~/.bashrc config file that automates the
       printing of man pages. The result should be that you type something
       like printman <command>, upon which the first appropriate man page
       rolls out of your printer. Check using a pseudo printer device for
       testing purposes.

       As an extra, build in a possibility for the user to supply the
       section number of the man page he or she wants to print.

    2. Create a subdirectory in your home directory in which you can store
       function definitions. Put a couple of functions in that directory.
       Useful functions might be, amongs others, that you have the same
       commands as on DOS or a commercial UNIX when working with Linux, or
       vice versa. These functions should then be imported in your shell
       environment when ~/.bashrc is read.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Chapter 12. Catching signals

     In this chapter, we will discuss the following subjects:



       * Available signals

       * Use of the signals

       * Use of the trap statement

       * How to prevent users from interrupting your programs

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                12.1. Signals

12.1.1. Introduction

  12.1.1.1. Finding the signal man page

   Your system contains a man page listing all the available signals, but
   depending on your operating system, it might be opened in a different
   way. On most Linux systems, this will be man 7 signal. When in doubt,
   locate the exact man page and section using commands like

   man -k signal | grep list

   or

   apropos signal | grep list

   Signal names can be found using kill -l.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  12.1.1.2. Signals to your Bash shell

   In the absence of any traps, an interactive Bash shell ignores SIGTERM
   and SIGQUIT. SIGINT is caught and handled, and if job control is active,
   SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU and SIGTSTP are also ignored. Commands that are run as
   the result of a command substitution also ignore these signals, when
   keyboard generated.

   SIGHUP by default exits a shell. An interactive shell will send a SIGHUP
   to all jobs, running or stopped; see the documentation on the disown
   built-in if you want to disable this default behavior for a particular
   process. Use the huponexit option for killing all jobs upon receiving a
   SIGHUP signal, using the shopt built-in.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  12.1.1.3. Sending signals using the shell

   The following signals can be sent using the Bash shell:

   Table 12-1. Control signals in Bash

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Standard key | Meaning                                               |
   | combination  |                                                       |
   |--------------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | Ctrl+C       | The interrupt signal, sends SIGINT to the job running |
   |              | in the foreground.                                    |
   |--------------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   |              | The delayed suspend character. Causes a running       |
   |              | process to be stopped when it attempts to read input  |
   | Ctrl+Y       | from the terminal. Control is returned to the shell,  |
   |              | the user can foreground, background or kill the       |
   |              | process. Delayed suspend is only available on         |
   |              | operating systems supporting this feature.            |
   |--------------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   |              | The suspend signal, sends a SIGTSTP to a running      |
   | Ctrl+Z       | program, thus stopping it and returning control to    |
   |              | the shell.                                            |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   [245]Note Terminal settings
             Check your stty settings. Suspend and resume of output is
             usually disabled if you are using "modern" terminal
             emulations. The standard xterm supports Ctrl+S and Ctrl+Q by
             default.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.1.2. Usage of signals with kill

   Most modern shells, Bash included, have a built-in kill function. In
   Bash, both signal names and numbers are accepted as options, and
   arguments may be job or process IDs. An exit status can be reported
   using the -l option: zero when at least one signal was successfully
   sent, non-zero if an error occurred.

   Using the kill command from /usr/bin, your system might enable extra
   options, such as the ability to kill processes from other than your own
   user ID and specifying processes by name, like with pgrep and pkill.

   Both kill commands send the TERM signal if none is given.

   This is a list of the most common signals:

   Table 12-2. Common kill signals

   +------------------------------------------------------+
   | Signal name | Signal value | Effect                  |
   |-------------+--------------+-------------------------|
   | SIGHUP      | 1            | Hangup                  |
   |-------------+--------------+-------------------------|
   | SIGINT      | 2            | Interrupt from keyboard |
   |-------------+--------------+-------------------------|
   | SIGKILL     | 9            | Kill signal             |
   |-------------+--------------+-------------------------|
   | SIGTERM     | 15           | Termination signal      |
   |-------------+--------------+-------------------------|
   | SIGSTOP     | 17,19,23     | Stop the process        |
   +------------------------------------------------------+

   [246]Note SIGKILL and SIGSTOP
             SIGKILL and SIGSTOP can not be caught, blocked or ignored.

