Linux-Dictionary ( P - R )

P-code (Pseudo-code) Language
A type of Interpreted language. P-code languages are something of a hybrid, falling between compiled languages and interpreted languages in the way they execute. Like an interpreted language, P-code programming is converted to a binary form automatically when it is run, rather than having to be compiled. However, unlike a compiled language the executable binary file is stored in pseudo-code, not machine language. In addition, unlike an Interpreted language, the program does not have to be converted to binary each time it is run. After it is converted to P-code the first time, the pseudo-code version is used for each additional execution. P-code languages (and thus their programs) tend to be slower than compiled languages and programs but faster than interpreted languages, and they generally have authorization to some low-level operating system functions but not direct hardware access. They do not require sometimes-expensive compilers, are often included along with operating systems, and some p-code languages are easier to program than compiled languages. Examples of Pcode languages are Java, Python and REXX/Object REXX. 
P-code language
They are like compiled languages in that the source is translated to a compact binary form which is what you actually execute, but that form is not machine code. Instead it's pseudocode (or p-code), which is usually a lot simpler but more powerful than a real machine language. When you run the program, you interpret the p-code. Important p-code languages include Python and Java. See Compiled language and Interpreted language. 
Remote configuration daemon for Gracilis Packeten. The 'p10cfgd' daemon provides support for the 'rmtcfg' command in the Gracilis Packeten amateur radio network packet switch. With this daemon, and appropriate entries in the non-volatile configuration memory of a Packeten, it is possible to have the switch load commands and information at boot time. Further, this daemon appends a command which sets the date and time in the clock on the Packeten. 
Pascal to C translator P2c is a tool for translating Pascal programs into C. The input consists of a set of source files in any of the following Pascal dialects: HP Pascal, Turbo/UCSD Pascal, DEC VAX Pascal, Oregon Software Pascal/2, Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal, Sun/Berkeley Pascal, Texas Instruments Pascal, Apollo Domain Pascal. Modula-2 syntax is also supported. Output is a set of .c and .h files that comprise an equivalent program in any of several dialects of C. Output code may be kept machine and dialect-independent, or it may be targeted to a specific machine and compiler. Most reasonable Pascal programs are converted into fully functional C which will compile and run with no further modifications, although p2c sometimes chooses to generate readable code at the expense of absolute generality. 
PCI to CPU / CPU tp PCI [concurrency] (BIOS, PC, PCI, CPU), "P2C/C2P" 
Peer to Peer [net] 
Mount Psion series 3[ac], 5 drives. The package lets you mount psion drives on your Debian box over a serial cable. You can access all the files from the psion with the usual commands like tar, cp, vi & co. Works with Psion series 3[ac], 5 machines. Haven't tested on a Sienna yet. 
Platform for Privacy Preferences (WWW) 
Library for computing Fast Fourier Transforms on Intel P4 This library computes Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) in one or more dimensions. It is extremely fast. This package contains the documentation and the shared version of the libraries. To get the static library and the header files you need to install p4fftwgel-dev. This library uses the same interface as fftw so should be a drop-in replacement, but is currently limited to single precision only. The code is tuned for Intel P4 processors and can be as much as three times as fast as vanilla fftw. 
Precision Architecture (HP) 
On December 11, 2001 the PA-RISC Linux development community announced version 0.9.3, the latest version of Linux for computers using Hewlett Packard's PA-RISC processor. This release is the latest in a series representing several years of work by developers in the Free Software community including developers from The Debian Project, Hewlett Packard, ESIEE, and Linuxcare. 
Private Automatic Branch eXchange 
printer/plotter accounting information 
Privilege Attribute Certificate (DCE) 
Priority Access Control Enabled (3Com, ethernet) 
Public Access to Court Electronic Records 
A file containing software written in a particular format to enables easy installation, upgrade, and removal. 
