Linux-Dictionary ( U - Z )

Unnumbered Acknowledgement 
User Agent (MHS, OSI) 
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (WAI) 
Unix Appletalk Bridge (Apple, AppleTalk, Unix) 
Universal Access Control (IBM) 
Uniform Automatic Data Processing System 
Universal Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (DSL, ADSL) 
The Ubiquitous Amiga Emulator: Base UAE is a 100% software Amiga (500) hardware emulator. This is the base package including all support files and the most common binary of UAE for X. NOTE: For "proper" use of UAE, you need some version of the Kickstart ROM, and some OS running on top of this (most likely some version of the Amiga OS). Both don't comply to the DFSG (to say the least) and must be obtained from other sources. There is information in the package docs how to obtain these if you are owner of an Amiga box. However, there is a minimal free build-in Kickstart replacement, and at least some demo disks are reported to run with it. 
Unknown / Unrecoverable Application Error (Windows) 
The Ubiquitous Amiga Emulator: Exotic binaries UAE is a 100% software Amiga (500) hardware emulator. This package contains binaries of UAE with "exotic" display modes. 
The Ubiquitous Amiga Emulator: Suid root binaries UAE is a 100% software Amiga (500) hardware emulator. This package contains binaries of UAE with display modes that require root privileges (i.e. SVGA and X-DGA versions). These binaries are often considered to be a little bit faster, however this very much depends on your hardware. I (and the upstream authors) DON'T RECOMMEND INSTALLING THESE BINARIES (for the usual security problems) unless you have good reasons for it. 
User Authorization File 
User Agent Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 
Universal Asynchronous Receive and Transmit 
UnAvailable Seconds (DS1/E1, DS3/E3) 
Universal ADSL Working Group (Org, ADSL, DSL) 
UniBus Adapter (DEC) 
Unsolicited Bulk Email (spam, Internet, UCE) 
Download and decode Usenet binaries UBH (Usenet Binary Harvester) is a Perl console application which automatically discovers, downloads, and decodes single- and multi-part Usenet binaries. UBH provides searching via Perl regular expression and a pre-selection capability whereby the user can interactively choose which binaries to download. 
Ungermann-Bass Network Interface 
Unspecified Bit Rate (ATM, CBR, VBR, ABR, QOS) 
Universal Code (Internet, DOMAIN) 
a dialect of lisp using turtle graphics famous for teaching kids. This is the UC Berkeley implementation of logo written primarily by Daniel Van Blerkom, Brian Harvey, Michael Katz, and Douglas Orleans. This version of logo is featured in Brian Harvey's book _Computer_Science_Logo_Style, _Volume_1: _Symbolic_Computing_ (ISBN 0-262-58151-5). This version provides the following special features: - Random-access arrays. - Variable number of inputs to user-defined procedures. - Mutators for list structure (dangerous). - Pause on error, and other improvements to error handling. - Comments and continuation lines; formatting is preserved when procedure definitions are saved or edited. - Terrapin-style tokenization (e.g., [2+3] is a list with one member) but LCSI-style syntax (no special forms except TO). The best of both worlds. - First-class instruction and expression templates. - Macros. 
Uniform Commercial Code 
Unsolicited Commercial E-mail (Usenet, spam, UBE) 
Update Configuration File - preserve user changes in config files Debian policy states that configuration files must preserve user changes during package upgrade. The easy way to achieve this behavior is to make the configuration file a `conffile', in which case dpkg handles the file specially during upgrades, prompting the user as needed. This is appropriate only if it is possible to distribute a default version that will work for most installations, although some system administrators may choose to modify it. This implies that the default version will be part of the package distribution, and must not be modified by the maintainer scripts during installation (or at any other time). This script attempts to provide conffile like handling for files that can not be labelled conffiles, are not shipped in a Debian package, but handled by the postinst instead. This script allows one to maintain files in /etc, preserving user changes and in general offering the same facilities while upgrading that dpkg normally provides for "conffiles". Additionally, this script provides facilities for transitioning a file that had not been provided conffile like protection to come under this schema, and attempts to minimize questions asked at install time. Indeed, the transitioning facility is better than the one offered by dpkg while transitioning a file from a non-conffile to conffile status. 
User-Computer Interface 
University of California at Los Angeles (org., USA) 
UCLA Virtual Machine (OS, UCLA, VM), "UCLA VM" 
A compiler wrapper for uClibc This package includes utilities that function as a toolchain for compiling with uClibc instead of the native libc. The utilities have names such as powerpc-uclibc-gcc (depending on the architecture), and should behave identically to the base utilities, except that they use headers and libraries provided in the libuclibc-dev package. Most utilities are symbolic links to the correct underlying utility, although gcc and ld are implemented as wrapper binaries that call gcc and ld with the necessary arguments and command line options. 
uClibcLinux is a Linux distribution based on uClibc. This source-based distribution has two main goals: - provide an easily extensible build-system - provide a repository of software compiling and running with uClibc. Initial version 0.4.5 was released June, 25, 2002. 
The Linux/Microcontroller project is a port of Linux to systems without a Memory Management Unit (MMU). Pronounced "you-see-linux", the name uClinux comes from combining the greek letter "mu" and the english capital "C". "Mu" stands for "micro", and the "C" is for "controller". uClinux was first ported to the Motorola MC68328: DragonBall Integrated Microprocessor. The first target system to successfully boot is the 3Com PalmPilot using a TRG SuperPilot Board with a custom boot-loader created specifically for our Linux/PalmPilot port. Version 20020701 was initially released on Freshmeat on July 16, 2002. Version 2.4.20-uc0 was released December 4, 2002. Version 2.5.69-uc0 was released May 5, 2003. Version 20030522 was released May 24, 2003. 
Universal Computer Protocol (SMS, Europe) 
Under Color Removal (DTP) 
Universal Classification System 
Universal [multiple-octet] coded Character Set (ISO, IEC, DIS 10646, Unicode) 
generate BDF fonts containing subsets of ISO 10646-1 codepoints 
University of California at Santa Barbara (org. USA) 
University California San Diego (org., USA) 
Connection proxy for UCSPI tools This package contains a proxy program that passes data back and forth between two connections set up by a UCSPI server and a UCSPI client. See for more information on UCSPI. See for recent informations. 
UNIX-domain socket client-server command-line tools unixclient and unixserver are command-line tools for building UNIX domain client-server applications. unixclient connects to a UNIX domain socket and runs a program of your choice. unixserver creates a UNIX domain socket, waits for incoming connections and, for each connection, runs a program of your choice. unixclient and unixserver conform to UCSPI, the UNIX Client-Server Program Interface, using UNIX domain sockets. UCSPI tools are available for several different networks. See for more information on UCSPI. See for recent informations. 
Uptime Daemon UD runs in the background constantly checking the current uptime against your 3 best uptime records. If the current uptime surpasses a record, that becomes the new record. By using a template UD can create HTML files that shows the current uptime records. The HTML files are updated by the daemon. 
Universal DataBase [server] (IBM, DB) 
Universal Decimal Classification 
Universal Description, Discovery and Integration of business for the web (org., WWW) 
The Unix Desktop Environment UDE is more then just another windows manager. Designed to compensate for the shortcomings of many other similar packages, UDE features many innovative improvements. The project does not use any special GUI-Libraries such as Qt or GTK+ and is based on the standard Xlibs (also to make UDE faster) UDE - get used to it. 
Universal Disc Format (CD, OSTA) 
User Defined Function 
Tools for UDF filesystems and DVD/CD-R(W) drives This package contains a number of user-space tools related to creating filesystems in the UDF (Universal Disk Format), which is primarily used for DVDs, but sometimes also CD-ROMs: mkudffs - Format a device, creating an empty UDF filesystem cdrwtool - Low-level drive management (e.g. set writing speed, format) pktsetup - Set up a packet writing device (/dev/pktcdvd0) for a drive Note that you need Linux 2.4 or later to mount UDF filesystems. The kernel patches that accompany these tools are not currently packaged for Debian, but are being merged into the 2.4 kernel tree. 
very small DHCP client This is the very small DHCP client written by Moreton Bay/Lineo. 
very small DHCP server This is the very small DHCP server written by Moreton Bay/Lineo. 
UmweltDatenKatalog (NUIS-SH) 
??? [hardware description language] (HDL), "UDL/I" 
Ultra Direct Memory Access (DMA, ATA) 
Ultra-DMA - an advanced technology which provides for even faster throughput, up to 33.3 MB/s in UDMA mode 2 and 66.7 MB/s in UDMA mode 4, twice to four times that of EIDE, for much lower prices than SCSI. 
User Defined Objects 
see User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 
User Datagram Protocol (Internet, RFC 768) 
User Datagram Protocol - a simple connectionless TCP service. 
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. UDP is a "stateless" protocol in that UDP makes no provision for acknowledgement of packets received. See also: Packet Switching, TCP/IP. 
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
UDP is a transport protocol that provides "datagram" services on top of IP. Contrast: There are two transport protocols: UDP and TCP. Both of these are responsible for hooking up the programs that are communicating with each other, whereas the underlying IP is simply responsible for getting the packets from machine to machine across the Internet. UDP is essentially just a light-weight version of TCP. Whereas TCP will automatically retransmit lost packets, UDP doesn't care. This is actually a benefit for audio/visual, but a severe disadvantage when transferring files. UDP Format: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Source Port | Destination Port | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Length | Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ There is nothing to exciting about UDP. The source port identifies the application on the sending machine. The destination port identifies who is to receive the data. The length indicates how much data is in the packet; the checksum verifies that it has not been accidentally altered in transit (though it cannot protect against deliberate alteration). 
User Datagram Protocol / Internet Protocol, "UDP/IP" 
Uniform [DOMAIN name] Dispute Resolution Policy (ICANN) 
Universal Digital Subscriber Line 
User-defined DataType (DB) 
Universal Data Voice Multiplexer 
Ultra Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE, HDD) 
User End of Volume 
Universal File System 
Unix File System (Unix) 
Universal Font Scaling Technology (Agfa) 
NFS UID mapping daemon. This package contains the UID mapping daemon (rpc.ugidd) which is used on NFS clients to do UID/GID mapping. 
Ultra High Aperture [ratio] (LCD, TNLCD) 
United Hitech Corporation (manufacturer, Taiwan) 
Universal Host Controller Interface (USB, Intel, VIA, OHCI) 
Ultra High Frequency 
User Head Label 
UHU-Linux is a Linux distribution from Hungary. It is an easily installable, dpkg-based distribution, with fully automatic hardware detection (based partly on Mandrake and other distros). It is primarily aimed at beginners. Version 1.0 was released April 18, 2003. 
Unix International (manufacturer, Unix) 
User Interface 
allows you to change certain Gnome user interface. 
Qt ui compiler This package contains the Qt ui compiler. It is needed to build more and more Qt based applications. There are 2 versions of this binary, one with KDE widget support and one without. This one is compiled without. 
User Identification Code 
Expands to the user ID of the current user, initialized at shell startup. 
see user identification (UID). 
the User ID number of the user that owns this process. 
Unit IDentifier (cryptography, EES) 
User IDentification 
Unique ID Listing (POP3, RFC 1939) 
User Interface Language 
User Interface Management System 
Universal Identification Number (ICQ) 
Micro In-System Programmer for Atmel's AVR MCUs This utility is required to program AVR chips with object code created by the ava assembler/linker. It supports in-system programming, Atmel's prototype board/programmer, and an extremely low-cost parallel port programmer. 
User Interface System Reference Model 
United Kingdom Education and Research Networking Association (org., UK) 
United Kingdom Office for Library and information Networking (org.) 
do underlining 
Uncommitted Logic Array 
Unified Local Area Network Architecture 
University of London Computer Center (org., UK) 
The Userspace Logging Daemon ulogd is a daemon that listens for Netlink packets generated by iptables's ULOG target. Basically, it's a replacement for syslog for logging packets, and does a much better job - it logs to files, mySQL, and soon will be able to log remotely. mySQL support is in a separate package, called ulogd-mysql. The relevant kernel support is included in a patch - kernel-patch-ulog. ulogd homepage: 
mySQL extension to ulogd This extension adds mySQL support to ulogd; please see ulogd's description. description. 
Upper Layer Protocols (FC) 
User Location Interface 
Ultra Large Scale Integration 
UltraLinux is one of the first, if not the first, port of Linux to the SPARC family of processors most commonly found in Sun workstations and clones. It supports most workstations including the older 32bit SPARC processors and the newer 64bit UltraSPARC based workstations. 
A GGI based presentation tool UltraPoint is a simple, XML based presentation program designed to help aid with instant preparation. (This does not measn 'easy to use this program') As compared with most of the existing tools, UltraPoint requires no special adjustment cost (e.g. positions of objects). -- Features . Drawing with GGI (General Graphics Interface) . Accessing a lot of font formats with VFlib 3.6. . Arranging scaled images with ImageMagick. 
Ultra Low Voltage 
Unified Memory Architecture 
Universal Measurement Architecture (Unix, X/Open) 
Upper Memory Area (Intel) 
Universal Measurement Architecture Data Storage (UMA) 
Upper Memory Block (Intel, UMA) 
UMB Scheme is a public domain implementation of the Scheme programming language. Scheme is a statically scoped and properly tail-recursive dialect of the Lisp programming language, designed with clear and simple semantics and a minimal number of ways to form expressions. Install the umb-scheme package if you need an implementation of the Scheme programming language. 
United Microelectronics Corporation (manufacturer) 
UNI Management Entity (UNI, ILMI) 
Set of routines for solving unsymmetric sparse linear systems. UMFPACK is a set of routines for solving unsymmetric sparse linear systems, Ax=b, using the Unsymmetric MultiFrontal method. Written in ANSI/ISO C, with a Matlab (Version 6.0 and later) interface. The new code is faster than V2.2.1, uses dynamic memory allocation, and has a symbolic preordering and analysis phase that also reports the upper bounds on the nonzeros in L and U, flop count, and memory usage in the numeric phase. It includes a Matlab interface. V3.2 is for double-precision matrices only (not complex). 
Unified Method Language (CASE) 
Unified Modelling Language (OOP) 
User-mode Linux (utility programs) User-mode Linux is a port of the Linux kernel to its own system call interface. It provides a kind of virtual machine, which runs Linux as a user process under another Linux kernel. This is useful for kernel development, sandboxing, jailing, experimentation, and many other things. This package contains userspace utilities for use with User-mode Linux, including uml_mconsole, uml_moo, uml_switch, uml_net and tunctl. 
Installer and viewer for .umod-files (Unreal Mod files) UmodPack is a crossplatform tool for umod installation and unpacking. umod files are packages containing files with setup instructions for an Unreal mod (modification). For more information on Unreal mods in general see <> 
unmount file systems 
Unified Messaging System 
This is the distribution of the UMSDOS file system utilities. With the kernel configured accordingly these utilities allow the usage of of Unix filesystem feature on top of the MSDOS filesystem. It is even possible to run Linux completely on an MSDOS formatted disk without repartitioning or reformatting. 
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (IN, mobile-systems) 
n. Used to refer to the Unix operating system (a trademark of AT&T, then of Novell, then of Univel, then of the Open Group; the source code parted company with it after Novell and was owned by SCO, which was acquired by Caldera) in writing, but avoiding the need for the ugly (TM) typography. Also used to refer to any or all varieties of Unixoid operating systems. Ironically, lawyers now say that the requirement for the trademark postfix has no legal force, but the asterisk usage is entrenched anyhow. It has been suggested that there may be a psychological connection to practice in certain religions (especially Judaism) in which the name of the deity is never written out in full, e.g., `YHWH' or `G-d' is used. See also glob and splat out. 
Universal Network Architecture 
Replace accented letters by their unaccented equivalent read data from stdin, replace accented letters by their unaccented equivalent and write the result on stdout. 
A UNIX command that returns a description of the current operating system. It describes the machine hardware type (e.g. Pentium), the name of the node on the network, which release of the OS, the OS name, specific CPU information, and the version of the OS. Key point: This is often the first command a hacker will run on the system when the hacker breaks in remotely. Hackers rarely known exactly what kind of system they have attacked. The other popular command hackers might execute is id. Example: Running uname -a on one of my systems results in: Linux 2.2.13-4mdk #1 Tue Sep 7 18:23:11 CEST 1999 i686 unknown 
get name and information about current kernel 
print system information 
UNsolicited Address Resolution Protocol (ARP, RFC 1868) 
Universal Naming Convention (IBM, MS, Novell, LAN) 
UNiform rules of Conduct for Interchange of Trade data by teletransmission (EDIFACT) 
Unix Net for Computer security in Law Enforcement (org., USA, Unix), "U.N.C.L.E." 
hides the mouse in X after a period of inactivity unclutter is a program which runs permanently in the background of an X session. It checks on the X mouse pointer position every few seconds, and when it finds it has not moved (and no buttons are pressed on the mouse, and the cursor is not in the root window) it hides the mouse cursor. It restores the mouse cursor when the mouse is moved or when a mouse button is hit. 
compress or expand files 
United Nations EDIFACT (ISO 9735, EDIFACT), "UN/EDIFACT" 
convert spaces to tabs 
United Nations Guidelines for Trade Data Interchange (UN/EDIFACT, predecessor), "UN/GTDI" 
Removing the markup tags from a HTML file This program removes all HTML tags from a HTML file and directs it's output to stdout. It can be used as a filter for getting the text content of a HTML file without the need of firing up a web browser. 
Universal Network Interface (Cogent) 
User Network Interface 
a type of communication between hosts (or computers) on a network where a host talks directly to another computer. See broadcast and multicast. 
The international character set. The United States characters ASCII only needs 7-bits to encode text. There are fewer than 100 characters in the English language (26-upper-case, 26-lower-case, 10-digits, and a bunch of punctuation). Since 7-bits has 128 combinations, it is sufficient to cover the characerts plus a few control codes. However, there are other alphabets, such as Russian, Greek, and Hebrew. Even worse, far-eastern languages like Chinese, Japanese, and Korean use symbols/ideographs to represent words without a strict alphabet. The Unicode character set was built to represent all these characters within a 2-byte (16-bit) format. Roughly 30,000 characters from all the popular languages have been assigned in an internationally agreed upon format. Key point: Most computers are built to handle 1-byte characters, and do not like the idea of handling 2-bytes for each character. Therefore, a multi-byte character set has been designed to store Unicode. It is called "UTF8". It is the native character set for many newer systems, such as Java. Using "multibyte" rather than "fixed" character set means that a variable number of bytes can be used, depending upon how many bytes/bits are needed to represent the character. The key issue here is that every 7-bit ASCII character can be encoded in all forms. For example, older Microsoft IIS web-servers would check for backtracking attacks. However, a UTF8 encoding of the backtracks would bypass the IIS checks, but would still be passed to the filesystem. Encoding Bits Encoding of '.' 0xxxxxxx 7-bits 2E 110xxxxx 10xxxxxx 11-bits C0 AE 1110xxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 15-bits E0 80 AE See also: encoding 
put the console in Unicode mode. 
put the console out of unicode mode (ie. in 8-bit mode). 
Chinese Input Method Libaray General Chinese Input method interface and API. It is using by chinput and unicon now. 
X11 dual-width GNU unicode font The GNU unicode font is an X11 bitmap font in iso10646 encoding. It is useful if you have X programs such as the yudit text editor that are unicode aware. 
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
A tring of characters that identifies an Internet resource, including the type of resource and its location. There are two types of URIs: Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Relative URKS (REL URQ). 
uniform resource locator (URL)
A publicly routable address for resources transmitted via the World Wide Web (WWW). URLs can be name-based (such as or address-based (such as 
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
One of two basic kinds of Universal Resource Identifiers (URI), a string of characters that precisely identifies an Internet resource's type and location. For example, the following fictitious URL identifies a World Wide Web document (http : / /), indicates the domain name of the computer on which it is stored (www.wolverine. virginia .eau), fully describes the document's location within the directory structure (~toros/winerefs/), and includes the document's name and extension (merlot.html). See Relative URL (RELURL). 
Uninterruptible poewr supply (UPS)
A battery that can supply continuous power to a computer system in the event of a power failure. The battery, charged while your computer is swtiched on, kicks in if the power fails and provides power for 10 minutes or more, during which time you can save fils and shut down the computer to preserve the integrity of crucial data. 
uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
A battery that can supply continuous power to a computer system in the event of a power failure. The battery charged while your computer is switched on, kicks in if the power fails and provides power for 10 minutes or more, during which time you can save files and shut down the computer to preserve the integrity of crucial data. 
remove duplicate lines from a sorted file 
A file-synchronization tool for Unix and Windows Unison is a file-synchronization tool for Unix and Windows, written in OCaml. It allows two replicas of a collection of files and directories to be stored on different hosts (or different disks on the same host), modified separately, and then brought up to date by propagating the changes in each replica to the other. Unison offers several advantages over various synchronization methods such as CVS, Coda, rsync, Intellisync, etc. Unison can run on and synchronize between Windows and many UNIX platforms. Unison requires no root privileges, system access or kernel changes to function. Unison can synchronize changes to files and directories in both directions, on the same machine, or across a network using ssh or a direct socket connection. Transfers are optimised using a version of the rsync protocol, making it ideal for slower links. Unison has a clear and precise specification, and is resilient to failure due to its careful handling of the replicas and its private structures. 
A file-synchronization tool for Unix and Windows - GTK interface This package adds the optional GTK interface to the file synchronization tool 'unison'. 
Ubiquitous aNd Integrated Teamwork Environment (SIT) 
converts between different systems of units. GNU 'units' program converts quantities expressed in various scales to their equivalents in other scales. The 'units' program can only handle multiplicative scale changes. For example, it cannot convert Celsius to Fahrenheit but it can convert temperature differences between those temperature scales. 
UNIVersal Automatic Computer 
universal time coordinated (UTC)
The mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich, England, used as the basis for calculating standard time throughout the world. 
/yoo'niks/ n. [In the authors' words, "A weak pun on Multics"; very early on it was `UNICS'] (also `UNIX') An interactive time-sharing system invented in 1969 by Ken Thompson after Bell Labs left the Multics project, originally so he could play games on his scavenged PDP-7. Dennis Ritchie, the inventor of C, is considered a co-author of the system. The turning point in Unix's history came when it was reimplemented almost entirely in C during 1972-1974, making it the first source-portable OS. Unix subsequently underwent mutations and expansions at the hands of many different people, resulting in a uniquely flexible and developer-friendly environment. By 1991, Unix had become the most widely used multiuser general-purpose operating system in the world - and since 1996 the variiant called Linux has been at the cutting edge of the open source movement. Many people consider the success of Unix the most important victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see Unix weenie and Unix conspiracy for an opposing point of view). See Version 7, BSD, USG Unix, Linux. Some people are confused over whether this word is appropriately `UNIX' or `Unix'; both forms are common, and used interchangeably. Dennis Ritchie says that the `UNIX' spelling originally happened in CACM's 1974 paper "The UNIX Time-Sharing System" because "we had a new typesetter and troff had just been invented and we were intoxicated by being able to produce small caps." Later, dmr tried to get the spelling changed to `Unix' in a couple of Bell Labs papers, on the grounds that the word is not acronymic. He failed, and eventually (his words) "wimped out" on the issue. So, while the trademark today is `UNIX', both capitalizations are grounded in ancient usage; the Jargon File uses `Unix' in deference to dmr's wishes. 
A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). Unix is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet. Apple computers' Macintosh operating system, as of version 10, is based on Unix. 
A computer operating system commonly used on the Internet. Uplink: The communication link from the transmitting earth station to the satellite. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
An operating system used on a wide variety of computers, from mainframes to personal computers, that supports multitasking and is ideally suited to multiuser applications. UNIX is a very flexible operating system, well-suited to the needs of advanced computer users. With more than 200 commands, inadequate error messages, and a cryptic command syntax, however, UNIX imposes heavy burdens on occasional users and the technically unsophisticated. With the development of UNIX shells such as NeXTStep, the operating system may play a much wider role in computing. Because Bell Laboratories was prohibited from marketing UNIX by the antitrust regulations governing AT&T before the 1980s, UNIX was provided without charge to colleges and universities throughout North America. beginning in 1976. In 1979, the University of California at Berkeley developed a popular version of UNIX for VAX computers. In the early 1980S, AT&T gained the right to market the system and released System V in 1983. See Berkeley UNIX System V lnterface Definition (SVID) and Linux, Wide Area Information Server (WAIS). 
Key point: There really is no "UNIX", but just various implementations designed along the same guidelines. Different versions of UNIX are more or less related, and there is extensive cross-germination of ideas, so that something good that appears in one will eventually migrate to others. Contrast: There have been two main branches of UNIX: SVR4 (System V Release 4) and BSD (Berkeley Standard Distribution). Many security issues depend upon which base the system was derived. Example: Sun Solaris, IBM AIX, SCO, SGI Irix, Apple A/UX, BSD, HP/UX. Key point: UNIX is case-sensitive, whereas Windows and Macintosh are "case-insensitive" but "case-preserving". Windows has a compatibility mode that allows case-sensitivity, which can sometimes be exploited with other techniques in order to compromise the system. Key point: The BSD branch has spawned many open-source variants, such as FreeBSD and OpenBSD. OpenBSD is considered one of the more secure versions of UNIX. Security experts spend the most time on OpenBSD in order to clean up bugs like buffer-overflows. However, in 1999, the dramatic rise of hacking and publication of bugs has led to a heightened awareness of these problems, which may lead to other systems becoming equally scoured for bugs. How to: In order to harden UNIX, you generally do the following: Always start from a fresh machine newly installed. When installing, do not install any options that aren't absolutely necessary. Many people are unsure if an option is needed, so they install it just to be sure. Do the opposite (don't install it in order to make sure you don't introduce a backdoor). After installation, remove all unnecessary software; anything with an X Windows GUI is a good start. Cleanse /etc/inetd.conf of all unnecessary services. For any server connected to the Internet, pretty much everything in there will be unnecessary. Install a Tripwire-style package to detect when system files have changed (i.e. binaries in /sbin and configuration files in /etc). This doesn't secure the system, but it helps in detecting when intrusions have occurred. Note that this program is difficult to get running and maintain over the long term. Install TCP Wrappers to log connections and provide some limited access control. Shadow /etc/passwd. Remove all entries for disabled services and set a dummy shell for those accounts that shouldn't have shell access. Redirect syslog to a secure system or drop-box. Get rid of Telnet, use ssh. Plan to do all remote administration and file copies through ssh. If you are extremely paranoid, put binaries on a CD-ROM. Some versions of open source UNIXes can even boot from CD-ROMs. Install packet filtering software. Install network intrusion detection software. Key point: Typical UNIX weaknesses are: default passwords weak (guessable, crackable) passwords NIS misconfigurations NFS holes incorrect permissions race conditions (esp. in /tmp) exploitable SUID programs sendmail problems UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) [2] A UPS continues to provide electricity to equipment in the case of a power failure. Much of security contains flawed policies for fail-open/fail-close. By causing devices to fail (such as cutting their power), an intruder may be provided access. For example, electronic doors will automatically open in cases of power failures in order to prevent people from getting trapped. Likewise, some firewalls are configured with bypasses that will allow access in cases of power failure to the firewall. Key point: The MTBF of the average UPS is five to ten years. High-end colos attempt to provide power grids that exceed this. Key point: Increasingly, UPS units are being given interfaces for network management. This allows them to be hacked and have their power interrupted. 
Pronounced "you-niks," a multi-user, multitasking network operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Linux is based on, and is highly compatible with, UNIX. 
UNIX began as a proprietary operating system developed by Bell Laboratories in the 1960s. It eventually spawned a number of mutually incompatible commercial versions from such companies as Apple (Mac OS X), Digital (Digital UNIX), Hewlett-Packard (HPUX), IBM (AIX.), NeXT (NeXTSTEP) and others. 
UNIX is an operating system commonly used on Workstations, and multi-user larger systems. It is a very powerful operating system for administering many users, multi-tasking and communications and has played a major role in the development of the Internet - it is the preferred operating system for host Internet connections (World Wide Web, email servers, and specialist hardware such as routers). 
UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP)
A network, based on long-distance telephone uploads and downloads. UUCP allows UNIX users to exchange files, electronic mail and Usenet articles. In the 1980s, when Internet connectivity was hard to come by, UUCP played an important role in providing support for the UNIX operating system. 
A utility that converts plain text files in UNIX format to DOS format. 
Shared library for Morse programs Package needed by unixcw, cwcp and xcwcp. It contains a shared library with Morse code functions. 
ODBC tools libraries Binaries and libraries from the unixODBC package. COMPONENTS: (ODBC Driver Manager) (driver for Text files) dltest (simple cmd line tool) isql (cmd line tool... batch & interactive SQL) Driver Template (a template for Driver programmers) 
Qt-based GUI ODBC tools Qt-based GUI Binaries from the unixODBC package. ODBCConfig (GUI Setup using DataManager (GUI to explore ODBC Data Sources) 
check the password of the invoking user 
delete a name and possibly the file it refers to 
unlink a file 
Unified Network Management Architecture 
RTF to other formats converter UnRTF is a moderately complicated converter from RTF to other formats, including HTML, LaTeX, text, and PostScript. Converting to HTML, it supports tables, fonts, colors, embedded images, hyperlinks, paragraph alignment among other things. All other conversions are "alpha"--just begun. 
unpack a shar file 
United Nations Standard Message, (UN/EDIFACT) 
squeeze a sorted word list unsq - unsqueeze a sorted word list 
United Nations Trade Data Elements Directory (EDIFACT) 
United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory (EDIFACT) 
Remove LaTeX commands from input. Remove LaTeX commands from input and send it to output. 
remove trigraphs from C source code 
De-archiver for .zip files InfoZIP's unzip program. With the exception of multi-volume archives (ie, .ZIP files that are split across several disks using PKZIP's /& option), this can handle any file produced either by PKZIP, or the corresponding InfoZIP zip program. This version supports encryption. 
list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive 
The unzip utility is used to list, test, or extract files from a zip archive. Zip archives are commonly found on MS-DOS systems. The zip utility, included in the zip package, creates zip archives. Zip and unzip are both compatible with archives created by PKWARE(R)'s PKZIPfor MS-DOS, but the programs' options and default behaviors do differ in some respects. 
Legacy package for unzip-crypt that you should remove. This package exists only to provide a smooth upgrade from the old unzip-crypt to the new unzip. Please remove it. 
self-extracting stub for prepending to ZIP archives 
uOS is a complete source based Operating System that can be configured and built in a flexible way. uOS was first used in November 2002. It is very new and there are lots of kinks to work out. Although the goal is to make uOS usable by everyeone it currently requires Unix expertise to install and to run. uOS is based on GCC 3.2 / GLIBC 2.3 / WOLK Linux Kernel / X 4.2.1. It supports the newest drivers as well as the newest compilers. Core components are available under the 4F Licensing system (compliant to DFSG and OSI guidelines for Free Software). Initial version 0.81 was released November 6, 2002. 
Uni Processor [system] 
The Red Hat Update Agent that automatically queries the Red Hat Network servers and determines which packages need to be updated on your machine. 
Ultra Port Architecture (Sun, SMP) 
User Primary Access Method (BS2000) 
Universal Product Code (EAN) 
Usage Parameter Control (UNI, ATM) 
UserParameterDaten (DDBAC) 
daemon to periodically flush filesystem buffers. The update daemon flushes the filesystem buffers at regular intervals. This version does not spawn a bdflush daemon, as this is now done by the kernel's kupdate thread. This package is not needed with Linux 2.2.8 and above. If you do not plan to run a 2.0.x series kernel on this system, you can safely remove this package. update may still be useful in sync mode (as opposed to flush mode) on more recent kernels for the extra paranoid. 
maintain symbolic links determining default commands 
create or update entry in SGML catalog file 
System to update configuration files for clusters automatically A management system to maintain a systemwide template configuration, update-cluster allows for uniform configuration of several cluster-oriented software. NOTE: Using this package may result in automatically overwriting important configuration files. Be careful. 
System to update configuration files for clusters automatically A management system to maintain a systemwide template configuration, update-cluster allows for uniform configuration of several cluster-oriented software. This is a module used to configure /etc/hosts using update-cluster infrastructure. 
compile fonts.alias files 
compile fonts.dir files 
compile fonts.scale files 
create, remove, enable or disable entry in /etc/inetd.conf 
Bash script to select a new ispell default dictionary. 
generate Debian menu system 
create or update MIME information 
(re)generate /etc/modules.conf and /etc/chandev.conf 
safely update /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and /etc/group 
install and remove System-V style init script links 
program to generate xpdf's configuration file 
update a file name database 
see user private group (UPG). 
To replace older hardware or software with a new or revised version. 
User Program Language 
Transferring data (usually a file) from a the computer you are using to another computer. The opposite of download. 
Umdrehungen Pro Minute (HDD) 
User Profile Management (IBM) 
Umgekehrte Polnische Notation 
Universal Plug 'N Play (PNP), "UPnP" 
Universal Procedure Pointer (AE, Apple) 
Universal Portable Protocol Stack / Support (Schneider & Koch) 
A CGI script to show the world your highest uptimes This CGI script shows your highest uptimes from the uptimed database. 
Uninterruptible Power Supply 
Unix Print Services (Unix) 
UPS Monitor Program Upsd is a UPS monitor program. It supports both local monitoring of a UPS that is directly connected to the computer's serial port and remote monitoring over a network. Remote monitoring is done by polling the master upsd (the one with the direct serial connection to the UPS). There are a number of options to control the poll interval and the delay before shutdown. 
Universal Personal Telecommunications (IN) 
Universelle Personengebundene Telekommunikation (IN) 
Tell how long the system has been running. 
Gnome applet that displays your system uptime. Just a small gnome applet which displays how long your system has been running. It is made for use with gnome panel. 
Utility to track your highest uptimes Uptimed allows you to track your highest uptimes via boot IDs. Features: - Console program to display statistics - Can send mail if a milestone or a new record is reached 
an efficient live-compressor for executables UPX is an advanced executable file compressor. UPX will typically reduce the file size of programs and DLLs by around 50%-70%, thus reducing disk space, network load times, download times etc. The current version can compress executables for DOS, Linux/ELF (i386 only!) and some other files for different OS. NOTE: This package is based on the UCL library, which is licensed under GPL. 
Offline mail and news package creator (NNTP version). Uqwk is a program which collects all of a user's unread mail or news and formats it into a packet for offline reading. QWK, Simple Offline Usenet Packet (SOUP), and ZipNews packet formats are supported. Uqwk also accepts reply packets, so replies can be mailed or posted, depending whether the message is marked private (email) or public (news). Uqwk also supports a small offline command language, so the contents of the user's .newsrc file can be viewed and manipulated offline. This version accesses newsgroups via NNTP. 
Offline mail and news package creator (spool version). Uqwk is a program which collects all of a user's unread mail or news and formats it into a packet for offline reading. QWK, Simple Offline Usenet Packet (SOUP), and ZipNews packet formats are supported. Uqwk also accepts reply packets, so replies can be mailed or posted, depending whether the message is marked private (email) or public (news). Uqwk also supports a small offline command language, so the contents of the user's .newsrc file can be viewed and manipulated offline. This version accesses newsgroups via a local news spool. 
Uniform Resource Agent (WWW) 
USB Request Block (USB) 
Uniform Resource Citation (WWW) 
Uniform Resources Characteristics (URI, WWW) 
Universal Resource Identifier (WWW, RFC 1630) 
A Uniform Resource Locator is basically the address of any resource on the Internet. You type the URL in your browser and you are whizzed off to the appropriate site. e.g. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
An acronym for Uniform Resource Locator, URL's are a standardized format for giving a pointer to information available from... A Primer explaining the use of URL's is available. 
Uniform Resource Locator (WWW, RFC 1738) 
Uniform Resource Locator: a standardized format for giving a pointer to information available from gopher,WWW, finger and other servers. 
URL encoding (application/form-url-encoded)
A problem exists when people need to send binary data as part of a URL. Therefore, URLs include the ability to "encode" binary information as part of the text field. Key point: This encoding mechanism can be used to alter the signature of a hacker attack via web-based protocols. Such encoding can be used to evade detection by lightweight intrusion detection systems that are unable to "normalize" the URL. Example: The Microsoft web-server in their ASP server-side scripts such that a hacker could append a dot to the end of the URL in order to read the script contents rather than executing the script. Microsoft created a patch, but hackers soon found they could evade the patch by URL-encoding the dot (appending a %2E to the end of the scrip rather than a dot). Examples: Normal URL Attempt to read script rather than executing it. URL-encoding in order to evade patch. Further URL-encoding in order to evade intrusion detection systems. 
determine which browser is responsible for various types of URLs. 
utility for squid to perform url redirection. This utility can be used with squid to perform url redirection. It has a structured configuration system which allows greater control over url redirection. 
Extracts URLs from text This utility is used to extract URL from text files, especially from mail messages in order to launch some browser to view them. This used to be a part of mutt but has now become an independent tool. 
Uniform Resource Name (WWW, RFC 1737) 
urpmi takes care of dependencies between rpms, using a pool (or pools) of rpms. You can compare rpm vs. urpmi with insmod vs. modprobe 
Unique Resource Serial Number (URI, WWW) 
Free, good quality versions of the 35 standard PostScript(TM) fonts, donated under the GPL by URW++ Design and Development GmbH. The fonts.dir file font names match the original Adobe names of the fonts (e.g., Times, Helvetica, etc.). Install the urw-fonts package if you need free versions of standard PostScript fonts. 
Unit Separator (BTX, VPCE) 
United Software Association (org., USA) 
US Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure (org., USA) 
Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (IC) 
Universal Serial Bus (Intel, USB) 
Universal Serial Bus Driver Development Kit (USB, DDK), "USB-DDK" 
User-Mode daemon which loads/unloads USB kernel modules When USB devices connect into or disconnect from a USB hub, the usbmgr works as the following according to configuration. a) Loads and unloads files Linux kernel modules. b) Execute file to setup USB devices. usbmgr is available under linux kernel have "/proc/bus/usb". 
USB console utilities This applications show what the device tree of the USB bus looks like. It shows a graphical representation of the devices that are currently plugged in, showing the topology of the USB bus. It also displays information on each individual device on the bus. More information can be found at the Linux USB web site . 
usbutils contains a utility for inspecting devices connected to the USB bus. It requires a Linux kernel version 2.3.15 or newer (supporting the'/proc/bus/usb' interface). 
USB device viewer USBView is a small GTK application to show what the device tree of the USB bus looks like. It shows a graphical representation of the devices that are currently plugged in, showing the topology of the USB bus. It also displays information on each individual device on the bus. More information can be found at the usbview web site . 
Unicos Station Call Processor [protocol] (Cray, MPP) 
User's Supplementary Documents (BSD, Unix) 
Universal Switched Data Capability [consortium] (LCD, org.) 
United States Digital Network 
User-based SECurity [model] (SNMP) 
A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are on the Internet. USENET is completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups. 
Point: The protocol for transporting USENET messages is called NNTP: "Network News Transport Protocol". Key point: The USENET Death Penalty ( is often applied to NNTP servers in order to stop the flood of spam. It is often applied to ISPs who allow users to send lots of spam or allow their servers to be hijacked. For this reasons, many ISPs (especially high-speed cable modem and DSL providers will scan their customers looking for unauthorized NNTP servers. Controversy: USENET presents a philosophical challenge to the Internet because of its distributed nature. It allows anonymous publishing of material that cannot be traced back to the source. This challenges the historic concepts of intellectual property and how it can be protected. For example, when RC2 and RC4 were posted to USENET, they stopped being trade-secrets. 
The leading distributed bulletin board, widely available on UNIX-based computer systems, and linked through the Internet and other computer networks. Offering more than 1,500 newsgroups, UseNet is accessed daily by more than 15 million people in more than 100 countries. Within UseNet is a discussion group (newsgroup) on every conceivable topic and some you haven't thought of. Each newsgroup focuses on a particular subject, such as sports cars, firearms, U.S. history, model aircraft, politics, or jazz. Well-represented subjects are hobbies, politics, scientific disciplines, and topics of current public debate. UseNet users can read and reply to posted messages. 
Usenet is derived from "User's Network" and was originally a separate service, or what is called a Bulletin Board System. It is very developed but is seldom called Usenet now -- more commonly referred to as newsgroups, discussion groups, or sometimes just News. There are no restrictions on joining a newsgroup. While not all Usenet machines are on the Internet, this is rapidly changing. There are over 10,000 newsgroups. URL's for newsgroups differ in appearance, with no domain name appearing -- eg., 
USEr NETwork: a public access network on the Internet that provides user news. There are a number of newsgroups dedicated to Linux issues including the moderated comp.os.linux.announce for Linux announcements. 
USErs' NETwork (Internet) 
Usenet News
A network of systems that exchange articles using the Internet, UUCP, and other methods to establish public message conferences on some or all of over 6,000 topics or "newsgroups. There are many common newsgroups include some that can run on your home computer via SLIP and the Unix newsreaders, tin, trn, and nn. 
Usenet Newsgroups
More than 10,000 topic-oriented message bases that can be read and posted to. Also called newsgroups, please visit at From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
n. 1. Someone doing `real work' with the computer, using it as a means rather than an end. Someone who pays to use a computer. See real user. 2. A programmer who will believe anything you tell him. One who asks silly questions. [GLS observes: This is slightly unfair. It is true that users ask questions (of necessity). Sometimes they are thoughtful or deep. Very often they are annoying or downright stupid, apparently because the user failed to think for two seconds or look in the documentation before bothering the maintainer.] See luser. 3. Someone who uses a program from the outside, however skillfully, without getting into the internals of the program. One who reports bugs instead of just going ahead and fixing them. The general theory behind this term is that there are two classes of people who work with a program: there are implementors (hackers) and lusers. The users are looked down on by hackers to some extent because they don't understand the full ramifications of the system in all its glory. (The few users who do are known as `real winners'.) The term is a relative one: a skilled hacker may be a user with respect to some program he himself does not hack. A LISP hacker might be one who maintains LISP or one who uses LISP (but with the skill of a hacker). A LISP user is one who uses LISP, whether skillfully or not. Thus there is some overlap between the two terms; the subtle distinctions must be resolved by context. 
User Accounts and User Ownerships
UNIX intrinsically supports multiple users. Each user has a personal home directory /home/<username> in which the user's files are stored, hidden from other users. So far you may have been using the machine as the root user, who is the system administrator and has complete access to every file on the system. The root is also called the superuser. The home directory of the root user is /root. Note that there is an ambiguity here: the root directory is the topmost directory, known as the / directory. The root user's home directory is /root and is called the home directory of root. Other than the superuser, every other user has limited access to files and directories. Always use your machine as a normal user. Log in as root only to do system administration. This practice will save you from the destructive power that the root user has. In this chapter we show how to manually and automatically create new users. Users are also divided into sets, called groups. A user can belong to several groups and there can be as many groups on the system as you like. Each group is defined by a list of users that are part of that set. In addition, each user may have a group of the same name (as the user's login name), to which only that user belongs. 
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
A communications protocol for the Internet network layer, transport layer, and session layer, which makes it possible to send a datagram transmissions from one computer to a recipient computer. 
user identification (UID)
Unique number assigned to a user from which the user is identified to various resources such as files in an operating system. 
user interface
All the features of a program or computer that overs the way people Interact with the computer. See command driven program and graphical user interface (GUI) utility program A program that assists you in maintaining and Improving the efficiency of a computer system. Mtcrosoft Plus! includes the System Agent, a utility program that defragments your hard disk, compresses rarely used files, and corrects manor disk problems You can set the System Agent to work any time you leave your computer alone for a certain period of tame, or to run early in the morning every day. 
user private group (UPG)
Group assigned to a user account in which that user exclusively belongs; useful for managing file permissions for individual users. 
user-level (user-mode)
On an operating system, there are fundamental two contexts a program can run in. The kernel context is within the core of the operating system, and no checks are performed to see if accesses to system resources are legal. The other context is user-level, where full access to the system is walled-off. Key point: Many network services these days now run as restricted user-level processes. This means when a remote hacker breaks into such a service, they do not get full control over the machine. They might be able to deface a webpage or cause other havoc, but they do not own the box. At this point, the intruder will need to run some sort of privilege escalation exploit in order to root the system. 