   When killing a process or series of processes, it is common sense to
   start trying with the least dangerous signal, SIGTERM. That way,
   programs that care about an orderly shutdown get the chance to follow
   the procedures that they have been designed to execute when getting the
   SIGTERM signal, such as cleaning up and closing open files. If you send
   a SIGKILL to a process, you remove any chance for the process to do a
   tidy cleanup and shutdown, which might have unfortunate consequences.

   But if a clean termination does not work, the INT orKILL signals might
   be the only way. For instance, when a process does not die using Ctrl+C,
   it is best to use the kill -9 on that process ID:

   maud: ~> ps -ef | grep stuck_process
   maud    5607   2214  0 20:05 pts/5    00:00:02 stuck_process

   maud: ~> kill -9 5607

   maud: ~> ps -ef | grep stuck_process
   maud    5614    2214 0 20:15 pts/5    00:00:00 grep stuck_process
   [1]+ Killed             stuck_process

   When a process starts up several instances, killall might be easier. It
   takes the same option as the kill command, but applies on all instances
   of a given process. Test this command before using it in a production
   environment, since it might not work as expected on some of the
   commercial Unices.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 12.2. Traps

12.2.1. General

   There might be situations when you don't want users of your scripts to
   exit untimely using keyboard abort sequences, for example because input
   has to be provided or cleanup has to be done. The trap statement catches
   these sequences and can be programmed to execute a list of commands upon
   catching those signals.

   The syntax for the trap statement is straightforward:

   trap [COMMANDS] [SIGNALS]

   This instructs the trap command to catch the listed SIGNALS, which may
   be signal names with or without the SIG prefix, or signal numbers. If a
   signal is 0 or EXIT, the COMMANDS are executed when the shell exits. If
   one of the signals is DEBUG, the list of COMMANDS is executed after
   every simple command. A signal may also be specified as ERR; in that
   case COMMANDS are executed each time a simple command exits with a
   non-zero status. Note that these commands will not be executed when the
   non-zero exit status comes from part of an if statement, or from a while
   or until loop. Neither will they be executed if a logical AND (&&) or OR
   (||) result in a non-zero exit code, or when a command's return status
   is inverted using the ! operator.

   The return status of the trap command itself is zero unless an invalid
   signal specification is encountered. The trap command takes a couple of
   options, which are documented in the Bash info pages.

   Here is a very simple example, catching Ctrl+C from the user, upon which
   a message is printed. When you try to kill this program without
   specifying the KILL signal, nothing will happen:

   #!/bin/bash
   # traptest.sh

   trap "echo Booh!" SIGINT SIGTERM
   echo "pid is $$"

   while :                 # This is the same as "while true".
   do
           sleep 60        # This script is not really doing anything.
   done

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.2.2. How Bash interprets traps

   When Bash receives a signal for which a trap has been set while waiting
   for a command to complete, the trap will not be executed until the
   command completes. When Bash is waiting for an asynchronous command via
   the wait built-in, the reception of a signal for which a trap has been
   set will cause the wait built-in to return immediately with an exit
   status greater than 128, immediately after which the trap is executed.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.2.3. More examples

  12.2.3.1. Detecting when a variable is used

   When debugging longer scripts, you might want to give a variable the
   trace attribute and trap DEBUG messages for that variable. Normally you
   would just declare a variable using an assignment like VARIABLE=value.
   Replacing the declaration of the variable with the following lines might
   provide valuable information about what your script is doing:

   declare -t VARIABLE=value

   trap "echo VARIABLE is being used here." DEBUG

   # rest of the script

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  12.2.3.2. Removing rubbish upon exit

   The whatis command relies on a database which is regularly built using
   the makewhatis.cron script with cron:

   #!/bin/bash

   LOCKFILE=/var/lock/makewhatis.lock

   # Previous makewhatis should execute successfully:

   [ -f $LOCKFILE ] && exit 0

   # Upon exit, remove lockfile.

   trap "{ rm -f $LOCKFILE ; exit 255; }" EXIT

   touch $LOCKFILE
   makewhatis -u -w
   exit 0

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                12.3. Summary

   Signals can be sent to your programs using the kill command or keyboard
   shortcuts. These signals can be caught, upon which action can be
   performed, using the trap statement.

   Some programs ignore signals. The only signal that no program can ignore
   is the KILL signal.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                               12.4. Exercises

   A couple of practical examples:

    1. Create a script that writes a boot image to a diskette using the dd
       utility. If the user tries to interrupt the script using Ctrl+C,
       display a message that this action will make the diskette unusable.