register package user via mailagent 
All data sent across the Internet is broken up into packets, sent individually across the network, and reassembled back into the original data at the other end. Analogy: Imagine looking at an automobile freeway during rush hour from an airplane. The freeway looks like a flowing river, but each individual car (packet) is really independent from all the others. While it looks like the cars on the freeway are going in the same direction, each car really has its own source and destination separate from the others around it. This is how Internet core routes look. Analogy: Now consider that a bunch of coworkers leave the office and go to a party. Each gets in his/her own car and drives to the party. Each person may take a slightly route, but they all end up together at the party. This demonstrates how data is broken up into individual packets, sent across the Internet (potentially following different routes), then reassembled back again at the destination. Key point: Conceptually, networking occurs at abstract layers well above the concept of packets. Users type in a URL, and the file is downloaded. By dealing with the raw packets themselves, hackers are frequently able to subvert communications in ways not detectable at these higher layers. Contrast: The term "packet switched network (PSN)" is used to describe the Internet, whereas the term "circuit switched network (CSN)" is used to contrast it with the traditional phone system. The key difference is that in the phone system, the route between two people is setup at the start, and each bit in the stream follows that route. On the Internet, each packet finds its own route through the system, so during a conversation, the packets can follow different paths, and indeed arrive out-of-order. Another key difference is latency. The phone system forwards each bit one at a time, so as soon as one arrives, it doesn't have to wait before forwarding it on. On the Internet, bits are bunched together before transmission. Each hop must wait and receive all the bits before forwarding any of them on. Each hop therefore adds a significant amount of delay. Gamers know this as the "ping" time. Key point: There are other technologies that use packets, not just the Internet. Before the Internet came along, X.25 networks were a popular form of packet-based communication (and indeed, X.25 formed the basis for many links on the nascent Internet). 
The fundamental unit of communication on the Internet. 
packet filter
In firewalls, packet filters are the technology most often used to control traffic. Every packet contains the following fields: source IP address (example: destination IP address transport type (example: TCP=6, UDP=17, ICMP=1) source port (example: HTTP=80, DNS=53, FTP=21) destination port flags (example: SYN) This data is compared against "rules" within the firewall. A typical set of rules might be: BLOCK destination=192.0.2.x TCP flag=SYNALLOW destination= TCP destport=80 ALLOW destination= TCP destport=25 If our private network is 192.0.2.x, then the first rule above blocks all incoming TCP connections (though outbound connections would still be allowed). The following rules override the first, allowing access to the web-server at port 80 and access to the e-mail server at port 25. Key point: The basic stance of a company firewall is: blocks all UDP traffic except for DNS blocks all incoming TCP connections but allows all outgoing ones allows incoming connections to public HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and DNS servers located in a "DMZ". blocks all ICMP traffic except for those packets needed for path MTU discovery. This allow most access to the Internet for end-users and allows the Internet to access the public servers. It blocks everything else. Contrast: The word "dynamic packet filter" was coined to contrast with the normal "static filter" rules in a firewall described above. Dynamic rules are needed because: Ports are a poor way of identifying protocols (and getting poorer) Whereas most communication uses only outbound connections, some (like FTP) use multiple connections in both directions. In the case of FTP, the client creates an outbound connection to the server, then the server creates separate inbound connections in order to transfer files to the client. Static firewall rules would block this incoming connection, dynamic rules monitor the state and temporarily change the static rules just to allow that connection. An example of a "dynamic" rule is to solve the FTP problem is: Block all incoming connections, but if the user has established a connection to port 21 on a server, then allowing incoming TCP connection from the server port 20 to ports higher than 1024 on the client. Another type of "dynamic" rule is one where the firewall does protocol analysis at layers higher than TCP. To contrast with the example above, the firewall might analyze the FTP connection looking for the PORT command. (The "PORT" command is the FTP protocol whereby the client tells the server which port is has opened to receive a file on). Checkpoint calls this protocol analysis "stateful packet inspection" in their firewall. Other vendors do similar stuff, but call it different names. 
Packet filtering
The action a device takes to selectively control the flow of data to and from a network. Packet filters allow or block packets, usually while routing them from one network to another (most often from the Internet to an internal network, and vice-versa). To accomplish packet filtering, you set up rules that specify what types of packets (those to or from a particular IP address or port) are to be allowed and what types are to be blocked. 
Packet Switching
The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching,all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time. You might think of several caravans of trucks all using the same road system. to carry materials. 
Chase Monsters in a Labyrinth You are Pacman, and you are supposed to eat all the small dots to get to the next level. You are also supposed to keep away from the ghosts, if they take you, you lose one life, unless you have eaten a large dot, then you can, for a limited amount of time, chase and eat the ghosts. There is also bonus available, for a limited amount of time. An X gives just points, but a little pacman gives an extra life. 