User-mode Linux (kernel) User-mode Linux is a port of the Linux kernel to its own system call interface. It provides a kind of virtual machine, which runs Linux as a user process under another Linux kernel. This is useful for kernel development, sandboxes, jails, experimentation, and many other things. This package contains the kernel itself, as an executable program, and the associated kernel modules. 
Create a new user or update default new user information 
Delete a user account and related files 
Userdrake is a user-friendly and powerful tool to add/edit/remove users from your Mandrake Linux system. 
display informations about a local user Userinfo is a small console utility to display as much information about a local user as possible. It currently supports: password file info, home directory mode, mail forwards/aliases/last read time/new time/folder size, utmp info and more... 
n. Anywhere outside the kernel. "That code belongs in userland." This term has been in common use among Linux kernel hackers since at least 1997, and may have have originated in that community (a sighting has been reported from the 1995 archives of a NetBSD mailing list, however). 
BSD IP Tunneling Driver for Linux (source package) This driver is based on BSD if_tun driver. If_tun driver exchanges IP packets between the character device and the network interface. 
Modify a user account 
The usermode package contains several graphical tools for users:userinfo, usermount and userpasswd. Userinfo allows users to change their finger information. Usermount lets users mount, unmount, andformat filesystems. Userpasswd allows users to change their passwords. Install the usermode package if you would like to provide users with graphical tools for certain account management tasks. 
The usermode package contains the userhelper program, which can be used to allow configured programs to be run with superuser privileges by ordinary users. 
a unique "name" by which each user is known to the system. This name is given to the user whenever they register to use the system. 
print the user names of users currently logged in to the current host 
`user services' - program call across trust boundaries userv allows one program to invoke another when only limited trust exists between them. It is a tool which can be used to avoid having to give other system services root privilege, and which allows users to more securely have programs provide services to others. userv can be useful as `glue' for system administrators; there are not many full-blown userv-using applications yet. 
Uplink State Flag (GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Unix Support Group (org., Unix) 
United States Independent Telephone Association (org., USA) 
Unix Systems Laboratories (AT&T, Unix) 
United States Message Text Format (USA) 
Update Sequence Number 
User Stack Pointer 
U.S. Robotics (manufacturer) 
User Service Routines 
Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter (IC) 
UnStructured Supplementary Services (GSM, mobile-systems) 
United States Telephone Association (org., USA) 
Unterbrechungsfreie Strom-Versorgung 
Uncached Speculative Write Combining (CPU) 
Universal Time [+0000] (TZ, GMT) 
Upper Tester 
Hardware accelerated GLX module for XFree86 A hardware accelerated implementation of the GLX protocol for the XFree86 version 3 servers (this package only works with the XFree86 3.x X servers, the XFree86 4.x server comes with its own version of GLX). This package contains a loadable module for XFree86 that provides hardware accelerated OpenGL rendering for the following cards: * Matrox MGA-G200, MGA-G400 * NVidia Riva series * ATI Rage Pro (experimental) * Intel i810 * S3 ViRGE DX/GX/GX2/MX (experimental) * S3 Savage (experimental) 
talk-like program with additional features utalk uses a protocol, based on UDP, which ensures a quick response even over links with high packet loss, allows editing of previously typed text, including scrollback, deletion and overstrike, and provides some additional features. It is not compatible with BSD talk program. 
see universal time coordinated (UTC). 
Universal Time Coordinated (DCE) 
Universal Time Coordinates [+0000] (TZ, GMT) 
Utempter is a utility that allows some non-privileged programs to have required root access without compromising system security. Utempter accomplishes this task by acting as a buffer between root and the programs. 
UCS Transformation Format (Unicode, UCS) 
Standard for unique and internationalized character encoding; allows for plain text files and other data to be represented in several languages and dialects. 
Universal Text Interchange 
Miscellaneous system utilities. A mixed bag of system utilities: arch blockdev chkdupexe cfdisk cytune dmesg fdisk fsck.minix getty getopt hwclock ipcrm ipcs mcookie mkfs mkfs.minix mkswap more namei pivot_root raw rdev setterm setsid tunelp whereis. 
utility program
Program that supports using the computer. Utility programs, or "utilities," provide file management capabilities, text manipulation and archiving. Popular Linux utilities include grep, sed and kruiser. 
User Trailer Label 
Unified Translation Look-aside Buffer (CPU) 
Universal Transaction Monitor 
Universeller TransaktionsMonitor (BS2000, Sinix, TP) 
allows one to discover information about who is currently using the system. There may be more users currently using the system, because not all programs use utmp logging. 
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System 
Universal Test & Operations Physical layer Interface for ATM (PL, ATM) 
Unshielded Twisted Pair [cable] (TP) 
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UMTS, mobile-systems) 
Universal Timesharing System 
Use The Source, Luke (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Universal Tape-To-Tape Converter 
Unix to Unix Copy Incoming Copy Outgoing (Unix) 
A set of programs and protocols that have become the basis for a worldwide network of UNIX computers. Named after the UNIX to UNIX Copy Program. 
A set of programs and protocols that have become the basis of a worldwide network between UNIX systems; named after the UNIX-to-UNIX copy program. 
An acronym for Unix to Unix CoPy, UUCP is a protocol used for the store-and-forward exchange of mail, Usenet News and other files, usually over a modem. 
Unix to Unix Copy Program UUCP will copy files to or from another (usually *nix) system, which also runs uucp. UUCP is used to transfer mail, news and random files between systems which are not connected by more modern networks. The communication can be made via modems, direct (hard-wired) serial connections or via an IP connection. 
Unix to Unix Copy Protocol (Unix) 
uucp (Unix-to-Unix Copy)
UUCP is a service on a machine that can transfer files. In the olden days when connectivity was expensive, most machines were not connected together but where instead interconnected web of UUCP links. Machines would dialup peers and download/upload files on a scheduled basis. Most e-mail and USENET news were transported this way. E-mail addresses back in the 1980s consisted of long strings that specified each machine in the UUCP network. People held contests to see who could create the most convoluted route to send e-mail back to themselves over the long distance across the world. Key point: Even though it is rarely used today, uucp accounts and services are often enabled on UNIX machine in such a way that they can be exploited in order to break into the machine. See also: uuencode 
n. obs. The store-and-forward network consisting of all the world's connected Unix machines (and others running some clone of the UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) software). Any machine reachable only via a bang path is on UUCPNET. This term has been rendered obsolescent by the spread of cheap Internet connections in the 1990s; the few remaining UUCP links are essentially slow channels to the Internet rather than an autonomous network. See network address. 
Alternatives Frontend for UUCP Batching This package provides some neat features to do UUCP batching. Partially it is logically based on send-uucp and nntpsend which were included in early versions of INN. 
A UNIX ultility program that decodes a uuencoded ASCII file, restoring the original binary file (such as a program or graphic) A uudecode utility is needed to decode the binary files posted to UseNet Programs with uudecoding capabilities are avaiable for Macintosh and Microsoft Windows 95 systems, and are often built into UseNet newsreaders. 
decode a file created by uuencode 
Smart multi-file multi-part decoder (command line) This is a command-line decoder and encoder for files encoded with the following formats: uuencode, xxencode, BASE64, quoted printable, and BinHex. This package used to contain an X11-based GUI decoder called xdeview. That program is now in the xdeview package. 
A popular method of exchanging binary files in Mail and via Usenet News the uuencode program converts a binary file into a (larger) file of alphanumeric characters that will not be corrupted when sent as a text file. UUEncode is available as a Unix command as well as MS-DOS and Macintosh versions. To convert the file back to the original binary form you can use the uudecode program or the popular Unix extraction program uuconvert. 
A UNlX utility program that transforms a binary file such as a program or graphic, into coded ASCII text. This text can be transferred by means of the Internet or posted to a UseNet newsgroup At the receiving end, the uudecode utility decodes the message and restores the binary file. Programs with uuencoding capabilities are available for Macintosh and Microsoft Windows 95 systems, and are often built into UseNet newsreaders. 
encode a binary file 
format of an encoded uuencode file 
UUENCODE (Unix to Unix Encoding)
A method for converting files from Binaryto ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet via email. 
The 'UU' part refers to 'Unix to Unix' - the most common host to host connection on the Internet. The 'encode/decode' part refers to a standard for converting non-ASCII data transmission via email. 
A method of converting binary files to ASCII so they can be sent to other Internet users. The uuencode program converts the binary file to ASCII, and the uudecode program returns the file to its original form. 
Unix User Group (org., Unix, user group) 
Universal Unique IDentifier 
command-line utility to create a new UUID value 
Unix to Unix NETwork (org., ISP) 
an UUCP traffic analyzer and cost estimator uutraf analyses your Log and Stats files and estimates the cost of your phone bill and UUCP provider bill. 
User Volume Label 
Ultra Wide [SCSI] (SCSI) 
remote mail folder access server IMAP (the Interactive Mail Access Protocol) is a mechanism for accessing mail folders and the messages in them remotely, ie with your user mail program running on a different machine to the one where all the messages are stored. If you do install uw-imapd you will almost certainly want to install a Mail Transfer Agent such as Smail or Sendmail, as remote mail programs which use IMAP to access incoming and saved mail will usually want to send mail using SMTP, often to the same machine. 
remote mail folder access server IMAP (the Interactive Mail Access Protocol) is a mechanism for accessing mail folders and the messages in them remotely, ie with your user mail program running on a different machine to the one where all the messages are stored. If you do install uw-imapd you will almost certainly want to install a Mail Transfer Agent such as Smail or Sendmail, as remote mail programs which use IMAP to access incoming and saved mail will usually want to send mail using SMTP, often to the same machine. This server has SSL support built in. 
The ultimate window manager for UDE uwm is the ultimate window manager for UDE - the Unix Desktop Environment. UDE is more then just another windows manager. Designed to compensate for the shortcomings of many other similar packages, UDE features many innovative improvements. The project does not use any special GUI-Libraries such as Qt or GTK+ and is based on the standard Xlibs (also to make UDE faster) It features: * No title bars with icons etc. * High performance, since it just uses standard libraries UDE - get used to it... 
Ultra eXtended Graphics Adapter 
terminal emulator for X, with Unicode support 
tool to configure video4linux drivers This is a small tool to configure a video4linux device driver. It is required to make the video overlay work in fbtv and xawtv. 
Virtual Acoustic 
Visual Age C++ (IBM) 
email autoresponder Vacation returns a message to the sender of a message telling them that you are currently not reading your mail. This program is derived from the NetBSD version and has most of the features present in the linux, solaris, AIX and *BSD versions. 
Visual Access Control System (SNI, CCD) 
Value Added Driver 
Voice Activity Detection (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Value Added Disk Driver 
VisualAge Developper Domain (IBM) 
VESA Advanced Feature Connector (VESA) 
VRML Architecture Group (org., VRML) 
VESA Advanced Graphic Interface (VESA) 
Value Added Network 
adj. [from the default flavor of ice cream in the U.S.] Ordinary flavor, standard. When used of food, very often does not mean that the food is flavored with vanilla extract! For example, `vanilla wonton soup' means ordinary wonton soup, as opposed to hot-and-sour wonton soup. Applied to hardware and software, as in "Vanilla Version 7 Unix can't run on a vanilla 11/34." Also used to orthogonalize chip nomenclature; for instance, a 74V00 means what TI calls a 7400, as distinct from a 74LS00, etc. This word differs from canonical in that the latter means `default', whereas vanilla simply means `ordinary'. For example, when hackers go on a great-wall, hot-and-sour soup is the canonical soup to get (because that is what most of them usually order) even though it isn't the vanilla (wonton) soup. 
Value Added Network Services 
Value Added Process (Netware, NLM, predecessor) 
Virtual [ISDN] Application Programming Interface (ISDN, CAPI, API) 
/veir/ or /var/ n. Short for `variable'. Compare arg, param. 
Value-Added Reseller 
1. The condition of an object (such as a file, value, or state) that can change at any time, increasing the functionality and flexibility of data. 2. Setting or parameter defined in shell environments when a user logs into a system or a developer compiles a program for a certain computing environments. 
variable width fonts
Most of the fonts you will use are variable width. See fixed width fonts. 
VA RAID monitor A textbased tool to monitor DAC 960 RAID controllers. This includes Mylex RAID cards from the 960 and 1100 series, eXteremeRAID 2000 & 3000, AcceleRAID 352 & 170. 
VAriable Refraction Optical System (Canon) 
Value Added Services 
Visual Average Speed Computer And Recorder 
Virtual Archive Storage Technology 
LBNL audio conferencing tool over the internet. The LBNL audio tool, vat, is a real-time, multi-party, multimedia application for audio conferencing over the Internet. Vat is based on the Draft Internet Standard Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) developed by the IETF Audio/Video Transport working group. RTP is an application-level protocol implemented entirely within vat -- you need no special system enhancements to run RTP. Although vat can be run point-to-point using standard unicast IP addresses, it is primarily intended as a multi-party conferencing application. To make use of the conferencing capabilities, your system must support IP Multicast, and ideally, your network should be connected to the IP Multicast Backbone (MBone). Vat provides only the audio portion of a multimedia conference; video, whiteboard, and session control tools are implemented as separate applications. Our video tool is called vic and our whiteboard tool wb, UCL developed the session directory tool sdr Other related applications include ISI's Multimedia Conference Control, mmcc, the Xerox PARC Network Video tool, nv and the INRIA Video-conferencing System, ivs. 
[UDF] Virtual Allocation Table (UDF, CD-R) 
Verband der Anbieter von Telekommunikations- und Mehrwertdiensten Org., DFUe, Germany 
/vaks/ n. 1. [from Virtual Address eXtension] The most successful minicomputer design in industry history, possibly excepting its immediate ancestor, the PDP-11. Between its release in 1978 and its eclipse by killer micros after about 1986, the VAX was probably the hacker's favorite machine of them all, esp. after the 1982 release of 4.2 BSD Unix (see BSD). Esp. noted for its large, assembler-programmer-friendly instruction set -- an asset that became a liability after the RISC revolution. 2. A major brand of vacuum cleaner in Britain. Cited here because its sales pitch, "Nothing sucks like a VAX!" became a sort of battle-cry of RISC partisans. It is even sometimes claimed that DEC actually entered a cross-licensing deal with the vacuum-Vax people that allowed them to market VAX computers in the U.K. in return for not challenging the vacuum cleaner trademark in the U.S. A rival brand actually pioneered the slogan: its original form was "Nothing sucks like Electrolux". It has apparently become a classic example (used in advertising textbooks) of the perils of not knowing the local idiom. But in 1996, the press manager of Electrolux AB, while confirming that the company used this slogan in the late 1960s, also tells us that their marketing people were fully aware of the possible double entendre and intended it to gain attention. And gain attention it did - the VAX-vacuum-cleaner people thought the slogan a sufficiently good idea to copy it. Several British hackers report that VAX's promotions used it in 1986-1987, and we have one report from a New Zealander that the infamous slogan surfaced there in TV ads for the product in 1992. 
Virtual Address eXtension (DEC, VAX) 
Virtual Address eXtension ??? (OS) 
Visual BASIC for Applications (MS, BASIC, VB) 
VGA standard BIOS Extensions (VESA, VGA, BIOS) 
Visual BASIC Editor (MS, VB) 
Visual BASIC Integrated Development Environment (MS, VB) 
Vermittelndes Breitband-Netz 
Very highspeed Backbone Network Service (NSF, ATM), "vBNS" 
voice response system for isdn4linux Please install also raccess4vbox3 and refer to /usr/share/doc/raccess4vbox3. This is vbox3 taken from isdn4k-utils cvs repository on December 2000. Since the upstream author no longer works on this project, I applied the vboxputty patch and did some more changes, now found in the new source tree vbox3-x.x.x.tar.gz. 
Variable Bit Rate (ATM, CBR, ABR, UBR, QOS) 
Variable Bit Rate - Non Real Time (VBR, ATM), "VBR-NRT" 
Variable Bit Rate - Real Time (VBR, ATM), "VBR-RT" 
Visual Basic Script (MS, BASIC, VB) 
Visual Basic eXtensions (MS) 
Virtual Channel / Circuit (ATM) 
Virtual Console 
Voltage Controlled Amplifier (audio) 
Virtual Channel Connection (ATM) 
Video Compact Disk (CD) 
Creates Video CD (VCD) filesystem images This package includes two utilities "mkvcdfs" and "vcdmplex". mkvcdfs creates filesystem images for video CDs, which can then be written to CD with the cdrdao program. vcdmplex is used to multiplex MPG audio and data streams into a format suitable for a video CD. 
Voltage Controlled Filters 
A Visualization Tool for compiler graphs The VCG tool reads a textual and readable specification of a graph and visualizes the graph. If not all positions of nodes are fixed, the tool layouts the graph using several heuristics as reducing the number of crossings, minimizing the size of edges, centering of nodes. The specification language of the VCG tool is nearly compatible to GRL, the language of the edge tool, but contains many extensions. The VCG tool allows folding of dynamically or statically specified regions of the graph. It uses colors and runs on X11. 
Virtual Console Hex Editor Standard hex editor, whose main advantage is the ability to write directly to the virtual terminals and thus display all 0-255 displayable characters on the terminal. Includes support for xterm and curses as well. 
Video Cursor Interface (VESA) 
Virtual Channel Identifier (ATM) 
Virtual Channel Identifier (ATM) 
Virtual Connection Identifier (ATM) 
Virtual Channel Link (UNI, ATM) 
Visual Class Library (StarOffice) 
Visual Component Library (Borland, Delphi) 
Windows Conflict Manager (MS, Windows) 
Voltage Controlled Oscillator 
Visible Caching Operating System (DSP) 
Vector Control Processor 
Virtual Circuit System 
Virtual Channel - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC, NEC), "VC-SDRAM" 
Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting LASER 
cuts Ogg Vorbis files 
Verband Deutscher Automobilhersteller FlaechenSchnittstelle (DIN, CIM) 
Verband Deutscher Automobilhersteller / Standardisiertes Einheitliches DatenAustauschSystem (EDI), "VDA/SEDAS" 
Virtual Display Driver 
Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker [e.v.] (org.) 
manages virtual desktops for minimal window managers vdesk takes the task of managing virtual desktops away from the window manager and implements an easy to use interface to those desktops. 
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (org.) 
Video Device Interface (Intel) 
Virtual Device Interface 
VESA Display Information File (VESA) 
/vee'dif/ v.,n. Visual diff. The operation of finding differences between two files by eyeball search. The term `optical diff' has also been reported, and is sometimes more specifically used for the act of superimposing two nearly identical printouts on one another and holding them up to a light to spot differences. Though this method is poor for detecting omissions in the `rear' file, it can also be used with printouts of graphics, a claim few if any diff programs can make. See diff. An interesting variant of the vdiff technique usable by anyone who has sufficient control over the parallax of their eyeballs (e.g. those who can easily view random-dot stereograms), is to hold up two paper printouts and go cross-eyed to superimpose them. This invokes deep, fast, built-in image comparison wetware (the same machinery responsible for depth perception) and differences stand out almost immediately. This technique is good for finding edits in graphical images, or for comparing an image with a compressed version to spot artifacts.<p> 
list directory contents 
RAD for VDK VDK Builder is a clone of C++ Builder. Builder's main features are: * Project Manager * GUI designer * Text Editor * Widget Inspector * generates VDK code * plugin extensions This package contains the executable. The plugins bundled with vdkbuilder are in libvdkbuilder and libvdkbuilder-dev packages. 
Virtual DOS Machine (OS/2, Windows NT, DOS) 
Virtual Direct Memory Access (DMA) 
Virtual Direct Memory Access Device (VDMA, DMA) 
Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards, base package Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs (hardware accelerated) with some comfort and use a IR remote control. This package contains files shared by different VDR versions and frontends. NOTE: You should install compatible DVB drivers before using these programs. 
Server version of Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains a VDR version without any direct control capabilities. Instead, it opens a control port and other programs like kvdr (from the kvdr package) can connect to the vdr-daemon and use it. 
Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with keyboard control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-kbd program which is controlled via the PC keyboard. There are also vdr-rcu and vdr-lirc packages which contain another VDR versions using RCU or infrared remote control. 
Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with IR remote control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-lirc program which is controlled via a IR remote control. There are also vdr-kbd and vdr-rcu packages which contain another VDR versions using keyboard/rcu control. 
Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with RCU control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-kbd program which is controlled via the the "Remote Control Unit". There are also vdr-kbd and vdr-lirc packages which contain another VDR versions using PC keyboard or infrared remote control. 
Virtual DMA Services (DMA) 
Very high data / bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 
Video Display Terminal 
Visual Display Unit 
Vorbestellte DauerwaehlVerbindung (Telekom) 
Virtual Environment (VR) 
Virtual Embedded Circuitry (IC) 
VECTORLINUX is a small, fast, Intel based Linux operating system for PC style computers. The creators of VECTORLINUX had a single credo: keep it simple, keep it small and let the end user decide what their operating system is going to be. Version 2.5 was released April 2, 2002. A beta named SOHO was announced as an iso only, July 29, 2002. SOHO 1.0 was released August 20, 2002. SOHO 3.2 was released March 19, 2003. VectorLinux 3.2 was released February 6, 2003. A small disk distribution. 
vector-based rock-shooting "Vectoroids" is a vector-based rock-shooting game similar to the arcade classic "Asteroids." Pilot a spaceship and destroy asteroids by shooting them into smaller and smaller pieces while trying to avoid being smashed or shot by UFOs. "Vectoroids" is an SDL game based on the source for "Agendaroids," an X-Window game written for the Agenda VR3 Linux-based PDA written by the same author. 
Vedova Linux
Vedova Linux is currently at version 3.0, and Vedova Software also has Mandrake 8.1 and DemoLinux 3.0 available in boxed sets. Presumably in Italian. 
Very Evil Grin (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Just playing around, huh? 
List of computer acronyms This is GNU version 1.8 of V.E.R.A., a list dealing with computational acronyms. It comes as one info file. 
An optional mode when running a program that will display varying levels of status messages as it is processing. 
Icarus verilog compiler The Icarus verilog compiler for the verilog hardware description language. The compiler can target either simulation, or netlist (XNF). 
Emacs mode for verilog language This is a major mode for verilog, a hardware description language. This mode provide automatic indentation, keyword completion, interactive editing and more. 
Virginia Educational Research NETwork (network, USA), "VERnet" 
A computer program that helps Internauts find what they are looking for on gopher servers around the world. Instead of looking through menus, Veronica allows users to enter keywords to locate the gopher site that holds the information they want. Gopher to
A program to track down information from Gopher databases. 
Very Easy Rodent-Orientated Netwide Index of Computerized Archives (Internet) 
Veronica (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)
Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica was a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopherservers. The Veronica database could be searched from most major gophermenus. Now made obsolete by web-bases search engines. 
Variable Envelope Return Path (SMTP) 
Daily Devotional Verse from KJV Bible Verse displays a Bible Verse on each login. A verse from the King James Version of the Bible is assigned to each day. 
A revision of software or hardware as specified by a name or value assigned by the vendor, such as Red Hat Linux 8.0. 
Version information of the package. 
Version 7 alt. V7
/vee' se'vn/ n. The first widely distributed version of Unix, released unsupported by Bell Labs in 1978. The term is used adjectivally to describe Unix features and programs that date from that release, and are thus guaranteed to be present and portable in all Unix versions (this was the standard gauge of portability before the POSIX and IEEE 1003 standards). Note that this usage does not derive from the release being the "seventh version of Unix"; research Unix at Bell Labs has traditionally been numbered according to the edition of the associated documentation. Indeed, only the widely-distributed Sixth and Seventh Editions are widely known as V[67]; the OS that might today be known as `V10' is instead known in full as "Tenth Edition Research Unix" or just "Tenth Edition" for short. For this reason, "V7" is often read by cognoscenti as "Seventh Edition". See BSD, USG Unix, Unix. Some old-timers impatient with commercialization and kernel bloat still maintain that V7 was the Last True Unix. 
a GTK+OpenGL 3D modeller Vertex is a 3D modeller designed specifically for generating efficient models for (but not limited to) games and applications using OpenGL's style of graphics rendering. 
Video Electronics Standards Association (org.) 
VAX Environment Software Translator (VAX, DEC) 
See virtual file allocation table (VFAT). 
Virtual File Allocation Table (MS, Windows 95) 
V. Fast Class (MODEM), "V.FC" 
Font files for Morisawa Basic-5 type faces for pTeX Contains VF/TFM files for Ryumin-Light, GothicBBB-Medium, FutoMinA101-Bold, FutoGoB101-Bold and Jun101-Light. It will be easy to use morisawa.sty of okumura-clsfiles if you wish to use these fonts in pTeX. For dvips: you should add "p" in your or an appropriate and you could do this with "morisawa-config add" or "morisawa-config add" at present. 
VMEbus Futurebus+ Extended Architecture 
Very Fast IRDA (IRDA) 
Vector Font Library for Japanese Character Code. VFlib2 is a font library written in C providing several functions to obtain bitmaps of characters. VFlib hides the font format of font files and provides a unified API for all supported font formats. 
VFlib is a font library written in C which converts vector fonts to bitmap data. Functions provided in VFlib include rotating, shrinking,and changing the slant of characters. VFlib provides a unified API forall supported font formats; any software using VFlib can use any of the supported font file formats immediately. VFlib is used by localized software for Japanese document processing thatrequires Kanji fonts (for example xdvi, dvi2ps, and Ghostscript). 
Miscelanious tools for VFlib2 library. VFlib2 is a font library written in C providing several functions to obtain bitmaps of characters. VFlib hides the font format of font files and provides a unified API for all supported font formats. 
Versatile Font Library VFlib3 is a font rasterizer library for multi-lingual information processing. Using VFlib3, you can obtain bitmap data of characters(glyphs) from various fonts in a unified manner. VFlib3 can handle almost all font formats available - it now supports PK, GF, VF, TFM, OFM level 0, OVF, PCF, BDF, HBF, Syotai-Club, JG, eKanji and more. TrueType and Type 1 fonts are also supported via FreeType1 and T1lib respectively. Font search via kpathsea is supported, too. This package contains the shared library and configuration files needed to run programs using VFlib3. 
Sample programs using VFlib3 VFlib3 is a font rasterizer library for multi-lingual information processing. Using VFlib3, you can obtain bitmap data of characters(glyphs) from various fonts in a unified manner. VFlib3 can handle almost all font formats available - it now supports PK, GF, VF, TFM, OFM level 0, OVF, PCF, BDF, HBF, Syotai-Club, JG, eKanji and more. TrueType and Type 1 fonts are also supported via FreeType1 and T1lib respectively. Font search via kpathsea is supported, too. This package contains a few sample programs that come with VFlib3. 
Virtual File System [layer] (Unix, Linux, OSF/1) 
Virtual File System. It's the abstraction layer between the user and real filesystems like ext2, minix and msdos. Amongst other things, its job is to flush the read buffer when it detects a disk change on the floppy disk drive. 
a tool to generate VF files for dvi2ps/dvi2dvi You can use PostScript fonts and/or TrueType fonts etc. in your TeX files with the VF files generated by vftool. 
convert virtual font (vf) files to virtual property lists (vpl) 
A versatile text-based filemanager vfu is a nice filemanager using the ncurses library. It has many nice features: * Fast one-key commands * Filename completition and wildcard expansion * Directory tree with sizes * File-type colorization * Archives support (TAR, TGZ, BZ2, and many more) * FTP support through archive-like interface * Internal text/hex file viewer and hex editor * Automount feature * Extensive user-defined external support/utils! 
Video fuer Windows (MS), "VfW" 
Volume Group (LVM) 
Video Graphics Array (IBM) 
VGA BIOS software for the Plex86 and Bochs emulated VGA card The goal of this project is to provide a Video BIOS for Plex86 and Bochs. This VGA BIOS is very specific to the plex86/bochs emulated VGA card. It is NOT meant to drive a physical vga card. You will probably fry it if you try. You have been warned. 
Four SVGAlib card games A collection of the card games Oh Hell!, Spider, Klondike and another solitaire game. They use a mouse and svgalib in the VGA mode 640x480x16. 
SVGAlib games ConnectN, Othello, and Mines This package includes clones of these popular games that work under SVGAlib. (mouse highly recommended) 
Virtual GameBoy 
Volume Group Descriptor Area (AIX, LVM, IBM) 
100VoiceGrade anylan Forum (manufacturer) 
Virtual Graphics Interface 
grabs a image from a camera and puts it in jpg/png format vgrabbj is a program that will grab an image from a v4l compatible device (usually a webcam of some sort) and save it in a jpg or png file, with options given on the command line to imprint a label onto the image. It only works on v4l devices that can be set to 24-bit mode. 
/vee'grep/ v.,n. Visual grep. The operation of finding patterns in a file optically rather than digitally (also called an `optical grep'). See grep; compare vdiff. 
Runoff preprocessor for program sources Vgrind formats the program sources which are arguments in a nice style using groff(1). Comments are placed in italics, keywords in bold face, and the name of the current function is listed down the margin of each page as it is encountered. Vgrind runs in two basic modes, filter mode (see the -f option) or regu- lar mode. In filter mode vgrind acts as a filter in a manner similar to tbl(1). 
Volks-hypertext browser Designed for use with the Jargon File but useful for lexicons in general (lighter-weight than WWW, fast search). 
Very High Density Cable Interconnect (SCSI) 
VHSIC Hardware Description Language (ASIC) 
Very High Frequency 
Very High Resolution Color Display 
Very High Speed Integrated Circuit 
/V-I/, not /vi:/ and never /siks/ n. [from `Visual Interface'] A screen editor crufted together by Bill Joy for an early BSD release. Became the de facto standard Unix editor and a nearly undisputed hacker favorite outside of MIT until the rise of EMACS after about 1984. Tends to frustrate new users no end, as it will neither take commands while expecting input text nor vice versa, and the default setup on older versions provides no indication of which mode the editor is in (years ago, a correspondent reported that he has often heard the editor's name pronounced /vi:l/; there is now a vi clone named `vile'). Nevertheless vi (and variants such as vim and elvis) is still widely used (about half the respondents in a 1991 Usenet poll preferred it), and even EMACS fans often resort to it as a mail editor and for small editing jobs (mainly because it starts up faster than the bulkier versions of EMACS). See holy wars. 
On UNIX, the vi program is a small text editor that can be run from the command-line. It can even be run in ed/ex mode that runs in line-mode rather than full-screen mode. Since vi is included on every UNIX system, this is the one program that all hackers learn to use. (More advanced editors like emacs may not be installed on a system that a hacker breaks into, leaving them out of luck if they don't know vi). 
VIsual editor (Unix) 
VAX Information Architecture (VAX, DEC) 
VESA Image Area Definition (VESA) 
NCBI libraries for graphic biology applications This is the library for those who just want to run Vibrant applications. It also includes a wrapper (vibrate) that allows many NCBI applications to provide a GUI for selecting options. 
V.35 Interface Cable (cable) 
Vendor Independent ??? (VIM) 
Video Conferencing Tool VIC is a Video Conferencing tool that will let you watch videos using IP multicast. 
The Versatile Commodore Emulator VICE emulates well the hardware of the Commodore Business Machines of the pre-Amiga era. Supported are the various Pets, the VIC-20, the Commodore 64 and (incompletely) the Commodore 128. This package does not contain the various ROM images needed to actually use the emulators but includes a script which will attempt to download them from a number of well-known locations. The legal status of the ROM images is currently unknown; VICE itself is unencumbered. 
VersatIle Commodore Emulator 
Visual Interface ConsortIum (org.) 
A simple, Perl-based ICQ client. vICQ is simple ICQ client written in Perl with the look and feel of mICQ, which supports ICQv7 TCP protocol. Its features include: * Sending messages * Receiving messages * Invisible handling * Receiving contacts and contacts request * Receiving URL messages * Receiving offline messages off all types (well, almost all) * Receiving auth requests * Sending authorization * Coloring * koi8-r and koi8-u support * UIN info obtaining * SMS sending * Event external hooks * Sounds * Autocompletion * White Pages search * White Pages basic info editing 
Voltage IDentification 
IDE for C++ and Java based on the V GUI VIDE is a Integrated Development Environment developed using V. It works with the GNU g++ compiler and Sun's JDK for Java. 
video card
A system component that enables a computer to output information to a display such as a monitor. 
Create arbitrary-res modelines using hardware parameters Videogen is a small but nice utility to create modelines you can insert into your XF86Config(-4) and fb.modes files. Modeline is created by telling the program the resolution you want and your video hardware parameters (maximum video adapter bandwidth, maximum HCF and VCF of the monitor etc). The tool is provided which may help you to create some common modes very fast. 
n. obs. An electronic service offering people the privilege of paying to read the weather on their television screens instead of having somebody read it to them for free while they brush their teeth. The idea bombed everywhere it wasn't government-subsidized, because by the time videotex was practical the installed base of personal computers could hook up to timesharing services and do the things for which videotex might have been worthwhile better and cheaper. Videotex planners badly overestimated both the appeal of getting information from a computer and the cost of local intelligence at the user's end. Like the gorilla arm effect, this has been a cautionary tale to hackers ever since. See also vannevar. 
VIrus Description Language, "ViDL" 
query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode 
Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor 
Simple viewer for 3D Studio files This is simple realtime 3DS file previewer based on the lib3ds library by J.E. Hoffmann. It won't display any 3DS model, but it can properly display 3DS scenes. lib3ds was developed as part of the support libraries for FAMP, the Free Animation and Modeling Project ( 
Viewing CVS Repositories via HTTP The ViewCVS software was inspired by cvsweb (by Henner Zeller). ViewCVS can browse directories, commit-logs, and specific revisions of files. It can display diffs between versions and show selections of files based on tags or branches. 
A graphical front end for computational chemistry programs. VIEWMOL is a graphical front end for computational chemistry programs. It is able to graphically aid in the generation of molecular structures for computations and to visualize their results. The program's capabilities include: - Building and editing of molecules - Visualization of the geometry of a molecule - Tracing of a geometry optimization or a MD trajectory - Animation of normal vibrations or to show them as arrows - Drawing of IR, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering spectra - Drawing of an MO energy level or density of states diagram - Drawing of basis functions, molecular orbitals, and electron densities - Display of forces acting on each atom in a certain configuration - Display of Miller planes in crystals - Calculation of thermodynamic properties for molecules and reactions - Drawings generated by VIEWMOL can be saved as TIFF, HPGL, or - PostScript files - Animations of normal modes can be converted to a video file (MPEG), - e. g. for inclusion into World Wide Web documents (requires - additional programs available on the Internet) - Interface to the freeware ray tracing program RAYSHADE (input - file generation and use of RAYSHADE from within VIEWMOL) - Input and output in a variety of formats, new formats can be - added easily by the user VIEWMOL includes a Python interpreter for automation. At present VIEWMOL includes input filters for DISCOVER, DMOL, GAMESS, GAUSSIAN 9X, GULP, MOPAC, and TURBOMOLE outputs as well as for PDB files (VIEWMOL is therefore suited as a viewer for structural data on the World Wide Web). Structures can be saved as MSI car-files, MDL files, and TURBOMOLE coordinate files. VIEWMOL's file format has been added to BABEL so that BABEL can serve as an input as well as an output filter for coordinates. VIEWMOL supports a space ball as input device. 
graphical class browser for Xt 
Virtual Interrupt Flag (Intel, CPU) 
Victoria Free-Net Association (org., USA) 
nvi with the evil paperclip Vigor is a perpetration of the Microsoft Word "Office Assistant" paperclip, based on nvi. It was inspired by Pitr of the "User Friendly" comic strip ( Some people have speculated that Vigor was created under the influence of the evil Crud Puppy. The maintainer of this Debian package would like to stress his firm belief that these foul rumours are entirely without foundation. 
edit the password, group, shadow-password, or shadow-group file. 
VI Like EMACS (Unix, VI, EMACS) 
VI Like Emacs - vi work-alike vile is a text editor which is extremely compatible with vi in terms of ``finger feel''. In addition, it has extended capabilities in many areas, notably multi-file editing and viewing, syntax highlighting, key rebinding, an optional embedded perl interpreter, and real X window system support. This package contains the character-mode binary. Required support files are contained in vile-common. Source code highlighting filters are in vile-filters. An X11 binary is in the xvile package. 
Vendor Independent Messaging (Lotus, Borland, IBM, Novell, API) 
VI Improved (VI, Unix) 
Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor Vim is an almost compatible version of the UNIX editor Vi. Many new features have been added: multi level undo, syntax highlighting, command line history, on-line help, filename completion, block operations, folding, unicode support, etc. 
Vim stands for 'Vi Improved'. Vi is one of the most popular and powerful editors in the Unix world. Vi is an abbreviation for "Visual" editor. One of the first editors was a line editor called 'ed' (and 'ex'). The Visual editor like Vi was a vast improvement over line editors like 'ed' (or 'ex'). The editors 'ed' and 'ex' are still available on Linux: see 'man ed' and 'man ex'. A good editor improves programmer productivity. Vim supports color syntax highlighting of program code and also emphasises text using different fonts like normal, bold or italics. A color editor like Vim can improve the productivity of programmers by 2 to 3 times!! Programmers can read the code much more rapidly as the code syntax is colored and highlighted. From VIM-HOWTO
edit two or three versions of a file with Vim and show differences 
the Vim tutor 
Vendor Independent Network Control Entity 
Vine Linux
"The Supreme Linux Distribution with Integrated Japanese Environment for Your Desktop PCs and Notebooks." Multiple platforms seem to be supported. Vine Linux 2.5 was released April 15, 2002. Japanese distribution 
VIrtual NEtwork Software (Banyan, VINES, NOS) 
Virtual Input/Output 
Visual Information Projection [terminal] (Bull) 
VLB - ISA - PCI [board] (VLB, ISA, PCI) 
network analyzer for electrical networks ViPEC is a program that allows the user to analyze high frequency, linear, electrical networks. Analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the results are presented to the user in the form of port parameters (S,Y or Z). It can also be used to compute input and output impedance/admittance and amplifier stability factors (Linvill & Stern). ViPEC supports various lumped elements (capacitors, resistors etc.), as well as distributed elements like transmission lines and coupled transmission lines. 
Voice Interactive Paging Network (network, MAN), "VIP-Net" 
edit the password, group, shadow-password, or shadow-group file. 
VIetnamese Quoted-Readable [specification] (VISCII, RFC 1456) 
Visual Information Retrieval (DB, Informix) 
From the makers of cLIeNUX, ViraLinux_II is a LILO boot/root floppy image that can run without a hard drive and has over 200k free space on the floppy, ash, eforthl, H3sm and no libc. 
adj. Unused; pristine; in a known initial state. "Let's bring up a virgin system and see if it crashes again." (Esp. useful after contracting a virus through SEX.) Also, by extension, buffers and the like within a program that have not yet been used. 
Metafont, a language for font and logo design 
MetaPost, a system for drawing pictures 
extended unicode TeX 
VIRtual memory Operating System (DEC, OS) 
text formatting and typesetting 
adj. [via the technical term `virtual memory', prob. from the term `virtual image' in optics] 1. Common alternative to logical; often used to refer to the artificial objects (like addressable virtual memory larger than physical memory) simulated by a computer system as a convenient way to manage access to shared resources. 2. Simulated; performing the functions of something that isn't really there. An imaginative child's doll may be a virtual playmate. Oppose real. 
virtual console
Virtual device that provides interactive access with which a user may log in and run system commands and programs. One screen is displayed on the computer's monitor at any given time; a keystroke sequence is used to switch between virtual consoles. 
Virtual Desktop
A method for expanding the user's workspace beyond the boundaries of the computer screen. The desktop may be scrollable left and right, up and down, as if a larger desktop were positioned behind the glass screen and moved around to reveal icons, windows and other objects that were 'off-stage', or out of view. Alternatively, as with the KDE desktop, multiple buttons may be available, each of which displays an area of desktop equal to the size of the glass screen and which can each contain different objects. 
virtual desktop
A way of reducing clutter on your screen by expanding the available space beyond the actual screen boundaries. 
virtual file allocation table (VFAT)
The file system used in older Windows operating systems, such as Windows 95. Linux supports VFAT file access. 
Virtual Hosting
Virtualhosting is the use of a single web server to serve the web pages of multiple domains. Although the web server seems to be connecting to a web site that is an isolated entry, that web site may be in fact be hosted alongside many others on the same machine. 
Virtual Linux
Virtual Linux is based on Mandrake 8.1, modified to run from CDROM. Modifications include a new startup script, automatic search and mount of CDROM drive, and cloop compression. The CD contains 1.7 GB of software. Version 1.1 was released May 4, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
Virtual Machine
Virtual Machines (VMs) are features of central processor chips that isolate an area of memory from the rest of the system. Because operating systems and applications run in a "protected mode" environment, if a program freezes in one Virtual Machine it will not affect the operation of the programs and operating systems running outside of that Virtual Machine. 
virtual memory
A memory-management technique that enables programs to appear to utilize more memory than is physically available. 
Virtual Memory
The process of using a portion of disk space as a temporary storage area for memory. Synonymous with Swap. 
virtual private network (VPN)
A network that securely connects disparate computer systems to each other over insecure carrier networks such as the Internet. 
virtual reality
n. 1. Computer simulations that use 3-D graphics and devices such as the Dataglove to allow the user to interact with the simulation. See cyberspace. 2. A form of network interaction incorporating aspects of role-playing games, interactive theater, improvisational comedy, and `true confessions' magazines. In a virtual reality forum (such as Usenet's alt.callahans newsgroup or the MUD experiments on Internet), interaction between the participants is written like a shared novel complete with scenery, `foreground characters' that may be personae utterly unlike the people who write them, and common `background characters' manipulable by all parties. The one iron law is that you may not write irreversible changes to a character without the consent of the person who `owns' it. Otherwise anything goes. See bamf, cyberspace, teledildonics. 
A chunk of computer programming code that makes copies of itself without any concious human intervention. Some viruses do more than simply replicate themselves, they might display messages, install other software or files, delete software of files, etc. A virus requires the presence of some other program to replicate itself. Typically viruses spread by attaching themselves to programs and in some cases files, for example the file formats for Microsoft word processor and spreadsheet programs allow the inclusion of programs called "macros" which can in some cases be a breeding ground for viruses. 
A virus is a program (or a fragment of code) that replicates by attaching a copy of itself to other programs. For a virus to be activated, the software it infects must first be run. Analogy: A biological virus is not a "living" thing. Instead, it is simply a strand of DNA. When it enters a living cell, it takes control of the cell forcing it to generate duplicate copies of the original DNA strand. In much the same way, a computer virus hijacks the computer forcing it to generate duplicate copies of the original virus. Computer viruses are so common because humans do not practice sufficient cyber-hygiene when exchanging files. Key point: An "anti-virus" programs scans the disks on your system hunting down those files that have signatures indicative of infected files. Since file-scanning technology is generic, most anti-virus programs also scan for other hostile content, such as trojans. Contrast: The popular use of the word "virus" means any form of malware. For example, in the movie Office Space, the protagonists write what is called a "virus" that runs in the banking mainframe to steal round-off errors. In contrast, the technical definition limits itself to just those forms of contagious malware that spreads by infecting other programs. Key point: Viruses have a life cycle from the point they are originally created, distributed, found by anti-virus programs, then eradicated. They also mutate as script kiddies take viruses, make small alteration that avoids current virus scanners, and redistribute the viruses. Example: boot sector Historically, the most popular kind of virus, though becoming less popular as floppies are used less often. E.g. Form Virus macro virus Data files cannot contain viruses -- except when they also include scripting "macros". Currently the most popular kind of virus. Most macro viruses are written in VisualBasic, a programming language included as part of Microsoft Office products (Word, Excel). E.g. Marker Virus file infector The traditional definition of a virus: an executable file contains a virus imbedded within. When run, it attaches the virus to other executables on the system. multi-part Uses more than one of the techniques above. toolkits Increasingly, viruses are created via toolkits designed for the purpose of creating viruses that evade anti-virus programs. polymorphic This type of virus automatically changes its form in order to evade anti-virus programs. A common technique is to XOR its code with changing patterns. Culture: Viruses are rarely written by a single human being. Instead, they are often written by groups. Each virus is usually built upon work done by other virus writers. This means that a virus is usually related to other viruses. Computer viruses mutate and exchange genetic material much like biological systems. What we classify as the "author" of a virus is usually somebody who made one small mutation that made a virus especially virulent. 
n. [from the obvious analogy with biological viruses, via SF] A cracker program that searches out other programs and `infects' them by embedding a copy of itself in them, so that they become Trojan horses. When these programs are executed, the embedded virus is executed too, thus propagating the `infection'. This normally happens invisibly to the user. Unlike a worm, a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. It is propagated by vectors such as humans trading programs with their friends (see SEX). The virus may do nothing but propagate itself and then allow the program to run normally. Usually, however, after propagating silently for a while, it starts doing things like writing cute messages on the terminal or playing strange tricks with the display (some viruses include nice display hacks). Many nasty viruses, written by particularly perversely minded crackers, do irreversible damage, like nuking all the user's files. In the 1990s, viruses became a serious problem, especially among Windows users; the lack of security on these machines enables viruses to spread easily, even infecting the operating system (Unix machines, by contrast, are immune to such attacks). The production of special anti-virus software has become an industry, and a number of exaggerated media reports have caused outbreaks of near hysteria among users; many lusers tend to blame everything that doesn't work as they had expected on virus attacks. Accordingly, this sense of `virus' has passed not only into techspeak but into also popular usage (where it is often incorrectly used to denote a worm or even a Trojan horse). See phage; compare back door; see also Unix conspiracy. 