    2. Write a script that automates the installation of a third-party
       package of your choice. The package must be downloaded from the
       Internet. It must be decompressed, unarchived and compiled if these
       actions are appropriate. Only the actual installation of the package
       should be uninterruptable.

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          Appendix A. Shell Features

     This document gives an overview of common shell features (the same in
     every shell flavour) and differing shell features (shell specific
     features).

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                             A.1. Common features

    The following features are standard in every shell. Note that the stop,
   suspend, jobs, bg and fg commands are only available on systems that
   support job control.

   Table A-1. Common Shell Features

   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | Command  | Meaning                                               |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | >        | Redirect output                                       |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | >>       | Append to file                                        |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | <        | Redirect input                                        |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | <<       | "Here" document (redirect input)                      |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | |        | Pipe output                                           |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | &        | Run process in background.                            |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | ;        | Separate commands on same line                        |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | *        | Match any character(s) in filename                    |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | ?        | Match single character in filename                    |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | [ ]      | Match any characters enclosed                         |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | ( )      | Execute in subshell                                   |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | ` `      | Substitute output of enclosed command                 |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | " "      | Partial quote (allows variable and command expansion) |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | ' '      | Full quote (no expansion)                             |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | \        | Quote following character                             |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | $var     | Use value for variable                                |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | $$       | Process id                                            |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | $0       | Command name                                          |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | $n       | nth argument (n from 0 to 9)                          |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | #        | Begin comment                                         |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | bg       | Background execution                                  |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | break    | Break from loop statements                            |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | cd       | Change directories                                    |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | continue | Resume a program loop                                 |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | echo     | Display output                                        |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | eval     | Evaluate arguments                                    |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | exec     | Execute a new shell                                   |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | fg       | Foreground execution                                  |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | jobs     | Show active jobs                                      |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | kill     | Terminate running jobs                                |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | newgrp   | Change to a new group                                 |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | shift    | Shift positional parameters                           |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | stop     | Suspend a background job                              |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | suspend  | Suspend a foreground job                              |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | time     | Time a command                                        |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | umask    | Set or list file permissions                          |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | unset    | Erase variable or function definitions                |
   |----------+-------------------------------------------------------|
   | wait     | Wait for a background job to finish                   |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+

   ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           A.2. Differing features

   The table below shows major differences between the standard shell (sh),
   Bourne Again SHell (bash), Korn shell (ksh) and the C shell (csh).

   [247]Note Shell compatibility
             Since the Bourne Again SHell is a superset of sh, all sh
             commands will also work in bash - but not vice versa. bash has
             many more features of its own, and, as the table below
             demonstrates, many features incorporated from other shells.

             Since the Turbo C shell is a superset of csh, all csh commands
             will work in tcsh, but not the other way round.