Public-Access Computing Systems 
Packet Assembling Disassembling (CCITT, X.3, X.28, X.29, PSDN) 
Padding is the process of adding unused data to the end of a message in order to make it conform to a certain length. For example, block-ciphers often work on blocks that are 64-bits (8-bytes) long. Therefore, if you have a message that is 77-bytes long, you will need to "pad" it with an extra 3-bytes to make it an even 80-bytes in size (10-blocks). Key point: Padding is a regular feature of all crypto algorithms, including hashing and encryption. Some algorithms have been broken due to poor choices for padding. Most importantly, however, the size of the message can often reveal details about its contents. For example, let's assume a protocol whereby somebody accepts something with a simple message of "yes", but when it declines, it says "no" along with a reason why it was rejected. Therefore, even though the messages are encrypted, the "yes" will be a short message but the "no" will be a long message. 
Programmer's Advanced Debuging System 
opposite of more 
Privileged Architecture Library (DEC, Alpha) 
Programmable Array Logic 
An enhanced version of the PAL PDP8 assembler PALBART is an enhanced version of the pdp8 PAL assembler. This is a PDP8 cross assembler. Its useful for the users of SIMH or any other PDP8 emulator. The original source code is available at: To quote that web page, "This enhancement was written by Gary Messenbrink to support BART's fleet of PDP-8 systems." 
Plasma Addressable Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 
Linux boot loader for parisc/hppa This package contains the parisc boot loader itself, plus palo which is the boot media management tool as lilo is for i386. 
Paging Area Memory 
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) is a system security tool which allows system administrators to set authentication policy without having to recompile programs which do authentication. 
Pluggable Authentication Module (Linux, LISA) 
Pluggable Authentication Modules. A suite of shared libraries that determine how a user will be authenticated. For example, conventionally UNIX users authenticate themselves by supplying a password at the password prompt after they have typed their name at the login prompt. In many circumstances, such as internal access to workstations, this simple form of authentication is considered sufficient. In other cases, more information is warranted. If a user wants to log in to an internal system from an external source, like the Internet, more or alternative information may be required, perhaps a one-time password. PAM provides this type of capability and much more. Most important, PAM modules allow you to configure your environment with the necessary level of security. From Linux System Security
Primary Access Method (BS2000) 
Programmable Attribute Maps (DRAM, PCI) 
Pulse Amplification Modulation 
see pluggable authentication modules (PAM). 
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)
A replaceable user authentication module for system security, which allows programs to be written without knowing which authentication scheme will be used. This allows a module to be replaced later with a different module without requiring rewriting the software. 
Publicly Accessible Mailing Lists (Internet, BBS) 
The pam_krb5 module is a Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) thatcan be used with Linux-PAM and Kerberos 5. The pam_krb5 module supports password checking, ticket creation, optional TGT verification and conversion to Kerberos IV tickets. The pam_krb5afs module, for AFStokens, is also included in this package. 
The pam_smb module can be used to authenticate users using an external SMB server. 
A Newsreader uses GTK, looks like Forte Agent. Pan is a newsreader, loosely based on Agent and Gravity, which attempts to be pleasant to use for new and advanced users alike. It has all the typical features found in newsreaders and also supports offline newsreading, sophisticated filtering, multiple connections, and a number of extra features for power users and alt.binaries fans. 
Personal Account Number 
This is PAN, a powerful and user-friendly USENET newsreader for GNOME. The latest info and versions of Pan can always be found at 
Preserving and Accessing Networked Documentary Resources of Australia 
The Gnome panel 
The name for the Linux equivalent of the Windows Taskbar. 
A library to handle unicode strings as well as complex bidirectional or context dependent shaped strings. It is the next step on Gtk+ internationalization. 
Pango is a system for layout and rendering of internationalized text. 