Verlaessliche InformationsSysteme (GI) 
Virtual Instruction Set (Sun, CPU) 
Visual Interactive Simulation 
Visualizes data made by numerical weather models etc. Vis5D is a software system for visualizing data made by numerical weather models and similar sources. Vis5D works on data in the form of a five-dimensional rectangle. The Vis5D system includes the vis5d visualization program, several programs for managing and analyzing five-dimensional data grids, and instructions and utilities for converting your data into its file format. 
VIetnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange 
Interactively debug regular expressions This TCL script shows the result of running a regular expression, making debugging relatively easy. It also assists in the construction of regular expressions. 
Tcl GUI builder Visual Tcl is a freely-available, high-quality application development environment. Written entirely in Tcl and generating pure Tcl should make porting either unnecessary or trivial. Visual Tcl is covered by the GNU General Public License insuring that it will remain in the capable hands of the internet community. Visual Tcl has no relation to SCO Visual Tcl or the FREE Visual Tcl/Tk project. 
Visual Simulator of an Operating System VisualOS is a visual representation of the more general concepts in an operating system (CPU scheduling, memory management and IO reordering) 
Variables Intelligentes Synchrones Optisches Netz (SNI, SDH) 
VHDL Initiative Toward ASIC Libraries (ASIC, VHDL) 
Vertical Interval Time Code (video) 
The vixie-cron package contains the Vixie version of cron. Cron is a standard UNIX daemon that runs specified programs at scheduled times. Vixie cron adds better security and more powerful configuration options to the standard version of cron. 
Virtual Keyboard program This program allows you to use the Linux AWE32 driver, OSS MIDI sequencer, or ALSA MIDI sequencer and provides "virtual" keyboard (the musical type), which can be "played" using the keyboard or mouse under X11. 
Volume Licence Agreement (Novell) 
LDAP visualisation tool Vlad is an LDAP visualisation tool. It can be used to browse the entries and attributes of an LDAP tree. Basic functionality is in place. You can browse an LDAP tree and view individual entries. Future enhancements will include searches, ability to edit entries, ability to bind as different users, ability to export parts of the tree as an LDIF file. 
User mode programs to enable VLANs on your ethernet devices This package contains the user mode programs you need to add and remove VLAN devices from your ethernet devices. A typical application for a VLAN enabled box is a single wire firewall, router or load balancer. You need a VLAN kernel for this. Kernel versions < 2.4.14 need to be patched. Currently the VLAN patch is only supported for 2.4 kernels. 
Virtual Local Area Network (LAN, IEEE 802.1q) 
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network, IEEE 802.1q)
A VLAN allows multiple virtual LANs to coexist on the same physical LAN (switched). This means that two machines attached to the same switch cannot send Ethernet frames to each other even though they pass over the same wires. If they need to communicate, then a router must be placed between the two VLANs to forward packets, just as if the two LANs were physically isolated. The only difference is that the router in question may contain only a single Ethernet NIC that is part of both VLANs (a one-armed router). The frames are "tagged" with an 802.1q prefix as they enter the network, which the Ethernet switches will use to separate traffic. Key point: Sometimes people want to put a firewall between VLANs, putting their DMZ on one VLAN on the rest of their company on another. This is an extraordinarily bad thing to do. VLANs are designed primarily to segment broadcast domains and improve performance and manageability. They are not hardened against security breaches. For example, Bay switches will forward packets incorrectly if the MAC address is known by the hacker. Cisco ATM switches have been known to leak frames onto incorrect VLANs when overloaded. Key point: Most cable-modem and DSL connectivity is provided via VLANs over an ATM infrastructure. All the security concerns expressed above for VLANs applies to these technologies as well. 
VESA Local Bus (VESA) 
a free MPEG and DVD player VideoLAN is a free MPEG, MPEG2 and DVD software solution. This is vlc, the VideoLAN Client. It plays MPEG and MPEG2 files, unencrypted DVDs, or MPEG streams from a network source. 
Variable Length Decoder (MPEG) 
Very Large DataBase (DB) 
Very-Low-Frequency Band 
Virtual Lookaside Facility (IBM) 
Very Long Instruction Word (CPU, IC) 
Virtual Loadable Module (Novell, Netware) 
Volume Logical Module (IBM, OS/2) 
Virtual Console locking program vlock either locks the current terminal (which may be any kind of terminal, local or remote), or locks the entire virtual console system, completely disabling all console access. vlock gives up these locks when either the password of the user who started vlock or the root password is typed. 
Visitor Location Register (LR, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Very Large Scale Integration 
Variable Length Subnet Mask (Internet) 
A mail user agent for Emacs VM (View Mail) is an Emacs subsystem that allows UNIX mail to be read and disposed of within Emacs. Commands exist to do the normal things expected of a mail user agent, such as generating replies, saving messages to folders, deleting messages and so on. There are other more advanced commands that do tasks like bursting and creating digests, message forwarding, and organizing message presentation according to various criteria. With smtpmail in modern emacsen, you do not need a MTA locally in order to use VM. VM 6.x versions have problems with the library tm-vm from the Tiny Mime (TM) package, since that version was written for VM 5.X. Indeed, the problems seems to exist with semi as well. This package comes (by default) bundled in with XEmacs. 
Virtual Machine (IBM, OS, IBM 370, ESA, IBM 390) 
Virtual Memory (OSF) 
Virtual Memory Address 
Virtual Machine Boot (IBM, OS/2) 
VESA Media Channel (VESA) 
Virtual Machine Communications Facility (IBM, VM) 
Virtual Machine / Conversational Monitoring System (IBM, VM), "VM/CMS" 
Virtual Manufacturing Device (MMS) 
Virtual Machine Environment (IBM, VM) 
Virtual Machine / Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM, VM, ESA, CMS), "VM/ESA" 
Virtual Machine / Memory Manager (IBM, VM) 
A simple virtual networking program This program has been written to implement virtual networking support for the Hercules S/390 simulator, but it is intentionally generic in its functionality, so any other virtual machine simulator/emulator program could potentially use it. The function is quite simple: - The virtual machine simulator program starts VMnet and talks the SLIP protocol with it over stdin/out. - VMnet sets up a SLIP connection on the host system, talking over a pseudo-tty to the VMnet program. - Once things have been set up, VMnet simply copies the data streams between stdin/out and the SLIP psuedo-tty in both directions. Thus, the virtual machine has a direct SLIP connection with the host, without needing to worry about root privileges, pseudo-ttys, access rights, etc. 
Virtual MultiPorting (POWER, CPU) 
/V-M-S/ n. DEC's proprietary operating system for its VAX minicomputer; one of the seven or so environments that loom largest in hacker folklore. Many Unix fans generously concede that VMS would probably be the hacker's favorite commercial OS if Unix didn't exist; though true, this makes VMS fans furious. One major hacker gripe with VMS concerns its slowness -- thus the following limerick: There once was a system called VMS Of cycles by no means abstemious. It's chock-full of hacks And runs on a VAX And makes my poor stomach all squeamious. --- The Great Quux See also VAX, TOPS-10, TOPS-20, Unix, runic. 
Virtual Memory [operating] System (DEC, OS) 
Voice Mail System (GMS) 
Voice Management System 
Virtual Machine / System Product (IBM, VM), "VM/SP" 
Report virtual memory statistics 
Virtual Method Table 
Versatile Message Transaction Protocol (RFC 1045) 
Virtual Machine Time-Sharing System (IBM) 
Visual Memory Unit (Sega, Dreamcast) 
Virtual Network Architecture (ATM) 
Virtual Network Architecture (Ungermann-Bass) 
Virtual Network Computer 
Virtual Network Computing (AT&T, Linux) 
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a remote display system which allows you to view a computing 'desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. This package contains a client which will allow you to connect to other desktops running a VNCserver. 
VTAM Node Control Application (IBM, VTAM) 
Virtual network computing server software. VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing `desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. It is implemented in a client/server model. This package provides a fully functional X server, to which a VNC viewer can connect. Note: This server does not support or need a display. You need a vncviewer to see something. However, this viewer may also be on a computer running other operating systems in the local net. This package is an enhanced version of VNC including TightVNC allowing it to be optimized to work over slow network connections such as low-speed modem links so you can work remotely almost in real time in most environments. 
Virtual Network Feature 
Via Net Loss plan 
Via Net Loss Factor 
VINES Network and Systems Management (Banyan, VINES) 
Virtual Organization 
Video OBject [format] (DVD) 
Video On Demand 
Voice Over Frame Relay 
Verband Optischer Informationssysteme (org.) 
Virtual OS/2 International Consumer Education (OS/2, user group) 
Voice Over IP (IP, Internet, CTI) 
VoIP stands for 'V'oice 'o'ver 'I'nternet 'P'rotocol. As the term says VoIP tries to let go voice (mainly human) through IP packets and, in definitive through Internet. VoIP can use accelerating hardware to achieve this purpose and can also be used in a PC environment. Many years ago we discovered that sending a signal to a remote destination could have be done also in a digital fashion: before sending it we have to digitalize it with an ADC (analog to digital converter), transmit it, and at the end transform it again in analog format with DAC (digital to analog converter) to use it. VoIP works like that, digitalizing voice in data packets, sending them and reconverting them in voice at destination. Digital format can be better controlled: we can compress it, route it, convert it to a new better format, and so on; also we saw that digital signal is more noise tolerant than the analog one (see GSM vs TACS). TCP/IP networks are made of IP packets containing a header (to control communication) and a payload to transport data: VoIP use it to go across the network and come to destination. Voice (source) - - ADC - - - - Internet - - - DAC - - Voice (dest) What is the advantages using VoIP rather PSTN? When you are using PSTN line, you typically pay for time used to a PSTN line manager company: more time you stay at phone and more you'll pay. In addition you couldn't talk with other that one person at a time. In opposite with VoIP mechanism you can talk all the time with every person you want (the needed is that other person is also connected to Internet at the same time), as far as you want (money independent) and, in addition, you can talk with many people at the same time. If you're still not persuaded you can consider that, at the same time, you can exchange data with people are you talking with, sending images, graphs and videos. Then, why everybody doesn't use it yet? Unfortunately we have to report some problem with the integration between VoIP architecture and Internet. As you can easy imagine, voice data communication must be a real time stream (you couldn't speak, wait for many seconds, then hear other side answering): this is in contrast with the Internet heterogeneous architecture that can be made of many routers (machines that route packets), about 20-30 or more and can have a very high round trip time (RTT), so we need to modify something to get it properly working.From VoIP HOWTO
Voice-Over-IP (IP, Internet) 
Volume daemon for CDROM devices. NOTE. You must run a recent kernel (2.2 or later) in order to use this package. This daemon probes all CDROM devices in the system (in the future: local network) at regular intervals, and mounts a CDROM upon insertion. The mountpoint is typically /cdrom/<volume-name> where <volume-name> is the name of the CDROM. This utility is especially useful if you have more than one CDROM drive, and you don't wish to bother in which drive you put your CDROMs. 
Voice On the Net [coalition] (USA, Internet) 
Versions Of Outdated Documents Organized Orthogonally (Mac) 
Voice Over Packet [processor] (Improv, IC), "VoP" 
Varian Omnitasking Real Time EXecutive (???) (OS, Varian) 
Virtual machine Operating System (OS, MTS) 
Virtual Operating System (OS, Stratus) 
Virtual Path (ATM) 
Virtual Processor (Amiga, AMIGADE) 
VAX Performance Advisor (DEC, VMS, VAX) 
Virtual Path Connection (ATM, VP) 
Videotex Presentation Control Element (BTX, VPDE) 
Virtual Path Connection Identifier (VP, ATM) 
Vital Product Data 
Videotex Presentation Data Element (BTX) 
Virtual Private Data Network 
Video Port Extensions (video) 
Virtual Path Identifier (ATM, VP) 
Virtual Private Internet (TradeWave) 
Virtual Programmable Interrupt Controller Device (PIC), "VpicD" 
Virtual Path Link (UNI, ATM) 
Visual Programming Languages 
Virtual Protected Mode Interface 
See virtual private network (VPN). 
Virtual Private Network 
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A VPN allows the user to remotely connect to a company, via the Internet, with a secure connection that makes it appear ("virtually") as if the machine is on the corporate LAN. VPNs are used for employee-company and company-company connections. Key point: One way that an employee can connect to a company is to put a modem in the machine and dial directly to modems inside the corporation. This is expensive due to long distance charges. But think for a moment that the employee can purchase two modems to put in the machine, and while dialed up to the corporation, the employee also dials up the Internet. This would mean that the employee has two active network connections: one to the corporation, one to the Internet. A VPN is the same thing, only the corporate connection and modem are "virtual". Key point: Vendors claim that when the VPN is active, that the previous Internet access is disabled and all further communication goes through the corporation. Therefore, if the user wants to browse the web while the VPN is active, the user must browse through firewalls/proxies inside the corporation then back out to the web. However, this is just a bit of sleight-of-hand: while it appears to the user that normal Internet communication has been disabled, in reality it has only been "hidden": a hacker can still compromise the machine from the Internet. Key point: VPN puts the connection on the company's internal network, inside the firewall. Therefore, if a hacker compromises someone's machine who uses VPN, then the hacker has easy access to the inside of a hardened corporate environment. 
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
Usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private. 
Virtual Private Network Daemon Vpnd is a daemon which connects two networks on network level either via TCP/IP or a (virtual) leased line attached to a serial interface. All data transfered between the two networks are encrypted using the unpatented free Blowfish encryption algorithm (see with a key length of up to 576 bits (may be downgraded to a minimum of 0 bits to suit any legal restrictions). 
Value Purchase Plan (Adobe) 
Verband Privater Rundfunk und Telekommunikation Org., Germany 
VIA Platform Solutions Division 
Virtual Path Terminator (UNI, ATM) 
convert virtual property lists to virtual font metrics 
Video Processing Unit 
Ventura Publishing User Group (org., DTP, user group) 
Vibrant Color Quality (Matrox) 
Virtual Reality 
Virtual Route (SNA, PSDN) 
Virtuelle Realitaet 
Virtual Reality Annual International [symposium] (IEEE, conference) 
Volatile Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
Vertical Redundancy Check 
Virtual Retinal Display (VR) 
Virtual Reality Engine vreng is a virtual 3D world based on the IP multicast protocol 
tool to flash kernels and romdisks to Agenda VR The Agenda VR is a handheld computer that runs Linux. VRFlash communicates with the Agenda's boot monitor (PMON) over a serial line to install new software on the device. The kernel and the root image can be upgraded this way. 
Verify electronic mail addresses. 'vrfy' is a tool to verify e-mail addresses and mailing lists. In its simplest form it takes an address "user@domain", figures out the MX hosts for "domain", and issues the SMTP command VRFY at the primary MX host (optionally all), or at "domain" itself if no MX hosts exist. Without "domain" it goes to "localhost". More complex capabilities are: * recursively expanding forward files or mailing lists, * detecting mail forwarding loops, * understanding full-blown RFC822 address specifications, * syntax checking that can be carried out either locally or remotely, * various options provided to exploit alternative protocol suites if necessary, and to print many forms of verbose output. Obvious limitations exist (mostly due to a lousy VRFY command implementation on some hosts), but otherwise, it works pretty well. 
Vertical Replacement Gate (IC, MOSFET) 
[Nederlandse] Vereniging van Registerinformatic (org. Netherlands) 
Virtual Resource Manager 
Voltage Regulation Module (IC) 
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VR, ISO/IEC 14772, W3C) 
VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
A primarily Web-based language used for 3D effects (such as building walk-throughs). 
Virtual Richard M. Stallman The vrms program will analyze the set of currently-installed packages on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and report all of the packages from the non-free tree which are currently installed. Future versions of vrms will include an option to also display text from the public writings of RMS and others that explain why use of each of the installed non-free packages might cause moral issues for some in the Free Software community. This functionality is not yet included. 
Virtual Realtime Object Oriented Memory Manager (OOP) 
Virtual Router Redudancy Protocol user-space implementation This package provides an implementation of VRRPv2 as specified in rfc2338. It runs in the Linux kernel's userspace (as root). VRRP can be used to setup high-availability services in Debian since two machines can use the same (virtual) IP address which is transfered upon failover. Some kernel features need to be enabled (please read the FAQ) 
Voice Response System 
Versatile Real Time eXecutive (OS) 
A VRML browser and editor. VRweb is a VRML 1 browser that you can use to browse a Virtual Reality World (WRL). Currently the upstream team no longer supports VRweb as it has developed a replacement Java version named VRwave, also available from Debian. 
VINES Security (Banyan, VINES) 
Virtual System - 1 (IBM, OS, OS/VS-1), "VS-1" 
Virtual Server Architecture 
Voodoo Scalable Architecture (3dfx) 
Virtual Sequential Access Method (SAM) 
Virtual Storage Access Method 
Very Small Aperture Terminal 
Videotex Service Control Element (BTX, VPDE) 
Vendor Specific Driver 
Virtual Storage Extended (IBM) 
Visual Studio Enterprise Architect [edition] (MS, XML) 
Visual Studio Enterprise Developer [edition] (MS, XML) 
Virtual Storage Extended/Enterprise Systems Architecture, "VSE/ESA" 
Virtual Storage Extended/System Product (IBM), "VSE/SP" 
The Very Secure FTP Daemon A lightweight, efficient FTP server written from the ground up with security in mind. vsftpd supports both anonymous and non-anonymous FTP, PAM authentication, bandwidth limiting, and the Linux sendfile() facility. 
Verband der SoftwareIndustrie deutschlands [e.v.] (org.) 
Virtual Socket Interface alliance (org., ASIC, RL) 
??? (Norm f. Tastatur) 
Virtual Storage Management 
Volume Serial Number (BS2000) 
Variable Speed Operation (VXA, Streamer) 
Virtual loopback sound recorder and real audio converter This program allows you to record the output of any standard OSS program (one that uses /dev/dsp for sound) without having to modify or recompile the program. It uses sox to convert and save the raw data into the desired file format and can help to convert real audio files to some other non-proprietary format. 
Virtual Single Processor 
Voice Storage and Retrieval 
Visual Source Safe (VB, MS) 
Voice Storage System 
VermittlungsSTelle (Telekom), "VSt" 
Virtual Studio Technology (Steinberg, audio) 
bttv video capture utility aimed at making MPEGs A (fairly) fast video+audio capture utility targeted towards making MPEG movies. Includes capture to multiple streams (to make use of maximum possible IO bandwidth) and unlimited maximum stream length. 
Video Service Unit 
Virtual Terminal (DEC) 
check whether current VT is in UTF8- or byte-mode. 
A standard terminal type supported by many computer systems. Telnet programs emulate this type of terminal in order to connect to many Internet sites. 
Virtual Terminal 100 (DEC), "VT-100" 
Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (IBM, SNA) 
Virtual Telecommunications Access Method Entry (VTAM) 
Virtual Tape Device 
VTE is an experimental terminal emulator widget for use with GTK+ 2.0. 
A VNC like console monitoring This is a utility for monitoring the screen of another machine. It only works for text consoles: for X, the idea is to use VNC instead. 
Virtual Terminal Interface 
Tcl bindings for VTK. This provides the shared libraries and executable that enable one to use VTK from Tcl/Tk scripts. You will need Tcl/Tk and vtk installed to use this. 
Installer for example data for VTK The Visualization Toolkit comes with example C++, Tcl and Python code. These examples reference data files installed using the get-vtkdata script in this package. The get-vtkdata script transfers about 30 Megabytes over the Internet, and unpacks it into around 115 Megabytes in /usr/share/vtkdemo/vtkdata. Plan your network and disk use accordingly. 
Verband der Telekommunikationsnetz- und Mehrwertdiensteanbieter (org.) 
Volume Table of Contents 
Virtual Technology Operating System (OS, Tandy, TRS-80) 
Virtual Terminal Protocol 
Prints to term emulator via ANSI codes This program allows users to print from a remote UNIX host to a printer attached to their local terminal or emulator, which makes it great for printing files at home, etc. (It only does text files, though.) 
Video Teleconferencing System 
Virtual Terminal Service (OSI) 
Virtual Tunnel over TCP/IP Networks VTun is the easiest way to create Virtual Tunnels over TCP/IP networks with traffic shaping, compression, and encryption. It supports IP, PPP, SLIP, Ethernet and other tunnel types. VTun is easily and highly configurable, it can be used for various network tasks. VTun requires the Universal TUN/TAP kernel module which can be found at or in the 2.4 series linux kernel. 
virtual Tab window manager vtwm is an extension to twm that provides multiple virtual screens, pixmap file format support, and other enhancements in addition to the features of twm. 
Virtual User 
Visual User Environment (HP) 
Virtual User Interface (AMS, UI) 
vulnerability (vulnerable)
In the security community, the word "vulnerability" describes a problem (such as a programming bug or common misconfiguration) that allows a system to be attacked or broken into. Culture: Finding vulnerabilities is a big part of the hacker/infosec culture. Finding vulnerabilities is way of proving that you are "elite". This subculture is similar to the scientific community. For example, there are a number of people (usually commercial companies) that are "research whores": they take existing research and add their own small contribution, but then publish the result in such a way that leads people to believe that they are responsible for all the research leading up to that discovery. Contrast: The words exploit and vulnerability are tightly bound together. Often, an script/program will exploit a specific vulnerability. Since most vulnerabilities are exploited by script kiddies, the vulnerability is often known by the name of the most popular script that exploits it. Key point: There exist broad-spectrum vulnerability scanners/assessment-tools that will scan a system looking for common vulnerabilities. These are often used in order to harden a system. See also: risk 
VESA Unified Memory Architecture (VESA) 
VESA Unified Memory Architecture - System BIOS Extension (VESA), "VUMA-SBE" 
VAX Units of Performance (VAX, DEC), "VUPs" 
VESA Video Interface for Digital Displays (VESA, LCD) 
Show who is logged on and what they are doing. 
an alternative "w" command This is a version of the "w" command that might be familiar to old Slackware users. It formats the output differently, in a way some consider clearer and easier to read. 
Show who is logged on and what they are doing. 
Windows 2000 (Windows, MS) 
Web browser for GNU Emacs 20 A full-featured web browser, written entirely in Emacs-Lisp, that supports all the bells and whistles in use on the web today: frames, tables, stylesheets, and much more. Supports asynchronous connections, allowing users to browse numerous sites concurrently, while others continue to download. Tight integration with the standard Emacs mail and news reading packages allows easy sharing of information. Since Emacs is first and foremost the most powerful editor around, the information you uncover on the web can immediately be put to work. Yet another reason to never leave Emacs. 
Web browser for GNU Emacs 21 A full-featured web browser, written entirely in Emacs-Lisp, that supports all the bells and whistles in use on the web today: frames, tables, stylesheets, and much more. Supports asynchronous connections, allowing users to browse numerous sites concurrently, while others continue to download. Tight integration with the standard Emacs mail and news reading packages allows easy sharing of information. Since Emacs is first and foremost the most powerful editor around, the information you uncover on the web can immediately be put to work. Yet another reason to never leave Emacs. 
Acronym for the World Wide Web Consortium, an independent peak body founded in 1994 to develop common protocols and standards for the evolution of the World Wide Web. It is jointly hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science in the USA, the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique [INRIA] in Europe, and the Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus in Asia. The Consortium is led by Tim Berners-Lee, the primary inventor of the World Wide Web. More information can be found at: 
World Wide Web Consortium (WWW, org.) 
a simple CGI to retrieve images from video4linux device. w3cam is a simple CGI to retrieve images from video4linux device. In other words this program will only run on Linux machines which support a video4linux-device. w3cam supports a plain mode and a gui mode. In the gui mode a html with a form is supplied to change some parameters with the mouse .. 
WWW browsable pager with excellent tables/frames support w3m is a text-based World Wide Web browser with IPv6 support. It features excellent support for tables and frames. It can be used as a standalone file pager, too. * You can follow links and/or view images in HTML. * Internet message preview mode, you can browse HTML mail. * You can follow links in plain text if it includes URL forms. * With w3m-img, you can view image inline. For more information, see 
a simple Emacs interface of w3m This package contains a interface program of w3m, which is a pager with WWW capability. It can be used as lightweight WWW browser on emacsen. This is also known as emacs-w3m. 
inline image extension support utilities for w3m w3m-img provides some utilities to support inline images for w3m on terminal emulator in X Window System environments. 
WWW browsable pager with SSL support w3m is a text-based World Wide Web browser with IPv6 support. It features excellent support for tables and frames. It can be used as a standalone file pager, too. * You can follow links and/or view images in HTML. * Internet message preview mode, you can browse HTML mail. * You can follow links in plain text if it includes URL forms. * With w3m-img, you can view image inline. This package is built with SSL support. For more information, see 
w3mir is an all purpose HTTP copying and mirroring tool. w3mir can create and maintain a browsable copy of one, or several WWW sites. It can preserve link integrety within the mirrored documents as well as the integrey of links outside the mirror. 
WWW browsable pager with excellent tables/frames, MB extension w3mmee is w3m with multibyte encoding extension. For more information, see and 
inline image extension support utilities for w3mmee w3mmee-img provides some utilities to support inline images for w3mmee on terminal emulator in X Window System environments. 
WWW browsable pager with SSL support, MB extension w3mmee is w3m with multibyte encoding extension. This package is built with SSL support. For more information, see and 
Enhanced window manager based on 9wm w9wm is a quick and dirty hack based on 9wm. It provides support for virtual screens as well as for keyboard bindings. 
light weight virtual machine similar to Java Waba is a small, efficient and reliable Java Virtual Machine (VM) aimed at portable devices (but also runnable on desktop computers), wribtten by Rick Wild of Wabasoft. The Waba VM is an open source project. 
Windows Application Binary Interface (MS, Windows) 
Web Accessibility Initiative (WWW, W3C, WAI) 
Web Application Interface (WWW, Netscape) 
Wide Area Information Servers - A commercial software package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then making those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet . A prominent feature of WAIS is that the search results are ranked ("scored") according to how relevant the "hits" are, and that subsequent searches can find "more stuff like that last batch" and thus refine the search process. 
Wide Area Information Service (Internet) 
WAIS (Wide Area Information Server). 

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers)
A commercial software package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then making those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is that the search results are ranked (scored) accordingto how relevant the hits are, and that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that last batch and thus refine the search process. 
WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers)
These servers allow users to conduct full-text keyword searches in documents, databases, and libraries connected to the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
wait state
A microprocessor clock cycle in which nothing at all occurs. A wait state is programmed into a computer system to allow other components, such as random-access memory (RAM), to catch up with the central processing unit (CPU). The number of wait states depends on the speed of the processor in relation to the speed of memory. Wait states can be eliminated-resulting in a zero wait states machine by using fast (but expensive) cache memory, interfaced memory, page-mode , or static chips. 
Westcoast Alternative to ITS 
Simplified Debian package management front end Wajig is a single commandline wrapper around apt, apt-cache, dpkg, /etc/init.d scripts and more, intended to be easy to use and providing extensive documentation for all of its functions. With a suitable sudo(1) configuration, most if not all package installation (as well as creation) tasks can be done from a user shell. 
write a message to users 
wall time
n. (also `wall clock time') 1. `Real world' time (what the clock on the wall shows), as opposed to the system clock's idea of time. 2. The real running time of a program, as opposed to the number of ticks required to execute it (on a timesharing system these always differ, as no one program gets all the ticks, and on multiprocessor systems with good thread support one may get more processor time than real time). 
wall wart
n. A small power-supply brick with integral male plug, designed to plug directly into a wall outlet; called a `wart' because when installed on a power strip it tends to block up at least one more socket than it uses.. These are frequently associated with modems and other small electronic devices which would become unacceptably bulky or hot if they had power supplies on board (there are other reasons as well having to do with the cost of UL certification). 
GTK+ and Imlib based app for periodically updating root of X WallP uses Imlib for its image rendering, so any image format readable by Imlib will work with WallP. The user controls the period between changes, in minutes. GTK+ is used as the toolkit. 
n. 1. A file containing a listing (e.g., assembly listing) or a transcript, esp. a file containing a transcript of all or part of a login session. (The idea was that the paper for such listings was essentially good only for wallpaper, as evidenced at Stanford, where it was used to cover windows.) Now rare, esp. since other systems have developed other terms for it (e.g., PHOTO on TWENEX). However, the Unix world doesn't have an equivalent term, so perhaps wallpaper will take hold there. The term probably originated on ITS, where the commands to begin and end transcript files were :WALBEG and :WALEND, with default file WALL PAPER (the space was a path delimiter). 2. The background pattern used on graphical workstations (this is techspeak under the `Windows' graphical user interface to MS-DOS). 3. `wallpaper file' n. The file that contains the wallpaper information before it is actually printed on paper. (Even if you don't intend ever to produce a real paper copy of the file, it is still called a wallpaper file.) 
Warren Abstract Machine (PROLOG) 
Web Application Manager (MS, Windows) 
Wireless, Adaptive and Mobile Information Systems (ESTO) 
Acronym for Wide Area Network, which is generally a network connecting several physically distant locations, as opposed to a LAN. The Internet is an example of a worldwide WAN. 
see wide-area network (WAN). 
Wide Area Network 
Wide Area Network, which is generally a network connecting several physically distant locations, as opposed to a LAN. The Internet is an example of a worldwide WAN. 
WAN (Wide Area Network)
Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus. 
Wide Area Network Distribution (WAN) 
Configuration utilities for Sangoma S508/S514 WAN cards This package installs configuration tools and firmware modules for the Sangoma S508 and S514 router cards. You may use this software to build a stable and flexible WAN router for frame-relay, PPP, or Cisco HDLC leased-line links based on these cards. This package is compiled against kernel 2.2.13. This upstream version does not have support for X.25. 
Wireless Application Protocol (mobile-systems, WLAN) 
Wissenschaftliche ArbeitsPlatzrechner 
Warewulf is a unique Linux distribution for cluster nodes. It facilitates a central administration model for all nodes and includes tools needed to build configuration files, monitor, and control the nodes. It is totally customizable and can be adapted to just about any type of cluster. The node distributions are built from a virtual node filesystem residing on the master, transfered to the nodes either by Etherboot or CDROM images, and run from RAM. Administration is scalable and easy. It was originally designed for Beowulf, but can be used in other environments as well. The initial version, 0.3, was released March 11, 2002. Version 1.11 was released May 15, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
warm boot
A system restart performed after the system has been powered and operating. A warm boot is performed by using a special key combination or by pressing a reset button, while a cold boot involves actually turning the big red switch off and on. A warm boot is preferable to a cold start because a warm boot places less strain on your system's electrical and electronic components. See programmer's switch. 
warm boot
n. See boot. 
Web stAndardS Project (WWW, W3C) 
West Africa Time [-0100] (TZ) 
This package contains the Watanabe font in SYOTAI CLUB format. 
Japanese Mincho font in Zeit's Syotai Club format. Vector fonts made from labosystem123 32dots font. This package replaces zeitfonts package. 
call Tcl procedures before and after each command 
execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen 
A software watchdog The watchdog program writes to /dev/watchdog every ten seconds. If the device is open but not written to within a minute the machine will reboot -- a feature available when "software watchdog" support is compiled into the kernel. The ability to reboot will depend on the state of the machine and interrupts. To use this software, linux 1.3.52 or later is needed. 
Wide Area Telephone Service 
Converts wav files into CD-ROM audio file format. This program converts wav sound files into a format suitable for CD-ROMs, and can perform some editing functions like cutting or volume change. It is rather rudimentary, the wav file must have the same sampling parameters as CD audio. Runs on big and little endian machines. 
Wave table synthesis
A method, far superior to FM synthesis, of generating and reproducing music in a sound board Wave table synthesis uses a pre-recorded sample of dozens of orchestral instruments to determine how particular notes played on those instruments should sound. 
Wireless Device Monitoring Application Wavemon allows you to watch signal and noise levels, packet statistics, device configuration and network parameters of your wireless network hardware. It has currently only been tested with the Lucent Orinoco series of cards, although it *should* work (though with varying features) with all devices supported by the wireless kernel extensions by Jean Tourrilhes. 
WAV play, record, and compression wavtools is a set of programs to play, record, and manage the compression of sound. 
Experimental hand writing/gesture recognition program Enables human computer interaction, especially using gestures inputed via the mouse. 
WorkBench (Amiga, Commodore) 
Wide Band Channel (FDDI) 
Multicast White Board This is a free clone of wb, a multicast white board application. It allows you to share a virtual white board with other people running wbd over the Mbone (multicast backbone of the Internet). You can paint, write and import text and graphics. You will need a multicast router and a connection to the Mbone if you want to share your white board with people outside of your local subnet. 
Web Based Enterprise Management [protocol] (DMTF, BMC, Cisco, Compaq, Intel, MS) 
Web Browser Intelligence (WWW, IBM) 
English dictionary words for /usr/share/dict This package provides the file /usr/share/dict/british-english containing a list of English words with British spellings, extracted from the ispell british dictionary. This list can be used by spelling checkers, and by programs such as look(1). 
WissensBasierte Systeme (KI) 
print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files 
WildCard multicast route entry (PIM, Multicast) 
Word Count (Unix) 
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WAI) 
The Catalan dictionary words for /usr/share/dict This package contains an alphabetic list of Catalan words as put together by Ignasi Labastida i Juan <> from a list of words by Joan Dolg. 
Write Combining Buffer (CPU) 
World Conference on Computers in Education (IFIP, conference) 
World Computer Graphics Association (org.) 
Web Content Management Software / System (CMS) 
Writable Control Store (VAX, DEC) 
Western Digital [corporation] (manufacturer) 
Working Draft 
The Danish dictionary / wordlist This is a flat list of Danish words and names. This can be used by spellcheckers or any other purpose needing a lot of words. 
WDGs' HTML 3.2, HTML 4, and CSS references Attractive, well laid-out guides to the HTML 3.2, HTML 4, and Cascading Style Sheets specifications in HTML format. 
WDG HTML Validator This is a CGI script which lets you enter the URL of a web page which will be then checked against a validating SGML parser for conformance to official HTML standards. Pages can also be uploaded and HTML can be directly entered. A command-line version is also included in the package. 
The GNU wdiff utility. Compares two files word by word. `wdiff' is a front-end to GNU `diff'. It compares two files, finding which words have been deleted or added to the first in order to create the second. It has many output formats and interacts well with terminals and pagers (notably with `less'). `wdiff' is particularly useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs have been refilled. 
Word Developers Kit (MS) 
Windows Driver Library (MS, Windows) 
World Definition Language 
Wavelength Division Multiplexing [protocol] 
Windows / Win32 Driver Model (MS, Windows) 
WINGs Display Manager - an xdm replacement with a WindowMaker look This is an xdm replacement based on the WINGs widget set. WINGs is the NeXT-like widget set used by WindowMaker and some other programs. wdm provides a nice and versatile login panel along with xdm functionality. 
Windows Driver Model Connection and Streaming Architecture (MS, Windows, WDM) 
WatchDog Process 
WatchDog Server 
Watch Dog Timer 
Western [european] Daylight Time [+0100] (TZ, WET) 
List of Dutch words in new (August 1996) spelling. This package contains an alphabetic list of 229365 Dutch words. See the idutch package for the same wordlist in a format suitable for the spelling checker ispell. 
translate WEB to TeX 
In the World Wide Web or any hypertext systems a set of related documents that together make up a hypertext presentation. The documents do not have to be stored on the same computer system, but they are explicitly interlinked, generally by providing internal navigation buttons. A web generally induces a welcome page that serves as the top-level document (home page) of the web. 
see World Wide Web (WWW). 
Web browser
A program that runs on an Internet-connected computer and provides access to the riches of the World Wide Web (WWW). Web browsers are of two kinds; text-only browsers and graphical Web browsers such as NCSA Mosaic and Netscape Navigator. Graphical browsers are preferable because you can see in-line images, fonts, and document layouts. 
Web browser
An application that accesses and displays hypertext markup language (HTML) webpages and other resources available on the World Wide Web (WWW). 
Web page
A document designed for viewing in a web browser. Typically written in HTML. 
Web server log analysis program The Webalizer is a web server log analysis program. It is designed to scan web server log files in various formats and produce usage statistics in HTML format for viewing through a browser. The Webalizer produces yearly, monthly, daily and hourly statistics. In the monthly reports, various statistics may be produced to show overall usage, usage by day and hour, usage by visiting sites, URLs, user agents (browsers), referrers and country. The Webalizer is highly configurable by use of either command line options or a configuration file, allowing the program to be tailored to individual needs easily. 
A crawler/indexer for the Internet webbase is a crawler for the Internet. It has two main functions : crawl the WEB to get documents and build a full text database with this documents. The crawler part visit the documents and store intersting information about them localy. It visits the document on a regular basis to make sure that it is still there and updates it if it changes. The full text database uses the localy copies of the document to build a searchable index. The full text indexing functions are not included in webbase. 
capture and upload images webcam captures images from a video4linux device like bttv, annotates them and and uploads them to a webserver using ftp in a endless loop. 
Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WWW), "webDAV" 
Webfish Linux
Webfish Linux is a small, stripped down Linux distribution based on GNU source packages. Webfish is built with the more experienced user in mind and is aimed at small, fast, secure server and workstation systems with a minimum of installed packages. The initial release of Webfish Linux, version 0.9b, was released June 20, 2002. Version 1.0pre1 was released on March 25, 2003. The Webfish Linux Firewall-1 branch released its initial verion, 1.1, on July 24, 2002. Fishwall 1.2 was released August 27, 2002. 
lightweight http server for static content This is a simple http server for purely static content. You can use it to serve the content of a ftp server via http for example. It is also nice to export some files the quick way by starting a http server in a few seconds, without editing some config file first. 
a syntax and minimal style checker for HTML This is perl script which picks fluff off html pages, much in the same way traditional lint picks fluff off C programs. The script is pretty much a a wrapper around the Weblint module. It currently supports HTML 4.0 (and only HTML 4.0). It allows the various syntax and stylistic checks to be enabled or disabled by the user or in a system-wide configuration file. NOTE: This is a beta release of Weblint 2.0 that provides a subset of of the final functionality. There are one or two features from 1.020 that aren't currently available. But this implements just about all the warnings from 1.020 and uses current HTML standards. 
create gallery thumbnails for website WebMagick provides a means of easily putting image collections on the Web. It recurses through directory trees, building HTML pages and imagemap (GIF or JPEG) files to allow the user to navigate through collections of thumbnail images (somewhat similar to 'xv') and select the images to view with a mouse click. 
A web-based administration interface for Unix systems. Using Webmin youcan configure DNS, Samba, NFS, local/remote filesystems, Apache, Sendmail/Postfix, and more using your web browser. After installation, enter the URL https://localhost:10000/ into your browser and login as root with your root password. Please consider logging in and modify your password for security issue. PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS VERSION NOW USES SECURE WEB TRANSACTIONS: YOU HAVE TO LOGIN TO "https://localhost:10000/" AND NOT "http://localhost:10000/". 
Web-based administration toolkit Webmin is a web-based interface for system administration for Unix. Using any browser that supports tables and forms (and Java for the File Manager module), you can setup user accounts, Apache, DNS, file sharing and so on. 
A page that contains text, images, and multimedia presentations and is viewable in a Web browser. 
Simple HTTP Server Toolkit for Ruby WEBrick is a Ruby library program to build HTTP servers. 
Web Secretary Web Secretary is a web page monitoring software. However, it goes beyond the normal functionalities offered by such software. Not only does it detect changes based on content analysis (instead of date/time stamp or simple textual comparison), it will email the changed page to you WITH THE NEW CONTENT HIGHLIGHTED! 
A collection of webpages, files, and other resources published or aggregated by one source. 
Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (org., WLAN, LAN) 
Western Europe EDIFACT Board (org., EDIFACT), "WE/EB" 
A non-interactive FTP client for updating web pages Weex is an utility designed to automate the task of remotely maintaining a web page or other FTP archive. With weex, the maintainer of a web site or archive that must be administered through FTP interaction can largely ignore that process. The archive administrator simply creates a local directory that serves as an exact model for the off-site data. All modifications and direct interaction is done locally to this directory structure. When the administrator wishes to coordinate the data on the remote site with that of the local model directory, simply executing weex accomplishes this in the most bandwidth-efficient fashion by only transferring files that need updating. The program will create or remove (!) files or directories as necessary to accurately establish the local model on the remote server. 
Web Embedding Font Tool (MS, WWW) 
Linux ANSI boot logo. This is a little program that may run at login time to produce nice ANSI login logo. Welcome2L intends to produce the best looking ANSI screens by making full usage of PC graphic characters. Therefore an architecture able to display those characters (i386, Alpha with TGA adapter,... ) is required to use it. And, even if it will work on larger screens, it will only produce 80 column ANSI screens. 
Whole Earth 'Lectronic Net (network) 
adj. 1. [primarily MS-DOS] Said of software conforming to system interface guidelines and standards. Well-behaved software uses the operating system to do chores such as keyboard input, allocating memory and drawing graphics. Oppose ill-behaved. 2. Software that does its job quietly and without counterintuitive effects. Esp. said of software having an interface spec sufficiently simple and well-defined that it can be used as a tool by other software. See cat. 3. Said of an algorithm that doesn't crash or blow up, even when given pathological input. Implies that the stability of the algorithm is intrinsic, which makes this somewhat different from bulletproof. 
Branch of SEMI kernel package using widget. WEMI is a branch of the SEMI package using widgets. It is a library adding MIME features to Emacs, based on SEMI, which also available as a Debian package. It is a replacement of SEMI, containing all of SEMI's features. WEMI does not support anything older than Emacs 19.28 or XEmacs 19.14. WEMI also does not support Emacs 19.29 to 19.34, XEmacs 19.15 or XEmacs 20.2 without mule, but WEMI may work with them. ==== SEMI is a library adding MIME features to Emacs. MIME is a proposed internet standard allowing the use of other character sets than (ASCII) plain text in the contents and headers of messages. ==== 
English dictionary words for /usr/share/dict This package provides the file /usr/share/dict/american-english containing a list of English words with American spellings. This list can be used by spelling checkers, and by programs such as look(1). 
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WLAN) 
WESTern regional NETwork (network, USA), "Westnet" 
Western European Time [+0000] (TZ, WDT) 
The Faroese dictionary / wordlist This is a flat list of Faroese words and names. This can be used by spellcheckers or any other purpose needing a lot of words. 
Wait for Caller (BBS) 
Windows Foundation Classes (MS, Java, API) 
A small Finnish dictionary for /usr/share/dict. This is a list of Finnish words and names in various inflected forms, containing roughly 0.7 million items, to be used for whatever purpose you may think of. Larger lists (roughly two or over six million items) can be manually generated from the medium-size and large Finnish Ispell dictionaries in packages ifinnish and ifinnish-large. Please find instructions in /usr/share/doc/wfinnish/README.Debian after installing this package. 