   Table A-2. Differing Shell Features

+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|sh         |bash                              |ksh        |csh          |Meaning/Action     |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|$          |$                                 |$          |%            |Default user prompt|
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |>|                                |>|         |>!           |Force redirection  |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|> file 2>&1|&> file or > file 2>&1            |> file 2>&1|>& file      |Redirect stdout and|
|           |                                  |           |             |stderr to file     |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |{ }                               |           |{ }          |Expand elements in |
|           |                                  |           |             |list               |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|`command`  |`command` or $(command)           |$(command) |`command`    |Substitute output  |
|           |                                  |           |             |of enclosed command|
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|$HOME      |$HOME                             |$HOME      |$home        |Home directory     |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |~                                 |~          |~            |Home directory     |
|           |                                  |           |             |symbol             |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |~+, ~-, dirs                      |~+, ~-     |=-, =N       |Access directory   |
|           |                                  |           |             |stack              |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|var=value  |VAR=value                         |var=value  |set var=value|Variable assignment|
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|export var |export VAR=value                  |export     |setenv var   |Set environment    |
|           |                                  |var=val    |val          |variable           |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |                                  |           |             |More than 9        |
|           |${nnnn}                           |${nn}      |             |arguments can be   |
|           |                                  |           |             |referenced         |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|"$@"       |"$@"                              |"$@"       |             |All arguments as   |
|           |                                  |           |             |separate words     |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|$#         |$#                                |$#         |$#argv       |Number of arguments|
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |                                  |           |             |Exit status of the |
|$?         |$?                                |$?         |$status      |most recently      |
|           |                                  |           |             |executed command   |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |                                  |           |             |PID of most        |
|$!         |$!                                |$!         |             |recently           |
|           |                                  |           |             |backgrounded       |
|           |                                  |           |             |process            |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|$-         |$-                                |$-         |             |Current options    |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|. file     |source file or . file             |. file     |source file  |Read commands in   |
|           |                                  |           |             |file               |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |alias x='y'                       |alias x=y  |alias x y    |Name x stands for  |
|           |                                  |           |             |command y          |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|case       |case                              |case       |switch or    |Choose alternatives|
|           |                                  |           |case         |                   |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|done       |done                              |done       |end          |End a loop         |
|           |                                  |           |             |statement          |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|esac       |esac                              |esac       |endsw        |End case or switch |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|exit n     |exit n                            |exit n     |exit (expr)  |Exit with a status |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|for/do     |for/do                            |for/do     |foreach      |Loop through       |
|           |                                  |           |             |variables          |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |set -f, set -o                    |           |             |Ignore substitution|
|           |nullglob|dotglob|nocaseglob|noglob|           |noglob       |characters for     |
|           |                                  |           |             |filename generation|
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |                                  |           |             |Display hashed     |
|hash       |hash                              |alias -t   |hashstat     |commands (tracked  |
|           |                                  |           |             |aliases)           |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|hash cmds  |hash cmds                         |alias -t   |rehash       |Remember command   |
|           |                                  |cmds       |             |locations          |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|hash -r    |hash -r                           |           |unhash       |Forget command     |
|           |                                  |           |             |locations          |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |history                           |history    |history      |List previous      |
|           |                                  |           |             |commands           |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |ArrowUp+Enter or !!               |r          |!!           |Redo previous      |
|           |                                  |           |             |command            |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |                                  |           |             |Redo last command  |
|           |!str                              |r str      |!str         |that starts with   |
|           |                                  |           |             |"str"              |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |                                  |           |             |Replace "x" with   |
|           |                                  |           |             |"y" in most recent |
|           |!cmd:s/x/y/                       |r x=y cmd  |!cmd:s/x/y/  |command starting   |
|           |                                  |           |             |with "cmd", then   |
|           |                                  |           |             |execute.           |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|if [ $i -eq|if [ $i -eq 5 ]                   |if ((i==5))|if ($i==5)   |Sample condition   |
|5 ]        |                                  |           |             |test               |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|fi         |fi                                |fi         |endif        |End if statement   |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|ulimit     |ulimit                            |ulimit     |limit        |Set resource limits|
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|pwd        |pwd                               |pwd        |dirs         |Print working      |
|           |                                  |           |             |directory          |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|read       |read                              |read       |$<           |Read from terminal |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|trap 2     |trap 2                            |trap 2     |onintr       |Ignore interrupts  |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|           |unalias                           |unalias    |unalias      |Remove aliases     |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|until      |until                             |until      |             |Begin until loop   |
|-----------+----------------------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------------|
|while/do   |while/do                          |while/do   |while        |Begin while loop   |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The Bourne Again SHell has many more features not listed here. This
   table is just to give you an idea of how this shell incorporates all
   useful ideas from other shells: there are no blanks in the column for
   bash. More information on features found only in Bash can be retrieved
   from the Bash info pages, in the "Bash Features" section.

   More information:

   You should at least read one manual, being the manual of your shell. The
   preferred choice would be info bash, bash being the GNU shell and
   easiest for beginners. Print it out and take it home, study it whenever
   you have 5 minutes.

                                   Glossary

     This section contains an alphabetical overview of common UNIX
     commands. More information about the usage can be found in the man or
     info pages.

                                      A

   a2ps

           Format files for printing on a PostScript printer.

   acroread

           PDF viewer.

   adduser

           Create a new user or update default new user information.

   alias

           Create a shell alias for a command.

   anacron

           Execute commands periodically, does not assume continuously
           running machine.

   apropos

           Search the whatis database for strings.

   apt-get

           APT package handling utility.

   aspell

           Spell checker.

   at, atq, atrm

           Queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution.

   aumix

           Adjust audio mixer.

   (g)awk

           Pattern scanning and processing language.

                                      B

   bash

           Bourne Again SHell.

   batch

           Queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution.

   bg

           Run a job in the background.

   bitmap

           Bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X window System.

   bzip2

           A block-sorting file compressor.