Public Access internet/uNIX [system] (Unix, Internet, network) 
A framework for 3D graphics production Panorama will include modeling, rendering, post-processing, animating, etc. Functionally, it is structured as an API, composed by two dynamic libraries, and several plugins, that you can optionally load in runtime. A simple console mode front-end for this API is included in the package, that can load a scene description in one of the supported scene languages and then outputs a single image file in any of the supported graphic formats. Its main features are: - Plugin architecture. Most elements in the system are plugin's. This means components are loaded as needed, and can be substituted, added, etc without recompiling anything. This will let third parties distribute their plugins outside the main distribution. - Object oriented scene description language, with classes, inheritance, etc. It's easy to use, and has a simple syntax. - Scene language is a plugin itself, so any other scene language can be used instead. - Several rendering methods are possible without any other change in input scene file. Currently supported methods are raytracing and zbuffer, but other methods are being tested and will be incorporated in the future. - A postprocessing system lets you apply filters to the whole image after it has been generated by renderer. - Similarly, there are object filters, that you can apply to an object in the rendering process. This means a new class of effects (e.g. a cartoon-like object in a photorealistic scene). - Materials have a BSDF (Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Function) that encapsulates its properties with respect to the light. Now, only Lambertian and Phong BSDF's are implemented, but more sophisticated ones will follow, like Schlick's, Ward's, etc. 
Objective-C library for mail handling (development files) Pantomime provides a set of Objective-C classes that model a mail system. Pantomime can be seen as a JavaMail 1.2 clone written in Objective-C. 
Password Authentication Protocol (RFC 1334) 
Password Authentication Protocol: The usual method of user authentication used on the internet: sending a username and password to a server where they are compared with a table of authorized users. 
Printer Access Protocol (AppleTalk) 
ProgrammAblaufPlan (DIN 66001) 
PAP (Password authentication Protocol)
Authentication mechinisms used after logging in using PPP. 
print paper configuration informations 
configure the system default paper size 
PC voice API (API, PC) 
Paragraph reformatter Greatly enhanced fmt type program by Adam M. Costello. Can be used within vi or other editor to automatically reformat text in a variety of ways. Perfect for use with email & usenet messages as it correctly handles multiple levels of quoting characters. 
Positive Acknowledgement with Retransmission [protocols] 
Project Authorization Request (IEEE) 
Standard themes for the widget set library ParaGUI is a cross-platform high-level application framework and GUI (graphical user interface) library. ParaGUI's is completely based on the Simple DirectMedia Layer. This package contains standard themes files for the paragui library. 
parallel line Internet protocol (PLIP)
A protocol that allows TCP/IP communication over a computer's parallel port using a specially designed cables. 
Parallel Processing
Refers to the concept of speeding-up the execution of a program by dividing the program into multiple fragments that can execute simultaneously, each on its own processor. A program being executed across N processors might execute N times faster than it would using a single processor. 
Palo Alto Research Center (org., USA, Xerox) 
Use PAR files to reconstruct missing parts of multi-part archives This utility applies the data-recovery capability concepts of RAID-like systems to the posting and recovery of multi-part archives on Usenet. It supports the 'Reed-Soloman Code' implementation that allows for recovery of any 'X' volumes for 'X' parity volumes present. It is popularly used on USENET postings, but is not limited to this use. Upstream source: 
PARI/GP Computer Algebra System extra data files PARI/GP is a widely used computer algebra system designed for fast computations in number theory (factorizations, algebraic number theory, elliptic curves...), but also contains a large number of other useful functions to compute with mathematical entities such as matrices, polynomials, power series, algebraic numbers, etc., and a lot of transcendental functions. PARI is also available as a C library to allow for faster computations. Originally developed by Henri Cohen and his co-workers (Universiti Bordeaux I, France), PARI is now under the GPL and maintained by Karim Belabas (Universiti Paris XI, France) with the help of many volunteer contributors. This package contains extra data files for PARI/GP, currently the Galois resolvants for the polgalois function. 
PARI/GP Computer Algebra System binaries. PARI/GP is a widely used computer algebra system designed for fast computations in number theory (factorizations, algebraic number theory, elliptic curves...), but also contains a large number of other useful functions to compute with mathematical entities such as matrices, polynomials, power series, algebraic numbers, etc., and a lot of transcendental functions. PARI is also available as a C library to allow for faster computations. Originally developed by Henri Cohen and his co-workers (Universiti Bordeaux I, France), PARI is now under the GPL and maintained by Karim Belabas (Universiti Paris XI, France) with the help of many volunteer contributors. This package contains the GP calculator. 