Wired For Management (Intel), "WfM" 
Works For Me (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
WorkFlow Management Coalition (org.), "WfMC" 
Weighted Fair Queueing (VOIP) 
French dictionary words for /usr/share/dict This package provides the file /usr/share/dict/french containing a list of French words. This list can be used by spelling checkers, and by programs such as look(1). 
Windows For Workgroups (MS), "WfW" 
Working Group (SC, ISO, IEC, ETSI) 
The German dictionary for /usr/share/dict. This is the German dictionary as put together by This dictionary refers to the old German orthography. For the new orthography see wngerman. 
GNU Wget is a file retrieval utility which can use either the HTTP or FTP protocols. Wget features include the ability to work in the background while you are logged out, recursive retrieval of directories, file name wildcard matching, remote file time stamp storage and comparison, use of Rest with FTP servers and Range with HTTP servers to retrieve files over slow or unstable connections,support for Proxy servers, and configurability. 
retrieves files from the web Wget is a network utility to retrieve files from the Web using http and ftp, the two most widely used Internet protocols. It works non-interactively, so it will work in the background, after having logged off. The program supports recursive retrieval of web-authoring pages as well as ftp sites -- you can use wget to make mirrors of archives and home pages or to travel the Web like a WWW robot. Wget works particularly well with slow or unstable connections by continuing to retrieve a document until the document is fully downloaded. Re-getting files from where it left off works on servers (both http and ftp) that support it. Both http and ftp retrievals can be time stamped, so wget can see if the remote file has changed since the last retrieval and automatically retrieve the new version if it has. Wget supports proxy servers; this can lighten the network load, speed up retrieval, and provide access behind firewalls. 
what you see is what you get (wysiwyg)
Concept that is commonly utilized by complex document formatting applications for ease of use and accurate rendering. As a user creates a document, it is rendered on a display as it appears when it is saved, printed, or sent to another party. 
display manual page descriptions 
White House Communications Agency (DISA) 
wheel bit
n. A privilege bit that allows the possessor to perform some restricted operation on a timesharing system, such as read or write any file on the system regardless of protections, change or look at any address in the running monitor, crash or reload the system, and kill or create jobs and user accounts. The term was invented on the TENEX operating system, and carried over to TOPS-20, XEROX-IFS, and others. The state of being in a privileged logon is sometimes called `wheel mode'. This term entered the Unix culture from TWENEX in the mid-1980s and has been gaining popularity there (esp. at university sites). See also root. 
wheel of reincarnation
[coined in a paper by T. H. Myer and I.E. Sutherland "On the Design of Display Processors", Comm. ACM, Vol. 11, no. 6, June 1968)] Term used to refer to a well-known effect whereby function in a computing system family is migrated out to special-purpose peripheral hardware for speed, then the peripheral evolves toward more computing power as it does its job, then somebody notices that it is inefficient to support two asymmetrical processors in the architecture and folds the function back into the main CPU, at which point the cycle begins again. Several iterations of this cycle have been observed in graphics-processor design, and at least one or two in communications and floating-point processors. Also known as `the Wheel of Life', `the Wheel of Samsara', and other variations of the basic Hindu/Buddhist theological idea. See also blitter, bit bang. 
Automatically reconfigure your (laptop) system for a new location whereami is a set of useful scripts and a coordinating system for automatically re-locating your computer within the current (network) environment. Typically, you would use whereami to automatically detect and re-configure your laptop when you move between a variety of diverse networks and/or docking environments. Although whereami will work best if all of your networks assign addresses through dhcp, this is not a pre-requisite and the system allows any technique to be used to ascertain the new location with as little ongoing user intervention as possible. Having ascertained the correct location, whereami will run appropriate (user-configured) scripts to adjust the laptop operation to suit the current environment. See for more information. You may also get useful assistance from the debian-laptop mailing list, which is frequented by several of the contributors. 
locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command 
The which command shows the full pathname of a specified program, if the specified program is in your PATH. 
Fault tolerant search utilities: whichman, ftff, ftwhich. whichman uses a fault tolerant approximate matching algorithm to search for man-pages that match approximately the specified name. The fault tolerant matching is very useful in cases where you remember only roughly the name of a command. Example: whichman netwhat This finds netstat.8: /usr/share/man/man8/netstat.8 ftff searches the directory tree. This is a case in-sensitive and fault tolerant way of 'find . -name xxxx -print'. ftwhich finds files which are in one of the directories in your PATH and uses a fault tolerant search algorithm. 
Windows Hardware Instrumentation Implementation Guidelines (MS, Windows) 
Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts. whiptail is a "dialog" replacement using newt instead of ncurses. It provides a method of displaying several different types of dialog boxes from shell scripts. This allows a developer of a script to interact with the user in a much friendlier manner. 
Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts. whiptail is a "dialog" replacement using newt instead of ncurses. It provides a method of displaying several different types of dialog boxes from shell scripts. This allows a developer of a script to interact with the user in a much friendlier manner. This version of whiptail is compiled and linked against utf8 version of the libraries. 
CGI scanner to audit web servers Whisker is a state-of-the-art CGI scanner that can: - detect the running web server and perform only tests specific to that server and version - apply intrusion detection evasion methods - do brute force on accounts using HTTP-AUTH - use virtual hosts - run in multi-thread mode It can output the information in different formats including HTML and nmap. 
White Book
n. 1. Syn. K&R. 2. Adobe's fourth book in the PostScript series, describing the previously-secret format of Type 1 fonts; "Adobe Type 1 Font Format, version 1.1", (Addison-Wesley, 1990, ISBN 0-201-57044-0). See also Red Book, Green Book, Blue Book. 
White Dwarf Linux
White Dwarf Linux is named for a White Dwarf Star. White Dwarf Stars are small but extremely dense stars. White Dwarf Linux is small enough to load in 16MB of Flash, but dense enough to contain the features that embedded applications demand. Version 1.2.0 was released July 28, 2002. 
white-hat hackers (ethical-hacking)
So-called "ethical" hackers who work with clients in order to help them secure their systems. White-hats can be: members of tiger teams system hardening specialists researchers looking for vulnerabilities (with the goal of finding them and removing them before the black-hats). Contrast: Whereas a "white-hate" is considered a "good guy", a "black-hat" describes the "bad" hackers. See also: penetration testing 
n. The opposite of a blacklist. That is, instead of being an explicit list of people who are banned, it's an explicit list of people who are to be admitted. Hackers use this especially of lists of email addresses that are explicitly enabled to get past strict anti-spam filters. 
a WYSIWIG environment for LaTeX WhizzyTeX is an emacs minor mode for incrementally (TeXing and) previewing a LaTeX file that you are editing. It works with ghostview-based and xdvi-based previewers, but best visual effect and more options will be available if you use the advi previewer. 
show who is logged on 
Shows who is logged on. 
print effective userid 
A whois client that accepts both traditional and finger-style queries. 
client for the whois directory service 
The GNU whois client This is a new whois (RFC 954) client rewritten from scratch by me. It is derived from and compatible with the usual BSD and RIPE whois(1) programs. It is intelligent and can automatically select the appropriate whois server for most queries. The package also contains mkpasswd, a simple front end to crypt(3). 
World Health Organization Library Information System (org., UNO) 
World Health Organization Statistical Information System (org., UNO) 
Real-time user logins monitoring tool. whowatch is a ncurses who-like utility that displays information about the users currently logged on to the machine, in real-time. Besides standard information (login name, tty, host, user's process), the type of the connection (ie. telnet or ssh) is shown. 
Windows Hardware Quality Lab (MS, Windows, PC97) 
Windows Image Aquisition (MS, Windows, API, DDI) 
Web InformationsDienst Deutschland (WWW, Neuss, Germany) 
wide-area network (WAN)
A network of computers connected to each other over a long distance, for example on the Internet. 
A graphical user interface programming object (button, scrollbar, radio button, etc.) for the X Window System. (Also, see X Window System.) 
A standardized on-screen representation of a control that may be manipulated by the user. Scroll bars, buttons, and text boxes are all examples of widgets. 
a user interface object in X graphical user interfaces. 
n. 1. A meta-thing. Used to stand for a real object in didactic examples (especially database tutorials). Legend has it that the original widgets were holders for buggy whips. "But suppose the parts list for a widget has 52 entries...." 2. [poss. evoking `window gadget'] A user interface object in X graphical user interfaces. 
Web Interface Facility (WWW, MVS, OS/390) 
Wiki is a piece of server software that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content using any Web browser. Wiki supports hyperlinks and has a simple text syntax for creating new pages and crosslinks between internal pages on the fly. Wiki is unusual among group communication mechanisms in that it allows the organization of contributions to be edited in addition to the content itself. Like many simple concepts, "open editing" has some profound and subtle effects on Wiki usage. Allowing everyday users to create and edit any page in a Web site is exciting in that it encourages democratic use of the Web and promotes content composition by nontechnical users. Historical Note. The first ever wiki site was created for the Portland Pattern Repository in 1995. That site now hosts tens of thousands of pages. From Wiki
A phrase that implies that the technique is currently being used, as opposed to be purely theoretical. For example, while tens of thousands of viruses are known to exist, only a few hundred can be found in the wild. 
wild card
character, used to search for text, that may represent any character (or any character in a set). A wild-card character is like a wild card in a card game, which may represent any other card in the deck. 
A work-alike of the Acme programming environment for Plan 9 Wily's basic functions are to edit and search for text and to run commands. It is intended to eventually be an integrated working environment for all tasks involving text. It uses the mouse heavily. It emphasises speed for experienced users, but is probably simple to learn as it has very few concepts. 
WIreless Metropolitan Area Network 
Window, Icon, Menu, Pointing device 
WIMP environment
n. [acronym: `Window, Icon, Menu, Pointing device (or Pull-down menu)'] A graphical-user-interface environment such as X or the Macintosh interface, esp. as described by a hacker who prefers command-line interfaces for their superior flexibility and extensibility. However, it is also used without negative connotations; one must pay attention to voice tone and other signals to interpret correctly. See menuitis, user-obsequious. 
WIssenschaftsNetz (network, DFN) 
Service to resolve user and group information from Windows NT servers This package provides the winbindd daemon, which provides a service for the Name Service Switch capability that is present in most modern C libraries (like the GNU C Library - glibc.) The service provided by winbindd is called `winbind' and can be used to resolve user and group information from a Windows NT server. The service can also provide authentication services via an associated PAM module. 
A graphical representation of a program displayed on the screen. Each running program has a separate window displaying the contents of the program. Some programs have more than one window displayed, usually to separate functions logically and facilitate use of the program. 
window manager
A program that controls the display and positioning of graphical windows on a screen; accounts for such variables as screen resolution and user manipulation (for example, a user repositioning or resizing a window). 
Window Manager
The graphical user interface (GUI) that runs on top of X Window to provide the user with windows, icons, taskbars and other desktop objects. (Also, see Desktop.) 
window manager
the main interface between the X Window system and the user. It rovides such functionality as window borders, menus, icons, virtual desktops, button bars, tool bars, and allows the user to customize it at will, often adding to its functionality in the process. 
Window Maker is an X11 window manager which emulates the look and feel of the NeXTSTEP (TM) graphical user interface. It is relatively fast, feature rich and easy to configure and use. Window Maker is part of the official GNU project, which means that Window Maker can interoperate with other GNU projects, such as GNOME. Window Maker allows users to switch themes 'on the fly,' to place favorite applications on either an application dock, similar to AfterStep's Wharf or on a workspace dock, a 'clip' which extends the application dock's usefulness. 
Window manager for GNU Emacs You can divide the screen of GNU Emacs as many as you like. Since efficiency of implementation or so depends much on the style of window division, you may have your own style of partitioning. But if you switch the mode to e-mail mode or NetNews mode, they break your favorite style. Windows.el enables you to have multiple favorite window configurations at the same time, and switch them. Furthermore, it can save all window configurations into a file and restore them correctly. 
run Windows programs on Unix 
Windows Emulator (Binary Emulator). the MS-Windows emulator. This is still a developers release and many applications may still not work. This package consists of the emulator program for running windows executables. Wine is often updated. 
Windows Emulator (Configuration and Setup Tool) This is an easy-to-use Wine setup tool provided by CodeWeavers, Inc. 
a galaga knock-off, arcade game WING is a galaga knock-off, arcade game. It features high quality prerendered graphics, dynamically generated stars in background, single player game against computer controlled opponents, 6 levels of play, digital sound effects, digital music streams, and a high score list. 
WINdows Hardware Engineering Conference (MS, Windows, conference), "WinHEC" 
Wireless Information Network LABoratory (org., STC, USA) 
WinLinux 2001 was designed and built to be the easiest to use Linux system. Its installation and configuration tasks are performed directly from Windows using graphical tools. WinLinux 2003 is currently available. 
Windows Internet Naming Service (MS, Windows NT) 
WinSlack is a basic Linux install with KDE and Star Office. It requires no logon, and gives you a desktop environment similar to that other leading PC GUI, it also has supermount compiled into the kernel so that CD-ROM's and floppies are automatically mounted and unmounted. You can also format floppies from the desktop. Upon exiting the X session, the machine will shutdown. It is based primarily on Slackware 7.1 with some modifications. 
n. Microsoft Windows plus Intel - the tacit alliance that dominated desktop computing in the 1990s. Now (1999) possibly on the verge of breaking up under pressure from Linux; see Lintel. 
Erased data can frequently be retrieved through forensics on the magnetic material of a hard-disk drive or backup tape. So-called "magnetoresistive microscopes" have been developed that painstakingly scour magnetic media, and are able to reconstruct the magnetic image of a disk surface. This will show the faint residue of overwritten data. A common security measure is to "wipe" all traces of the data from a machine. Wiping usually involves: Clearing caches and logfiles. Example include browser caches, cookie files, history logs, and recently used document lists. Note that passwords are often stored in cookies and history URLs. Hard-disks "erase" files by simply removing their entries from the directory. The files still exist on the hard-disk. The first step of wiping is to actually erase them by overwriting that area of the disk. Overwriting erased areas of the hard-disk at least 7-times with different bytes (DoD spec) in order to remove all magnetic traces. Forensics specialists can usually read data from a disk that has been overwritten only once. Wiping the pagefile. Most programs do this by repeated allocating all possible memory in the system then freeing it, multiple times. Contrast: Wiping data from the disk is the electronic equivalent of shredding. It is not as strong as degaussing the disk. Misconception: Many crypto programs also contain a feature for wiping free-space. However, deleted files may be overwritten by some other file between wiping passes. This deleted file won't be wiped, and may be recoverable. Key point: In a court case in 2001, the FBI was able to successful retrieve overwritten files from a defendant's hard-drive. History: Microsoft's Windows XP, shipped in October of 2001, contains an automatic wipe feature for permanently deleting files. This has made some forensics investigators worried that they will no longer be able to successfully retrieve deleted files from dumb-criminal's machines. 
Secure file deletion Recovery of supposedly erased data from magnetic media is easier than what many people would like to believe. A technique called Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) allows any moderately funded opponent to recover the last two or three layers of data written to disk. Wipe repeatedly writes special patterns to the files to be destroyed, using the fsync() call and/or the O_SYNC bit to force disk access. Homepage: 
World Intellectual Property Organization (org.) 
The condition of functioning without a wire or cable attached. For example, a wireless network uses radio frequencies travelling in the air instead of a physical wire to transmit data. 
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
see 802.11 
Tools for manipulating Linux Wireless Extensions This package contains the Wireless tools, used to manipulate the Linux Wireless Extensions. The Wireless Extension is an interface allowing you to set Wireless LAN specific parameters and get the specific stats. The tools in this package only work with kernel versions 2.2.14 and above, and 2.3.24 and above. 
Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer 
World-wide Information System for r&d Efforts (WWW, IGD) 
Simple windowing shell 
wish list
n. A list of desired features or bug fixes that probably won't get done for a long time, usually because the person responsible for the code is too busy or can't think of a clean way to do it. "OK, I'll add automatic filename completion to the wish list for the new interface." Compare tick-list features. 
Simple windowing shell 
Wissenschaftliches InformationsSystem fuer den Internationalen Artenschutz (WWW) 
The Italian dictionary words for /usr/share/dict/. This package contains an alphabetic list of Italian words. You may wish to use it in conjunction with a program like spell(1) to spell-check an Italian text, or with a program like look(1) for word completion. It may even be used by the sysadmin to look for weak user passwords. 
Workstation Interactive Test Tool (IBM) 
n. 1. Transitively, a person who knows how a complex piece of software or hardware works (that is, who groks it); esp. someone who can find and fix bugs quickly in an emergency. Someone is a hacker if he or she has general hacking ability, but is a wizard with respect to something only if he or she has specific detailed knowledge of that thing. A good hacker could become a wizard for something given the time to study it. 2. The term `wizard' is also used intransitively of someone who has extremely high-level hacking or problem-solving ability. 3. A person who is permitted to do things forbidden to ordinary people; one who has wheel privileges on a system. 4. A Unix expert, esp. a Unix systems programmer. This usage is well enough established that `Unix Wizard' is a recognized job title at some corporations and to most headhunters. See guru, lord high fixer. See also deep magic, heavy wizardry, incantation, magic, mutter, rain dance, voodoo programming, wave a dead chicken. 
wizard mode
n. [from rogue] A special access mode of a program or system, usually passworded, that permits some users godlike privileges. Generally not used for operating systems themselves (`root mode' or `wheel mode' would be used instead). This term is often used with respect to games that have editable state. 
WIzard sysOP, "WizOp" 
Well Known Services (DNS, Internet) 
Yet Another Message Interface On Emacsen. Wanderlust is IMAP4, POP and NNTP client on Emacsen. Wanderlust has many powerful features. - Coding with only Elisp. - MIME support (SEMI or tm) - 3 frames mode(folder, summary, message) - Thread view - Virtual Folder Support - Archived Folder Support - MH local Folder Support - and so on. Wanderlust is needs MULE support with emacsen. 
Wireless Local Area Network (LAN, WLAN) 
Wireless Local Area Network Alliance (org., WLAN, LAN) 
Windows Load Balancing Service (MS, Windows NT) 
Wireless LAN Interoperability Forum (org., WLAN, LAN) 
Wireless Local Loop 
Windows Library Objects 
Wafer Level Packaging 
White Line Skip (Fax) 
Small, unconfigurable window manager wm2 is a window manager for X. It provides an unusual style of window decoration and as little functionality as Chris Cannam feels comfortable with in a window manager. wm2 is not configurable, except by editing the source and recompiling the code, and is really intended for people who don't particularly want their window manager to be too friendly. The "debian menus" functionality has been removed. 
Windows Media Audio [CODEC] (MS, Windows, audio, CODEC) 
An ACPI battery monitor for WindowMaker (alpha) This is a battery monitor that uses ACPI to query the battery status. As the interface to ACPI changes rather often, this program usually only works with a very specific kernel version. This package is for kernel version 2.4.2 or greater, ACPI subsystem version 20010313 or greater. 
NeXTSTEP-like window manager for X Written by Alfredo Kojima ( almost from scratch, resembles the NeXTStep look very closely, and it's now an official GNU project. Window Maker is not overloaded with features, and it's easier to configure than most other window managers. Its final goal is to produce a window manager that doesn't require editing of configuration files. Window Maker is fast and doesn't require tons of memory to run. 
GTK+ based configuration tool for Window Maker Interactive graphical configuration utility for Window Maker. It offers to configure Window Maker using a mouse driven point and click interface avoiding direct manual editing of its configuration files. There's not much point in installing this program without Window Maker on the system, but I guess there are some circumstances where that's desirable, for example, self-compiled wmaker versions. 
Select a window manager at X startup wmanager is a small X11 application for selecting a window manager at X startup. wmanager looks for a file named '.wmmanagerrc' in the user's home directory which contains a list of window managers; you can create such a file with wmanagerrc-update. You can also use wmanager-loop that runs window managers chosen by the user until told to exit. 
An APM display program designed for WindowMaker Displays the Advanced Power Management (APM) status of your computer in a small icon. This includes battery or AC operation, battery life remaining (both in percentage and graph), time left until battery-depletion, charging status, and battery status. There's nothing in the program that makes it require WindowMaker, except maybe the look. To use this program you need to enable APM support for your kernel during configuration; the corresponding questions are in the 'Character devices' section. 
small NeXTStep-like system load average monitor wmavgload provides CPU load averages integrated over 5 (main window), 30 and 60 seconds. Also, it takes very little space (64x64 square). There's nothing in the program that makes it *require* WindowMaker, i.e. it works great with other window managers. But if you are looking for seamless integration on your desktop, wmavgload may suit your needs. 
Display laptop battery info, dockable in WindowMaker Wmbattery displays the status of your laptop's battery in a small icon. This includes if it is plugged in, if the battery is charging, how many minutes of battery life remain, battery life remaining (with both a percentage and a graph), and battery status (high - green, low - yellow, or critical - red). There's nothing in the program that makes it require WindowMaker, except maybe the look. It can be docked in WindowMaker or AfterStep's dock. To use this program you need to enable APM support for your kernel during configuration; the corresponding questions are in the 'Character devices' section. It will only work on laptops with an APM BIOS. 
A dockable app that displays information about mailboxes WMBiff is an WindowMaker docking utility, that displays the number of read and unread messages in up to five mailboxes. You can also define actions to execute on new mail arrival (for example, play a sound file), [auto]fetchmail from a remote server or to execute your mail reader with a mouse click. WMBiff also supports notification of incoming Licq messages, so you can put Licq in the background. At this moment, wmbiff supports unix-style, maildir, pop3, APOP, IMAP and IMAPS mailboxes, as well as Licq and GnomeICU history files. 
A system-load meter for Window Maker that features a duck A Window Maker dockapp (though it does not specifically require the Window Maker window manager) that indicates the system load. The more profuse the bubbles, the higher the CPU usage. The higher the water, the more memory being used. It can also start up to two programs depending upon which mouse button is pressed. 
Dockapp displaying nine configurable buttons Wmbutton displays nine buttons which can be configured through a config file. Each button can be assigned up to three commands (one per mouse button). It is intended as a dockapp for X window managers such as Window Maker, AfterStep, BlackBox, and Enlightenment. 
Dockable calculator application Wmcalc is a small calculator meant for the WindowMaker dock or Afterstep Wharf. It is a simple calculator with basic functions and memory slots, and can launch any external application for more complex calculations. 
A which simply tells time and date. wmCalclock is a dock app specifically written for Window Maker, but will work with other window managers. Some features include antialiased text display, with the ability to choose between different fonts, and colors. 12 and 24 hour time, Greenwich time, Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time, and Local Sidereal Time. 
Dockapp that displays the cut buffer content Wmcb is a WindowMaker dockapp that displays the current content of the cut buffers built into every Xserver. It allows the buffers to be manipulated with the mouse in a point and click manner. 
A CD player based on ascd designed for WindowMaker There's nothing in the program that makes it *require* WindowMaker, except maybe the look. It's extremely customizable, provides great control, and runs on a 64x64 window. You can get it too look almost like anything, provided of course you READ the documentation. 
dockable clock applet for Window Maker Wmclock is a dockable applet which displays the date and time in a dockable tile. Wmclock is specially designed for the Window Maker window manager, and features multiple language support, am/pm time display, and can run a user-specified program on a mouse click. 
Window Maker docking app similar to xosview Displays a 64x64 box with: * CPU * Mem * Swap * Uptime 
Dockapp that displays the current CPU usage WMCPULoad is a dockapp for X window managers such as WindowMaker, AfterStep, BlackBox and Enlightenment. It displays the current CPU usage as percentage value and chart with an LCD-like look. Its appearance can be configured from the commandline and it has a backlight mode which can be triggered manually or by an adjustable alarm percentage. 
Spinning 3D object that shows the current CPU load wmcube is a dockapp that displays a realtime rotating 3D object which indicates current CPU load. The higher the load, the faster the object spins. On SMP machines one instance can be run for each processor. Originally wmcube could spin only a cube, hence the name. 
Calendar for window manager docking bars. wmdate produces a 64x64 pixel calendar for use in the docking bars of window managers. It was written specificly for Window Maker and goes well with docking bars that have a "clock-only" clock app such as pclock. 
Web Mail Folder This program converts emails to HTML and makes index files (by author, data, subject,thread). Of course there are other programs making the same, but here are some features which not all have: - correct threading without level limitation - quoted-printable text encoding - home page hyperlink (X-URL) - faces support - breaking indexes in different pages to make them smaller (don't break between threads) - index time limitation (older mail disappears from the index) - frame support 
A very cool fiery way of showing your CPU usage! The display is a 64x64 window designed to Dock into Window Maker's Docking bar. 
WindowMaker dock app for monitoring filesystem usage Nice graphical 'df', showing you to what degree the mounted filesystems are used. Another X11 dockable application designed for WindowMaker. It works with other window managers as well. 
maintains a small thumbnail image from the WWW wmGrabImage is a WindowMaker DockApp that maintains a small thumbnail copy of your favorite image from the WWW. 
Temperature sensor dockapp for WindowMaker It displays the CPU and SYS temperatures (both in numerically and graphically) of motherboards with the VIA686A chipset primarily but also supports some other sensors, including W83781D, W83627HF and AS99127F. There is also intention of adding support for other chipsets in the future. You will need a kernel compiled with i2c capabilities to make this work, use the i2c-source package to make it for yourself. 
Windows Management Instrumentation / Interface (MS, Windows, WMI, CIM) 
WindowMaker dock app for monitoring network traffic wmifs is a dockable applet for X11 that can monitor all your network interfaces. It's designed for WindowMaker's Dock and AfterStep's Wharf, but it's not dependent on these window managers and should work with any other. WMiFS stands for "Window Maker InterFace Statistics". 
An inetd monitoring dockapp designed for WindowMaker WMiNET has some nice & nifty features for monitoring, like: * Monitors number of processes, users, http users, and NFS mounts * LPD monitoring * Monitors any tcp port you specify * Selectable LED or LCD GUI * Enable/disable monitoring using ~/.wminetrc * Customs stats positioning using ~/.wminetrc * User-definable scripts/commands using ~/.wminetrc 
yet another clock dock app for Window Maker WMitime is yet another clock dock app (and quite overglorified at that! :) it shows standard time, date, as well as the new internet time. (see 
Dockapp mixer for OSS or ALSA Dockapp mixer for OSS or ALSA. Allows toggling record source, muting individual channels, adjusting volume and balance, all in a compact dockapp size, with TV-like on-screen-display for volume levels. Supports mousewheel to adjust current channelvolume and can be controlled remotely with SIGUSR1 / SIGUSR2 to adjust the volume. Keeps a simple configuration file for user-defined settings. 
Website META Language by Ralf Engelschall WML is a free and extensible Webdesigner's off-line HTML generation toolkit for Unix. WML consists of a control frontend driving up to nine backends in a sequential pass-oriented filtering scheme. Each backend provides one particular core language. For maximum power WML additionally ships with a well-suited set of include files which provide higher-level features build on top of the backends core languages. While not trivial and idiot proof WML provides most of the core features real hackers always wanted for HTML generation. 
Wireless Markup Language (mobile-systems, WAP) 
system load monitor designed for Window Maker wmload displays a graphical representation of the kernel/system statistics on a 64x64 miniwindow. There are three shades in the window: the light one, which corresponds to user statistics, second is the nice time statistics, and the darkest one is system statistics. It works with other window managers, there isn't anything in the program to make it require Window Maker, except maybe the look. 
A mail notification program designed for WindowMaker There's nothing in the program that makes it require WindowMaker, except maybe the look. It's much like xbiff, and was derived from asmail 0.50. Now includes support for a variety of mailboxes, including mbox, MH, maildir, POP3 and IMAP. A few pixmaps and sounds are included with the package. 
a dockable Mandelbrot fractal browser wmMand is a dockable Mandelbrot fractal browser or explorer. The window initially comes up with the whole Mandelbrot set in view. The mouse buttons can be used to zoom into or out of the set. 
View The Matrix in a Window Maker dock application wmMatrix displays The Matrix (from the film of the same name) in a Window Maker dock application. Based on the xscreensaver module created by Jamie Zawinski. Although it works best with Window Maker, wmMatrix also works fine with other window managers. 
A mixer application designed for WindowMaker There's nothing in the program that makes it require WindowMaker, except maybe the NeXTStep look and the fact that it properly docks. It can be used with other window managers without problems 
Monitor CPU load and average system load WMMon monitors the realtime CPU load as well the average system load and gives you some nice additional features too... WMMon currently provides: * Realtime CPU 'stress' meter * Average system load, like xload & wmavgload * Average system load graphic is auto-scaling * Realtime Disk I/O 'stress' meter * Average Disk I/O load graphic (auto-scaling) * Realtime total Mem & Swap usage meters * System uptime display * Realtime cycling through all monitor modes * Can launch 3 user definable commands through ~/.wmmonrc * Can be started multiple times 
Displays the phase of the moon wmMoonClock displays a small pixmap of the current phase of the moon. It is designed for use with the Window Maker dock, but will of course work elsewhere. 
mount utility and free space monitoring tool, NeXTStep-like wmmount can be used to mount and unmount floppies, CD-ROM's, ZIP drives, and file systems in general. It also displays the amount of free space on the file system. It is very customizable and runs on a 64x64 window. There's nothing in the program that makes it *require* WindowMaker, i.e. it works great with other window managers. But if you are looking for seamless integration on your desktop, wmmount may very well suit your needs. 
Dockapp monitoring network interfaces Shows a graph of incoming/outgoing traffic, activity indicators for rx/tx and current/maximum rate for rx/tx in bytes or packets. Tailored for use with WindowMaker, it will as well work with any other window manager though. 
network monitor for WindowMaker using kernel IP accounting This little program polls /proc/net/ip_acct and does a few things with the data it gets. The speedometer keeps track of the current speed per second and shows it in a color corresponding to which of rx or tx that has the highest speed at the moment. You WILL need ip accounting in your kernel and at least two ip firewall rules. This version allows you to specify which accounting rule to watch for tx and rx and you will have to enter them in ipfwadm or use the debian package ipac. 
Enhanced Netscape launch button designed for Windowmaker This is a replacement for the Netscape/Mozilla launch button in your dock, that enhances the functionality of the button. You can use it just as you normally would to start Netscape. If you select an URL and paste it into the wmnetselect button, it will redirect netscape to that URL. Other features include quick searches and quick addition of URLs to your bookmarks. 
A wmaker dock app that displays UPS statistics from NUT's upsd WMNUT monitors UPS statistics through the NUT (Network UPS Tools, framework on Linux and other systems. This information, presented in a nice visual format, can be invaluable on stations using an UPS. 
Window Maker dock applet resembling a miniature pinboard Themable Window Maker dock applet resembling a miniature pinboard. Icon is titled TODO. Includes alarm functions. Think of it as very high-tech post-its for your dockbar. 
Program to monitor network device statistics Wmpload is a Window Maker dock application to monitor ppp network device statistics and graphs information using Athena stripchart widgets. It can monitor any device that reports statistics to /proc/net/dev including ethernet, plip, loopback etc. It shows totals and current rates for a given ppp interface and is customizable to show using X resources.
PPP dial control and network load monitor with NeXTStep look provides a PPP activator and network load monitor on a 64x64 mini window. With wmppp you can monitor the total traffic as well as the outbound and inbound traffic. It is designed to work with the WindowMaker dock, but will work great with other window managers as well. Now with experimental (untested) ippp device support. 
PPxP console for Window Maker dock WMPPxP is a Window Maker dock app of PPxP console. PPxP is yet another ppp program. 
WindowMaker dock app 4x4 puzzle wmpuzzle provides a 4x4 puzzle on a 64x64 mini window. Currently you can puzzle an eagle, earth, the Debian logo or the Linux penguin. Other images will be included on request. wmpuzzle is designed to work with the WindowMaker dock, but will work with other window managers as well. 
Combined CD Player + Mixer designed for WindowMaker This dockapp combines a CD player and a mixer in one 48x48 window. Very efficient on screen real-estate. Especially handy if you mainly want a mixer, and only rarely use a CD player, but want to have one around just in case. It's designed with WindowMaker in mind, but it works fine with any window manager, and can be swallowed by afterstep/fvwm/gnome panel/etc. 
Windows Media Rights Manager (MS, Windows) 
Warehouse Management System (DB) 
Workflow Management Systems 
Graphical representation of sound waves in a dockapp wmscope is a dockapp that displays sound waves graphically, reading from a variety of sources. It also has a standby sine wave interference pattern to display when there is no audio input. 
WindowMaker dock applet for lmsensors wmsensors is a WindowMaker applet that shows bar graphs of the information available through the lm-sensors interface 
A CPU monitoring dockapp for SMP systems wmSMPmon is a CPU monitoring applet for SMP systems running Window Maker. It features two graphs for each CPU. It can be run on a System with only one CPU too, but it seems that the graph will show wrong value ranges. It has three different looks. You can change between them by clicking on the graph. 
Dockable WindowMaker SunRise/SunSet App wmSun displays the current day's Sun Rise and Set Times. You must enter your Latitude and Longitude for it to work correctly. wmSun is designed to work with the WindowMaker dock, but will work with other window managers as well. 
WindowMaker dock-app for monitoring your system. wmsysmon is a dockable application for WindowMaker (and possibly Afterstep). It monitors Memory, Swap, Disk IO, uptime and interrupts. 
Dockable Tic Tac Toe game wmTicTacToe is a dock application meant for WindowMaker. It allows you to play TicTacToe against another human or the computer. You can switch between a scoreboard and the gameboard, and it is great to relax and enjoy for a few minutes while working. 
Displays time and date WMTime displays the time and date and gives you some nice additional features too. It is intended for docking in WindowMaker. WMTime currently provides: * Time and date; * Realtime morphing UI (analog <> digital mode); * Autoscaling and anti aliased hands; * Locale, can display DAY and DATE in various languages; * Can launch 3 user definable commands through ~/.wmtimerc; * Can be run multiple times; * Commandline options for help (-h), version (-v), digital clock mode (-digital) and and display (-d) 
Dockapp that displays 3 top memory or CPU using processes wmtop maintains a view of the 3 top CPU (or memory) consuming processes displaying the amount of CPU used as a horizontal bar. Very useful for spotting those rogue Netscape processes! 
Dockable video4linux TV player for WindowMaker A miniature size dockable TV appllication. It currently supports channel presets, PAL/SECAM/NTSC, fine tuning, scanning of TV stations, use of external TV application, and more. 
A wmaker dock app that displays the time in different zones. wmtz displays the time in different time zones and can also show Julian day numbers, sidereal time, internet time (swatch beats) and local time, date and weekday. wmtz can also convert between JD and Gregorian dates via a command line interface. 
a remote-control DockApp for xmms wmusic is a dockapp that remote-controls xmms. Features include VCR-style controls, Time and Playlist display, supa stylee rotating arrow, hiding of the xmms windows and reactive interface. 
Windows Media Video [CODEC] (MS, Windows, video, CODEC) 
Monitor status of an 802.11 wireless ethernet link wmwave is dockapp for Window Maker to display statistical information about a current wirless ethernet connection. While made for Window Maker, it works with other window managers. 
WindowMaker dock app that shows your current weather wmWeather provides a monitor on a 64x64 mini window that displays the current weather. The weather reports are received from the same source that pilots use. wmWeather is designed to work with the WindowMaker dock, but will work with other window managers as well. xbase-clients are required for the left click to bring up the complete METAR record. 
Keep track of time worked on projects wmwork provides a monitor on a 64x64 mini window that helps you keeping track of your time. The idea is based on the program Worklog written by Truxton King Fulton II. In contrast to Worklog wmwork is a graphical application designed to work with the WindowMaker dock, but will work with other window managers as well. 
Control X10 home automation modules via a firecracker CM-17A X10 serial dogle The program is a WindowMaker/AfterStep applet. It allows for turning off, turning on, dimming, and brightening of X10 modules via the firecracker CM-17A X10 serial dogle. wmx10 controls one "house" at a time, up to eight separate devices on each "house". 
a dockable XMMS control applet. 
XMMS spectrum analyser plugin for the Window Maker dock WMXMMS-Spectrum is an XMMS visualisation plugin that displays a spectrum analyser in a Window Maker dock application. Although it works best with Window Maker, it also works fine with other window managers. 
dock application to select your display mode among those possible wmxres is a tiny dockable application that comes in handy when you want a specific X mode. Modes can be scrolled through until the desired one is active. 
Secure and efficient http server with advanced features. WN is a server for the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1). Its primary design goals are security and functionality usually available only with complex CGI scripts without the necessity of writing or using these scripts. This includes extensive security checks, full text searching and conditionally served text. Despite this extensive functionality the WN executable is substantially smaller than the CERN or NCSA servers. Both a stand-alone daemon and a version intended for use under inetd are provided. The inetd version is designed to minimize the use of system resources and it is appropriate for moderate or lightly loaded servers which cannot be totally dedicated to Web serving. WN's security model is based on the use of a small flat database in each directory with information about the files in that directory. Fields associated with a file include its title, and may include keywords, expiration date and any user defined fields like author or document id. Unlike other servers, the default action for WN is to deny access to a file. A file can only be served if explicit permission to do so has been granted by entering it in this database. 
New German orthography dictionary for /usr/share/dict This is a wordlist with the new German orthography. It is based on the famous hkgerman dictionary (using the old German orthography) which was put together by Heinz Knutzen and is available as the Debian package wgerman. 
Wide area Network Interface Module 
Wnn-nana-tamago -- EGG Input Method with Wnn7 for Emacsen EGG for Wnn7, called `wnn-nana-tamago' is Japanese Input Method for Emacsen. It is based on Tamago ver.3 (v3.09) and incorporated the communication library part of Tamago Ver.4 This only can use with Jserver of Wnn7. 
The Norwegian dictionary / wordlist This is a list of Norwegian names and words, to be used for whatever purpose you may think of. 
Work-Needing and Prospective Packages (Linux, Debian) 
World-O-Networking (BeOS) 
Hierarchic text editor Woody is a hierarchical text editor/outliner. It allows you to group related bits of information together into a common meaningful category. It is similar to BrainForest for the Palm Pilot. The program is ideal for maintaining TODO files. The program stores the files in xml, but can export to plain text files. 
word processor
An application that can be used to create documents with easily configured appearance and format settings. Graphical word processors have adopted the what you see is what you get (wysiwyg) method of document creation. 
Translates Word files into ascii text or LaTeX Takes Word files and transforms them into ascii text or LaTeX 
WORD Internet Assistant (MS) 
GTK-based Dictionary Client This package provides a graphical frontend to dict, which is a client that queries the dictd server. Since dict is TCP based, it can access servers on the local host, on a local network, or on the Internet. In addition to the dict client, this package requires access to a dictd server, either from dictd installed on the local machine or network, or over the Internet to one of the DICT Development Group's public servers. 
Electronic lexical database of English language WordNet(.) is an on-line lexical reference system whose design is inspired by current psycholinguistic theories of human lexical memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are organized into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexical concept. Different relations link the synonym sets. WordNet was developed by the Cognitive Science Laboratory ( at Princeton University under the direction of Professor George A. Miller (Principal Investigator). WordNet is considered to be the most important resource available to researchers in computational linguistics, text analysis, and many related areas. Its design is inspired by current psycholinguistic and computational theories of human lexical memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are organized into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexical concept. Different relations link the synonym sets. More Information on Binary and manpages for this binaries as well as general manpagesurl: 
anagram generator Wordplay generates anagrams of words or phrases. For example, "Debian/Gnu Linux" = "blade gun in unix", "able nun dig unix", "dual benign unix", or "lad begun in unix". 
The words file is a dictionary of English words for the/usr/share/dict directory. Programs like Ispell use this database of words to check spelling. Password checkers use it to look for bad passwords. 
n. 1. A temporary kluge used to bypass, mask, or otherwise avoid a bug or misfeature in some system. Theoretically, workarounds are always replaced by fixes; in practice, customers often find themselves living with workarounds for long periods of time. "The code died on NUL characters in the input, so I fixed it to interpret them as spaces." "That's not a fix, that's a workaround!" 2. A procedure to be employed by the user in order to do what some currently non-working feature should do. Hypothetical example: "Using META-F7 crashes the 4.43 build of Weemax, but as a workaround you can type CTRL-R, then SHIFT-F5, and delete the remaining cruft by hand." 
A simple text-based CD player Workbone is a simple, curses-based CD player that is controled by the num-lock keys. The cdtool package can be used to determine the contents of a CD before playing it. 
A highly configurable two-paned file manager for X Worker is a file manager much like the Amiga's DirOpus. It can be controlled with mouse or keyboard. There is no restriction on the number or type of button functions. Files are recognized by both extension and content, content by recognizing common bytes in the sample files you show it. Drag & Drop is supported. If xli is installed, it quickly previews pictures in the opposite pane. If xbase-clients is installed, xmessage is used to display some informative messages. See 
A collection of individual computer users that are logically connected, usually by a single project or by a department within an organization. Members of a workgroup share common data and collaborate with each other as they work with it. 
Working Directory
Another name for the current directory, or the directory in which the user is currently working. 
working directory
The directory in which you are working; also known as the current directory. 
Keep Track of Time worked on Projects From the author: Worklog is a program that helps you keep track of your time. I wrote this program because I have several projects that require me to keep a timesheet. I sometimes spend 5 minutes here and there doing miscellaneous administrative tasks. Rather than invoke an editor on a timesheet file for every little segment of my time spent doing these tasks, I wanted to leave a clock running and indicate with one or two keystrokes the onset or change of any given task. Worklog is a simple ncurses based program to do just that. 
Graphical tool for playing audio CDs on a CD-ROM drive. WorkMan can play and control audio CDs from a comfortable OpenLook interface. It can retrieve information about CDs from a CDDB server, store this information in a database, and extract it automatically when the CD is inserted later again. 
Another name for the Root Window, or Desktop. 
In the X Window System, the root window, or desktop, on which all other windows are overlaid. 
Typically a more powerful computer than a personal computer (eg Mac or PC). Workstations are typified through features such as high resolution displays, very large memory capacities, and excellent multi task; abilities running on UNIX or a similar operating system. 
World Wide Web (WWW)
An intercontinental network of connected computers that serve documents, files, and other resources over the Internet. 
A distributed hypertext information system that uses HTTP to retrieve text and graphics, often erroneously referred to by the name of one type of browser, Mosaic. 
A program that propagates itself by attacking other machines and copying itself to them. Example: In the late 1980s, the Morris Worm shutdown the Internet for a couple of days. At the time, well-known bugs in the UNIX sendmail program could allow a hacker to break into machines. Robert T. Morris wrote a program that would san machines for these security holes, then break into the machine. After breaking in, the program would copy itself up to that machine, then launch it. In this manner, the worm spread from machine to machine, multiplying until it had broken into nearly every machine which contained these bugs. However, the worm itself had a bug where it couldn't detect that a machine had already been broken into. Therefore, it would repeatedly break into the same machine over and over, until it machine collapsed from running too many instances of the worm. Copycats of the Morris Worm pop up repeatedly as new security holes appear in popular systems (like Linux), but they never have the devastating effect of the Morris Worm. Example: In the late 1999, the Melissa Worm/Virus nearly disabled the Internet. The worm spread by e-mailing itself to the first 50 people in a user's e-mail address book. Victims would then receive an e-mail from somebody they knew and trusted, so they would open the attached document and run the macros. In this manner, Melissa spread from inbox to inbox. Melissa is sort of a cross between a virus and a worm: it had the ability to spread itself like a worm, but it still required user interaction. Example: Around 1998, the ADMworm traveled by exploiting a few well-known Linux vulnerabilities in Linux machines, breaking into the machine, installing itself, then hunting for more machines. Example: Having failed to learn their lesson in 1999, the industry was pummeled by the ILOVEYOU worm in early 2000. It spread in much the same way, though this time it was a VBS script rather than an .exe. Contrast: There really is not difference between a worm and a virus. The dividing line is usually drawn along the amount of human interaction involved, and how it spreads from machine to machine. A worm spreads itself with zero human interaction, whereas a virus is spread by human contact: humans exchange files from machine to machine, and when a human runs the infected program, the virus only infects other files on the same machine. Some viruses do attack servers, but only because the user is connected to the server. The Melissa Virus/Worm crosses the line: it spreads from one machine to another like a worm, but it must be launched by the user like a virus. Example: The SirCam Worm of July 2001 didn't explode as fast as other viruses, but had a large effect on the net through its "background" operation on a machine and the technique of spidering the cached files in web-browsers looking for e-mail addresses. 