                                      C

   cat

           Concatenate files and print to standard output.

   cd

           Change directory.

   cdp/cdplay

           An interactive text-mode program for controlling and playing
           audio CD Roms under Linux.

   cdparanoia

           An audio CD reading utility which includes extra data
           verification features.

   cdrecord

           Record a CD-R.

   chattr

           Change file attributes.

   chgrp

           Change group ownership.

   chkconfig

           Update or query run level information for system services.

   chmod

           Change file access permissions.

   chown

           Change file owner and group.

   compress

           Compress files.

   cp

           Copy files and directories.

   crontab

           Maintain crontab files.

   csh

           Open a C shell.

   cut

           Remove sections from each line of file(s).

                                      D

   date

           Print or set system date and time.

   dd

           Convert and copy a file (disk dump).

   df

           Report file system disk usage.

   dhcpcd

           DHCP client daemon.

   diff

           Find differences between two files.

   dig

           Send domain name query packets to name servers.

   dmesg

           Print or control the kernel ring buffer.

   du

           Estimate file space usage.

                                      E

   echo

           Display a line of text.

   ediff

           Diff to English translator.

   egrep

           Extended grep.

   eject

           Unmount and eject removable media.

   emacs

           Start the Emacs editor.

   exec

           Invoke subprocess(es).

   exit

           Exit current shell.

   export

           Add function(s) to the shell environment.

                                      F

   fax2ps

           Convert a TIFF facsimile to PostScript.

   fdformat

           Format floppy disk.

   fdisk

           Partition table manipulator for Linux.

   fetchmail

           Fetch mail from a POP, IMAP, ETRN or ODMR-capable server.

   fg

           Bring a job in the foreground.

   file

           Determine file type.

   find

           Find files.

   formail

           Mail (re)formatter.

   fortune

           Print a random, hopefully interesting adage.

   ftp

           Transfer files (unsafe unless anonymous account is
           used!)services.

                                      G

   galeon

           Graphical web browser.

   gdm

           Gnome Display Manager.

   (min/a)getty

           Control console devices.

   gimp

           Image manipulation program.

   grep

           Print lines matching a pattern.

   grub

           The grub shell.

   gv

           A PostScript and PDF viewer.

   gzip

           Compress or expand files.

                                      H

   halt

           Stop the system.

   head

           Output the first part of files.

   help

           Display help on a shell built-in command.

   host

           DNS lookup utility.

   httpd

           Apache hypertext transfer protocol server.

                                      I

   id

           Print real and effective UIDs and GIDs.

   ifconfig

           Configure network interface or show configuration.

   info

           Read Info documents.

   init

           Process control initialization.

   iostat

           Display I/O statistics.

   ip

           Display/change network interface status.

   ipchains

           IP firewall administration.

   iptables

           IP packet filter administration.

                                      J

   jar

           Java archive tool.

   jobs

           List backgrounded tasks.

                                      K

   kdm

           Desktop manager for KDE.

   kill(all)

           Terminate process(es).

   ksh

           Open a Korn shell.

                                      L

   ldapmodify

           Modify an LDAP entry.

   ldapsearch

           LDAP search tool.

   less

           more with features.

   lilo

           Linux boot loader.

   links

           Text mode WWW browser.

   ln

           Make links between files.

   loadkeys

           Load keyboard translation tables.

   locate

           Find files.

   logout

           Close current shell.

   lp

           Send requests to the LP print service.

   lpc

           Line printer control program.

   lpq

           Print spool queue examination program.

   lpr

           Offline print.

   lprm

           Remove print requests.

   ls

           List directory content.

   lynx

           Text mode WWW browser.

                                      M

   mail

           Send and receive mail.

   man

           Read man pages.

   mcopy

           Copy MSDOS files to/from Unix.

   mdir

           Display an MSDOS directory.

   memusage

           Display memory usage.

   memusagestat

           Display memory usage statistics.

   mesg

           Control write access to your terminal.

   mformat

           Add an MSDOS file system to a low-level formatted floppy disk.

   mkbootdisk

           Creates a stand-alone boot floppy for the running system.

   mkdir

           Create directory.

   mkisofs

           Create a hybrid ISO9660 filesystem.

   more

           Filter for displaying text one screen at the time.

   mount

           Mount a file system or display information about mounted file
           systems.

   mozilla

           Web browser.

   mt

           Control magnetic tape drive operation.

   mtr

           Network diagnostic tool.

   mv

           Rename files.

                                      N

   named

           Internet domain name server.

   ncftp

           Browser program for ftp services (insecure!).

   netstat

           Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics,
           masquerade connections, and multi-cast memberships.

   nfsstat

           Print statistics about networked file systems.

   nice

           Run a program with modified scheduling priority.

   nmap

           Network exploration tool and security scanner.

   ntsysv

           Simple interface for configuring run levels.

                                      P

   passwd

           Change password.

   pdf2ps

           Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator.

   perl

           Practical Extraction and Report Language.

   pg

           Page through text output.

   ping

           Send echo request to a host.

   pr

           Convert text files for printing.

   printenv

           Print all or part of environment.

   procmail

           Autonomous mail processor.

   ps

           Report process status.

   pstree

           Display a tree of processes.

   pwd

           Print present working directory.

                                      Q

   quota

           Display disk usage and limits.

                                      R

   rcp

           Remote copy (unsafe!)

   rdesktop

           Remote Desktop Protocol client.

   reboot

           Stop and restart the system.

   renice

           Alter priority of a running process.

   rlogin

           Remote login (telnet, insecure!).

   rm

           Remove a file.

   rmdir

           Remove a directory.

   rpm

           RPM Package Manager.

   rsh

           Remote shell (insecure!).

                                      S

   scp

           Secure remote copy.

   screen

           Screen manager with VT100 emulation.

   set

           Display, set or change variable.

   setterm

           Set terminal attributes.

   sftp

           Secure (encrypted) ftp.

   sh

           Open a standard shell.

   shutdown

           Bring the system down.

   sleep

           Wait for a given period.

   slocate

           Security Enhanced version of the GNU Locate.

   slrnn

           text mode Usenet client.

   snort

           Network intrusion detection tool.

   sort

           Sort lines of text files.

   ssh

           Secure shell.

   ssh-keygen

           Authentication key generation.

   stty

           Change and print terminal line settings.

   su

           Switch user.

                                      T

   tac

           Concatenate and print files in reverse.

   tail

           Output the last part of files.

   talk

           Talk to a user.

   tar

           Archiving utility.

   tcsh

           Open a Turbo C shell.

   telnet

           User interface to the TELNET protocol (insecure!).

   tex

           Text formatting and typesetting.

   time

           Time a simple command or give resource usage.

   tin

           News reading program.

   top

           Display top CPU processes.

   touch

           Change file timestamps.

   traceroute

           Print the route packets take to network host.

   tripwire

           A file integrity checker for UNIX systems.

   twm

           Tab Window Manager for the X Window System.

                                      U

   ulimit

           Controll resources.

   umask

           Set user file creation mask.

   umount

           Unmount a file system.

   uncompress

           Decompress compressed files.

   uniq

           Remove duplicate lines from a sorted file.

   update

           Kernel daemon to flush dirty buffers back to disk.

   uptime

           Display system uptime and average load.

   userdel

           Delete a user account and related files.

                                      V

   vi(m)

           Start the vi (improved) editor.

   vimtutor

           The Vim tutor.

   vmstat

           Report virtual memory statistics.

                                      W

   w

           Show who is logged on and what they are doing.

   wall

           Send a message to everybody's terminal.

   wc

           Print the number of bytes, words and lines in files.

   which

           Shows the full path of (shell) commands.

   who

           Show who is logged on.

   who am i

           Print effective user ID.

   whois

           Query a whois or nicname database.

   write

           Send a message to another user.

                                      X

   xauth

           X authority file utility.

   xcdroast

           Graphical front end to cdrecord.

   xclock

           Analog/digital clock for X.

   xconsole

           Monitor system console messages with X.

   xdm

           X Display Manager with support for XDMCP, host chooser.

   xdvi

           DVI viewer.

   xfs

           X font server.

   xhost

           Server access control program for X

   xinetd

           The extended Internet services daemon.

   xload

           System load average display for X.

   xlsfonts

           Server font list displayer for X.

   xmms

           Audio player for X.

   xpdf

           PDF viewer.

   xterm

           Terminal emulator for X.

                                      Z

   zcat

           Compress or expand files.

   zgrep

           Search possibly compressed files for a regular expression.

   zmore

           Filter for viewing compressed text.