A virus that's designed to find all data in memory or on disk and alter any data it encounters. The alteration may be to change certain chracters to numbers or to swap bytes of stored memory. A few programs may still run, but usually data is irretrievably corrupted. 
A worm is a virus that does not infect other programs. It makes copies of itself, and infects additional computers (typically by making use of network connections) but does not attach itself to additional programs; however a worm might alter, install, or destroy files and programs. 
n. [from `tapeworm' in John Brunner's novel "The Shockwave Rider", via XEROX PARC] A program that propagates itself over a network, reproducing itself as it goes. Compare virus. Nowadays the term has negative connotations, as it is assumed that only crackers write worms. Perhaps the best-known example was Robert T. Morris's Great Worm of 1988, a `benign' one that got out of control and hogged hundreds of Suns and VAXen across the U.S. See also cracker, RTM, Trojan horse, ice. 
Write Once Read Many (CD) 
Windows Open System Architecture (MS) 
WOSA eXtensions for Control, Engineering and Manufacturing (WOSA, MS) 
WOSA eXtensions for Financial Services (WOSA, MS), "WOSA X FS" 
WOSA eXtensions for Real-Time market data (WOSA, MS) 
World Organization of Systems and Cybernetics (org., France) 
Windows On Windows 
The site appears current. Korean distribution. 
Word Perfect 
WordPerfect 5.x to whatever converter This program converts simple WordPerfect 5.0 and 5.1 files into any other document processing languages that use plain text files, like TeX, LaTeX, troff, GML and HTML. 
Wallpaper auto changer for GNOME wpac-applet is a GNOME applet which automatically changes the wallpaper. You need xloadimage because it called by wpac-applet internally. 
Polish dictionary words for /usr/dict This package provides the file /usr/share/dict/polish containing a list of Polish words. This list can be used by spelling checkers, and by programs such as look(1). 
The Web Preprocessor - a Perl script to preprocess HTML files WPP is a small Perl script that allows preprocessing of HTML files. You can define variables, which are abbreviations for longer constructs, and include common HTML fragments. It's useful for giving an uniform layout to different HTML pages. It can be used into cgi-bin programs for automatic generation of pages. With less HTML code inside them you can make more flexible and readable scripts. WPP provides four separate facilities that you can use as you see fit: inclusion of text/HTML fragments, variables expansion, conditional generation, macros expansion. 
Print any charset from web browsers and HtmlDoc WorldPrint is a filter for Mozilla (Galeon, etc.), Htmldoc, and Netscape PostScript output that uses TrueType fonts to allow the printing of pages written in Unicode, Big5, SJIS, KOI-8, ISO-8859* and others. 
Windows Printing System (MS, Windows) 
Word Processing Software 
WorkPlace Shell (OS/2, IBM, Shell) 
WMI Query Language (MS, Windows, WMI) 
Window Random Access Memory (RAM, IC, Samsung, Matrox) 
wrap around
vi. (also n. `wraparound' and v. shorthand `wrap') 1. [techspeak] The action of a counter that starts over at zero or at `minus infinity' (see infinity) after its maximum value has been reached, and continues incrementing, either because it is programmed to do so or because of an overflow (as when a car's odometer starts over at 0). 2. To change phase gradually and continuously by maintaining a steady wake-sleep cycle somewhat longer than 24 hours, e.g., living six long (28-hour) days in a week (or, equivalently, sleeping at the rate of 10 microhertz). This sense is also called phase-wrapping. 
A program used to start another program. 
A program used to start another program; usually a wrapper is SUID or SGID so it can bestow privileges onto another program that the other program would not normally have write. Allows you to communicate with other users, by copying lines from your terminal to theirs. 
Web Request Broker (Oracle, WWW) 
send a message to another user 
write to a file descriptor 
write-only code
n. [a play on `read-only memory'] Code so arcane, complex, or ill-structured that it cannot be modified or even comprehended by anyone but its author, and possibly not even by him/her. A Bad Thing. 
write-only language
n. A language with syntax (or semantics) sufficiently dense and bizarre that any routine of significant size is automatically write-only code. A sobriquet applied occasionally to C and often to APL, though INTERCAL and TECO certainly deserve it more. See also Befunge. 
write-only memory
n. The obvious antonym to `read-only memory'. Out of frustration with the long and seemingly useless chain of approvals required of component specifications, during which no actual checking seemed to occur, an engineer at Signetics once created a specification for a write-only memory and included it with a bunch of other specifications to be approved. This inclusion came to the attention of Signetics management only when regular customers started calling and asking for pricing information. Signetics published a corrected edition of the data book and requested the return of the `erroneous' ones. Later, in 1972, Signetics bought a double-page spread in "Electronics" magazine's April issue and used the spec as an April Fools' Day joke. Instead of the more conventional characteristic curves, the 25120 "fully encoded, 9046 x N, Random Access, write-only-memory" data sheet included diagrams of "bit capacity vs. Temp.", "Iff vs. Vff", "Number of pins remaining vs. number of socket insertions", and "AQL vs. selling price". The 25120 required a 6.3 VAC VFF supply, a +10V VCC, and VDD of 0V, +/- 2%. 
Whitewater Resource Toolkit (Windows, TPW) 
With Respect To (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Web Server (Corel) 
Warp Server E-Business (IBM, OS/2), "WSeb" 
Work Station Feature (IBM) 
Work Station Function (IN) 
Windows Scripting Host (MS, Windows, COM, WSH) 
Preferences editor for the Window Maker sound server WSoundPrefs is a WPrefs look-alike. It can be used to customize the sounds Window Maker uses for different events, as well as editing sound sets. 
Window Maker Sound Server WSoundServer is a complete, from scratch, reimplementation of a sound server for Window Maker window manager, done by Pascal Hofstee. It supports WAVE (wav), AIFF, Sun/NeXT (au), and snd audio formats. This package contains the sound server, the wsound library and soundset utilities. 
Wireless Session Protocol (WAP, mobile-systems) 
Workstation Security Package 
The Spanish dictionary words for /usr/share/dict This package contains an alphabetic list of Spanish words 
Windows Sound System (Windows, audio) 
The Swedish dictionary. This is a list of 120,000 Swedish words and names, to be used for whatever purpose you may think of. 
Windows Terminal Controller 
An rxvt based, color xterm replacement. Wterm is an rxvt based, 8-bit clean, color, xterm replacement. It contains features such as transparency, reverse transparency, background images, nice looking NeXT style scrollbars and is very customisable. Wterm is optimised for use under WindowMaker 0.50.x and up. 
What / Where / Who / Why The F*** (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
What / Where / Who / Why The Hell (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Wireless Transport Layer Security 
records all logins and logouts. Its format is exactly like utmp except that a null user name indicates a logout on the associated terminal. 
Wireless Transport Protocol (WAP, mobile-systems) 
Web Transaction Security (WWW) 
Wokstation Technology eXtended [format] 
powerful and widely used FTP server This FTP daemon, originally from the Washington University of St. Louis, is a powerful, and widely used replacement FTP server for Unix systems. The FTP protocol is a method of transferring files between machines on a network and/or over the Internet. Besides fully supporting the FTP protocol defined in RFCs 959 and 1579 (and others), it adds the following features: o logging of transfers, o logging of commands, o on the fly compression and archiving, o classification of users on type and location, o per class limits, o per directory upload permissions, o restricted guest accounts, o system wide and per directory messages, o directory aliases, o cdpath, o filename filter, o virtual host support (similar to the Apache HTTP server). This release is maintained by the WU-FTPD Development Group as a public service to the Internet. 
Convert and preview Microsoft Word documents. wv (previously known as mswordview) is a library which allows access to Microsoft Word files. It can load and parse the Word 2000, 97, 95, and 6 file format. (Work is underway to support reading earlier formats as well: Word 2 documents are converted to plain text.) Among the provided programs are: * wvWare: Converts to HTML and LaTeX. It's used by a small army of helper scripts able to preview Word documents and convert them to various other formats, like PostScript, PDF, DVI, etc. * wvRTF: Converts to Microsoft's Rich Text Format. * wvSummary: Displays the summary information stream of all OLE2 files, i.e. Excel, PowerPoint, Visio, Access, etc. * wvVersion: Outputs the version of the Word format a document is stored in. 
PPP dialer with built-in intelligence. WvDial sacrifices some of the flexibility of programs like "chat" in order to make your dialup configuration easier. When you install this package, your modem will be detected automatically and you need to specify just three parameters: the phone number, username, and password. WvDial knows enough to dial with most modems and log in to most servers without any other help. In particular, you no longer need a "chat script" to handle the most common situations. 
WvDial automatically locates and configures modems and can log into almost any ISP's server without special configuration. You need to input the username, password, and phone number, and then WvDial will negotiate the PPP connection using any mechanism needed. 
West Virginia Network for Educational Telecomputing (network, USA) 
WiederVerwendbare SoftwareObjekte 
World Wide Developer Conference (Apple) 
Worldwide Warning Indicator Monitoring System (mil.) 
Calculates distance and azimuth between two Maidenhead locators Given two Maidenhead locators, wwl calculates distance (qrb) and azimuth. 
Worldwide Military Command and Control System (mil., predecessor, GCCS) 
World Wide On-Line System (mil.) 
Web interface for administrating Sympa WWSympa is a well integrated web interface for configuring Sympa. It comes with original features such as : - Unique interface for users and admin, authentication - Contextual internationalization (English, French and Spanish) - Archives (MhOnArc) with access control and a Search Engine (MarcSearch) - Clean moderation - Edition of service messages (templates) for owner and listmaster - Semi-automatic bounces management - HTTPS authentication - Support for virtual hosting with respect to virtual domains 
World Wide Web (Internet) 
World Wide Web--also known as WEB--this is the generic name given to all of the hypertext-based HTML documents on the Internet. A revolutionary Internet browsing system that allows point-and-click%navigation of the Internet. The WWW is a spiderweb-like interconnection of millions of pieces of information located on computers around the world. Web documents use hypertext, which incorporates text and graphical links to other documents and files on Internet-connected computers. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
WWW (World Wide Web)
World Wide Web (or simply Web for short) is a term frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to "The Internet", WWW has two major meanings: First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP,telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers), more commonly called "web servers", which are the servers that serve web pages to web browsers. 
a WWW interface for the TCX mySQL database www-mysql is a web interface for the mySQL database. SQL commands can be embedded into web pages; these are executed on the server by www-mysql and the resulting web page sent to the browser. All SQL commands and queries supported by mySQL can be used via www-mysql. 
a WWW interface for the PostgreSQL database www-pgsql is a web interface for the PostgreSQL database. SQL commands can be embedded into web pages; these are executed on the server by www-pgsql and the resulting web page sent to the browser. All SQL commands and queries supported by PostgreSQL can be used via www-pgsql. 
Debian web auto configuration. A package to provide common setup scripts for some packages that need apache, php and a database. 
World Wide Web OFFline Explorer The wwwoffled program is a simple proxy server with special features for use with dial-up internet links. This means that it is possible to browse web pages and read them without having to remain connected. While Online - Caching of pages that are viewed for review later. - Conditional fetching to only get pages that have changed. - Modification of pages e.g. to remove the BLINK tag or popup windows. While Offline - The ability to follow links and mark other pages for download. - Browser or command line interface to select pages for downloading. - Optional info on bottom of pages showing cached date and allowing refresh. - Works with password protected pages and pages containing forms. - Cached pages can be searched with the ht://dig search engine. 
wxWindows Cross-platform C++ GUI toolkit (header files) wxWindows is a class library for C++ providing GUI (Graphical User Interface) and other facilities on more than one platform. Version 2.2 currently supports subsets of GTK+, Motif, and MS Windows. This package provides the common header files required to build applications using the wxWindows toolkit. 
(Where's Your Grammar?) command line parser generator WYG (Where's Your Grammar?) is a tool that automates the use of lex, yacc, and getopt_long to create a front-end for your projects that can be configured from files or via the command line. For more information, see 
/wiz'ee-ayg/ adj. Describes a user interface under which "What You See Is All You Get"; an unhappy variant of WYSIWYG. Visual, `point-and-shoot'-style interfaces tend to have easy initial learning curves, but also to lack depth; they often frustrate advanced users who would be better served by a command-style interface. When this happens, the frustrated user has a WYSIAYG problem. This term is most often used of editors, word processors, and document formatting programs. WYSIWYG `desktop publishing' programs, for example, are a clear win for creating small documents with lots of fonts and graphics in them, especially things like newsletters and presentation slides. When typesetting book-length manuscripts, on the other hand, scale changes the nature of the task; one quickly runs into WYSIAYG limitations, and the increased power and flexibility of a command-driven formatter like TeX or Unix's troff becomes not just desirable but a necessity. Compare YAFIYGI. 
What You See Is What I See 
'What You See Is What You Get'. This term refers to Graphical User Interfaces that present work in a format that is identical to that when printed out. 
/wiz'ee-wig/ adj. [Traced to Flip Wilson's "Geraldine" character c.1970] Describes a user interface under which "What You See Is What You Get", as opposed to one that uses more-or-less obscure commands that do not result in immediate visual feedback. True WYSIWYG in environments supporting multiple fonts or graphics is a a rarely-attained ideal; there are variants of this term to express real-world manifestations including WYSIAWYG (What You See Is Almost What You Get) and WYSIMOLWYG (What You See Is More or Less What You Get). All these can be mildly derogatory, as they are often used to refer to dumbed-down user-friendly interfaces targeted at non-programmers; a hacker has no fear of obscure commands (compare WYSIAYG). On the other hand, EMACS was one of the very first WYSIWYG editors, replacing (actually, at first overlaying) the extremely obscure, command-based TECO. See also WIMP environment. [Oddly enough, WYSIWYG has already made it into the OED, in lower case yet. --ESR] 
What You See Is What You Get (DTP) 
Lossy compression and denoising The program wzip is a preprocessor for LOSSY data compression. A sequence of ascii floating-point numbers is transformed into a sequence of small integers ready for effective compression with e.g. gzip. The program can also be used for effective but time consuming denoising of measurement data. Wzip was originally written for the processing of EDX-linescans. 
a portable, network-transparent window system 
See XFree86.
X /X/
n. 1. Used in various speech and writing contexts (also in lowercase) in roughly its algebraic sense of `unknown within a set defined by context' (compare N). Thus, the abbreviation 680x0 stands for 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, or 68040, and 80x86 stands for 80186, 80286, 80386, 80486, 80586 or 80686 (note that a Unix hacker might write these as 680[0-6]0 and 80[1-6]86 or 680?0 and 80?86 respectively; see glob). 2. [after the name of an earlier window system called `W'] An over-sized, over-featured, over-engineered and incredibly over-complicated window system developed at MIT and widely used on Unix systems. 
X Extension
An X extension is program code that extends the X server by adding some significant new functionality missing from the core X protocol, such as direct support for 3-D graphics. 
X Image Extension
Provides a mechanism for graphical image management in the client/server environment of X11. 
X Toolkit
The X Toolkit ( is a widget library that has always come free with X. It is crude-looking by today's standards. It doesn't feature 3D (shadowed) widgets, although it is comes free with X. [The excellent xfig application, an X Toolkit application, was in fact used to do the diagrams in this book.]Motif ( is a modern, full-featured widget library that had become an industry standard. Motif is, however, bloated, slow, and dependent on the X toolkit. It has always been an expensive proprietary library. Tk (tee-kay, is a library that is primarily used with the Tcl scripting language. It was probably the first platform-independent library (running on Windows, all UNIX variants, and the Apple Mac). It is, however, slow and has limited features (this is progressively changing). Both Tcl and Motif are not very elegant-looking. Around 1996, we saw a lot of widget libraries popping up with different licenses. V, xforms, and graphix come to mind. (This was when I started to write coolwidgets--my own widget library.) There was no efficient, multipurpose, Free, and elegant-looking widget library for UNIX. This was a situation that sucked and was retarding Free software development. 
X Window System
A graphical windowing environment for UNIX. The underlying programming required by many user interfaces. (Also, see Desktop, Window Manager and XFree86.) 
X Window System
an advanced, network transparent, windowing, graphical environment, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and first released in 1984. 
X Window System (X)
An engine and interface for creating graphical desktops and applications. See XFree86. 
X Windows
A network windowing environment commony used on UNIX-based workstations. X Windows is a device-independent, application program interface (API) that can run under operatings systems ranging from disk operating systems to a mainframe operating system. It's used most frequently on UNIX machines. Unlike Microsoft Windows 95 and other PC-based windowing environments, X Windows is designed for use on a minicomputer-based network. 
X Windows
X Windows forms the basis for most GUIs on UNIX. It is based upon a network protocol such that a program can run on one computer but be displayed on another. Conceptually, it is a graphical version of Telnet. Key point: X Windows goes in the "wrong" direction. When you log into an X Windows host, the host opens a connection back to the display. As a consequence, it is very useful as a back-channel. In particular, the program xterm provides a raw command-prompt from which a hacker can interact with just as if they had telnetted to the machine. 
XFace utility for GNU Emacs. XFace utility for GNU Emacs. If use on XEmacs then x-face-el suggests MULE supported XEmacs. 
One of the earliest reliable file transfer protocols, Xmodem was written in 1977 by Ward Christiansen. 
X-PGP-Sig mail and news header utility for Emacs. X-PGP-Sig header utility for Emacs. It can be insert/verify PGP signature in X-PGP-Sig: mail/news header. x-pgp-sig.el is for MH(mh-e, Mew and so on), Gnus, Semi-gnus, wl(Wanderlust) VM, cmail etc... (MUA on Emacs). But English Documents is not available. (only Japanese available) 
WYSIWYG TeX mode for XEmacs This is a WYSIWYG TeX add-on for [X]Emacs21. It shows math symbols, sub/super-scripts via special fonts, and figures via imagemagick. Emacs21 support is still BETA. 
terminal emulator for X 
Configure TrueType and CID fonts for X. This package configures TrueType fonts and CID fonts (as well as CMaps) for X. It generates .scale file and .alias file from TrueType and CID fonts registered to Defoma, and calls mkfontdir (and mkcfm). Both xtt and freetype backends which are used to handle TrueType fonts in X are supported. 
Tab Window Manager for the X Window System 
X Window System This metapackage provides substantially all the components of the X Window System as developed by the XFree86 Project, as well as a set of historically popular accessory programs. The development and debugging libraries are not provided by this metapackage. 
X Window System core components This metapackage provides the essential components for a standalone workstation running the X Window System. It provides the X libraries, an X server (except on the S/390 architecture), a set of fonts, and a group of basic X clients and utilities. Higher level metapackages, such as those for desktop environments, can depend on this package and simplify their dependencies. It should be noted that a package providing x-window-manager and a package providing x-terminal-emulator should also be installed to ensure a comfortable X experience. 
A network-based GUI designed for Unix systems, there are thousands of free applications available as source code and compiled executables for X-Windows compatible systems, including PC-based X-terminal emulators. 
Operate X-10 electrical power control modules. X-10 modules are devices that plug into an electrical outlet and allow you to remotely control the power to a lamp or an appliance that is plugged into them. There are also X-10 modules that install in place of wall switches to control lights, and there's one that can be used to set back a thermostat. This program commands up to 256 X-10 modules via a CP-290 serial-interface controller plugged into any serial port of your system. You can use it to automate your home! It's also commonly used to provide control over computers and other devices that might need to be powered up or down via a timed command or remote control. The CP-290 controller stores 128 clock-driven events that it will execute when your computer is turned off, so you can even program your computer to turn itself on at a particular time. You can buy the modules and manual controllers in Radio Shack stores, but the CP-290 serial-interface controller used to command them using your Debian system is slightly harder to find. Instructions on where to order one are included in the documentation of this package. 
GUI interface for x10 power line control utility Tk (wish) based GUI for the "x10" home-control program. With this program you can attach icons to your various X10 devices and see them displayed on a toolbar as well as a floor plan of your own. You can also read, write and edit programs to download to the CP-290 controller. 
Version 11 of the X Window System. 
X window System version 11 (X-Windows) 
X utilities for IRAF (Image Reduction Analysis Facility) Includes the xgterm, ximtool and xtapemon and associated utilities for the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility. WARNING: ximtool requires 8-bit mode or it will fail to start. 
X11 server performance test program 
X11 server performance comparison program 
A dual-screen hack - link a MS-Windows and X display This program merges the capabilities of x2x and vncviewer. It will allow a machine with an X display and a machine with a VNC server running on it's main screen to act as if they were two displays connected to one machine. When you move your mouse pointer off the screen in a direction of your choosing, the pointer will appear on the other screen instead. 
Link two X displays together, simulating a multiheaded display x2x joins a pair of X displays together, as if they were a single multiheaded display. The pointer can be warped between displays, or, depending on how you start x2x, can slide from one display to the other when it runs off the edge of the screen. Keyboard focus also moves between displays in the way you'd expect, and the X selection propagates around. At least one of the displays involved (specifically, the one being controlled remotely) must support the XTEST extension. (The servers shipped by Debian support this.) x2x is useful when you have two displays on the same desk, as you can use a single keyboard and mouse to control both. If you want to propagate your selections between displays which are not sharing a desk, you might be more interested in the package propsel. Propsel does not link the displays' keyboard and mouse, which would be confusing in some cases, and can propagate between up to 8 displays, whereas x2x can handle only two at a time. 
X3D-PEX, sometimes called PEX-5, is a version of the Phigs 3D graphics library. See X extension. 
Display diagnostic information about i386 CPUs x86info displays diagnostic information about the CPUs fitted to i386 systems. This includes information on the CPU cache configuration, speed and supported features. Some features require the kernel cpuid driver to be available. 
eXtended Architecture (IBM, VM, ESA, VM/ESA, XC) 
XCIN Anywhere +CV wrapper for Chinese input in X applications XA+CV (XCIN Anywhere +CV) is a small X library wrapper for XCIN. Users may use this nifty tool to input and display Chinese (both Big5 and GB) characters in almost any X applications (e.g. Netscape 4.x), especially for those that do not support the XIM protocol. Authors: WEI Je-Ren <> CHENG Yuan-Chung <> 
Xfree86 Acceleration Architecture (X-Windows) 
Simulation of the ancient oriental calculator This is the non-motif version by David Bagley. 
Xante's Accurate Calibration Technology (Xante), "X*ACT" 
XML Authoring Environment for Emacs The XAE is an add-on software package that enables you to use Emacs and your system's HTML browser to create, transform, and display XML documents. 
XSLT processor. Command line utility to process XML files using an XSLT stylesheet. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
Provides feed back while loading X applications Xalf can reliably detect if newly mapped windows are belonging to a particular launched application. It does this by overloading the Xlib function XMapWindow with a version that signals the tracking xalf process. Xalf provides (currently) four different types as "indicators", described below. Invisible Window: Xalf creates an invisible window, to be used in conjunction with a standard task pager like Gnomes tasklist_applet or the KDE Taskbar. The name of the window is the application name within parenthesis. The small window icon (KWM_WIN_ICON) is set to a small hourglass. This indicator is default. Splash screen: An generic splashscreen is displayed during application launch. Mouse cursor change: Xalf adds an hourglass symbol to the mousecursor for the root window and the Gnome panel. Note that the cursor is not changed for the Gnome foot-menu windows. Animated star: An animated indicator resembling the look of that on SGI/Irix machines (a kind of yellow star blinking while loading a program). 
Graphical mixer for ALSA ALSA is an effort to create a modules sound system for Linux, while maintaining full compatibility with OSS/Lite. This package contains a graphical front-end (using the GTK+ toolkit) to the ALSA mixer device. 
Xandros Linux
Xandros Desktop OS (formerly Corel's Debian-based distribution) is a desktop system designed to peacefully co-exist and inter-operate with Windows desktop and server systems. The first version of the Xandros Desktop OS was released October 22, 2002. 
real-time interactive fractal zoomer XaoS is a real-time interactive fractal zoomer. It can display the fractals in X, svgalib, and even plain text mode. It displays the Mandelbrot set or one of 8 other fractals and allows you to zoom smoothly into the fractal. Various coloring modes are provided for both the points inside and outside the selected set. In addition, switching between Mandelbrot and Julia fractal types is provided. Other features include autopilot mode, palette changing, image saving, fractal inversion, and a built in fractal tutorial. 
X.400 API Association (org., X.400, API) 
X program to monitor APM battery status On laptop computers, the Advanced Power Management (APM) support provides access to battery status information and may help you to conserve battery power, depending on your laptop and the APM implementation. This package contains xapm(1), an X11 utility that displays the status of the battery. 
Apple ][ Emulator This is a fully-functional 100% Apple ][ emulator for X windows. It is partly written in 386 (AT&T) assembler and partly in C. You can switch diskettes using a diskette database through an intuitive interface. Furthermore, it is possible to trim the speed of the emulator and it runs in full speed (approximately) twice as fast as an standard Apple II+ on a 486DX-50. It uses the svgalib's key scancodes and implements the undocumented 6502 instructions (required by at least two games: Bug Attack and MS Pacman). Because the Apple ROMs are copyrighted, they are not included here. You will have to make copies of them from your old Apple computer. If you don't want to mess around with this, you can find a copy at: Transferring your old Apple disks is a bit of work, but you can save yourself the trouble of digging up your old masters by seeing if some kind soul has already done the work for you at: Remember, you can only use these ROMs and images _legally_ if you already own the original. Have fun! (Ahhh.... What memories!) 
An X11 version of the game Archon. XArchon is a clone of the classic ARCHON game which was distributed by Electronic Arts around 1985. It pits the light side against the dark side in a battle for the control of a chess-like playing board. XArchon consists of a strategy mode, in which pieces are moved around the board, and an arcade mode, in which two pieces attempting to occupy the same square battle one another. 
Reversed xclock If clocks had been invented in Argentina (southern hemisphere), they would run counter-clockwise. Down there a sundial runs the other way around! The program is an extension of the standard X clock widget. New features are: Configurable direction of rotation and font support in analog mode. 
build and execute command lines from standard input 
X-based asteroids-style arcade game Make big rocks into little ones. 
X Amateur Station Tracking and Information Reporting Xastir is an APRS client for X. APRS is the Automatic Position Reporting System, a system where objects report their position (usually obtained from GPS) on the air; Xastir displays this information graphically. 
X authority file utility 
start a program if the X session is idle for some time Xautolock monitors input devices under the X Window System, and launches a program of your choice if there is no activity after a user-configurable period of time. You can use this to automatically start up a screen locker if you have left your computer unattended for some period of time. The program launched need not be a screen locker such as xlock. 
cute 3D replacement for the X Athena widget set [libc5] Xaw3d is a set of 3-D widgets based on the R6.1 Athena Widget set, which adds a three dimensional appearance on some of the widgets of X11 applications dynamically linked against libXaw. This is the libc5 version of xaw3dg library, provided for compatibility with libc5-based programs linking to Xaw3d. This library doesn't contain 3D scrollbars ("arrowscrollbars"), either, please read /usr/share/doc/xaw3d/scrollbars for more information. 
Xaw3d is an enhanced version of the MIT Athena Widget set for the X Window System. Xaw3d adds a three-dimensional look to applications with minimal or no source code changes. You should install Xaw3d if you are using applications which incorporate the MIT Athena widget set and you want to incorporate a 3D look into those applications. 
Xaw3d widget set Xaw3d is a set of 3-D widgets based on the Athena Widget set, which adds a three dimensional appearance on some of the widgets of X11 applications linked with this library. Please note that this package no longer adds a three dimensional appearance on applications dynamically linked against libXaw. 
X11 TV application TV application for X11. Supports video4linux devices and the Xvideo extension. For Xvideo support xawtv must be compiled with the XFree86 4.0+ client libraries installed. 
Beautify your XDM login screen XBanner is a program designed to beautify your XDM login screen. It can draw text and render some effect on it, and it can fill the background with a nice pattern of colors. XBanner can also put an image on the screen for you, as well as do some minimal animation. 
miscellaneous X clients An X client is a program that interfaces with an X server (almost always via the X libraries), and thus with some input and output hardware like a graphics card, monitor, keyboard, and pointing device (such as a mouse). This package provides a miscellaneous assortment of several dozen X clients that ship with the X Window System, including: - startx and xinit, which initialize X sessions from the command line; - xauth, a tool for controlling access to the X session; - xedit, a text editor; - xbiff, a tool which tells you when you have new email; - xcalc, a scientific calculator desktop accessory; - xclipboard, a tool to manage cut-and-pasted text selections; - xcutsel, which exchanges selection and cut buffer contents; - xconsole, which monitors system console messages; - xditview, a viewer for ditroff output; - xeyes, a demo program in which a pair of eyes track the pointer; - xfd, a tool that displays all the glyphs in a given X font; - xfontsel, a tool for browsing and selecting X fonts; - xhost, a very dangerous program that you should never use; - xkill, a tool for terminating misbehaving X clients; - xload, a monitor for the system load average; - xlogo, a demo program that displays the X logo; - xmag, which magnifies parts of the X screen; - xman, a manual page browser; - xmessage, a tool to display message or dialog boxes; - xrefresh, a tool that forces a redraw of the X screen; - xsetroot, a tool for tailoring the appearance of the root window; - xvidtune, a tool for customizing X server modelines for your monitor; - xwd, a utility for taking window dumps ("screenshots") of the X session; - xwud, a viewer for window dumps created by xwd; - oclock and xclock, graphical clocks; - beforelight, a screen saver; - bitmap, a monochrome bitmap file editor; - bmtoa, a tool that converts a monochrome bitmap to ASCII text; - cxpm and sxpm, tools for checking and viewing X pixmap files; - dpsexec, a Display PostScript program that allows the user to interact directly with the PostScript interpreter through a command interface - dpsinfo, a utility for displaying information about the DPS extension present in an X server or provided by a client-side DPS agent - glxgears, a GLX demo that draws three rotating gears, and prints framerate information to standard output - iceauth, a tool for manipulating ICE protocol authorization records; - texteroids, a spinning text demo for the DPS extension - xftcache, a tool that creates an index of FreeType font files in a directory - xset, a tool for setting miscellaneous X server parameters; - xmodmap, a utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in X; - xsetmode and xsetpointer, tools for handling X Input devices; - setxkbmap, xkbbell, xkbcomp, xkbevd, xkbprint, xkbvleds, and xkbwatch, tools for managing the X keyboard extension (XKB); - xsm, a session manager for X sessions; - smproxy, a session manager proxy for X clients that do not use the X session manager protocol; - xgamma, a tool for querying and setting a monitor's gamma correction; - appres, editres, listres, viewres, and xrdb, which query and update the X resource database; - Xmark, x11perf, x11perfcomp, and xieperf, tools for benchmarking graphical operations under the X Window System; - fstobdf, which retrieves a font in BDF format from an X font server; - xcmsdb, a device color characteristic utility for the X Color Management System; - xstdcmap, a utility to selectively define standard colormap properties; - xev, an X event displayer; - xfindproxy, a tool to locate X proxy services; - xlsatoms, which lists interned atoms defined on an X server; - xlsclients, which lists client applications running on an X display; - xlsfonts, a server font list displayer; - xprop, a property displayer for X; - xdpyinfo, a display information utility for X; - xwininfo, a window information utility for X; - glxinfo, a GLX extension information utility for X; - xvinfo, an Xv extension information utility for X; - ico, an X graphics demo using an animated polyhedron; - dga, a demo program for the DGA extension; and - xgc, an (unfinished) X graphics demo program. 
A classic shoot-em-up game for X11. Xbat closely resembles the classic arcade game Xevious. While navigating his Solvalou, the player must survive waves of enemy airships, occasionally meeting up with a "boss-ship" at the end of a level. 
Display battery status xbatt is an X11 client which displays the battery status of your notebook computer equipped with APM (Advanced Power Management) BIOS. The status displayed consists of the remaining battery life, the AC line status, and the charging status. This version of xbatt is dockable in WindowMaker's Docking bar. 
A concurrent multi-player battle strategy game. xbattle is a concurrent multi-player game which combines elements of strategy with arcade-like action to capture a wide range of military scenarios. Opponents play from separate displays, with commands being executed concurrently -- the players do not take "turns", but rather they all issue their commands simultaneously. There can be any number of players, with each player assigned to a specific team, indicated by marker colors. The game board is a matrix of cells (square, hexes, etc.) that can be occupied by colored troops, with the goal of the game being to eliminate the enemy from the board by attacking cells occupied by enemy troops. A wide variety of command line options (and previously configured game files) provide an abundance of different scenarios and gaming environments. 
XML Bookmark Exchange Language The XML Bookmark Exchange Language (XBEL) is a rich interchange format for "bookmark" data as used by most web browsers. This package contains XBEL DTDs for 1.0 and 1.1 formats as well as documentation. 
mailbox flag for X 
Get rid of those Wingdows Viruses! Ever get the feeling that nothing is going right? You're a sysadmin, and someone's trying to destroy your computers. The little people running around the screen are trying to infect your computers with Wingdows [TM], a virus cleverly designed to resemble a popular operating system. Your objective is to click the mouse on them, ending their potential threat. If one of the people reaches a computer, it will attempt to replace your operating system with the virus it carries. It will then attempt to run off the screen with your vital software. 
3-D tetris like game Xbl is a game involving dropping blocks like Xtetris but in 3 dimensions. 
Multi player blast-the-others game inspired by Dynablaster Features: - 2 to 6 players - 1 or 2 players per X-Server - 95 different levels - Full color and monochrome support (including true color modes) - PoV-Ray rendered color graphics You have to install the xblast-sound package if you want sound support. 
Browser for Pixmaps and Bitmaps A nice little utility to browse whole directories of X11 pixmaps or bitmaps. A configurable menu allows editing or display on the root window. 
An X Window System Chess Board. XBoard is a graphical chessboard that can serve as a user interface for GNU Chess, for the Internet Chess Server, or for electronic mail correspondence chess. XBoard can also be used by itself. XBoard uses the Helvetica font (located in the xfonts-75dpi and xfonts-100dpi packages) by default. However, other fonts can be specified via a command line option or an X resource. 
Xboard is an X Window System based graphical chessboard which can be used with the GNUchess and Crafty chess programs, with Internet Chess Servers (ICSs), with chess via email, or with your own saved games. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
Blockout game for X XBoing is a blockout type game where you have a paddle which you control to bounce a ball around the game zone destroying blocks with a proton ball. Each block carries a different point value. The more blocks you destroy, the better your score. The person with the highest score wins. The arena is filled with blocks and other objects. You have a paddle that can move from left to right at the bottom of the arena. You control the paddle so that the proton ball bounces around blowing up blocks and that it does not go past the paddle and out the bottom, much like a pinball game. 
A 'minesweeper' game with squares, hexagons or triangles. A test of speed and logic to find the location of bombs hidden in a grid. Offers the standard square grid, plus hexagonal and triangular grids, each in 3 difficulty levels, all games played against the clock, with a high-score table for each combination. 
The Xbox Linux project aims to create a version of GNU/Linux that runs on the Microsoft Xbox gaming console. Initial version 0.1 was released August 17, 2002. Version 0.2 was released August 26, 2002. Version 11-01-2003 was released January 17, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
XBase Parts (Xbase/2, OS/2, DB) 
a Breakout/Arkanoid clone for X The objective of this arcade game is to break all the bricks with a ball that bounces off the walls and a paddle that you can move. You start by firing out the ball from your paddle, which can be moved left and right parallel to the wall below it. The ball will move and hit the bricks located above, and when it hits a brick it will fall apart (i.e. dissappear), but the ball will bounce back to hit other bricks, sidewalls or the highest wall. If it falls down not hitting the paddle, you lose one life and have to start over. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
3-d models and movies of molecules xbs ball-and-sticks plotting program can create still and moving three dimensional models of molecules. X11 and PostScript output are available. Models can be rotated, scaled, etc. Various labeling, shading, lighting, coloring options are available. 
A nice Puzzle Bubble clone XBubble is a Puzzle Bubble / Bust-A-Move clone. Your goal is to remove all the bubbles from the game board. To do this you must aim and shoot bubbles. When you manage to match 3 or more bubbles of the same color, they burst and disappear. All bubbles which hang free now, will fall down and disappear, too. xbubble features single player mode, two player mode and player vs. computer (five difficulty levels of the AI) and has nice graphics, but no sound. 
Monitor mailboxes and/or newsgroups Xbuffy is a program that displays how many unread mails you have in your different mailboxes. You can have different titles for the mailboxes, and define what shall happen when a new mail arrives. It can beep and invoke a shell command, for example. Xbuffy can also notify you by blinking a keyboard LED when new mail has arrived. If you press mouse button 1 on the title associated with a mail box, a list of From: and Subject: lines of the mails in the mail spool file is shown. If you press mouse button 2, an arbitrary command is executed. If you press mouse button 3, the LED blinking is stopped until another mail has arrived. Xbuffy can similarly watch newsgroups via NNTP. 
eXtended Configuration (IBM, ESA, VM) 
a graphical calendar with memos and reminder alarms The "classic" calendar app with memos and alarms, xcal normally sits idle and displays the date. When clicked on, pops up a `strip' for this month. Clicking on a day allows you to enter details. Automatically parses times entered, and reminds you 5 minutes before your appointment. Supports daily and weekly repeating events and context-sensitive help. 
scientific calculator for X 
calendar program on X with i18n support xcalendar is a simple interactive calendar program with a notebook capability. It is built on the X Toolkit and the Athena or Motif Widgets (compile time option). xcalendar-i18n is a modified version of xcalendar with X11R6-style i18n implementation. Resource files for JA and KR are included. JA resource is included in the original xcalendar, not in the i18n patch. KR resource is sent by Changwoo Ryu <> for this Debian package. 
Packet radio program for X/GTK Xcall is a packet radio program which supports the AX.25, NET/ROM and Rose protocols. The current features of xcall are: o Command line history. o Recording of the session into a file. o AX.25 port information read from the proc filesystem. o Changing of the receive window font and colors. o Dutch and French Language support. o Basic support for DX Clusters. 
Pigeon holes for your cut and paste selections xcb provides easy access to the cut buffers built into every X server. It allows the buffers to be manipulated either via the command line, or with the mouse in a point and click manner. This version is also utf-8 capable. 
X Common Client Interface (X-Windows), "X CCI" 
X based CD-writer software X-CD-Roast is a full X based CD-Writer-program and is the successor of cdwtools-0.93. It is a frontend for CD related programs like cdwrite and mkisofs. Feature list of 0.98alpha: - Easy setup and intuitive X11 user interface - GUI based on GTK+ instead of TCL/TK (100% new C-code) - Copies most data/mixed-mode/audio-CDs (data also on-the-fly) - Master data-CDs and rearrange audio-CDs (data also on-the-fly) - Create your own audio-CDs (full Disk-at-Once support) - Multisession/Bootable CD creation. - Supports most SCSI/ATAPI/Parallel-CD-Writers available - Supports different international languages - CDDB-Lookups and CD-Text - Online help - Administration mode for usage in computer pools. - Fully themeable via GTK-Themes - Runs on most common Unix-Operation-Systems (Primary platforms: Linux and Solaris) 
eXtensions for Control, Engineering and Manufacturing (API, MS, Windows) 
A strategy game for 2-4 players Chain Reaction is a classic strategy game for 2-4 players. Players take turns to place tokens on an 8x8 board. When a square exceeds it's maximum value, it explodes, setting off the surrounding squares. 
IRC client for X similar to AmIRC XChat is a graphical IRC Client with a GTK+ GUI. It has a look and feel similar to AmIRC for the Amiga. Special features include the mIRC extension DCC RESUME and mIRC color, multiple server/channel windows, dialog windows, and a plugin API. 
eXtended Cylinder Head Sectors (EIDE) 
Chinese input server in X11 This package contains the XCIN Chinese input server, to be used with Chinese Rxvt (provided in the rxvt-ml package) for the X Window System. It supports both Big5 (traditional Chinese) and GB (simplified Chinese) character sets. Currently, the Debian xcin package use the 12x24, taipei24 (zh_TW.Big5) and hanzigb24st (zh_CN.GB2312) fonts, although other fonts may be used. There is also limited support for the new zh_CN.GBK and zh_HK.Big5-HKSCS locales. More fonts and input methods will be available for Debian in the future. Home Page: Authors: Edward Der-Hua Liu, Taiwan Suei-Jeng Wang <> Tung-Han Hsieh <> 
Chinese input server (Big5) for XA+CV in X11. This package contains the (old) XCIN2.3 Chinese input server, to be used with Chinese Rxvt (provided in the rxvt-ml package) and XA+CV in X11. It only supports Big5. Install the xcingb if you want GB support instead. Currently, the Debian xcin package defaults to use the 12x24 and taipei24 fonts from the xfonts-base and xfonts-intl-chinese packages. Home Page: Authors: Edward Der-Hua Liu, Taiwan Suei-Jeng Wang <> Tung-Han Hsieh <> 
[Obsolete] Chinese input server (GB) for Crxvt in X11. Note: This package is obsolete. It is provided in case the user needs it for some old applications. The user is recommended to use xcin 2.5.x or chinput 3.x instead. This package contains the XcinGB Chinese input server, as well as its companion crxvt-gb-2.3 (or gbrxvt-2.3) Chinese X terminal for the X Window System. It supports the GB2312 character set, the standard encoding in Mainland China and other places that use Simplified Chinese characters, Jiantizi. Home Page: 
Draw circuit schematics or almost anything. xcircuit is a generic drawing program tailored for making circuit diagrams. The graphical interface attempts to maintain consistency between X11 window rendering and the pure PostScript output. xcircuit is mouse, menu and keyboard driven. The emphasis is on single character macros. 
command line interface to X selections xclip is a command line utility that is designed to run on any system with an X11 implementation. It provides an interface to X selections ("the clipboard") from the command line. It can read data from standard in or a file and place it in an X selection for pasting into other X applications. xclip can also print an X selection to standard out, which can then be redirected to a file or another program. 
X clipboard client 
Graphic interface to the "C" Language Integrated Production System This package provides a graphical interface to clips that allows user to have access to many functions and easy display of the agenda, instance, facts... 
analog / digital clock for X 
eXtended CMOS (IC, CMOS) 
X Color Management System (X-Windows), "Xcms" 
Device Color Characterization utility for X Color Management System 
eXtended Common Object File Format (Unix) 
display all X11 color names and colors Reads the rgb.txt file that defines the color names the X server knows and displays the colors found. 
display colors and names in X xcolorsel is an X utility that displays the contents of the X color list file (/etc/X11/rgb.txt) together with tiles showing how the color looks on your screen. You can cut the color names/definitions in various formats (suitable for resource files or C source) so they can be pasted directly into source codes or resources. 
A graphical multi-player strategy game and game design system. Xconq is an Empire-type strategy game, where each player contests for domination of a simulated world. Unlike most empire-building games, it features a programming language that game designers can use to build a wide variety of games. Games already in the distribution's library include everything from simple combat, to elaborate world models, to silly but fun games, with time periods ranging from ancient history into the distant future. 
common Files to Xconq. This package contains common architecture independent files needed by Xconq. 
monitor system console messages with X 
Hamradio convers client for X/GTK Xconvers is a client to connect to a convers server (port 3600) over the internet or by packet-radio. In a split-screen session you can type text into the bottom screen. The reply from the server can be seen in the top screen. The current version features: color support, optional saving of the session to a logfile, history for the connect dialog and the send widget and autologin. 
Extensible mouse-based text editor for X This is a multi-window mouse-based text editor for the X Window System. It is provided with a built-in C/C++/Java browser and an Ansi C Interpreter to dynamically extend the editor's possibilities (modes, key-bindings). Xcoral also offers facilities to write LaTeX documents and HTML pages. This package install the Xcoral user's manual in postscript. 
Fly about 3D-formed file system Xcruise allows you fling about the file system by 3D-view. Every file appears as a planets, directory appears as a galaxies,and symbolic link appears as a worm-holes. You could fly about this space world by moving and clicking your mouse 
X Commands and Utilities Test Suite (X/Open) 
interchange between cut buffer and selection 
Qt frontend to unixcw Xcwcp is an X-based interactive Morse code tutor program. It lets you choose from a number of options for practice, including sending random characters, random words, and characters from the keyboard. It will also receive Morse code that you send using the keyboard or mouse as a Morse keyer, and display the characters it sees. 
Melting digital clock The xdaliclock program displays a digital clock; when a digit changes, it "melts" into its new shape. It can display in 12 or 24 hour modes, and displays the date when a mouse button is held down. It has two large fonts built into it, but it can animate most other fonts that contain all of the digits. It can also do some funky psychedelic colormap cycling, and can use the "shape" extension so that the window is shaped like the digits. 
Xdelta (X for XCF: the eXperimental Computing Facility at Berkeley) is a binary delta generator (like a diff program for binaries) and an RCS version control replacement library. The Xdelta library performs its work independently of the actual format used to encode the file and is intended to be used by various higher-level programs such as XCF's Project Revision Control System (PRCS). PRCS is a front end for aversion control toolset. Xdelta uses a binary file delta algorithm toreplace the standard diff program used by RCS. 
Yet another minesweeper for X This one is the most similar to the Windows one in terms of look and feel. 
Smart multi-file multi-part decoder (X11 GUI) This is an X11-based decoder for files encoded with the following formats: uuencode, xxencode, BASE64, quoted printable, and BinHex. 
Program to copy and format Xdf disks in Linux TQ 
Program to copy and format Xdf disks in Linux TQ 
X11 replacement for the text util dialog Xdialog is designed to be a drop-in replacement for the dialog and cdialog programs. It converts any terminal-based program into a program with an X interface. The dialogs are easier to see and use, and Xdialog adds more functionality such as a help button and box, a treeview, an editbox, file and directory selectors, a range box, and a calendar. It uses GTK+, and will match your desktop theme. 
A XWindow-game like Boulderdash (without scrolling) You are a little (digger-)man and have to collect diamonds. 
Displays a graphic of your disk usage with du xdiskusage is a user-friendly program to show you what is using up all your disk space. It is based on the design of the "xdu" program written by Phillip C. Dykstra. Changes have been made so it runs "du" for you, and can display the free space left on the disk, and produce a PostScript version of the display. 
display ditroff output 
Desktop Calendar for X X Desktop Calendar (xdkcal) is a Calendar for X Window System. It draws calendar on your desktop. You can customize, fontset, color drawing style. This application is completely internationalized so it reads locale database and draw locale specific strings, such as name of months or weeks. 
X Display Manager (X-Windows) 
X Display Manager - users need only to type in their username and password at a friendly prompt, and they are dropped directly into the graphical environment. This is simple and easy to use, and is seen frequently in college campuses, cyber cafes, business environments, anywhere you have users not necessarily familiar with Unix to any great extent. 
X display manager xdm manages a collection of X servers, which may be on the local host or remote machines. It provides services similar to those provided by init, getty, and login on character-based terminals: prompting for login name and password, authenticating the user, and running a session. xdm supports XDMCP (X Display Manager Control Protocol) and can also be used to run a chooser process which presents the user with a menu of possible hosts that offer XDMCP display management. If the xutils package is installed, xdm can use the sessreg utility to register login sessions to the system utmp file; this, however, is not necessary for xdm to function. 
XDM (X Display Manager)
User-friendly login front end for the X Window System. Often used in a cyber cafi or campus environment where users who are not familiar with UNIX need occasional access. 
X Display Manager Control Protocol (X-Windows) 
display information utility for X 
eXternal Data Representation (ONC, RPCL, Sun, RFC 1832) 
an open-source version of ChemDraw A linux application that mirrors the abilities of ChemDraw This program has file compatibility with Chemdraw files. 
Xeros Data Systems (manufacturer, Xerox) 
display the output of "du" in an X window XDU is a program for displaying a graphical tree of disk space utilization as reported by the UNIX utility "du". You can navigate up and down in the tree, sort things, and print out information. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
DVI Previewer for the X Window System 
DVI Previewer for the X Window System 
DVI Previewer for the X Window System 
The standard text editor, for X xed is a Tcl/Tk reimplementation of the standard text editor, ed. It includes a window showing the file you're editing, but also has the classic efficient text-based interface Unix users have loved for years. 
simple text editor for X 
Yet Another Follow the Mouse X demo A man will watch over you. 
Editor and kitchen sink -- support binaries A spinoff of the GNU Emacs editor with much better support for X including multiple fonts within the same buffer and images within buffers, but that doesn't even begin to describe the changes. XEmacs is a full fledged programming language with a mail reader, news reader, info browser, web browser, calendar, specialized editor for more programming languages and other formats than most people encounter in a lifetime, and much much more. After starting it up peruse the Help menu and read more on its origins and what it can do. You will need one of xemacs21-mule, xemacs21-nomule, or xemacs21-mule-canna-wnn to actually run xemacs. 
Editor and kitchen sink -- Mule binary This package contains the actual binary used to run XEmacs. It depends on the xemacs21-support package for lisp and etc files, and the xemacs21-bin package for supporting binaries. This binary has been compiled with support for mule, but no input extensions. This version has also been compiled to use features from gtk and gnome. Mule is the extension to (x)emacs that allows for the display of non-European characters (for example Japanese and Korean characters). This version of the package is mainly useful for only the display and reading of international characters. It does not have any mechanism for entering non-European characters (see the xemacs21-mule-canna-wnn package for that). This package actually contains one of the six xemacs binaries available. They are xemacs21-nomule, xemacs21-mule, xemacs21-mule-canna-wnn, xemacs21-gnome-nomule, xemacs21-gnome-mule, and xemacs21-gnome-mule-canna-wnn. 
not just another tetris clone Another tetris-like falling blocks game. Although it looks like Tetris, it's not---and figuring out how to make blocks go away is half the fun. 
A benchmark program for the X Window System. It displays an animation of the moving engine of cars. The r.p.m. of the engine suggests the performance of the X Window System to put dots on the display. 
/zee'roks park'/ n. The famed Palo Alto Research Center. For more than a decade, from the early 1970s into the mid-1980s, PARC yielded an astonishing volume of groundbreaking hardware and software innovations. The modern mice, windows, and icons style of software interface was invented there. So was the laser printer and the local-area network; and PARC's series of D machines anticipated the powerful personal computers of the 1980s by a decade. Sadly, the prophets at PARC were without honor in their own company, so much so that it became a standard joke to describe PARC as a place that specialized in developing brilliant ideas for everyone else. The stunning shortsightedness and obtusity of XEROX's top-level suits has been well anatomized in "Fumbling The Future: How XEROX Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer" by Douglas K. Smith and Robert C. Alexander (William Morrow & Co., 1988, ISBN 0-688-09511-9). 
Xerox Engineering Systems (Xerox) 
a program to create Euclidean geometry figures. xeukleides is a system for editing and viewing elementary Euclidean geometry figures using a gtk interface. Also included is eukleides which is console based. 
a program to create euclidean geometry figures. xeuklides is a system for editing and viewing elementary euclidean geometry figures using a gtk interface. Also included is euklides which is console based. 
print contents of X events 
A violent side-scrolling game for X XEvil is a 3rd person, side-view, fast-action, kill-them-before-they-kill-you game. Fight against either computer-controlled enemies, or another player. You sinned in life. And now you must pay. Satan pits the recently deceased against each other to fight for rank in Hell. Your skill determines your fate for all eternity. This contest is known as XEvil. XEvil runs on Windows 95/98/NT, and most Unix platforms. 
Run a simple arbitrary command from X xexec is a program designed to allow quick and easy access for running simple command lines. For example, let's say you wanted to start Netscape, but didn't have it on your window manager's menu. Just run xexec, and type netscape in the text box, press enter, and there you have it. It is especially useful for allowing access to any available command via one primary menu entry. 
extensions to XFree86 3.x servers xext provides extensions to XFree86 version 3.x servers. This presently includes a system for 3D rendering under X called PEX (the PHIGS/PHIGS-PLUS Extension to X, in which PHIGS stands for Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System), XIE (X Image Extension), and XInput, which can manage the following input devices: * joystick (PC game port type) * Elographics touch screen * MicroTouch touch screens (using stylus or finger) * mouse * Wacom eraser * Wacom cursor * SummaSketch tablet * AceCad tablet * CalComp DrawingBoard tablet * SWITCH virtual device * SGI button box While this package is installable without an X server on the system, it is only useful in conjunction with an XFree86 3.x X server. Note that the loadable extension modules in this package are not compatible with, and are not used by, the XFree86 version 4.x X server. If you intend to use the joystick extension (and the joycal joystick calibration program), and are using a Linux kernel version prior to 2.2, you will need the joystick kernel module package. Note that the PEX extension is not supported on the Alpha architecture. 
a follow the mouse X demo 
Graphical configuration tool for XFree86 4.0 
generate an XF86Config file 
Displays an image for each piece of mail in your mailbox. XFaces is a program that will display an image for each piece of mail in your mail box. This lets you know at a glance who you have mail from. XFaces starts out (when you have no mail) looking like a color xbiff. As you receive mail XFaces becomes a column of mail images. Some of XFaces features: - Both mono and color images. - Optional Shaped window support with both xpm and xbm. - Sound support using the NetAudio protocol. The NetAudio server currently supports Sun's SparcStation (SunOS 4.1.X and Solaris 2.2), SGI's Indigo and NCD MCX X terminals running NCDware 3.1 or later. - Face images can be "compressed" so that each image will only show up once on your display. This way, if you receive 30 messages from one user, list or whatever the image will only show up once. - You can use regular expressions to search any headers to choose images and sounds or ignore that mail message completely. This lets you specify an image/sound for mail that comes from a mailing list or ignore mail that you have already seen but left in your system mailbox. - Compatibility support for Rich Burridge's faces program. This includes the ability to run user command to generate the image list. - Support for POP mailboxes. - XFaces can kick off shell commands based upon mailbox contents. You could have yourself paged when a high priority item needs your attention. - XFaces can run external filters to convert images into Xpm so that image formats that XFaces does not understand can be used. - The annotations for mail items include username, hostname, count, user@host, the contents of any header. 
Extended File Control Block 
The Cholesterol Free Desktop Environment XFce, previously known as XForms cool environment, is a desktop environment reminiscent of CDE that uses the GTK+ library, and isn't resource-hungry. XFce includes a window manager, tool bar, file manager, backdrop manager, sound subsystem, clock and calendar, mouse configuration and pager module. Also includes sounds, icons, backgrounds and pixmaps used by the XFce environment and window manager, along with systemwide configuration files and HTML help files. 
display all the characters in an X font 
X Front End (X-Windows) 
Facility for Interactive Generation of figures under X11 XFig is a menu-driven tool that allows the user to draw and manipulate objects interactively in an X window. The resulting pictures can be saved, printed on postscript printers, or converted to a variety of other formats (e.g. to allow inclusion in LaTeX documents or web pages) using the transfig program. This package contains the xfig program itself and the object libraries. 
locate proxy services 
BSD-like finger daemon with qmail support. Yet another finger daemon. Mimics the output and behavior of the original BSD daemon. Does not need to be run as root, has support for PGP keys, qmail mailboxes and qmail dash-extended usernames. Generally paranoid about account probes, while still allows search by full name. Users can control if they can be fingered or not. Uses tcpwrappers. 
Fireworks in your root window XFireworks makes fireworks in the root window on X. This is imitation of Japanese "Hanabi Taikai". It is very popular event in Japanese summer and performed on some rivers. 
turns your X root into an aquarium Enjoy an animated aquarium background on your screen, with a variety of tropical fish swimming in it. 
programs to mirror-image or melt your display. Flip your (or your "xhost +" using friend's) screen on either the vertical or horizontal axis or melt away the graphics on your display. Both commands have a -planes option to independently act on individual bit planes. This version now comes with a new -oblic option which flips horizontally and vertically simultaneously. 
X file and application manager Xfm is an file and application manager program for the X Window System, based on the Xaw3d widget set. It provides virtually all of the features that you would expect in a file manager; move around your directory tree in multiple windows, move, copy or delete files, and launch programs with simple mouse operations. Directory displays are updated automatically in regular intervals when the contents of the directory change. The integrated application manager provides a kind of "shelf" onto which you can place your favorite applications, as well as the files and directories you are currently working with. It also allows you to access different groups of applications and files. User-definable file types let you specify a command to be executed when double-clicking on a file or dropping other files onto it. Last not least, xfm can automatically mount and unmount special devices like floppies as you open and close the corresponding directories (mount points). 
X/open Federated Naming (X/Open) 
point and click selection of X11 font names 
A free software implementation of the X Window System (X); an interface that communicates between video cards, displays, and the graphical desktop; provides windowing infrastructure and an interface for programming graphical applications. 
A version of the X Window System for Linux. Used by GNOME, KDE and other Linux user interfaces/window managers. 
If you want to install the X Window System (TM) on your machine, you'll need to install XFree86.The X Window System provides the base technology for developing graphical user interfaces. Simply stated,X draws the elements of the GUI on the user's screen andbuilds methods for sending user interactions back to the application. X also supports remote application deployment--running an application on another computer while viewing the input/outputon your machine. X is a powerful environment which supports many different applications, such as games, programming tools, graphics programs, text editors, etc. XFree86 is the version of X which runs on Linux, as well as other platforms. This package contains the basic fonts, programs and documentationfor an X workstation. You will also need the XFree86-serverpackage, which contains the program which drives your video hardware. In addition to installing this package, you will need to install the drakxtools package to configure your card using XFdrake. You may also need to install one of the XFree86 fonts packages.And finally, if you are going to develop applications that run asX clients, you will also need to install XFree86-devel. 
X was developed by the X Consortium as a standard as well as a reference implementation of that standard. There are ports to every platform that supports graphics. The current version of the standard is 11 release 6 (hence the directory /usr/X11R6/). There will probably never be another version. XFree86 <> is a free port of X that includes LINUX Intel machines among its supported hardware. X has some peculiarities that are worth noting if you are a Windows user, and XFree86 has some over those. XFree86 has its own versioning system beneath the ``11R6''. 
XFree86 is an open source implementation of the X Window System. It provides the basic low level functionality which full fledged graphical user interfaces (GUIs) such as GNOME and KDE are designed upon. 
X Window System (XFree86) infrastructure xfree86-common contains the filesystem infrastructure required for further installation of the X Window System in any configuration. Those wishing an X server only (with remote font services and clients) will also require the xserver-common package and an X server package (most likely xserver-xfree86). The counterpart to the above configuration is a machine with the X libraries (the xlibs package), xbase-clients, a window manager, some X font packages, and likely many more client packages. Those who desire a standalone X workstation (and/or are fuzzy on the concepts of X servers and X clients) will require both of the above sets of packages. For convenience, the "x-window-system" metapackage will include everything that is required for a standalone X workstation. A number of terms are used to refer to the X Window System, including "X", "X Version 11", "X11", "X11R6", and "X11R6.4". The version of X used in Debian is derived from the version released by the XFree86 Project, Inc., and is thus often also referred to as "XFree86". All of the preceding quoted terms are functionally interchangeable in a Debian system. Still confused? Install this package and then read the files in /usr/share/doc/xfree86-common/ for assistance. 
a GTK-based CD Player XfreeCD is a X window program that looks like the front panel of a CD player. It has full cddb database support. 
Server and X11 client for playing risk with humans or AIs xfrisk allows you to play risk against other players over TCP/IP and/or with 3 different AI players. Risk is a board game played on a map of the world. You control a group of armies and attempt to capture large sections of the world and try to stop your opponents from doing the same thing. 
eXtended File System (JFS, SGI, Unix) 
X font server 
X font server xfs is a daemon that listens on a network port and serves X fonts to X servers (and thus to X clients). All X servers have the ability to serve locally installed fonts for themselves, but xfs makes it possible to offload that job from the X server, and/or have a central repository of fonts on a networked machine running xfs so that all the machines running X servers on a network do not require their own set of fonts. xfs may also be invoked by users to, for instance, make available X fonts in user accounts that are not available to the X server or to an already running system xfs. 
X-TrueType font server This package provide X-TrueType font server. This is compatible normal X font server, but added X-TrueType font handling scheme support instead of FreeType backend. XFree86 4.0's font server can handle TrueType too, but it can not handle TTCap. By using TTCap description, support for font transformations, such as slanting, adjusting glyph width, pseudo-bolding, etc. xfs-xtt is a daemon that listens on a network port and serves X fonts to X servers (and thus to X clients). All X servers have the ability to serve locally installed fonts for themselves, but xfs makes it possible to offload that job from the X server, and/or have a central repository of fonts on a networked machine running xfs so that all the machines running X servers on a network do not require their own set of fonts. xfs may also be invoked by users to, for instance, make available X fonts in user accounts that are not available to the X server or to an already running system xfs-xtt. 
Administrative utilities for the XFS filesystem The xfsdump package contains xfsdump, xfsrestore and a number of other administrative utilities for managing XFS filesystems. xfsdump examines files in a filesystem, determines which need to be backed up, and copies those files to a specified disk, tape or other storage medium. It uses XFS-specific directives for optimizing the dump of an XFS filesystem, and also knows how to backup XFS extended attributes. Backups created with xfsdump are "endian safe" and can thus be transfered between Linux machines of different architectures and also between IRIX machines. xfsrestore performs the inverse function of xfsdump; it can restore a full backup of a filesystem. Subsequent incremental backups can then be layered on top of the full backup. Single files and directory subtrees may be restored from full or partial backups. 
X font server information utility 
Utilities for managing the XFS filesystem A set of commands to use the XFS filesystem, including mkfs.xfs. XFS is a high performance journaling filesystem which originated on the SGI IRIX platform. It is completely multi-threaded, can support large files and large filesystems, extended attributes, variable block sizes, is extent based, and makes extensive use of Btrees (directories, extents, free space) to aid both performance and scalability. Refer to the documentation at for complete details. This implementation is on-disk compatible with the IRIX version of XFS. 
A stripped-down versions of xfsprogs, for boot-floppies This package is an xfsprogs package built for a reduced size, so that it can help to save space on installation boot-floppies. Don't attempt to install this package, it has no support for a couple of features you surely want. Anyway it should refuse to install. 
TrueType Font Server for X11 xfstt means "X11 Font Server for TT fonts". TT fonts are generally regarded to be the best scalable fonts for displays. Applications needing scalable fonts that are to be displayed on a screen benefit most. This server will allow X11 applications to use the exact same fonts as the TrueType fonts used on most Windows Machines. NB: This package contains NO FONTS. They MUST be obtained separately 
Xft is a font rendering library for X. 
create an index of FreeType font files in a directory 
Athena X interface to ftp. xftp is a X ftp interface. It allows retrieval or transmission of selected files and directory trees. 
X firewall proxy server The X firewall proxy is an application layer gateway proxy that may be run on a network firewall host to forward X traffic across the firewall. Used in conjunction with the X server Security extension and authorization checking, xfwp constitutes a safe, simple, and reliable mechanism both to hide the addresses of X servers located on an intranet and to enforce a server connection policy. Xfwp cannot protect against mischief originating on an intranet; however, when properly configured it can guarantee that only trusted clients originating on authorized external Internet hosts will be allowed inbound access to local X servers. 
eXtended General MIDI (Yamaha, MIDI) 
eXtended Graphics Adapter (IBM, PS/2) 
X11 version of the famous Galaga game A clone of the classic game Galaga for the X Window System. Xgalaga is a space-invader like game with additional features to produce a more interesting game. 
Alter a monitor's gamma correction for XFree86 
Implementation of backgammon under X. This a nicely implemented backgammon with the following features: - X11/Xaw interface, - a simple file selector and saving dialog, - You can edit positions and perform rollouts. - Position dump to a mail file in the format used in backgammon newsgroups. - Easier movement of stones, by simple button clicks. - You can play against an opponent on a remote X-Terminal. (experimental). 
X graphics demo 
GnuDIP GTK client A graphical (GTK-based) client for updating your GnuDIP settings 
a TeX DVI previewer for X, with a nice GTK+ UI xgdvi is a TeX DVI(DeVice Independent) file previewer for the X Window System. xgdvi features a cool GTK+ frontend, and since it uses DVIlib as its kernel, xgdvi can handle EPS figures and Japanese DVI files. Anti-aliasing is also supported. This is a part of the TeX-Guy distribution. 
extract translatable string from given input files 
GUI based module player for Ultrasound and SB AWE soundcards XGmod plays MOD/669/MTM/S3M/ULT/XM modules on machines that have an Gravis Ultrasound family sound card or a Soundblaster AWE. This version has a X interface that depends on Qt. 
an Internet Go client xgospel is a client for playing the game of Go (Weiqi, Baduk) on the Internet Go Server (IGS). Unfortunately, it is somewhat lacking with respect to connecting to other Go servers on the internet, playing Go between two computers, or editing SGF files. You should probably install cgoban for these purposes. However, if you intend to play on IGS frequently, xgospel is the perfect choice for you. 
Plotting program, reads stdin, allows interactive zooming Accepts data files or stdin in a form similar to the unix program graph and displays line graphs, scatter plots, or bar charts on an X11 display. Fully annotated with title, axis numbering and labels, and legend. Zooming with the mouse is supported. Can generate hardcopy output to Postscript printers and HPGL plotters. Output can be directly pasted into idraw (drawtool) for further annotation. Particularly useful in shell scripts. 
hanggliders fly around in your X root window. xhangglider is a demo program for X. Hanggliders and paragliders fly around in your X root window. Enjoy! 
server access control program for X 
eXtended HyperText Markup Language (HTML, WWW) 
XHTML (extensible Hyper Text Markup Language)
An enhanced version of HTML that supports programmer-defined extensions like XML. 
[SNA] eXchange IDentifier (SNA) 
X Image Extension (X-Windows) 
XIE server extension test and demo program 
Cross-platform configuration utilities. The Ximian Setup Tools are a set of cross-platform configuration utilities for Linux and other Unices. Internally they are divided in frontends and backends. The frontend knows nothing about the underlying system and provides the same user interface across the different types of systems. The backend knows how to read and write configuration information. The Ximian Setup Tools do not impose a new database on the system, they work with the default configuration files so that configuration can still be done by hand or by other tools. 
xine DVD plugin that is capable of Menus and special features This plugin will eventually be able to play all special features that can be found on DVDs. Currently, it works with most DVDs. Features include: * DVD menus * correctly coloured subtitles * named subtitles and audio channels * forced subtitles (can be overridden) * Copyright warnings 
xine is a free gpl-licensed video player for unix-like systems. This package includes the main plugins for xine, they allow the input from files, Video CDs, network streams and (not encrypted) DVDs inseveral video formats. For additional plugins (support for DVDsprotected by CSS or for non free codecs) you could try the packages from the Penguin Liberation Front home page: That page is not connected to MandrakeSoft. 
the xine video player, user interface This is an X11 based GUI for the libxine video player library. It provides xine, a skin based media player that can play all the audio/video formats that libxine supports. Currently, this includes MPEG1/2, some AVI and Quicktime files, some network streaming methods and disc based media (VCD, SVCD, DVD). A more complete list can be found on This package contains an additional front end, aaxine, which runs even on the console. aaxine uses aalib to render ASCII art video, or you can tell it to use a framebuffer device. This is more a proof of concept, but you can use it to watch DVDs on your old vt100 terminal, of course. ;-) Most DVDs on the market today are play-protected by the Content Scrambling System (CSS). Xine does not provide any code to descramble those DVDs, because of legal uncertainties. Have a look at /usr/share/doc/xine-ui/README.Debian for more information! 
xine is a free GPL-licensed video player for UNIX-like systems. User interface for the X Window system. 
replacement for inetd with many enhancements xinetd has access control mechanisms, extensive logging capabilities, the ability to make services available based on time, and can place limits on the number of servers that can be started, among other things. It has the ability to redirect TCP streams to a remote host and port. This is useful for those of that use ip masquerading, or NAT, and want to be able to reach your internal hosts. It also has the ability to bind specific services to specific interfaces. This is useful when you want to make services available for your internal network, but not the rest of the world. Or to have a different service running on the same port, but different interfaces. 
Xinetd is a secure replacement for inetd, the Internet services daemon. Xinetd provides access control for all services based on the address of the remote host and/or on time of access and can prevent denial-of-access attacks. Xinetd provides extensive logging, has no limit on the number of server arguments, and lets you bind specific services to specific IP addresses on your host machine. Each service has its own specific configuration file for Xinetd; the files a relocated in the /etc/xinetd.d directory. 
X Window System initializer 
The xinitrc package contains the xinitrc file, a script which is used to configure your X Window System session or to start a window manager. 
Runtime configuration and test of XInput devices. Runtime configuration and test of XInput devices. 
XInput extension
a standard X extension. The goal of this extension is to allow additional input devices management to the X Window System. 
XINU Is Not Unix (OS) 
3D space invaders for X XInvaders 3D is a 3D vector-based space-invaders clone for the X Window System. 
eXtended Input/Output System (Novell, Netware) 
A pop up style message communication software IP Messenger is a pop up style message communication software for multi platforms. It is based on TCP/IP(UDP). Xipmsg is the X11 version of IP Messenger. It can communicate with IP Messengers for Windows/MacOS. 
The xisdnload utility displays a periodically updated histogram of theload average over your ISDN connection. 
Talk intercept utility for X xitalk logs you in on a pseudo terminal. If you then disable messages in all your xterms, xitalk will receive all talk requests/ writes. It can then start a [y]talk session, play a sound, etc. 
x-terminal program with Thai languague support xiterm+thai is an x-terminal-emulator program with Thai language support. It has built-in Thai keyboard input support. You could also use X11 XKB extension to input Thai character. Thai font is needed to display Thai character. 
Editor for programmers. (x11 version) Jed offers: Extensible in a language resembling C. Completely customizable. Capable of read GNU info files from within JED's info browser. A variety of programming modes (with syntax highlighting) are available including Pascal, Java, Perl, C, C++, FORTRAN, TeX, HTML, SH, IDL, DCL, NROFF, PostScript, Basic. Folding support. Edit TeX files with AUC-TeX style editing (BiBTeX support too). Rectangular cut/paste; regular expressions; incremental searches; search replace across multiple files; multiple windows; multiple buffers; shell modes; directory editor (dired); mail; rmail; ispell; and much more. Note: The SLang runtime files are now in the package jed-commono. The source of these files are in jed-sl. Note: In this version, C-h deletes the previous character instead of loading the help menu. Help is now on Esc-?. 
match colors on falling columns of blocks Jewel Box is a falling-pieces game like Tetris, only jewels are removed from the board if three or more of the same jewel lie in a straight line. Interesting cascade-like effects can be achieved when the removal of jewels causes another set of jewels to line up. 
An X11 jigsaw puzzle xjig is a puzzle that tries to replicate a jigsaw puzzle on the screen as closely as possible. Any GIF image may be loaded and cut into pieces. The goal (as with any jigsaw puzzle) is to reassemble the original picture. Tiles may be freely rotated by use of the mouse, flipped (for double-sided puzzles) and even shown as shaped windows on the desktop (fast machine/video card recommended for the latter!). An example image is provided in /usr/lib/games/xjig . 
X11 jokes xjokes contains 4 jokes. yasiti, blackhole, mori1, and mori2. 
X11-Frontend for jove - a compact, powerful editor. This is the X11-Frontend for jove. Jove is a compact, powerful Emacs-style text-editor. It provides the common emacs keyboard bindings, together with a reasonable assortment of the most popular advanced features (e.g. interactive shell windows, compile-it, language specific modes) while weighing in with CPU, memory, and disk requirements comparable to vi(1). 
A jumping game for X. A jumping game for X. The way to play this game is very simple, but nice game. What you do in this game is only to jump, jump and jump up above. 
compile XKB keyboard description 
XKB event daemon 
print an XKB keyboard description 
Tool for defining, selecting, and indicating XKB keyboards. xkbsel is a framework for defining, selecting, and indicating XKB keyboard mappings, without the need to modify X11 distribution in any way. This package contains the xkbsel basic files and binaries, including the Athena keyboard switching applet. Homepage: 
Tool for defining, selecting, and indicating XKB keyboards. xkbsel is a framework for defining, selecting, and indicating XKB keyboard mappings, without the need to modify X11 distribution in any way. This package contains the Gnome keyboard switching applet. 
Manipulate X keymaps (for xmodmap) graphically. xkeycaps is a graphical front-end to xmodmap(1). It opens a window that looks like a keyboard; moving the mouse over a key shows what KeySyms and Modifier bits that key generates. Clicking on a key simulates KeyPress/KeyRelease events on the window of your choice. It is possible to change the KeySyms and Modifiers generated by a key through a mouse-based interface. This program can also write an input file for xmodmap to recreate your changes in future sessions. 
a keyboard layout switch for the X Window System. Its main features are: - Per-window switching. You can have different layouts in different windows. - Unlimited number of layouts. - Flexible switching. Any layout can have its own "hot keys" for switching to other layouts. 
kill a client by its X resource 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
a game of space battle Destroy all the fortresses and avoid the many enemy ships to advance to the next level in this game of space battle. 
Collect four items from an xmaze using the mouse to move. xlaby traps your mouse cursor in one of the mazes generated by "maze", you must move around until you collect all four objects - invisible walls are an option! 
a lunar landing simulation for X The object is to successfully land the craft on the surface of the moon or some other planet. The program features "out-the-window" 3-d wire-frame graphics and full directional control of the lander. For further instructions, please, refer to the man page. 
Dockable mail notifier w/ message count & POP3/APOP/IMAP support Enhanced pending mail notifier. Displays the number of waiting messages. Supports local mail spool and POP3/APOP3/IMAP mail servers. Can run a command when clicked upon. Uses plain xlib, so memory footprint is tiny. Can operate as plain app or WindowMaker/KDE dock applet 
X Literate Biff. Displays Froms and Subjects of your new mail Xlbiff lurks in the background, monitoring your mailbox file (normally /usr/spool/mail/<yourusername>). When something shows up there, it invokes the MH scan(1) command and displays the output in a window. If more mail comes in, it scans again and resizes accordingly. Clicking the left mouse button anywhere in the window causes it to vanish. It will also vanish if you inc(1) and the mailbox becomes empty. Xlbiff is modeled after xconsole -- its job is to sit invisibly and pop up only when something demands your attention. 
Gtk client for linesrv xlc is a Gtk client for linesrv. It let a user to start or stop an internet connection on a masquerader server. It allows to monitor the connection status and to shutdown the box where the server is running 
A file browsing tool for the X Window System xless allows you to view information in an X window. It allows filename(s) arguments, or input via STDIN. It can print the current buffer and do regular expression searches. 
Type falling words before they land A typing practice game for X similar to typespeed and tuxtype. Words chosen from the system's wordlist fall from the top of the screen and must be typed correctly to score. In a challenge stage, random sequences of characters appear instead of words. Head-to-head networked play is possible with xletters-duel. 
A program for converting Microsoft Excel Files .xls The xlhtml program will take an Excel 95, or 97 file as input and convert it to highly optimized html. The output is via standard out so it can be re-directed to files or piped to filters or used as a gateway on the internet. 
view images under X11 Can view the following image types under X11: FBM Image, Sun Rasterfile, CMU WM Raster, Portable Bit Map (PBM, PGM, PPM), Portable Network Graphics (PNG), Faces Project, GIF Image, JFIF style jpeg Image, Utah RLE Image, Windows, OS/2 RLE Image, Photograph on CD Image, X Window Dump, Targa Image, McIDAS areafile, G3 FAX Image, PC Paintbrush Image, GEM Bit Image, MacPaint Image, X Pixmap, X Bitmap. 
shared libraries required by libc5 X clients The X libraries are the interface between X client programs and the hardware-oriented X servers, and consist of routines to read input from the keyboard and pointer, draw on the screen, etc., in an abstract manner that is independent of the particular characteristics of the hardware. The X libraries communicate with X servers by means of the X protocol. Xlib itself provides the low-level functionality; Xt, the X Toolkit Intrinsics, is often used as a foundation for widget libraries such as Lesstif or Athena. Xaw, the Athena widget set, provides a rudimentary set of graphical user-interface elements (buttons, scrollbars, text boxes, etc.). Several more libraries are provided to implement the functions of various X extensions. X clients compiled against libc5 require that the X libraries be compiled against libc5 as well. xlib6 provides such backward compatibility. To avoid redundancy, this package depends on the current version of the X library packages for various non-binary files used by the X libraries (bitmaps, locale data, etc.). 
XFree86 version of Mesa 3D graphics library Mesa is a 3D graphics library which presents an API intended to be compatible with OpenGL. XFree86 maintains its own version of the Mesa library (which is regularly resynchronized with the official one) to permit development of the XFree86 X server's Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI), which makes the 3D acceleration features of many modern video cards available to X client programmers. Chipset-specific DRI modules, if available for your machine architecture, are provided in this package. (Unlike the modules in the xserver-xfree86 package, the DRI modules are loaded by the Mesa library, not by the X server itself.) 
Mesa/XFree86 off-screen rendering library Mesa is a 3D graphics library which presents an API intended to be compatible with OpenGL. XFree86 maintains its own version of the Mesa library (which is regularly resynchronized with the official one) to permit development of the XFree86 X server's Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI), which makes the 3D acceleration features of many modern video cards available to X client programmers. The off-screen rendering library (OSMesa) is an extension to Mesa, not an implementation of any OpenGL standard; therefore, it is packaged separately, so that any OpenGL-conformant library may be installed on a Debian system, and OpenGL-based programs may depend on any of them. The OSMesa library, however, specifically depends on the Mesa library. 
Mesa/XFree86 off-screen rendering library (unstripped) This package is useful to provide a backtrace with symbol names in a debugger; this facilitates interpretation of core dumps, and aids in finding logic errors in programs using this library (or the library itself). The library is installed in /usr/lib/debug and can be used by placing that directory in the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable when the code to be debugged is executed. Non-programmers will likely have little use for this package. See the xlibosmesa3 package for further information. 
X Window System client libraries The X libraries are an interface between X client programs and the hardware-oriented X servers, and consist of routines to read input from the keyboard and pointer, draw on the screen, etc., in an abstract manner that is independent of the particular characteristics of the hardware. The X libraries, and the programs that use them, communicate with X servers by means of the X protocol. libX11 (a.k.a. Xlib) provides the low-level functionality, dealing mostly with the wire protocol and in terms of basic operations such as opening and closing the X protocol connection, creating graphics contexts, drawing graphics primitives such as lines, arcs, and glyphs, handling events, and so forth. libXpm, the X pixmap library, is a set of routines used to store and retrieve X pixmaps (a data structure comprising a rectangular array of pixels) from files; the xpm file format is an extension of the monochrome bitmap file format in the X11 specification. (Traditionally, libXpm was maintained and distributed separately from the X Window System, but XFree86 has absorbed this library). libXt, the X Toolkit Intrinsics, is an abstract widget library upon which graphical widget libraries (such as Athena and LessTif) may be developed; the Intrinsics provide a number of useful interfaces to X conventions and protocols, in many cases reducing a long series of Xlib calls to just a couple of Xt calls. libXmu is a set of miscellaneous utility functions useful to client programmers. libXmuu is a very small set of miscellaneous utility functions extracted from Xmu, Xt, and Xaw, for clients that need the occasional useful function from these libraries but do not require the toolkit overhead. To use libXmuu, simply include the headers for the other libraries in the client and link against Xmuu instead of Xmu, Xt, and Xaw. Needless to say, if the client uses functions from Xmu, Xt, or Xaw that are not present in Xmuu, it will fail to link. The remainder of the libraries in this package implement the client side of various X protocol extensions: - libICE, the Inter-Client Exchange extension; - libPEX5, PEX, a 3D graphics extension now superseded by Mesa/OpenGL; - libSM, the Session Management extension; - libXIE, the X Image Extension; - libXext, a collection of several commonly-used extensions; - libXft, a FreeType-based font rendering extension; - libXi, the X Input extension; - libXp, the X Printing extension; and - libXrender, an extension for digital image composition; - libXtst, the X Testing extension. xlibs also contains the XKB keyboard parameter files, locale data, and a set of bitmap and pixmap image files commonly used by X clients. 
John Conway's Game of Life, for X11 This is an X11 implementation of "Life", a classic cellular automaton. Many example cell arrangements are provided. You can also create and save your own. 
XML LINKing language (XML) 
a lisp-based environment for statistical computing xlispstat is an environment for statistical computing and interactive graphics. It was developed by Luke Tierney <> from David Betz's xlisp interpreter. The system is documented in Tierney's 1990 book, "LISP-STAT: An Object-oriented Environment for Statistical Computing and Dynamic Graphics" published by Wiley. 
system load average display for X 
Graphics file viewer under X11 Can view png, jpeg, gif, tiff, niff, sunraster, fbm, cmuraster, pbm, faces, rle, xwd, vff, mcidas, vicar, pcx, gem, macpaint, xpm and xbm files. Can view images, put them on the root window, or dump them. Does a variety of processing, including: clipping, dithering, depth reduction, zoom, brightening/darkening and merging. Includes xsetbg, xview and uufilter. 
Lock X11 display until password is entered. xlock locks the X server till the user enters his/her password at the keyboard. While xlock is running, all new server connections are refused. The mouse cursor is turned off. The screen is blanked and a changing pattern is put on the screen. If a key or a mouse button is pressed then the user is prompted for the password of the user who started xlock. This version is built without additional OpenGL/MesaGL and XPM modes. The companion package xlockmore-gl contains them. This is the only difference between the two packages. 
The xlockmore utility is an enhanced version of the standard xlockprogram, which allows you to lock an X session so that other users can't access it. Xlockmore runs a provided screensaver until you type in your password. Install the xlockmore package if you need a locking program to secure X sessions. 
Lock X11 display until password is entered -- GL version xlock locks the X server till the user enters his/her password at the keyboard. While xlock is running, all new server connections are refused. The mouse cursor is turned off. The screen is blanked and a changing pattern is put on the screen. If a key or a mouse button is pressed then the user is prompted for the password of the user who started xlock. This version is built with additional OpenGL/MesaGL and XPM modes. The companion package xlockmore does not contain them. This is the only difference between the two packages. 
GTK+ Logging program for Shortwave Hamradio Operators xlog is a logging program for amateur radio operators. xlog focuses on hams who operate shortwave on a daily basis. Logs are stored into a text file. QSO's are presented in a list. Items in the list can be added, deleted or updated. For each contact, dxcc information is displayed and bearings and distance is calculated, both short and long path. When hamlib is enabled through the menu, you can retrieve frequency, mode and signal-strength from you rig over the serial port. 
A program to monitor logfiles Xlogmaster can monitor an almost infinite number of logfiles and all devices that can be read via "cat" like the /proc ones. On a regular expression base, you can hide, raise or lower lines in the logfile and set triggers, which can launch scripts or pop-up a window xlogmaster homepage is at 
X Window System logo 
list interned atoms defined on server 
list client applications running on a display 
server font list displayer for X 
Tool to generate docs for PFE This tool is used to generate the HTML documenation for the portable forth environment (PFE) from source. It is not needed by users of PFE. 
Simulation of the ancient oriental calculator This is the motif version by David Bagley. It was compiled with lesstif. 
X-based address book XmAddressbook is a X-based Address Book program. It can convert the old rolo program's rolodex.dat files into its own format. NOTE: This used to be called XmRolodex. 
magnify parts of the screen 
tile-based solitaire game Xmahjongg is a simple solitaire game. The object is to remove all 144 Mah Jongg tiles from the playing area by matching them two at a time. 
A version of xbiff with animation and sound effects. It displays an icon, which changes when mail comes in. Normally this involves checking the size of a file, but it can be set to run an arbitrary command to do it, so you can check mail stored on another system. By default it is set to do a colour, shaped, but non-animated, icon: this is apparently possible with xbiff if you tweak the resources. By tweaking the resources of xmailbox you can get animated icons. 
Powerful project making make program XMAKE is similar to other make's out there, but is specifically designed to allow you to easily construct multiple complex dependencies without getting screwed by default rulesets. XMake contains a number of features specifically designed to trivialize the construction of compilation rules. 
A program for visualizing atomic and molecular systems XMakemol is a mouse-based program, written using the LessTif widget set, for viewing and manipulating atomic and other chemical systems. It reads XYZ input and renders atoms, bonds and hydrogen bonds. Features include: - Animating multiple frame files - Interactive measurement of bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles - Control over atom/bond sizes - Exporting to Xpm, Encapsulated PostScript and XYZ formats - Toggling the visibility of groups of atoms - Editing the positions of subsets of atoms 
A program for visualizing atomic and molecular systems XMakemol is a mouse-based program, written using the LessTif widget set, for viewing and manipulating atomic and other chemical systems. It reads XYZ input and renders atoms, bonds and hydrogen bonds. Features include: - Animating multiple frame files - Interactive measurement of bond lengths, bond angles and torsion angles - Control over atom/bond sizes - Exporting to Xpm, Encapsulated PostScript and XYZ formats - Toggling the visibility of groups of atoms - Editing the positions of subsets of atoms This is the OpenGL-enabled XMakemol package. The images are rendered using true 3D graphics primitives, and can be exported using the Xpm format; red/blue stereo images can also be produced. The OpenGL package provides more display options, along with better support for displaying vectors. Ellipses can also be rendered. 
Manual page display program for the X Window System 
eXtended Messaging Application Program Interface (API) 
summarize x11perf results 
Graphical Resource Organizer Kit xmbase-grok, formerly just called "grok", is a simple database manager and UI builder that can - * keep phone and address lists (like a rolodex) * store phone call logs * keep todo lists * manage any other database after simple GUI-driven customization * customized data export, HTML export built in More precisely, grok is a program for displaying and editing strings arranged in a grid of rows and columns. Each row is presented as a "card" consisting of multiple columns, or "fields", that allow data entry. The presentation of the data is programmable; a user interface builder that allows the user to arrange fields on a card graphically is part of grok. Grok also supports a simple language that allows sophisticated queries and data retrieval. Grok comes with the above examples and a few others as pre-built applications. Grok is not a general-purpose database program. It was designed for small applications typical for desktop accessories. If you attempt to run your major airline reservation system or your space shuttle project with it, you are guaranteed to be disappointed. By Thomas Driemeyer <> 
X11 font editor XmBDFEditor is a Motif-based BDF font editor with the following features: o Multiple fonts can be loaded from the command line. o Multiple fonts can be open at the same time. o Cutting and pasting glyphs between fonts. o Multiple glyph bitmap editors can be open at the same time. o Cutting and pasting between glyph bitmap editors. o Automatic correction of certain metrics when a font is loaded. o Generation of XLFD font names for fonts without XLFD names. o Update an XLFD font name from the font properties. o Update the font properties from an XLFD font name. o Font property editor. o Font comment editor. o Supports unencoded glyphs (ENCODING of -1). o Display of glyph encodings in octal, decimal, or hex. o Builtin on-line help. o Imports PK/GF fonts. o Imports Linux console fonts (PSF, CP, and FNT). o Imports Sun console fonts (vfont format). o Imports fonts from the X server. o Imports Windows FON/FNT fonts. o Imports TrueType fonts and collections. 
X11 based CD player Xmcd uses the Motif toolkit (using the free Lesstif libraries) to achieve a pleasing appearance, such that it actually looks and feels like a real CD player for all basic functions, yet takes advantage of the GUI and window system to make programming and CD database functions easy. 
Displays CPU/Swap/Memory/Network load A simple program written with Motif to monitor your system activity. 
Visual indicator of amount of memory/swap usage The xmem program, which gives a visual representation of memory usage. 
display a message or query in a window (X-based /bin/echo) 
histogram of data returned by rstat(3) xmeter displays the histograms in one window, and can be told to monitor multiple hosts or multiple statistics on one host. 
eXtensible Music Format (MMA, MIDI) 
An XY plotting tool Xmgr is a point-and-click tool that allows the user to draw X-Y plots. Xmgr has been renamed to Grace. Unless you have old Xmgr graphs that you can't convert to the new Grace format, you should use Grace instead of Xmgr. 