                                    Index

                                      A

   aliases

           [248]Section 3.5.1

   ANSI-C quoting

           [249]Section 3.3.5

   arguments

           [250]Section 7.2.1.2

   arithmetic expansion

           [251]Section 3.4.7

   arithmetic operators

           [252]Section 3.4.7

   array

           [253]Section 10.2.1

   awk

           [254]Section 6.1

   awkprogram

           [255]Section 6.1.2

                                      B

   bash

           [256]Section 1.2

   .bash_login

           [257]Section 3.1.2.2

   .bash_logout

           [258]Section 3.1.2.5

   .bash_profile

           [259]Section 3.1.2.1

   .bashrc

           [260]Section 3.1.2.4

   batch editor

           [261]Section 5.1.1

   break

           [262]Section 9.5.1

   boolean operators

           [263]Section 7.2.4

   Bourne shell

           [264]Section 1.1.2

   brace expansion

           [265]Section 3.4.3

   built-in commands

           [266]Section 1.3.2

                                      C

   case statements

           [267]Section 7.2.5

   character classes

           [268]Section 4.2.2.2, [269]Section 4.3.2

   child process

           [270]Section 1.3.1

   combined expressions

           [271]Section 7.1.1.1

   command substitution

           [272]Section 3.4.6

   comments

           [273]Section 2.2.2

   conditionals

           [274]Section 7.1

   configuration files

           [275]Section 3.1

   constants

           [276]Section 10.1.3

   continue

           [277]Section 9.5.2

   control signals

           [278]Section 12.1.1.3

   creating variables

           [279]Section 3.2.2

   csh

           The C shell, [280]Section 1.1.2

                                      D

   debugging scripts

           [281]Section 2.3

   declare

           [282]Section 10.1.2, [283]Section 10.2.1

   double quotes

           [284]Section 3.3.4

                                      E

   echo

           [285]Section 1.5.5, [286]Section 2.1.2, [287]Section 2.3.2,
           [288]Section 8.1.2

   editors

           [289]Section 2.1.1

   else

           [290]Section 7.2.1

   emacs

           [291]Section 2.1.1

   env

           [292]Section 3.2.1.1

   esac

           [293]Section 7.2.5

   escape characters

           [294]Section 3.3.2

   escape sequences

           [295]Section 8.1.2

   /etc/bashrc

           [296]Section 3.1.1.2

   /etc/passwd

           [297]Section 1.1.2

   /etc/profile

           [298]Section 3.1.1

   /etc/shells

           [299]Section 1.1.2

   exec

           [300]Section 1.3.1, [301]Section 8.2.4.2

   execute permissions

           [302]Section 2.1.3

   execution

           [303]Section 2.1.3

   exit

           [304]Section 7.2.5

   exit status

           [305]Section 7.1.2.1

   expansion

           [306]Section 1.4.1.5, [307]Section 3.4

   export

           [308]Section 3.2.3

   extended regular expressions

           [309]Section 4.1.3

                                      F

   file descriptors

           [310]Section 8.2.3, [311]Section 8.2.4.1

   file name expansion

           [312]Section 3.4.9

   find and replace

           [313]Section 5.2.4

   for

           [314]Section 9.1

   fork

           [315]Section 1.3.1

   functions

           [316]Section 11.1.1

                                      G

   gawk

           [317]Section 6.1.1

   gawk commands

           [318]Section 6.1.2

   gawk fields

           [319]Section 6.2.1

   gawk formatting

           [320]Section 6.2.2

   gawk scripts

           [321]Section 6.2.5

   gawk variables

           [322]Section 6.3

   gedit

           [323]Section 2.1.1

   global variables

           [324]Section 3.2.1.1

   globbing

           [325]Section 2.3.2

   grep

           [326]Section 4.2.1

                                      H

   here document

           [327]Section 8.2.4.4

                                      I

   if

           [328]Section 7.1.1

   init

           [329]Section 1.3.1, [330]Section 1.5.6

   initialization files

           [331]Section 3.1

   input field separator

           [332]Section 3.2.4.1, [333]Section 3.2.5, [334]Section 6.3

   interactive editing

           [335]Section 5.2

   interactive scripts

           [336]Section 8.1

   interactive shell

           [337]Section 1.2.2.2.1, [338]Section 1.2.2.2.2, [339]Section
           1.2.2.3.3