X interface to the MH mail system xmh provides a graphical user interface to the MH (Message Handler) mail system. xmh is a very old X client and is not exactly a "living" piece of software. MH users will probably prefer the exmh package, which serves the same function and continues to be actively developed. 
A Motif widget for display HTML 3.2 XmHTML is a high performance Motif Widget capable of displaying HTML 3.2 confirming text. Graphics support, lesstif compatibility and extensive documentation are amongst its many features. This package provides the runtime shared library. The xmhtml-dev package provides the header files, and the static library. 
eXtended Memory Interconnect (DEC) 
XML Metadata Interchange [format] 
The classic game of Mille Bourne A card game against the computer in which each player tries to reach 1000 miles. Each player tries to avoid accidents, flat tires, running out of gas, and break downs while trying to cause these same maladies in the opponent. 
See minicom. 
create a Makefile from an Imakefile 
eXtensible Markup Language (WWW, XML) 
eXtensible Markup Language (XML): a powerful new web markup language (ISO approval in February 1999). It is a powerful way of separating web content and style. 
XML (Extended Markup Language)
XML is an HTML-like formatting language. Misconception: The recommended advice when developing Internet protocols has been be conservative in what you send and liberal in what you receive. While in the early days this philosophy fostered interoperability, any economist could tell you the long term effect of this. It leads to a large number of slightly incompatible implementations of protocols, all of which mostly work, but none of which interopate well. For example, FTP is one of the oldest Internet protocols, and there are essentially no fully complient clients or servers, and building a fully interopable client/server is extremely difficult, requiring knowledge of all the quirks of all the popular implementations. Therefore, XML has chosen the opposite approach: compliant implementations are supposed to reject all input that isn't "well-formed", even when the intent is clear. This not only avoids interoperability errors in the long run, it also dramatically improves security by guaranteeing that there is only one way to interpret things. 
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
A powerful new markup language for designing Web pages; an alternative to the older HTML, allowing programmers to define their own markup tags, or formatting commands. 
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
A widely used system for defining data formats. XML provides a very rich system to define complex documents and data structures such as invoices, molecular data, news feeds, glossaries, inventory descriptions, real estate properties, etc. As long as a programmer has the XML definition for a collection of data (often called a "schema") then they can create a program to reliably process any data formatted according to those rules. 
The xml-common package contains a collection of entities and DTDsthat are useful for processing XML, but that do not need to be included in multiple packages. 
A set of tools for writing a resume in XML The XML Resume Library is an XML and XSL based system for marking up, adding metadata to, and formatting resumes and curricula vitae. It consists of these components: * An XML Document Type Definition (DTD) for describing resumes. * Three XSL stylesheets to transform an XML resume into: * Web-ready HTML, * Print-ready PDF, or * Plain, unformatted text 
Generate C++ wrapper classes for XML-RPC servers. A utility for generating C++ wrapper classes based on an XML-RPC API, obtained by interrogating an XML-RPC server. 
Dump an XML-RPC API as a text file A utility for printing out an XML-RPC API as a text file. The API is obtained by interrogating an XML-RPC server. 
Convert between XML, HTML, CSV and a line-oriented format xml2 tools are used to convert XML, HTML and CSV to and from a line-oriented format more amenable to processing by classic Unix pipeline processing tools, like grep, sed, awk, cut, shell scripts, and so forth. 
Command line tool to parse and manipulate XML or SGML catalog files. 
command line XML tool 
XML-RPC support for Ruby XML-RPC provides remote procedure calls over HTTP with XML. It is like SOAP but much easier. For more information see the XML-RPC homepage <URL:http://>. This package provides XML-RPC support for Ruby. 
TeX package for processing XML files XMLTeX is a non-validating, namespace-aware XML parser written in TeX. It allows TeX to directly process XML files. 
This is a package for converting XML files to various formats using XSL stylesheets. 
eXtended Memory Manager (DOS, LIM) 
Versatile X audio player that looks like Winamp XMMS (formerly known as X11Amp) is an X/GTK+ based audio player for various audio formats. It's able to read and play: * Audio MPEG layer 1, 2, and 3 (with mpg123 plug-in), * WAV, RAW, AU (with internal wav plug-in and MikMod plug-in), * MOD, XM, S3M, and other module formats (with MikMod plug-in), * CD Audio (with CDAudio plug-in), with CDDB support, * .cin files, id Software, * Ogg Vorbis files. It has eSound, OSS, and disk writer support for outputting sound. It looks almost the same as famous Winamp, and includes those neat features like general purpose, visualization and effect plug-ins, several of which come bundled, then spectrum analyzer, oscilloscope, skins support, and of course, a playlist window. 
XMMS is a sound player written from scratch. Since it uses the WinAmp GUI, it can use WinAmp skins, and play mp3s, mods, s3ms, and other formats. It now has support for input, output, and general plugins, and has also been GPLd. This package also provides an effect plugin based on Sox and a shell for xmms in order to command the running xmms from any script/commandline. 
An asynchronous file-transfer protocol for personal computers that makes the error-free transmission of files through the telephone system easier. Developed by Ward Christianson for 8-bit computers running Control Program for Microprocessors (CP/M) and placed in the public domain, the XMODEM protocol included in most personal computer communications programs is included and commonly is used to download files from bulletin boards systems (BBSs). 
utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in X 
An interactive X protocol monitor Xmon interactively monitors the byte-stream connections between an X server and a number of X clients. Xmon recognises all requests, events, errors and replies sent between the clients and the server which are part of the core X protocol. 
digital image warper (x11) Xmorph loads, saves, warps, and dissolves images, and loads, saves, creates, and manipulates control meshes which determine the warping. The technique was invented and first used by Industrial Light and Magic, and is commonly called "morphing". Xmorph uses the Targa image format exclusively. Other software is needed to convert to other image formats or to movies. (Due to a bug, Xmorph's images are unreadable by John Bradley's XV.) xmorph is a GUI for libmorph, using the X Toolkit; the package also contains a text-only program called morph. 
a message of the day browser for X Xmotd is a message-of-the-day browser for X11 (with additional sysvnews-like support for dumb terminals). It displays a customizable message box which displays each message-of-the-day until the user has read them all, and then creates a stamp-file. 
fractal landscape generator for X Generates random fractal mountains and displays them in a window (even in the X root window). While the program is running the fractal is continuously extended on the right and the image is scrolled from right to left to expose the newly generated area. 
A Pseudoserver for moving programs between displays. xmove lets you change which display an X Window System program renders to - this could be a different monitor or even a different machine. 
A nice player for uncompressed Quicktime, MPEG streams and more. This is xmovie, a great movie viewer and audio player with support for several formats, including MPEG-1, MPEG-2 streams, MP2/3 audio, AIFF, Quicktime, DVD's and more. It plays the following Quicktime video types: Motion JPEG A Uncompressed RGB Component video Progressive JPEG PNG YUV 4:2:0 YUV 4:2:2 It also has support for HDTV program and ATSC transport streams. 
A module player supporting AWE32, GUS, and software-mixing xmp is a module player for Linux/FreeBSD/Solaris. Initially designed as a XM player, today it recognizes the following module formats: xm (Fast Tracker II), mod (Noise/Fast/Protracker), s3m (Scream Tracker 3), stm (Scream Tracker 2), mtm (Multitracker), ptm (Poly Tracker), okt (Oktalyzer), far (Farandole Composer), wow (Mod's Grave), amd (Amusic Adlib Tracker), rad (Reality Adlib Tracker), 669 (Composer 669), alm (Aley's modules), mod (Soundtracker 15 instruments) 
X/open Management Protocol (X/Open, X-Windows) 
A graphical user interface for MPI program development. MPI is a standard for writing parallel processing programs using a well defined Message Passing Interface. XMPI can acquire and display extensive detail on an application's MPI communication, including the following: o process synchronization status: running, system or blocked o message queue contents o source, destination, root ranks o MPI function name o communicator o data type o message count o tag The above information is acquired from on-demand snapshots of application status using debugging hooks in the MPI implementation or from a trace log of communication activity. 
Collection of puzzles for X with LessTif The following puzzles are included (compiled with LessTif): - Rotational 3D Puzzles: xrubik, xpyraminx, xoct, xskewb, xdino, xmball - Sliding Block Puzzles: xcubes, xtriangles, xhexagons, xpanex - Combination: xmlink xmpuzzles conflicts with xpuzzles because they both try to install the same files in app-defaults. It can be safely used with --force-overwrite when installing over/with xpuzzles. 
eXtended Memory Specification (DOS, LIM) 
eXtended Multiprocessor operating System (OS) 
eXecution Node 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
X Northern Captain nc/mc-like filemanager for X Two panels show highlighted directory listings and give an easy and simple way for manipulating files on disks, inside various archives or ftp with a Virtual File System. * Builtin Rxvt terminal to run programs * Bookmarks for storing HotDirectories and quickly jumping to them * "Drag and drop" protocol for file operations * MultiWindow Viewing and Editing system with various image formats * User menus and file associations * Different panel layouts, icons * Hotkeys for all operations * Setup tool for customizing colors, your own keys, fonts and so on 
NEC structure and gain pattern viewer xnecview allows a representation of a NEC (Numerical Electromagnetics Code) structure, such as an antenna which is to be modelled to be displayed on the screen. After an NEC run the gain pattern in various formats can also be superimposed. This can be rotated and translated for viewing from different angles. Plots of SWR and gain as a function of frequency can also be produced. In addition to on screen display, Postscript or PNG output can also be produced. 
a nested X server 
nested X server xnest an X server that is itself an X client. This allows you to run a server within a server; this is occasionally useful for testing new window managers and other X clients. Xnest relies upon its parent X server for font services. 
An Xload for network interfaces packet rates/totals. Xnetload displays a graph and/or count of incoming/outgoing packets on any network interface in /proc/net/dev. 
Xerox Network Services / Systems / Standard (Xerox, XNS) 
[PPP] XNS IDP Control Protocol (RFC 1764, Xerox, XNS, PPP, XNS, IDP) 
Xerox Network Services - Internet Datagram Protocol (Xerox, Internet, XNS), "XNS-IDP" 
Xerox Network Services/Internet ??? Protocol (Xerox, XNS), "XNS/ITP" 
an odometer tracking the distance travelled by your mouse xodometer tracks the total distance your cursor and pointing device (typically a mouse) travel. It also maintains "trip" distance since the application started or since you clicked on a trip reset button. 
/X-of/ n. Syn. control-S. 
eXchange OFF (MODEM) 
Asteroids game with powerups and color graphics. A clone of the classic arcade game, Asteroids. Pilot a spaceship and destroy asteroids by shooting them into smaller and smaller pieces while trying to avoid being smashed or shot by UFOs. Features power ups for your ship and two player modes - either deathmatch or co-operative where the ships are tied together with elastic! 
/X-on/ n. Syn. control-Q. 
eXchange ON (MODEM) 
start an X program on a remote machine 
Carve up the screen whilst dodging monsters A clone of the Xonix game for DOS: Start with a rectangle, and munch corners off until you get below the winning area: then proceed to the next level. But beware of the roaming aliens! 
Xonix clone for X11 A clone of the Xonix arcade game: Start with a rectangle, and munch corners off until you get below the winning area: then proceed to the next level. but beware of the roaming enemy balls! This version of Xonix lacks the "eater" creature that is in some versions of the game. It features a 3D look and the ability to load .gif files to be the background of the playing field. 
/X'or/, /kzor/ conj. Exclusive or. `A xor B' means `A or B, but not both'. "I want to get cherry pie xor a banana split." This derives from the technical use of the term as a function on truth-values that is true if exactly one of its two arguments is true. 
xor (exclusive-or)
In computer science, an XOR is a mathematical operation that combines two bits. The resulting value is TRUE if either of the two bits is TRUE, but false if both are equal. In cryptography, one generally talks about doing an XOR combining two strings of bits: plaintext 11100101 01110101key 00001111 00001111 ------------------ciphertext 11101010 01111010XOR has the interesting property that XORing by the same pattern twice results in the original pattern: ciphertext 11101010 01111010key 00001111 00001111 ------------------plaintext 11100101 01110101Therefore, you can think of XOR as an extremely weak encryption algorithm. The above example shows using XOR as a way of encrypting the original data with the 8-bit key of "00001111". Many products use this technique to obfuscate data. However, it is extremely easy to recover the original key via a known plaintext attack, as show below: ciphertext 11101010 01111010plaintext 11100101 01110101 ------------------key 00001111 00001111Key point: XOR is a common mathematical operation used in cryptographic algorithms. In fact, the only 100% secure form of encryption is XORing against a one-time pad. Also, any hash algorithm can be converted into an encryption algorithm though a clever use of XOR. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
X On-Screen Display library - binary files This package contains binary files shipped with the X OSD library: osd_cat - a 'cat' like program which will display its output in an OSD-like window More info can be found on 
X based system monitor Xosview is a monitor which displays the status of several system based parameters. These include CPU usage, load average, memory usage, swap space usage, network usage, interrupts, and serial port status. Appearance is fully configurable via command line or X resources. 
X.25 Over TCP (Cisco, X.25, TCP, RFC 1613) 
An object oriented extension for Tcl XOTcl (Extended Object Tcl) is an object-oriented extension which allows read/write introspection of all aspects of the object system, including class/superclass/object relationships. It allows for the use of meta-classes, multiple inheritance as well as other advanced features: - Dynamic Object Aggregations. - Assertions. - Meta-data, to enhance self-documentation of objects and classes. - Per-object mixins, gives objects access to several dynamically defined supplemental classes. - Per-class mixins. - Filters as a means of abstractions over method invocations to implement large program structures, like design patterns. - Dynamic Component Loading XOTcl integrates the Tcl package loading with architectural support for integration with object-oriented constructs. For more information: 
eXtreme Programming 
reasonably versatile X-based image editing tool In addition to the traditional X bitmap and X pixmap image file formats, xpaint also supports JPEGs and PNGs. 
Simple Paint program 
A program to display the contents of the primary paste buffer. Xpaste will create a window containing the current contents of the primary selection buffer. The size of this window is dictated by the length of the longest line in the selection, the number of lines in the selection, and the size of the current font. Variable-width fonts are supported. 
Generic patience game for X11 xpat2 is a generic patience game which can be used with different rule sets. It does understand the rules of the well-known Spider game, as well as Klondike and others. This program may have difficulties to start if you have an 8-bit or monochrome display. 
X Performance Characterization [group] (GPC, X-Windows) 
PhotoCD tool collection: Base This is a PhotoCD tool collection. This packages core application is a command line tool which can read so-called PhotoCD (*.pcd) images and convert them to PPM or JPEG (pcdtoppm). Also included is a PhotoCD viewing frontend for X (xpcd). 
Portable Document Format (PDF) suite xpdf is a suite of tools for Portable Document Format (PDF) files. (These are sometimes called 'Acrobat' files after the name of Adobe's PDF software.) The tools include xpdf, a PDF viewer (in the package xpdf-reader), and PDF converters (including to/from PostScript) (in the package xpdf-utils). This package is intended for compatibility with previous versions of this package only. You can safely remove it from your system. 
Graphical user interface for the pdq printing system This application allows users and administrators to configure printing and view print jobs for the pdq printing system. Home Page: 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
little penguins walk on your windows Ever wanted cute little penguins walking along the tops of your windows? Ever wanted to send an army of cute little penguins to invade the screen of someone else on your network? Probably not, but why not try this program out anyway, it's cool! 
XPFE (Cross Platform Front End)
A suite of technologies used to create applications that will work and look the same on different computer operating systems. A widely used XPFE application is the Netscape web browser in version 7 and later. The primary technologies used in creating XPFE applications are Javascript, Cascading Style Sheets, and XUL. 
X/open Portability Guide (X/Open, X-Windows) 
X/open Portability Guide Release 3 (X/Open, X-Windows) 
sets the root window to a picture of the moon xphoon sets the X root window to a picture of the moon in its current phase, including the partial lighting of the dark side by reflected earthlight. 
Multi-player tactical game for X XPilot is a multi-player tactical manoeuvring game for X. Each player controls their own fighter equipped with a variety of weapons and power-ups. Players compete as teams or as individuals; the object of the game is to score points by blasting the opposition, stealing their treasure or by racing round a circuit. WARNING: This game is very addictive. This package has been split into xpilot-client-common, xpilot-client-nosound, xpilot-client-nas, xpilot-client-rplay and xpilot-server. There is an additional package (xpilot-extra) containing various free maps and sounds as well as a useful utility program to interrogate the metaserver. 
render an image of a planet into an X window 
render images of the earth xplanet is similar to xearth, where an image of the earth is rendered into the X root window. Various projection systems are available for display. The user can also popup a window with a globe that can be rotated interactively. 
render an image of a planet into an X window 
an xpm to windows .ico converter I have written this program primarily to help free software programmers like me to not depend on evil proprietary programs to write Windows icons. It currently supports icons with 256 colors or more and well as grayscale images. Later I will probably add support for multiple-icons file output. 
the X PixMap library, compiled with libc5 XPM (X PixMap) is a format for storing and retrieving pixmaps to and from files. This package includes a runtime library for including, storing, reading and writing the XPM format. This package contains the libc5 shared library, only for backwards compatibility with older programs. Building programs to depend on this version of the library is deprecated, and no longer supported; thus the corresponding xpm4-altdev package no longer exists. 
simple postit program on X with I18N support XPostIt allows you to create small notes to yourself in windows on the screen, and save them in disk files. I18N patch for X11R6 has been applied. 
eXtrem Processor Platform (MPP) 
X Printing Panel Graphical substitute for the lp/lpr command. With xpp, you can control every printing option known to the CUPS print system (the cupsys package). Best results are available with usage of the appropriate PPD file for your printer. Each user can save their own customized printing preferences. 
Remote OS identification using ICMP packets Xprobe allows you to determine what operating system is running on a remote host. It sends several packets to a host and analyses the returned ICMP packets. The tool automates a logic of OS fingerprinting methods called "X". Xprobe's functionality is comparable to the OS fingerprinting feature in nmap, but has several advantages over it: - Faster: A maximum of 4 packets are sent to determine the remote OS. - Can detect whether the host is up, so pinging is no longer necessary. - Stealthier: Does not send any malformed datagrams. - Can distinguish between many variants of Microsoft operating systems. 
property displayer for X 
X print server xprt provides an X server with the print extension and special DDX (Device-Dependent X) implementation. 
eXPert System (AI, XPS) 
eXtended Parallel Server (DB, Informix) 
X - Protocol Stream Benchmark (XPC, X-Windows) 
A puzzle game similar to tetris, played with colored blobs Xpuyopuyo is a Tetris-like puzzle game where you strive to match up four "blobs" of the same color. Each match gives you points, and also dumps gray rocks on your opponent which are irritating and troublesome to get rid of. Multiple matches at one time score more points, and result in more rocks being dumped on the opponent (much to their dismay). First person to fill up their screen with puyopuyo blobs loses. Supports solitaire, human-vs-AI, human-vs-human, and AI-vs-AI modes, and network play. 
Collection of puzzles for X The following puzzles are included: - Rotational 3D Puzzles: xrubik, xpyraminx, xoct, xskewb, xdino, xmball - Sliding Block Puzzles: xcubes, xtriangles, xhexagons, xpanex - Combination: xmlink xpuzzles conflicts with xmpuzzles because they both try to install the same files in app-defaults. It can be safely used with --force-overwrite when installing over/with xmpuzzles. 
graphical console and monitor for PVM XPVM is a graphical console and monitor for PVM. It provides a graphical interface to the PVM console commands and information, along with several animated views to monitor the execution of PVM programs. These views provide information about the interactions among tasks in a parallel PVM program, to assist in debugging and performance tuning. For specifics on the various features of XPVM, and how to operate them, please refer to the appropriate on-line pop-up help information. 
the Pathetic Writer word-processor The word-processor part of the Siag Office suite, which also contains SIAG and EGON. Siag Office uses the Offix DND Drag-and-Drop protocol. A WWW browser is needed to read online doc. A postscript viewer is used for document preview. It can read and write RTF and HTML files for inter-operation with other well-known word-processors. It should read also .doc files with help from catdoc. 
X-based Quake Server Browser XQF is a Gtk+ frontend for Qstat, a tool for querying first-person action game servers like Quake, Unreal Tournament, etc. It displays information about the servers and allows configuring and launching some of the games from it. 
A free Wipeout clone for Unix and X. Xracer is a Wipeout clone, distributed under the GPL. It should be able to use any OpenGL 1.1 compliant library. A 3D accelerator card is required. This is the game data and binary. If you want to build new tracks or other game data, you may also want to install the xracer-tools package. 
A free Wipeout clone for Unix and X. Xracer is a Wipeout clone, distributed under the GPL. It should be able to use any OpenGL 1.1 compliant library. A 3D accelerator card is required. These are a few tools to design your own game data. In order to play the game, you will need the xracer package. 
X server resource database utility 
/X'ref/ v.,n. Hackish standard abbreviation for `cross-reference'. 
refresh all or part of an X screen 
Extended Ring Daemon - Monitor phone rings and take action. xringd will monitor a serial line for RING signals and activate various commands when specific "ring-delay sequences" are detected. 
eXtended ??? Routing Information Protocol (Novell, Netware) 
X-based NNTP news reader. XRN is a Usenet News reader for the X window system. It requires an NNTP server to talk to (i.e., it cannot read news from local disk files), and the NNTP server must support the XHDR command (most servers nowadays do; if yours doesn't, XRN will complain when you try to run it). 
infests X with disgusting cockroaches Xroach displays disgusting cockroaches on your root window. These creepy crawlies scamper around until they find a window to hide under. Whenever you move or iconify a window, the exposed orthoptera again scamper for cover. 
Fancy X console display Xrootconsole redirects its input to a transparent (and optionally shaded) window on the root window. 
eXtensions for Real-Time market data (API, MS, Windows) 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
An X localized keyboard switch and autolock. Xrus is a utility for switching the keyboard mode between different layouts. While it is intended for switching between Latin and Russian keyboards (RUS/LAT), xrus can be configured to use any two layouts provided that the proper modmaps have been loaded. Xrus monitors all keyboard and mouse events, and when a particular hot key combination is pressed, it swaps 1,2 and 3,4 columns of the keyboard map. When a a specified time period without keyboard and mouse events passes, it starts a locking program. This package also contains several Cyrillic keyboard mapping tables. 
Fighter plane simulator. SABRE is an on-going game development for the Linux Operating System, worked on as a labor of love by flight-simulation enthusiasts. For now, SABRE is focusing on the older jets and piston-engined fighters of the Korean War / Cold War era. Featured are F-86 SabreJet, MiG-15, F-84 ThunderJet, F-51 Mustang, and Yak-9. All of the planes in the game can be flown by the player as well as the computer pilots. This package contains the X binary. 
a gtk based X11 frontend for SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) SANE stands for "Scanner Access Now Easy" and is an application programming interface (API) that provides standardized access to any raster image scanner hardware (flatbed scanner, hand-held scanner, video- and still-cameras, frame-grabbers, etc.). The SANE standard is free and its discussion and development is open to everybody. The current source code is written for UNIX (including Linux) and is available under the GNU public license (commercial application and backends are welcome, too, however). xsane can be run as a stand-alone program or through the GIMP image manipulation program. In stand-alone mode, xsane can save an image to a file in a variety of image formats, or serve as a frontend to a fax program, or send an image to a printer. 
XSane is an X based interface for the SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy)library, which provides access to scanners, digital cameras, and other capture devices. XSane is written in GTK+ and provides control for performing the scan and then manipulating the captured image. You may install xsane-gimp if you want the GIMP plug-in. 
This package provides the regular XSane frontend for the SANE scanner interface, but it works as a GIMP plug-in. You must have GIMP installed to use this package. 
A lode-runner-like platform game for X XScavenger is a platform game for the X Window System. From the README: Scavenger is like Lode Runner. You've got to run around gathering objects while avoiding enemies. You can dig down through some of the blocks to get at buried objects. After you've collected everything, ladders may appear. To finish the level you've got to exit through the top of the screen. If an enemy falls into a dug brick, he is stunned for a while. If the brick fills in with him in it, he is killed, and he will reappear at the top of the screen. This version has a level editor for designing your own levels, and a graphics editor for drawing your own artwork. 
Clone of Scorched Earth Xscorch is a clone of the classic DOS game, "Scorched Earth". The basic goal is to annihilate enemy tanks using overpowered guns :). Basically, you buy weapons, you target the enemy by adjusting the angle of your turret and firing power, and you hope to destroy their tank before they destroy yours. 
Automatic screensaver for X The purpose of xscreensaver is to display pretty pictures on your screen when it is not in use, in keeping with the philosophy that unattended monitors should always be doing something interesting, just like they do in the movies. The benefit that this program has over the combination of the xlock and xautolock programs is the ease with which new graphics hacks can be installed: you don't need to recompile this program to add a new display mode, you just change some resource settings. Any program which can be invoked in such a way that it draws on the root window of the screen can now be used as a screensaver without modification. The programs that are being run as screensavers don't need to have any special knowledge about what it means to be a screensaver. 
graphics hack and screen locker, launched when the user is idle 
The xscreensaver package contains a variety of screensavers for your mind-numbing, ambition-eroding, time-wasting, hypnotized viewing pleasure.Install the xscreensaver package if you need screensavers for use with the X Window System. 
control a running xscreensaver process 
interactively control the background xscreensaver daemon 
put some randomly-selected image on the root window 
put a randomly-selected image on the root window 
put a video frame on the root window 
GL(Mesa) screenhacks for xscreensaver These are some extra hacks for xscreensaver that use the Mesa OpenGL-compatible library. They are included as an extra package so the base package doesn't require Mesa. In addition, these hacks function nicely as GL demos for people who want to try out hardware accelerated 3D with XFree86 4.x 
GNOME binaries for xscreensaver This package contains the GNOME enabled xscreensaver-demo and related files. To be useful, it requires the xscreensaver package to be installed. 
Gtk only binaries for xscreensaver This package contains the Gtk only xscreensaver-demo for people who do not want to install the whole of GNOME to use xscreensaver. To be useful, it requires the xscreensaver package to be installed. 
More than just cat for the X selection. XSel is a command-line program for getting and setting the contents of the X selection. Normally this is only accessible by manually highlighting information and pasting it with the middle mouse button. 
user preference utility for X 
set the mode for an X Input device 
set an X Input device as the main pointer 
root window parameter setting utility for X 
Dynamic space-oriented gaming system XShipWars is a highly customizable and dynamic space-oriented gaming system designed for play on the net. You create your own universes and build your own vessels with a huge array of customizable settings. Graphics/video/sound themes for XShipWars are created by many talented professional artists. More information can be found at the XShipWars web site . 
a spreadsheet with an X11 user-interface The spreadsheet part of the Siag Office suite, which also contains EGON and PW. Siag Office uses the Offix DND Drag-and-Drop protocol. Siag is a spreadsheet based on X and scheme. Being based on scheme allows any user to expand the functionality of siag in just about any way imaginable. It can read and write 1-2-3 files for inter-operation with other well-know spreadsheet programs. You can enter expressions in several languages: C, guile, SIOD, Tcl. A WWW browser is needed to read online doc. A postscript viewer is used for document preview. This one uses an X11 user interface based on the Athena toolkit. You will find a text version in the `tsiag' package. 
Music player for tunes from C64 and Amiga This is a very sophisticated music player for C64 and Amiga tunes, aka SID tunes. It's very simple now to change emulation parameters and control tunes and subtunes. Furthermore, the player features a playlist and support for the HVSC song lengths database file. The `README' contains instructions where to download and how to install this file. There is a somewhat `hidden' expert mode, which enables the built-in oscilloscope. Please see `README.Debian' and `README' for more information (and possible problems). 
A program for managing a WWW site via FTP, DAV or HTTP(GNOME version) sitecopy is for copying locally stored websites to remote ftp servers. With a single command, the program will synchronize a set of local files to a remote server by performing uploads and remote deletes as required. The aim is to remove the hassle of uploading and deleting individual files using an FTP client. sitecopy will also optionally try to spot files you move locally, and move them remotely. sitecopy is designed to not care about what is actually on the remote server - it simply keeps a record of what it THINKS is in on the remote server, and works from that. This version is the GNOME frontend to sitecopy. 
3-player card game "Skat" Xskat lets you play the card game Skat as defined by the official German "Skatordnung". You can play by sending a window to the other player's X display, or via an IRC server. The computer can also simulate players. Many unofficial rules like "Ramsch" or "Bock" are supported. 
eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XML, XSL) 
XSL editing mode for Emacs. xslide is a major mode for editing XSL stylesheets. It supports running an XSL processor on the current buffer and showing the result in another buffer. 
eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSL) 
XSLT command line processor This is a command line tool that allows to transform XML files into other XML files (or HTML, text, ...) using the standard XSLT stylesheet transformation mechanism. 
X Session Manager 
X11 tool for navigating SMB Networks xSMBrowser is a tool for navigating SMB Networks (Samba, SMB, CIFS). It retains the features of the program it was based upon (Microsoft's Network Neighborhood), but adds convenient features for Unix users. These include mounting, ability to change networks on-the-fly, and conveniences such as a Stop Button. More information can be found at the xsmbrowser web site . 
Smith Chart calculator for X xsmc-calc allows you to perform Smith Chart calculations for RF (radio frequency) circuit design. 
eXtended Storage Module Driver interface 
Generic Sokoban game for X11 xsok is a single player strategic game, a superset of the well-known Sokoban game. The target of Sokoban is to push all the objects into the score area of each level using the mouse or the arrow keys. For the other level subsets, there are different kinds of objects, and special effect squares. 
X Solitaire This is a simple Motif/Lesstif version of classic solitaire game that runs under X Window System. 
shoot-em up A vertically scrolling shoot-em up with power-ups and end-of-level bosses. 
X protocol, extension, and library technical specifications A comprehensive collection of manuals (most in both PostScript and text format, but some in text format only) documenting the standard specifications of the X protocol, extensions to the core protocol, and C library interfaces is provided by this package. The manuals provided include: * X Window System Protocol * Xlib - C Library Interface * X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Library Interface * Athena Widget Set - C Library Interface * Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF) * Compound Text Encoding (CTEXT) * X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension Protocol * X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension Library * The X Font Service Protocol * Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (ICCCM) * Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol * Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Library * The RX Document * X Session Management Library * X Session Management Protocol * X Display Manager Control Protocol (XDMCP) * XIE Sample Implementation Architecture * X Image Extension Protocol (XIE) * XIElib Specification * The Input Method Protocol * X Logical Font Description Conventions (XLFD) * Extending X for Double-Buffering, Multi-Buffering, and Stereo * Double Buffer Extension (DBE) Protocol * Double Buffer Extension (DBE) Library * Low Bandwidth X (LBX) Extension * LBX X Consortium Algorithms * MIT-SHM - The MIT Shared Memory Extension * Record Extension Protocol Specification * X Record Extension Library * Security Extension Specification * X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Protocol * X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library * X Synchronization Extension Protocol * X Synchronization Extension Library * XC-MISC Extension * XTEST Extension Protocol * XTEST Extension Library * X Input Device Extension Library * X11 Input Extension Porting Document * X11 Input Extension Protocol Specification * Xmu Library * Analysis of the X Protocol for Security Concerns * Description of the Application Group Extension Implementation * Definition of the Porting Layer for the X v11 Sample Server * The X Font Library * Security Extension Server Design * X11R6 Sample Implementation Frame Work * X Locale Database Definition * The XIM Transport Specification * A Flexible Remote Execution Protocol Based on rsh * Xlib and X Protocol Test Suite: User Guide for the X Test Suite * Font Server Implementation Overview * X Transport Interface * the Application Group (APPGROUP) extension * the BIG-REQUESTS extension This package supersedes the xbooks package in older versions of Debian. 
The xsri program allows the display of text, patterns, and images in the root window, so users can customize the XDM style login screen and/or the normal X background. Install xsri if you would like to change the look of your X loginscreen and/or X background. It is also used to display the default background (Red Hat logo). 
X wallpaper generator. XStarfish generates colourful, tiled images for your background using random numbers fed through mathematical functions. It does not use source image files, so it can generate its images nearly forever without running out of material. 
X standard colormap utility 
Allow users to run commands as root, after prompting for password. xsu is an interface for the command `su - username -c command` in Gnome. When the user executes xsu, he/she will be prompted for a command, a username and a password. If the username and password are correct xsu will execute the command as the entered user. So if the username was root, then the command will be executed as root. Of course it's also possible to predefine the username and the command by using the [-u,--username] and [-c,--command] arguments at the command line of xsu. This can be very useful when using xsu in for example gmenu or the GNOME panel. * Security Gnome Xsu 2.0 uses the standard su binary to gain it's root access. This way, all security issues should be solved. The security of all older xsu versions was very bad. With xsu version 0.1.0 the use of a pipe to a secured non-Gnome SUID application was introduced. This has been replaced with a special type of pipe to the standard GNU su application from the 'login' package. 
display some Linux kernel parameters in graphical form This X client is like a mix of top, free and xload with the difference that the values are shown in form of a horizontal bar. The displayed values are: CPU load, CPU idle, memory and swap sizes. 
A graphical traceroute It traces (on a picture of the Earth) the route your IP packets travel to their destination. 
eXtended Technology (IBM, PC) 
Catalog support and wrapper for XSLT Processor XT This package provides a simple front-end to XT for processing XML source files with XSL stylesheets. SGML catalog support is provided by a modified version of the command-line driver class for XT. A wrapper script for general XT usage is also included. This package works well for processing most DocBook XML sources. Author: Norman Walsh <> Homepage: 
like "tail -f", but works on truncated files, directories, more xtail watches the growth of files. It's like running a "tail -f" on a bunch of files at once. It notices if a file is truncated and starts from the beginning. You can specify both filenames and directories on the command line. If you specify a directory, it watches all the files in that directory. It will notice when new files are created (and start watching them) or when old files are deleted (and stop watching them). 
BSD talk compatible X Window System client. xtalk is a visual communication program which copies lines from your terminal to that of another user. This is an X Window System version, written in python. 
Display Scottish tartans Xtartan is a program that displays Scottish tartans (check patterns) in an X window or the root window. It can write the images to files for use on WWW pages etc. There is a library of over 240 tartan setts included with the program, and you can also add your own. 
Distribution and website are in Chinese. 
a cuddly teddy bear (or other image) for your X desktop Normally, xteddy just sits around doing nothing. After all, that's what teddy bears are for. Look at him, talk to him, place heavy windows on top of him, zap him around until he becomes dizzy, do what you like; he will always be your true (albeit virtual) friend. Now you can load other pixmaps than the nice teddy, too. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
An X emulator of the French Minitel. This is a lesstif Minitel client that runs on color/black and white X Display and a xteld daemon that can make Minitel connection with one or more modems. The Minitel is a dedicated terminal for accessing the Teletel, the French videotex network. Thus, this package is almost only for French users. This package now supports the 3622 I-Minitel protocol (more informations on 
Simple messaging client and server, sort of networked write Simple messaging client and server, allowing you to send messages from computer running xtell client to computer running xtelld server. Can be used as replacement for write(1). 
xtend - X10 status monitoring daemon xtend listens to the CM11A controller and will run commands in response to the input. This allows for motion sensors, water level detectors, alarm switches, and other X10 enabled devices to keep a log of house activity and status. Scripts can be written to e-mail reports, or update web pages based on X10 Activity. This package does not have transmit capability, if you want to control X10 devices, you need to use the heyu package. 
Graphical application that provides a shell prompt for typing system commands. 
The XTerm program is the standard terminal emulator for the X Window System. It provides DEC VT102/VT220 and Tektronix 4014 compatible terminals for programs that can't use the window system directly. If the underlying operating system supports terminal resizing capabilities (for example, the SIGWINCH signal insystems derived from 4.3bsd), xterm will use the facilities to notify programs running in the window whenever it is resized. 
X terminal emulator xterm is a terminal emulator for the X Window System. It provides DEC VT102 and Tektronix 4014 compatible terminals for programs that cannot use the window system directly. This version implements ISO/ANSI colors and most of the control sequences used by DEC VT220 terminals. 
change the characteristics of an xterm xtermset allows you to change the characteristics of an xterm window from the command line. Most options have the same names as those that you would give xterm at startup. 
Xtest is a small program used to test X configuration which is used bythe Red Hat Linux installation program "anaconda". 
Tetris for X, supports one or 2 players. This version of tetris supports single player mode, or 2 player head-to-head play. 
X/open Transport Interface (X/Open, X-Windows) 
provides tide and current predictions XTide is a package that provides tide and current predictions in a wide variety of formats. Graphs, text listings, and calendars can be generated, or a tide clock can be provided on your desktop. XTide can work with the X window system, plain text terminals, or the web. This is accomplished with three separate programs: the interactive interface (xtide), the non-interactive or command line interface (tide), and the web interface (xttpd). The algorithm that XTide uses to predict tides is the one used by the National Ocean Service in the U.S. It is significantly more accurate than the simple tide clocks that can be bought in novelty stores. However, it takes more to predict tides accurately than just a spiffy algorithm -- you also need data for every location for which you want to predict tides. This package provide a sample data set for only one location so you can try out the package, but anything useful requires the data packaged in the xtide-data package (or downloaded from the XTide ftp site). Web Page: 
X Puzzle Game. xtokkaetama, alias xkaetama, is a tetris-like game. It supports single-player mode and two-players mode. 
Allows to start X applications serially. Xtoolwait notably decreases the startup time of your X sessions, provided that you start a number of X clients automatically during the X session startup. Xtoolwait starts one X client in the background, waits until it has mapped a window and then exits. Author: Richard Huveneers <> Homepage: 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
eXpress Transport Protocol 
Free radius server implementation. XtRadius is a free radius server implementation. The main feature is that it can handle user accounting and authentication information via external fully configurable scripts. The Radius server is based on Cistron Radius 1.6.4. You can write script to make you own auth and/or accounting routines without having to patch the main server. Communication between XtRadius server and external scripts can be made using command line parameters or via environment variables. 
This is a x11-version translate wich will translate the xclipboard This is a X11-version for translate. It writes the contents of the X-selection and the commandline-option in a temporary used environment-variable, calls the script translate and pipes the results in a xmessage window. It will install a menuentry for the debian menusystem. It is possible to make a shortcut in some windowmanagers to use it more quickly. 
client-server multiplayer X tetris Xtris supports any number of simultaneous players. Features include: * Integrated chat system. * Computer-controlled robot players. 
Minimal X display lock program xtrlock is a very minimal X display lock program, which uses nothing except the Xlib library. It doesn't obscure the screen, it is completely idle while the display is locked and you don't type at it, and it doesn't do funny things to the X access control lists. 
Tron game for X Xtron is a simple one or two player version of the old classic TRON. The game is simple: avoid running into walls, your own tail, and that of your opponent. 
emulator for TRS-80 Model I/III/4/4P computers xtrs is an X-based emulator for the Tandy/Radio Shack line of Zilog Z-80-based microcomputers popular in the late 1970's and early 1980's. It features cassette, floppy, and hard drive emulation, timer interrupt emulation, file import and export from the host operating system, support for most of the undocumented Z-80 instructions, and a built-in debugger. Real floppy drives can be used, and, if an OSS-compatible sound driver is available, application-based sound can be played and real cassettes read and written directly through the sound card or via WAVE files. Several hi-res graphics cards are emulated and, in Model 4/4P mode, mice are supported. There is also real-time clock, sound card, serial port, joystick, and CPU clock speedup emulation. xtrs requires ROM images from the original machines. The ROMs are copyrighted by Radio Shack and are not freely licensed. (Exception: in Model 4P mode, a freely licensed boot ROM included with this package can be used to boot a Model 4 operating system from a diskette image.) Instructions are provided for retrieval of TRS-80 ROM images by those who may legally use them. 
Changes X terminal emulator window titles This is a small program that generates escape sequences to change the title of terminal emulator windows under X. It should work with any program that emulates an xterm-like terminal. 
Fidonet and Usenet statistics program for X Turquoise SuperStat is a simple but powerful Fidonet and Usenet message base statistics program that can read messages that are stored in SDM (*.MSG), SquishMail, JAM, FDAPX/w and MyPoint message bases as well as local or remote (NNTP) Usenet news spools. This is the GUI version. 
X-Tux. XTux is a multidirectional scrolling game in which you control famous Free Software characters such as Tux, Beastie, or RMS in an attempt to save the World from an evil software company. 
cuddly teddy bear for your X Windows desktop. 
View the screen of a remote X11 display View a remote X11 display in a window on your own display, in a continuously updating fashion. Just like watching the remote display on television! 
X-windows User Interface (UI, X-Windows) 
X-Unique-ID-Listing. (UIDL, POP3), "X-UIDL" 
used to define what the user interface will look like for a particular piece of software. XUL is used to define what buttons, scrollbars, text boxes, and other user-interface items will appear, but it is not used to define how those item will look (e.g. what color they are). The most widely used example of XUL use is probably in theMozilla web browser, where the entire user interface is defined using the XUL language. 
XUL (eXtensible User-interface Language)
A markup language similar to HTML and based on XML. 
eXpertensystem UMweltgefaehrlichkeit von Altlasten (XPS) 
X Window System utility programs xutils provides a set of utility programs shipped with the X Window System that do not require the X libraries; many of these programs are useful even on a system that does not have any X clients or X servers installed. The programs in this package include: - atobm, a converter from ASCII to X bitmap (.xbm) files; - bdftopcf, which converts BDF fonts to PCF fonts; - and, tools to generate fonts with various encodings from ISO 10646-encoded fonts - ccmakedep, a version of makedepend which "does it right" - cleanlinks, a program to remove dangling symlinks and empty directories from a shadow link tree (created with lndir) - fslsfonts, a tool that lists fonts served by an X font server; - imake, a C preprocessor interface to the make utility; - lndir, a tool that creates a shadow directory of symbolic links to another directory tree; - makedepend, a tool to create dependencies in makefiles; - makeg, a tool for making debuggable executables; - makepsres, a tool that creates PostScript language resource database files; - makestrs, a tool that makes string table C source and header(s); - mkcfm, a tool that create summaries of font metric files in CID font directories; - mkdirhier, a tool that creates a directory hierarchy; - mkfontdir, a program to generate fonts.dir files; - scanpci, a utility for retrieving information about the PCI bus and devices on it (not available on all architectures); - pcitweak, a utility that can be used to examine or change registers in the PCI configuration space (not available on all architectures); - pswrap, a tool that creates C procedures from segments of PostScript language code; - resize, which prints a shell command for setting the TERM and TERMCAP environment variables to indicate the current size of the xterm (or compatible program) window from which the command is run; - revpath, which generates a relative path that can be used to undo a change-directory; - rstart, a remote start client; - rstartd, a remote start daemon activated by rstart connections; - sessreg, a simple program for managing utmp/wtmp entries; - showfont, a font dumper for use with an X font server; - showrgb, a decompiler for RGB color-name databases; - xfsinfo, an X font server information utility; - xmkmf, a tool that creates a Makefile from an Imakefile; and - xon, a tool that starts an X program on a remote machine. Installation of the xlibs-dev package, which contains the imake template files, is necessary if the imake or xmkmf tools are to be used. Installation of an rsh or ssh daemon (server) is necessary if rstartd is to be used, and installation of an rsh or ssh client is necessary if rstart is to be used. 
virtual framebuffer X server for X Version 11 
virtual framebuffer X server xvfb provides an X server that can run on machines with no display hardware and no physical input devices. It emulates a dumb framebuffer using virtual memory. The primary use of this server was intended to be server testing, but other novel uses for it have been found, including testing clients against unusual depths and screen configurations, doing batch processing with Xvfb as a background rendering engine, load testing, as an aid to porting the X server to a new platform, and providing an unobtrusive way to run applications that don't really need an X server but insist on having one anyway. This package also contains a convenience script called xvfb-run which simplifies the automated execution of X clients in a virtual server environment. This convenience script requires the use of the xauth program from xbase-clients, hence the suggestion of xbase-clients. 
run specified X client or command in a virtual X server environment 
video mode tuner for XFree86 
a "Four in a row" game Xvier is a simple X game where you and your opponent alternately throw stones into free columns. The stones pile up in the columns, and the goal is to get four stones in a row, in a column or diagonally. 