   invocation

           [340]Section 1.2.2.1

                                      J

                                      K

   kill

           [341]Section 12.1.2

   killall

           [342]Section 12.1.2

   ksh

           Korn shell, [343]Section 1.1.2

                                      L

   length of a variable

           [344]Section 10.3.2

   line anchors

           [345]Section 4.2.2.1

   locale

           [346]Section 3.3.6

   locate

           [347]Section 2.1.1

   logic flow

           [348]Section 1.5.4

   login shell

           [349]Section 1.2.2.2.1

                                      M

   menu

           [350]Section 9.6

   metacharacters

           [351]Section 4.1.2

                                      N

   nested if statements

           [352]Section 7.2.3

   noglob

           [353]Section 2.3.2

   non-interactive editing

           [354]Section 5.3

   non-interactive shell

           [355]Section 1.2.2.2.3

   non-login shell

           [356]Section 1.2.2.2.2

   numeric comparisons

           [357]Section 7.1.2.2

                                      O

   options

           [358]Section 3.6.1

   output field separator

           [359]Section 6.3.2.1

   output record separator

           [360]Section 6.3.2.2

                                      P

   parameter expansion

           [361]Section 3.4.5

   PATH

           [362]Section 2.1.2

   pattern matching

           [363]Section 4.3

   positionalparams

           [364]Section 3.2.5, [365]Section 11.1.3

   POSIX

           [366]Section 1.2.1

   POSIX mode

           [367]Section 1.2.2.2.5

   primary expressions

           [368]Section 7.1.1.1

   printenv

           [369]Section 3.2.1.1

   printf

           [370]Section 1.5.5, [371]Section 6.3.6

   process substitution

           [372]Section 3.4.8

   .profile

           [373]Section 3.1.2.3

   prompt

           [374]Section 3.1.3

                                      Q

   quoting characters

           [375]Section 3.3

                                      R

   redirection

           [376]Section 1.4.1.7, [377]Section 3.6.2, [378]Section 8.2.3,
           [379]Section 9.4

   rbash

           [380]Section 1.2.2.10

   read

           [381]Section 8.2.1

   readonly

           [382]Section 10.1.3

   regular expression operators

           [383]Section 4.1.2, [384]Section 5.2, [385]Section 6.2.4

   regular expressions

           [386]Section 4.1

   remote invocation

           [387]Section 1.2.2.2.6

   removing aliases

           [388]Section 3.5.2

   reserved variables

           [389]Section 3.2.4

   return

           [390]Section 11.1.3

                                      S

   sed

           [391]Section 5.1

   sed editing commands

           [392]Section 5.1.2

   sed options

           [393]Section 5.1.2

   sed script

           [394]Section 5.3.2

   select

           [395]Section 9.6

   set

           [396]Section 3.2.1.2, [397]Section 3.6.1, [398]Section 11.1.4

   shift

           [399]Section 9.7

   signals

           [400]Section 12.1.1

   single quotes

           [401]Section 3.3.3

   source

           [402]Section 2.1.3

   special parameters

           [403]Section 3.2.5

   special variables

           [404]Section 3.2.5

   standard error

           [405]Section 8.2.3.1

   standard input

           [406]Section 8.2.3.1

   standard output

           [407]Section 8.2.3.1

   string comparisons

           [408]Section 7.1.2.3

   stty

           [409]Section 12.1.1

   submenu

           [410]Section 9.6.2

   subshell

           [411]Section 2.2.1

   substitution

           [412]Section 10.3.3.1, [413]Section 10.3.3.3

   substring

           [414]Section 10.3.3.2

   syntax

           [415]Section 1.4.1.1

                                      T

   tcsh

           [416]Section 1.1.2

   terminology

           [417]Section 1.5.3

   then

           [418]Section 7.1.1.2

   tilde expansion

           [419]Section 3.4.4

   transformation of variables

           [420]Section 10.3.3

   traps

           [421]Section 12.2.1

   true

           [422]Section 9.2.2.2

                                      U

   unalias

           [423]Section 3.5.1, [424]Section 3.5.2

   unset

           [425]Section 3.2.2, [426]Section 10.2.3, [427]Section 11.1.4

   until

           [428]Section 9.3

   user input

           [429]Section 8.2.1, [430]Section 8.2.2

   user messages

           [431]Section 8.1.1

                                      V

   variables

           [432]Section 3.2, [433]Section 10.1

   variable expansion

           [434]Section 3.4.5

   verbose

           [435]Section 2.3.2

   vi(m)

           [436]Section 2.1.1

                                      W

   wait

           [437]Section 12.2.2

   whereis

           [438]Section 2.1.1

   which

           [439]Section 2.1.1

   while

           [440]Section 9.2

   wildcards

           [441]Section 4.2.2.3

   word anchors

           [442]Section 4.2.2.1

   word splitting

           [443]Section 3.4.9

                                      X

   xtrace

           [444]Section 2.3.1, [445]Section 2.3.2

                                      Y

                                      Z

References

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