XView shared libraries [libc6] This package contains the shared libraries for XView. XView is a user interface toolkit following the look and feel of Sun's pre-X11 SunView. This package is required by XView-based programs. 
VI Like Emacs - vi work-alike (X11) X11 version of the vile editor. 
Print out X-Video extension adaptor information 
software virtual keyboard for X11 xvkbd is a virtual (graphical) keyboard program for X Window System which provides facility to enter characters onto other clients (softwares) by clicking on a keyboard displayed on the screen. This may be used for systems without a hardware keyboard such as kiosk terminals or handheld devices. This program also has facility to send characters specified as the command line option to another client. 
Small graphical utility for mounting devices by users. Users can mount predefined devices with selected permissions from a simple OpenLook based graphical interface. Xvmount recognizes the filesystem types minix, ext, ext2, msdos, vfat, xiafs, and iso9660/High Sierra. 
Virtual network computing client software for X. VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing `desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. It is implemented in a client/server model. This package provides a client for X, with this you can connect to a vncserver somewhere in the network and display its content in a window. There are vncserver available for X and for Win95/NT. This package is an enhanced version of VNC including TightVNC allowing it to be optimized to work over slow network connections such as low-speed modem links so you can work remotely almost in real time in most environments. 
eXecutive Vector Table (BS2000) 
X terminal-emulator similar to xterm, but smaller xvt is an X terminal-emulator that is designed to be more or less compatible with xterm while using much less swap space. It is mainly intended for use at sites which use large numbers of X terminals but may also be useful on single workstations that are short of memory. The main way that xvt achieves its small size is by avoiding the use of the X toolkit. If you are looking for a more featureful terminal-emulator than xvt, but one which still uses less swap space than xterm, consider rxvt. Features of xterm which xvt does not support include: - Tektronix 4014 emulation - Session logging - Pop-up menus. The only one of xterm's popup menu commands that is provided in xvt is displaying and hiding of the scrollbar and this is done simply by pressing any mouse key in the window with the CONTROL key held down. - Toolkit style configurability. In particular, xvt does not allow the user to remap the mouse or keyboard keys. Features which are supported include: - VT100 emulation. Most of the main escape sequences are supported -- certainly all those used by the standard screen based UNIX applications. - Lines that scroll off the top of the window are saved and can be scrolled back with a scrollbar. - Text selection and insertion including double and triple click for words and lines. 
Wave sound file editor XWave can load and edit several sound files at the same time. You can cut and paste sections from one file to an other. It also includes some effects like: re-sampling, echo, volume change, revert, etc... 
dump an image of an X window 
RFC954 whois client for the X Window System This package provides a small and fast query tool for the RFC954 whois service, built using the gtk library for the X Window System. 
window information utility for X 
a collection of simple routines to call some X11 functions xwit is a collection of simple routines to call some X11 functions that don't already have any utility commands built around them. The reasoning behind this is that loosely every X function should be accessible from a shell script. For example, XWarpPointer() will move the X pointer, but no utility program exists to do so on those rare occasions when you could really use it. xwit will also resize, iconify, pop, and move windows given by name or id, change an icon, title or name, set the screen saver going, and change individual key autorepeat settings, etc. 
Programming environment and editor for console and X11 Xwpe is an integrated programming and debugging environment similar to Borland's Turbo C and Pascal family. It has many features including the ability to start many compilers, linkers and debuggers from a menu-based interface or using keystrokes. Syntax highlighting is included for many programming languages, and any compiler and debugger can easily be used by the program. When compiling from within xwpe, errors in the source code can be jumped to and swiftly corrected. Variables and the stack can be easily displayed. Setting and unsetting breakpoints can be done directly within the source code. Although it is designed to be a tool for programmers (when invoked as wpe or xwpe), it can also be used as an easy to learn text editor (when invoked as we or xwe). 
Reminds you to take a break from typing xwrits is a small reminder program designed to let you know it is time to take a break from typing to rest your wrists and prevent any damage to your wrists (or at least make them feel better if you've already damaged them). Normally works on the honor system, but if you find yourself unable to stop typing during your break, it can also lock your keyboard. 
image displayer for X 
make a hexdump or do the reverse. 
a graphical file and directories comparison and merge tool A powerful tool for viewing the differences between two or three files, or two directories, and can be used to produce a merged version. The texts of the two or three files are presented side by side with their differences highlighted with colors for easy identification. Among its features are: * 3-way diffs * comfortable enabling of various diff options * merge with: * cut and paste * save selected regions * view merged results * recursive comparison * full customizable through resource file 
A X front-end to the GNU debugger gdb xxgdb is a simple but powerful graphical interface to the GNU debugger gdb. A more powerful (but slower and much bigger) interface is available in the ddd package. 
Keyboard state indicator and switcher for xkb This program is a keyboard state indicator and switcher for xkb. Features: - shows current xkb group (pixmap in its own window) - allows switch group by mouse click - allows individual state for every window - can install its own button (indicator/mouse switcher) on every window's title bar - can restrict keyboard states for every window to only two ("main group" - "alternative group") if xkb set up for more than two groups. Bugs: - documentation is partially in Russian (koi8-r charset) only 
The conventional mail arrival notification client for X. This package contains youbin client for X. This look and feel is like xbiff. 
Picture viewer for X with a thumbnail-based selector xzgv is a picture viewer for X, with a thumbnail-based file selector. It uses GTK+ and Imlib. Most file formats are supported, and the thumbnails used are compatible with xv, zgv, and the Gimp. It can also be used with `xzgv file(s)', to effectively bypass the file selector. For more on how xzgv works and how to use it, do `info xzgv' or `man xzgv' once it's installed. xzgv differs from other picture viewers for X in that it uses one window for both the file selector and viewer, it (unlike xv) allows both scrolling and fit-to-window methods of viewing large pictures, and it (unlike xv and some others) doesn't ever mangle the picture's aspect ratio. It also provides extensive keyboard support; if you prefer using the keyboard, this is almost certainly the best viewer for you. But it doesn't skimp on the mousey stuff, either. Note that this program is written by the author of the svgalib-based "zgv", and has similar features. Home Page: 
Interpreter of Infocom-format story-files Xzip interprets story-files (which are usually text adventure games) in the format used by Infocom. This includes the games published by Infocom, as well as any games produced by compilers to this format, such as Inform. This is an interpreter for X. For text mode, try frotz or jzip. 
magnify part of X display, with fast updates Like xmag, xzoom magnifies a section of the X display. Xzoom is different because it will continuously update the magnified area as the display changes. It is fast enough to enlarge small animations, for example. 
Year 2000 problem 
Yet Another Acronym Server (WWW) 
Yet Another BASIC interpreter Implements the most common (and simple) elements of the language plus some graphics facilities. Anyone who has ever written BASIC programs on a C-64 should feel at home. 
Computer Algebra System Yet Another Computer Algebra System is a small and highly flexible computer algebra language. The syntax is very close to Mathematica. The distribution contains a small library of mathematical functions, but its real strength is in the language in which you can easily write your own symbolic manipulation algorithms. It supports arbitrary precision arithmetic. 
a "parser". YACC stands for "Yet Another Compiler Compiler". This is because this kind of analysis of text files is normally associated with writing compilers. 
GNU Project parser generator (yacc replacement) 
Yet Another Compiler Compiler (Unix) 
check the bug closings in a Debian changelog. yaclc (yet another change log check) queries the Bug Tracking System to see if the bugs closed in a package's changelog belong to that package. 
Yet Another Debianisation Aid YADA is a Debian packaging helper. It parses a special file, debian/packages, in a source package, and generates an appropriate debian/rules to control building of the package. WARNING: YADA is still very experimental! Use it at your own risk! (And please run Lintian over anything built with yada before uploading.) 
Yet Another DSSSL Engine (DSSSL) 
WAD file editor for doom-style WADs Yadex is a Doom level (wad) editor for Unix systems running X, including Linux. It supports Doom alpha, Doom beta, Doom, Ultimate Doom, Final Doom, Doom II, Heretic and also, in a more or less limited way, Hexen and Strife. It is available under the terms of the GPL. Yadex is descended from DEU 5.21. Therefore, as you might expect, it's a rather low-level editor that requires you to take care of a lot of detail but on the flip side allows you to control very precisely what you are doing. In addition, it has many advanced functions that DEU didn't have, to make certain tedious tasks easy. 
Yet Another FTP Client Yafc is an ftp client intended to be a replacement for the standard ftp(1) program. Features include directory cache, remote filename completion, aliases, colored ls, recursive get/put/ls/rm, nohup mode transfers, tagging (queueing), background downloading, and more. This version is compiled without KTH Kerberos 4/5 authentication. 
yet another notekeeper Yank is a simple notekeeper and todo-list manager using the gnome and gtk libraries. It feels stable and usable enough to be released to the public but it surely lacks some (not so important) features which might be added later. Excessive tests have shown that yank is fool-proof, irritating and wasting too much memory. 
Yet Another Pager Software This software is primary designed to send message to so called pager devices including cellular phones which are able to receive textual messages (sometimes called SMS, short message system/service.) 
Perl scripts to build rescue disk(s) to revive a system Yard is a suite of Perl scripts for creating custom boot/rescue disks. Using a compressed filesystem, it can put a standard kernel image plus about 2.4 meg of utilities on a single floppy. Yard is also useful for creating self-contained Linux-on-a-floppy systems. You specify a basic set of files and utilities for inclusion and Yard handles many of the details. Features: - File specs allow absolute and relative filenames, symbolic links, file replacements and full shell-style globbing. - Automatically determines necessary libraries and loaders. - Allows stripping of binaries and libraries during copying. - Automatically regenerates - Checks for broken symlinks - Checks /etc/{fstab,inittab,termcap,pam.conf} for common errors and inconsistencies. - Checks user directories and files mentioned in /etc/passwd - Checks command files (eg, rc.local and .login) and scripts for missing binaries and command interpreters. - Automatically performs filesystem compression and copying. - Can be used with or without LILO. - Can make single or double disk sets. - Extensive checking of user choices and execution errors. 
YARD Radius Auth/Acct Server YARD Radius is a Radius authentication/accounting server which is derived from the original Livingston Enterprise Inc. RADIUS daemon release 2.1. It adds a number of useful features to the LE daemon, i.e. Control of simultaneous logins. Support of Ascend, Cisco and USR boxes. Extended daily/monthly/yearly accounting information on a per-user basis MD5 encrypted passwords support (both in passwd file and/or users file) Expirations in shadow file. Checking based on time-of-day, traffic and connection time. Support of PAM authentication and accounting. Binary form of accounting file. GDBM formats for users and user stats databases. Autoconfiguring capabilities of sources. 
Yet Another Linuxdoc-DTD only SGML mode Yasgml automates typesetting and previewing of SGML and enables completing input of SGML mark-up command such as `<verb>'..`</verb>'. It is intended to use with LinuxDoc DTD only. You may need linuxdoc-tools package to process Linuxdoc-DTD SGML source. Default is for Japanese text editing. Its keybinding is based on that of YaTeX. 
Yet Another Scheme Object System 
Yet Another Setup Tool (Linux, SUSE), "YaST" 
Yet Another LaTeX mode YaTeX automates typesetting and previewing of LaTeX and enables completing input of LaTeX mark-up command such as `\begin{}'..`\end{}'. YaTeX also supports Demacs which runs on MS-DOS(386), Mule (Multi Language Enhancement to GNU Emacs), and latex on DOS. 
Yet another Canna client for Emacsen. Canna client for emacs20, emacs21 or xemacs with MULE support. yc.el is implemented in pure elisp, makes it possible to use Canna on emacsen without direct support for Canna. Canna is a Japanese input method. 
Yale Center for Parallel Supercomputing (org., USA, HPC) 
Yellow Book
An Interntional Standards Organisation (1SO) standard that describes the way data is encoded on CD-ROMs. The Yellow Book standard includes CD-XA specifications. YModem A file transfer protocol is an improved version of XMODEM-IK. YMODEM transfers data in 1,024-byte, blocks and performs a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) on each frame. Also, YMODEM supports sending more than over file in sequence. See YMODEM-g and ZMODEM. 
Yellow Dog
Yellow Dog Linux is a complete, Red Hat and RPM based operating system for PowerPC computers. YDL may co-exist with Mac OS in a dual-boot environment or replace the Mac OS on "New World ROM" (Blue & White G3s and newer) machines. Simple to install, YDL offers a graphical installer, KDE (an elegant, mature GUI), and over 900 applications to fulfill server, code developer, and home/office needs. YDL 3.0 was released March 19, 2003. 
Yelp is the Gnome 2 help/documentation browser. It is designed to help you browse all the documentation on your system in one central tool. 
Powerful yEnc decoder/encoder Powerful standards-compliant yEnc encoder/decoder for the Usenet yEnc encoding format for modern UNIX systems 
Command which outputs a string repeatedly until killed 
Yet Another
adj. [From Unix's yacc(1), `Yet Another Compiler-Compiler', a LALR parser generator] 1. Of your own work: A humorous allusion often used in titles to acknowledge that the topic is not original, though the content is. As in `Yet Another AI Group' or `Yet Another Simulated Annealing Algorithm'. 2. Of others' work: Describes something of which there are already far too many. See also YA-, YABA, YAUN. 
A small freeware Forth environment in ANSI C. yForth? is an interestingly small implementation of Forth for Linux. It suffers several deficiencies. For general Forth programming or learning under Linux, yForth? is not the best choice. From the author's README: yForth? is a Forth environment written entirely in ANSI C, making it extremely portable. The first thing I want to tell you about yForth? is that it seems a joke compared to other systems such as gForth or PFE. Nevertheless, you could find yForth? nice, in which case you're invited to explore yForth? It's yours, you can make anything you want with it. If you want an explanation of the words provided by yForth? please refer to the draft of ANS Forth or something equivalent. The Net will help you. Do not expect the prompt "ok" to come up when you run yForth?, the standard says that "ok" shall be printed AFTER every successful command execution... 
Yan Huang Chinese Platform, a console Chinese environment Yan Huang Chinese Platform provides Chinese/English text input/output environment. Users can choose input methods from "Quwei", "GbkPinYin" and "BiaoXingMa". GBK standard Chinese interal encoding and Big5 encoding Chinese text are both supported. Authors: Red Flag Linux Home Page: 
Y Sound Server YIFF is a network based and multi client connection system that supports X Window Systems style event and client handling. Internal 3D sound support and client to server IO wrapper code is also available. YIFF is OSS, ALSA, YSound and Y2N compliant. More information can be found at the YIFF web site . 
Terminal-based Chinese automatic encoding converter yyt is a pseudo-tty program that converts Chinese terminal output encoded in GB/BIG5 to a preset encoding automatically. It is useful for users who have to work with multiple Chinese encoding in console applications. Now it also converts input to the incoming encoding if the incoming encoding is set explicitly. 
Yet oneOther Document Language. Yodl is a package that implements a pre-document language and tools to process it. The idea of Yodl is that you write up a document in a pre-language, then use the tools (e.g. yodl2html) to convert it to some final document language. Current converters are for HTML, ms, man, LaTeX SGML and texinfo, plus a poor-man's text converter. Main document types are "article", "report", "book" and "manpage". The Yodl document language is designed to be easy to use and extensible. URL: Authors: Karel Kubat <> Frank Brokken <> Jan Nieuwenhuizen <> 
Yoper is a high performance operating system which has been carefully optimised for PC's with either 686 or higher processor types. The binaries that come with Yoper have been built from scratch using the original sources combined with the best features of from the major distros. Yoper is high performance and compact. In fact Yoper is one of the most standardised linux's that you will find and hardware performance is better than that of any other commercial OS. With Yoper it is possible to import packages from all the other major distributions, including RPM's, .deb's, and .tgz packages. Ydesktop-3.2.1 Release Candidate 3 released January 12, 2003. 
interpreted language and scientific graphics Yorick is an interpreted programming language for: * scientific simulations or calculations * postprocessing or steering large simulation codes * interactive scientific graphics * reading, writing, and translating large files of numbers The language features a compact syntax for many common array operations, so it processes large arrays of numbers very quickly and efficiently. Superficially, yorick code resembles C code, but yorick variables are never explicitly declared and have a dynamic scoping similar to many Lisp dialects. The yorick language is designed to be typed interactively at a keyboard, as well as stored in files for later use. This package includes an emacs-based development environment, which you can launch by typing M-x yorick in emacs. 
The conventional mail arrival notification server. Youbin is a kind of biff in the network age. When youbin is used, the mail spool of a certain, specific machine (mail server) is observed to inform the arrival of mail to a user at an arbitrary machine through the network. On the other hand, the conventional "biff" informs only the user who logs in at the machine with the mail spool. Combining with POP, youbin eliminate a lot of NFS mount of mail spool for mail arrival checking. Since youbin is designed with event driven, the user is promptly informed of status change of mail spool caused by mail arriving and reading. 
Yellow Pages(tm), a registered trademark in the UK of British Telecom plc. 
The Network Information Service (NIS) is a system that provides network information (login names, passwords, home directories, group information) to all of the machines on a network. NIS can allow users to log in on any machine on the network, as long as the machine has the NIS client programs running and the user's password is recorded in the NIS passwd database. NIS was formerly known as Sun Yellow Pages(YP). This NIS implementation is based on FreeBSD's YP and is a special port for glibc 2.x and libc versions 5.4.21 and later. This package only provides the NIS client programs. In order to use the clients, you need to have an NIS server running on your network. An NIS server is provided in the ypserv package. Install the yp-tools package if you need NIS client programs for machines on your network. You will also need to install the ypbind package on every machine running NIS client programs. If you need an NIS server, you need to install the ypserv package on one machine on the network. 
The Network Information Service (NIS) is a system that provides network information (login names, passwords, home directories, group information) to all of the machines on a network. NIS can allow users to log in on any machine on the network, as long as the machine has the NIS client programs running and the user's password is recorded inthe NIS passwd database. NIS was formerly known as Sun Yellow Pages(YP). This package provides the ypbind daemon. The ypbind daemon binds NIS clients to an NIS domain. Ypbind must be running on any machines running NIS client programs. Install the ypbind package on any machines running NIS client programs (included in the yp-tools package). If you need an NIS server, youalso need to install the ypserv package to a machine on your network. 
Yukon Standard Time [-0900] (TZ) 
Enhanced talk program with X support. Ytalk is a multi-user chat program. It works exactly like the UNIX talk program and even communicates with the same talk daemons. Ytalk's advantages come in it's ability to allow multiple connections. 
A file manager that looks like Xtree Gold(tm) This is a file manager that looks like xtree gold(tm). it has history, colors, configurable file viewers and much more. It works on terminals. 
unicode text editor yudit is a unicode text editor for the X Window System. It does not need localized environment or unicode fonts. It supports simultaneous processing of many languages, conversions for local character standards, bidirectional input, has its own input methods. The package includes conversion utilities, and it also has support for postscript printing. 
decode yEnc archives yydecode works almost identically to the infamous uudecode program, but for yEnc encoded archives. 
extract grammar rules from a yacc grammar 
generate cross-reference for yacc input 
Utilities for Z8530 based HDLC cards for AX.25 (kernel 2.2.x) This package contains utilities to load, configure and modify the kernel driver for Z8530 based SCC cards. This version is for kernels above 2.1.6. It should at least work with the following boards and connected modems: BayCom USCC. PA0HZP card with and without ESCC and/or external clock divider (up to 19200 baud (loopback)) and compatibles. TCM3105 modem, 4k8 modem, 9k6 DF9IC modem (loopback), HAPN 4k8 modem (connected to a SCC board, of course!). 
A TV viewer for the GNOME project. It has some interesting features, namely: it is for GNOME/GTK. This gives the program a nice look. It is based on plugins. This will make it easy to add functionality to the program, without making it hard to maintain, such as saving video as AVI/MPEG, viewing mirrored TV (scanning from right to left) or whatever you can image (and program). It has a very advanced VBI decoder, Lirc support, realtime MPEG recording and much more. 
Zero Administration initiative for Windows (MS, Windows NT) 
>zblast, shoot 'em up space game Shoot 'em up space game with cool sound and high speed of playing. 
Zone Bit Recording 
Zone Co-ordinator (FidoNet) 
compress or expand files 
Zone Constant Angular Velocity 
This is an implementation of the ad-hoc link-local IP autoconfiguration algorithm described in the IETF Draft "Dynamic Configuration of IPv4link-local addresses". 
Clock applet for the GNOME desktop environment ZClock is a clock applet for the GNOME desktop environment. It is similar to the standard GNOME clock applet, but it allows greater customization. You can choose your preferred border style as well as specify the exact format for the time display (using a POSIX strftime(3) format string). Read the strftime(3) manpage for details on this format. 
Zoned Constant Linear Velocity (DVD, DVD-RAM) 
compare compressed files 
compare compressed files 
time zone dumper 
A GPL'd, BGP/OSPF/RIP capable routing daemon GNU Zebra is free software (distributed under the GNU Generic Public License) which manages TCP/IP based routing protocols. It supports BGP 4, BGP4+, OSPFv2, OSPFv3, RIPv1, RIPv2, and RIPng as well as the IPv6 versions of these. Zebra uses threading if the kernel supports it, but can also run on kernels that do not support threading. Zebra is more than a routed replacement, it can be used as a Route Server and a Route Reflector. Zebra is unique in design in that it has a process for each protocol. 
Powerful, multipurpose, configurable text editor This package contains a console and an X version. - Can use ANY key sequence (e.g. define a block with shift-arrow) even on the console. - Intelligent screen update (NOT using the slow (n)curses). - Column blocks with insert & overwrite. - Multi window/multi buffer. - Color C++, HTML, TeX, Java, mail file. - Shows parenthesis matching, searches for C functions, reindents C blocks. - About 200 commands and 100 variables to deal with. - Can edit/insert control codes (ASCII 0-31 and 128-159). - Executes programs with output redirected to a window (e.g. make, man, etc). - Can load files with CRLF and/or CR and/or LF end-of-line marker. - Clipboard and delete buffer. - Saveable run-time macros. - Simple and powerful configuration system. - Easy document mode, almost ASCII. - Automatic word wrap and reformat, even inside quoted line within an e-mail file. - Small, fast, powerful, low CPU consumer. - Hexdump-like mode to edit binary file. - You can go everywhere with the cursor. - Internal, fast file selector. 
search possibly compressed files for a regular expression 
Major mode for wasting time This package contains a glamorous and ultimate major mode for Emacs. IRC in a box. Make your IRC client able to act as editor, too. This is what modern net addicts were searching for. 
The original "Instant Message" system client This package only contains the clients; you'll need a server to talk to. This is the Project Athena Zephyr notification system 2000/04/21 snapshot. Zephyr allows users to send messages to other users or to groups of users. Users can view incoming Zephyr messages as windowgrams (transient X windows) or as text on a terminal. 
The original "Instant Message" system-server without Kerberos You probably only need one server for a group of clients. This can be a memory-intensive server, especially for very large sites. The server maintains a location and subscription database for all the receiving clients. All zephyrgrams are sent to the server to be routed to the intended recipient. This is the Project Athena Zephyr notification system 2000/04/21 snapshot. Zephyr allows users to send messages to other users or to groups of users. Users can view incoming Zephyr messages as windowgrams (transient X windows) or as text on a terminal. 
adj. Syn. content-free. 
search possibly compressed files for a regular expression 
force a '.gz' extension on all gzip files 
search possibly compressed files for a regular expression 
SVGAlib graphics viewer 'zgv' is a graphics viewer, based around SVGAlib, which can display GIF87a, GIF89a, JPEG/JFIF, PNG, PBM/PGM/PPM, BMP, and TGA files on a standard VGA and most SVGAs, with a full-screen file selector front-end. It can also be used as a simple command-line file viewer, with 'zgv filename', to do slide shows of a list of files, and so on. 
Chinese HZ/GB/BIG5/UNI/UTF7/UTF8 encodings auto-converter AutoConvert is an intelligent Chinese Encoding converter. It uses builtin functions to judge the type of the input file's Chinese Encoding (such as GB/Big5/HZ), then converts the input file to any type of Chinese Encoding you want. You can use autoconvert to handle incoming mail, automatically converting messages to the Chinese Encoding you want. It can alse handle Unicode/UTF7/UTF8 now. Author: Yu Guanghui <> 
A wrapper for SGMLtools to process Chinese This is a wrapper for SGMLtools (version 1) that lets you convert Chinese SGML files (either Big5 or GB) into HTML, plain text, LaTeX, and so on. This package is used to process CLDP (Chinese Linux Documentation Project) documents. If you want to output plain text files, you need to have the lynx package installed. And if you want to output DVI files, the cjk-latex package is required. Please read /usr/share/doc/zh-sgmltools/README.Debian for details. 
A Fast Console CJK System Using FrameBuffer Zhcon is a fast Linux Console Chinese System which supports framebuffer device.It can display Chinese,Japanese or Korean double byte characters on console. Features include: Full support for Linux FrameBuffer device(from 640x480x8bpp to 1024x768x32bpp) Multiple language support (GB2312,GBK,BIG5,JIS,KSCM) Auto-detect and convert between GB2312 and BIG5 encoding(like hztty) Hot key to change language encoding on the fly Can use input method from MS Windows 98 Chinese version or UCDOS for MS-DOS 
time zone compiler 
Zero Insertion Force [socket] (IC) 
a very small emacs-like editor Zile is another Emacs-clone. Zile is a customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor. Zile was written to be as similar as possible to Emacs; every Emacs user should feel at home with Zile. 
Archiver for .zip files This is InfoZIP's zip program. It produces files that are fully compatible with the popular PKZIP program; however, the command line options are not identical. In other words, the end result is the same, but the methods differ. :-) This version supports encryption. 
The zip program is a compression and file packaging utility. Zip is analogous to a combination of the UNIX tar and compress commands and is compatible with PKZIP (a compression and file packaging utility for MS-DOS systems). Install the zip package if you need to compress files using the zip program. This version support crypto encryption. 
vt. [primarily MS-DOS] To create a compressed archive from a group of files using PKWare's PKZIP or a compatible archiver. Its use is spreading now that portable implementations of the algorithm have been written. Commonly used as follows: "I'll zip it up and send it to you." See tar and feather. 
Zigzag Inline Package (VRAM) 
Zone Information Protocol (AppleTalk) 
A popular form of file compression/archiving available on many operating system platforms, including DOS/Windows, OS/2 and UNIX/Linux. Popular tools include PKZip/PKUnzip and Zip/Unzip. Not to be confused with the Iomega Zip disk, which is a removable storage device. (Confusingly, a zipped file can be stored on a Zip disk or not. They are unrelated.) Zipped files will have a .zip extension. 
Legacy package for zip-crypt that you should remove. This package exists only to provide a smooth upgrade from the old zip-crypt to the new zip. Please remove it. 
package and compress (archive) files 
search files in a ZIP archive for lines matching a pattern 
list detailed information about a ZIP archive 
package and compress (archive) files 
ZipSlack is a special edition of Slackware Linux that can be installed onto any FAT (or FAT32) filesystem with about 100 MB of free space. It uses the UMSDOS filesystem and contains most of the programs you will need. This means that you do not need to repartition your hard disk if you already have DOS or Windows installed. ZipSlack installs into a directory on your DOS filesystem. It can also be installed to and booted from a Zip disk. A Zip disk-based distribution. 
package and compress (archive) files 
Powerful X Internet Relay Chat client Zircon has a tremendous array of features and its interface truly takes advantage of X. Zircon implements almost everything ircII does, plus a number of other interesting features. 
Zero Instruction Set Computer (CPU) 
the game of life, simple console version This is a variant of John Horton Conway's Game of Life (a classic cellular automaton), simple console version, written in FORTRAN. 
file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text 
Zlib is a general-purpose, patent-free, lossless data compression library which is used by many different programs. 
The zlib compression library provides in-memory compression and decompression functions, including integrity checks of the uncompressed data. This version of the library supports only one compression method (deflation), but other algorithms may be added later, which will have the same stream interface. The zlib library is used by many different system programs. 
Uncompressing C Library Zlibc is a preloadable shared object that allows executables to uncompress the data files that they need on the fly. No kernel patch, no recompilation of these executables and no recompilation of the libraries is needed. 
Mailer for Extreme Performance Demands This is a package that implements an internet Message Transfer Agent called ZMailer. It is intended for gateways or mail servers or other large site environments that have extreme demands on the abilities of the mailer. It was motivated by the problems of the Sendmail design in such situations. ZMailer is one of the mailers able to deal with huge quantities of mail and is more efficient any other mailer, qmail included, mostly due to its excellent queueing algorithms. Most users don't need this package -- for most users, sendmail or exim or smail will suffice. 
An synchronous file transfer protocol for personal computers that makes the error-free transmission of computer files with a modem easier. ZMODEM is a very fast protocol that lets you use wild-card file names for transfers. lt's also well-liked because you can resume the transfer of a file if the first attempt is interrupted before completion. Next to XMODEM, ZMODEM is the most popular transfer protocol and is included in most communications applications. 
file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text 
recompress .Z files to .gz files 
OCaml LablGTK interface builder Zoggy is an interface builder (like Glade) generating LablGTK code. The differences with Glade are: generated classes can have parameters, values of properties are OCaml code, you can insert predefined boxes in other widgets. Zoggy also includes a library containing a class which can be used to edit Zoggy files in other applications. 
A process that has died but has not yet relinquished its process table slot (because the parent process hasn't executed a wait(2) for it yet). These can be seen in ps(1) listings occasionally. 
Computers that are 'owned' by hackers for the purpose of directing them against other victims. A typical example would be a DDoS attack, where the zombie machine are directed to flood a victim. The legitimate users of the zombies may not be aware that their computer has been controlled by the hacker. If the computer is used to launch a damaging attack, the legitimate user may be investigated or held legally responsible. Controversy: Dave Dittrich, the person who has done the most research into DDoS zombies, hates the word "zombie". 
n. [Unix] A process that has died but has not yet relinquished its process table slot (because the parent process hasn't executed a wait(2) for it yet). These can be seen in ps(1) listings occasionally. Compare orphan. 
An area of a network under administrative or other control. In a name server configuration, a domain can be a zone. Zones can be further subdivided into subzones, each having its own administrators and servers. 
Syntax-checker for BIND zonefiles This script is used for syntax-checking your zone-files after a change. Useful when using Makefile to administer a large number of zonefiles, but also if you just want to check a single file. 
A format for compression and archiving popular on Amiga systems, but also available for UNIX/Linux. Files packaged this way sport a .zoo file extension. 
Zool Linux
Zool Linux is a project whose goal is to assist in making Linux mini-distributions, useful for floppy-based rescue systems, or to check hardware and network connections. It supports many different filesystems and utilities. Zool 1 is a Linux rescue disk based on the 2.2.23 kernel. Zool 2, released January 9, 2003, is based on the 2.4.18 kernel. Zool 3, released January 21, 2003 adds network support. 
An Open Source Web Application Server Zope enables teams to collaborate in the creation and management of dynamic web-based business applications such as intranets and portals. Zope makes it easy to build features such as site search, news, personalization, and e-commerce into your web applications. 
Z/Operating System (IBM, Java), "z/OS" 
Zero Power Resistance 
Zero Rate Error 
A shell with lots of features. Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell and as a shell script command processor. Of the standard shells, zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many enhancements. Zsh has command-line editing, built-in spelling correction, programmable command completion, shell functions (with autoloading), a history mechanism, and a host of other features. 
Zero Slot LAN (LAN) 
Emulator of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (TM) ZSNES allows you to play classic games writen for the "SNES" game console on a GNU/Linux system. It supports advanced features such as networking. Please note that many separately-available games playable under this emulator are non-free. See /usr/share/doc/zsnes/README.Debian for more information. 
satisfy .so requests in roff input 
Zoomed Video (video) 
Z/Virtual Machine (IBM, VM), "z/VM" 

Appendix A. About the Author
Binh Nguyen was born, 26 March 1983, Melbourne, Victoria. He studied at St Josephs Marist Brothers College, North Fitzroy until receiving a scholarship to St Kevin's College, Toorak in 1998.
He is currently a university undergraduate studying computer science and physics at the University of Melbourne. His main interests in each area are in Operating Systems and Quantum Mechanics respectively.
His background is strongly biased towards science and mathematics. Nonetheless, he does have an appreciation for the arts, humanities and sport. A reasonably proficient musician (flute), he is currently pondering whether he should complete his musical studies to obtain a diploma so that he can teach. In high school, he was a member of the athletics, basketball, football, cricket and swimming squads. He speaks English predominately but is also able to communicate in Vietnamese and French. When younger he also possessed the ability to communicate in Chinese and Italian.
Although brought up as a Buddhist and studying at Catholic/Christian schools all his life as well as studying scripture during his final year of high school he considers himself an atheist.
At this moment in time, he works part-time as a (commercial) researcher/developer on Linux related projects with his current focus being on software distribution mechanisms.
Two of his technical documents have been incorporated into the Linux Documentation Project ("Linux Dictionary" and "Linux Filesystem Hierarchy", Furthermore, they are being used as reference books in at least ten universities around the world (University of Southern Queensland (Australia), Universidad Michoacana (Mexico), Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong), Universidade de Sao Paolo (Brazil), University of Southern California (United States of America), University of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom), University of Ulster (Ireland), Universität Duisburg-Essen (Germany), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain), Insituto Superior Miguel Torga (Portugal), and Universiti Sains Malaysia (Malaysia)). As well as this, he is also a Development Lead and Project Administrator of the "Computer Dictionary Project" is being supported by the Shuttleworth Foundation.
He has published articles at,,,,,,,, etc.... and has a keen interest in the latest innovations in science and technology.
The author's homepage is at,

Appendix B. Contributors
  • Martin Wheeler.
  • Dale Rogers for participating in coverage testing.
  • Anthony E. Greene for writing a program to help sort the dictionary into alphabetical order.
  • Machtelt Garrels for writing a template program which allowed me to write a program to convert the original text file to Docbook.
  • Chris Karakas for general troubleshooting.
  • Greg Ferguson for general help in publishing this document.
  • Andrew Laird for participating in coverage testing.
  • Jason Hounam for participating in coverage testing.
  • Ahmed Tanvir for participating in coverage testing.
  • Dan Richter.
  • Emma Jane Hogbin.
  • Geoff Farrell.
  • Neil Eagle.
  • Rodolfo J. Paiz for advice in regards to maintaining this document.
  • Ruth A. Kramer for advice in regards to maintaining this document.
  • Saqib Ali for help in converting this document to various other formats.
  • Scott Baust.
  • David Horton.
  • Kevin Solan.
  • Que Anh.
Appendix C. Disclaimer
No liability for the contents of this document can be accepted. Use the concepts, examples and other content at your own risk. As this is a new edition of this document, there may be errors and inaccuracies that may of course be damaging to your system. Proceed with caution, and although this is highly unlikely, the author does not and can not take any responsibility for any damage to your system that may occur as a direct or indirect result of information that is contained within this document.
Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements. You are strongly recommended to make a backup of your system before major installation and adhere to the practice of backing up at regular intervals.

Appendix D. Donations
If you would like to make a donations towards this project please use Paypal,

Appendix E. Feedback
Further revisions of this document will be dependent upon user response. Any feedback on the content of this document is welcome. Every attempt has been made to ensure that the instructions and information herein are accurate and reliable. Please send corrections, comments, suggestions and questions to the author Binh Nguyen, linuxfilesystem(at)yahoo(dot)com(dot)au with the subject heading of Dictionary. There is, however, no guarantee of a response.
All trademarks and copyrights are the property of their owners, unless otherwise indicated. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
The author would appreciate and consider it courteous, notification of any and all modifications, translations, and printed versions.

[W3CWEBSVC]2002, W3C, Web Services Glossary.
[DEB] Debian 3.0r0 APT.
[MDK9.0]Mandrakesoft, Mandrake 9.0 RPM.
[MATGIT]Matisse Enzer, 1994-2004, QUE Corporation, USA, Glossary of Internet Terms.
[HYPERDICT]2000-2003,, HyperDictionary Thesaurus.
[JARDICT]Eric Raymond, 2003, Jargon Dictionary, Jargon Dictionary.
[TLDPAPACHEHOW]Daniel Lopez Ridruejo, 2002, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Apache Overview HOWTO.
[TLDPTCLHOW]Luca Rossetti, 1998, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, The Linux Tcl and Tk HOWTO.
[TLDPSMBHOW]David Wood, 2000, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, SMB HOWTO.
[TLDPLININTOHOW]Machtelt Garrels, 2003, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Introduction to Linux.
[TLDPNFSHOW]Tavis Barr,Nicolai Langfeldt,Seth Vidal,and Tom McNeal, 2002, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Linux NFS-HOWTO.
[TLDPVOIPHOW]Roberto Arcomano, 2002, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, VoIP Howto.
[TLDPIPMASQHOW]David Ranch, 2003, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Linux IP Masquerade HOWTO.
[TLDPLINMODHOW]Sean Walbran, 2001, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Linmodem-HOWTO.
[TLDPNISHOW]Thorsten Kukuk, 2003, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, The Linux NIS(YP)/NYS/NIS+ HOWTO.
[TLDPDNSHOW]Nicolai Langfeldt, 2001, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, DNS HOWTO.
[TLDPFIREHOW]Mark Grennan, 2000, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Firewall and Proxy Server HOWTO.
[TLDPFTPHOW]Matthew Borowski, 2000, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, FTP mini-HOWTO.
[TLDPFRAMEBUFFERHOW]Alex Buell, 2000, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Framebuffer HOWTO.
[TLDPLDAPHOW]Luiz Malère, 2004, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, LDAP Linux HOWTO.
[TLDPGRASSHOW]David Hastings, 1997, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, The Geographic Information Systems: GRASS HOWTO.
[TLDPDOSEMUHOW]Rahul Sundaram, 2002, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, The dosemu HOWTO.
[TLDPBZIP2HOW]David Fetter, 1999, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Bzip2 mini-HOWTO.
[LINDIC]Binh Nguyen, 2002-2005, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Binh Nguyen's Linux Dictionary.
[TLDPAUTOMOUNTHOW]Rahul Sundaram, 2002, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, Automount mini-Howto.
[TLDPBEOWULFHOW]Kurt Swendson, 2004, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP, The Beowulf HOWTO.
[HUANGUCD]Jimmy Huang, Unix Command Dictionary.
[firstlin]First Linux, Linux Guide.
[LWNDIST] The Linux Distribution List.
[WHATIS]2000 - 2005, TechTarget, What is?.
[TECHTARGETCLI]2000 - 2005, TechTarget, Command Line Interface.
[DARPA]DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
[FOLDOC]1999, FOLDOC, FOLDOC Dictionary Definition of 'Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency&.
[TIPPETTQUICTOURFS]Matthew Tippett, A Quick Tour Of the Linux Filesystem.
[CID]Bryan Pfaffenberger, 1995, QUE Corporation, USA,QUE's Computer & Internet Dictionary (6th Edition).
[RUTESF] Rute-Users-Guide.
[ESSSYSADMIN]Aeleen Frisch, 1995, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., USA,Essential System Administration.
[KADOKEV], kadokev.
[GLOSSDIST]Arun-Kumar Tripathiand Robs John Muir, 1998, Claremont High School, Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology.
[INITRDTXT]Werner Almesbergerand Hans Lermen, 2000, publishername,/usr/src/linux/Documentation/initrd.txt.
[MAKETUT]1998, Opus Software, Inc., The Makefile (Tutorial).
[OXLINDOC] Oxblood Linux Document.
[LINFRMSRTC] linuxfromscratch.
[LINPROGMAN]Richard Verhoevenand Michael Hamilton, 2000-2004,, Linux Programmer's Manual.
[QUICTOURLINFS]Matthew Tippett, 1997,, A Quick Tour Of the Linux Filesystem.
[WHATBOURNESHELL]2000 - 2005,, Bourne shell.
[LJFSSTD]Garrett D'Amore, 1994 - 2005, SSC Publications, Inc., The Linux File System Standard.
[MELLINFS]Anthony Awtrey, 2000, Melbourne Linux Users Group, Inc., Linux File System.
[PROCTXT]Terrehon Bowden,Bodo Bauer,and Jorge Nerin,/usr/src/linux/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt.
[LFAQWA]David Merrilland Robert Kiesling, Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers.
[LINSYSSECUR]Scott Mannand Ellen L. Mitchell, 2000, Prentice-Hall, New-Jersey,Linux System Security (The Administrator's Guide to Open Source Security Tools).
[XFREE864L]Aron Hsiao, 1999, QUE Corporation, USA,XFree86 For Linux (Uncommon Solutions for the Technical Professional).
[CIGl]Manuel Alberto Ricart, 1999, QUE Corporation, USA,Complete Idiot's Guide to Linux (Second Edition).
[LIONONLIN6]John Lions, 1996, Peer-to-Peer Communications Incorporated, USA,Lions' Commentry on UNIX (6th Edition with Source Code).
[LSAG061]Lars Wirzenius, 1998, The Linux Documentation Project, TLDP,The Linux System Administrators Guide (Version 0.6.1).
[TYSP24]Sriranga Veerararaghavan, 1999, SAMS Publishing, USA,Teach Yourself Shell Progamming in 24 Hours.
[MELSDPT]Zoltan Somogyiand Les Kitchen, 2002, The University of Melbourne,Software Development: Principles and Tools.
[ALPG]Ashton Mills, 2001, ACP Publishing Pty Ltd, Australia,The Advanced Linux Pocketbook.
[QUINLANFHS]Daniel Quinlan, 1996-2004, Daniel Quinlan, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.
[GOOCHLDFAQ]Richard Gooch, 2002, Richard Gooch, Linux Devfs (Device File System) FAQ.
[SARUPLFSE]Mayank Sarup, 1998-2004, FreeOS Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd., The Linux filesystem explained.
[WARRENEPROC]Trevor Warren, 1998-2004, FreeOS Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd., Exploring /proc.
[RDISTHP]1992-2005, Magnicomp, RDist Home Page.
[ACPI]2004,, Advanced Configuration & Power Interface.
[ZAPP]year, Zapping, Zapping.
[LIRC]firstname surname,, Linux Infrared Remote Control.
[3DFXHOWTO]Bernd Kreimeier, 1998,, The Linux 3Dfx HOWTO.
[MPLAYER]Alex Beregszaszi,, MPlayer.
[EGP]2000 - 2005, TechTarget, Exterior Gateway Protocol.
[IGP]2000 - 2005, TechTarget, Interior Gateway Protocol.
[3DWM] 3dwm.
[KERNUPENV]Brian W. Kernighanand Rob Pike, 1984, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,The UNIX Programming Environment.
[HEATHNUPB]Steve Heath, 1998, Butterworth-Heinemann, Great Britain,Newnes UNIX Pocket Book.
[KWAIKSLC]Nazeeh Amin El-Dirghamiand Youssef A. Abu Kwaik, 2000, QUE Corporation, USA,Suse Linux Installation and Configuration.
[TOBLERIL]Michael J. Tobler, 2001, New Riders Publishing,Inside Linux.
[SIEVERLIAN2]Ellen Siever, 1999, O'Reilly & Associates Inc., CA, USA,Linux in a Nutshell (2nd Edition).
[UCOLSE]Allan Smart,Erik Ratcliffe,Tim Bird,and David Bandel, 1999, QUE Corporation, USA,Using Caldera OpenLinux (Special Edition).
[WIKIWHAT]2002,, What Is Wiki.
[TTEFILE]2000 - 2005, TechTarget Whatis-Extentions, Every File Format in the World.
[RH80RPM]Redhat, Redhat 8.0 RPM.
[RH9G]Redhat, Redhat-9-Glossary.
[VERA]December, GNU, Virtual Entity of Relevant Acronyms.
[HCKLEX]Robert Graham, 1998-2000, Guardian Digital, Inc., Hacking Lexicon.
[LINUXDIG]2003, Digital Environments, Inc.,
[MILKYWAY] MilkywayGalaxy.

Appendix F. GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
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  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
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  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined insection 4above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

F.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.