Precision Architecture, Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC, HP), "PA-RISC" 
Identity beween data sent by one modem and data received by another modem. Error-correction protocols use parity checking and parity bits to determine if data needs to be re-sent. 
parity bit
In asynchronous communications and primary storage, an extra bit added to a data word for parity checking. 
parity checking
A technique used to detect memory or data communication errors. The computer adds up the number of bits in a one-byte data item, and if the parity bit setting disagrees with the sum of the other bits, the computer reports an error. Parity-checking schemes work by storing a one-bit digit (0 or 1) that indicates whether the sum of the bits in a data item is odd or even. When the data item is read from memory or received by another computer, a panty check occurs. If the parity check reveals that the parity bit is incorrect, the computer displays an error message. See even parity and odd parity. 
parity error
An error that a computer reports when parity checking reveals that one or more parity bits is incorrect, indicating a probable error in data processing or data transmission. 
[conference on] Parallel ARchitecture and Languages Europe (ECRC, conference) 
To analyze a passage or strings so it can be processed by a computer program. Computer language compilers also parse source code so that it can be translated into binary code that computers can understand. 
To break down into components. Spreadsheet progams, for example, often have parsing features that will break ASCII data into parts that will fit into cells. 
A program that breaks large units of data into smaller, more easily interpreted pieces. For example, a will browser reads documents prepared with a markup language (such as HTML). The markup language identiies the parts of the document (such as document headings, bulleted lists, or body text), but says nothing about how those portions of the document should appear on-screen. The parser reads the tagged text and formats the various portions of the document for on-screen display. See Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). 
The GNU Parted disk partition resizing program GNU Parted is a program that allows you to create, destroy, resize, move and copy hard disk partitions. This is useful for creating space for new operating systems, reorganising disk usage, and copying data to new hard disks. This package contains the Parted binary and manual page. Parted currently supports DOS, Mac, Sun, BSD, GPT and PC98 disklabels/partition tables, as well as a 'loop' (raw disk) type which allows use on RAID/LVM. Filesystems supported are ext2, ext3, FAT (FAT16 and FAT32) and linux-swap. Parted can also detect HFS (Mac OS), JFS, NTFS, ReiserFS, UFS and XFS filesystems, but cannot create/remove/resize/check these filesystems yet. The nature of this software means that any bugs could cause massive data loss. While there are no known bugs at the moment, they could exist, so please back up all important files before running it, and do so at your own risk. 
The GNU Parted program allows you to create, destroy, resize, move, and copy hard disk partitions. Parted can be used for creating space for new operating systems, reorganizing disk usage, and copying data to new hard disks. 
The GNU Parted disk partition resizing program, small version GNU Parted is a program that allows you to create, destroy, resize, move and copy hard disk partitions. This is useful for creating space for new operating systems, reorganising disk usage, and copying data to new hard disks. This package is similar to the "big" parted package, but has less cosmetic features resulting in smaller binary. Intended to be used on boot floppies. Parted currently supports DOS, Mac, Sun, BSD, GPT and PC98 disklabels/partition tables, as well as a 'loop' (raw disk) type which allows use on RAID/LVM. Filesystems supported are ext2, ext3, fat (FAT16 and FAT32) and linux-swap. Parted can also detect HFS (Mac OS), JFS, NTFS, ReiserFS, UFS and XFS filesystems, but cannot create/remove/resize/check these filesystems yet. The nature of this software means that any bugs could cause massive data loss. While there are no known bugs at the moment, they could exist, so please back up all important files before running it, and do so at your own risk. 
Linux/UNIX utility to save partitions in a compressed image file Partition Image is a Linux/UNIX partition imaging utility: it saves partitions in the Ext2FS (the linux standard), ReiserFS (a new journaled and powerful file system), NTFS (Windows NT File System) or FAT16/32 (DOS & Windows file systems) file system formats to an image file. Only used blocks are copied. The image file can be compressed in the GZIP/BZIP2 formats to save disk space, and split into multiple files to be copied onto removable media (ZIP for example), burned on a CD-R, etc. This makes it possible to save a full Linux/Windows system with a single operation. In case of a problem (virus, crash, error, etc.), you just have to restore, and after several minutes, your entire system is restored (boot, files, etc.), and fully working. This is very useful when installing the same software on many machines: just install one of them, create an image, and just restore the image on all other machines. Then, after the first one, each installation is automatic made, and requires only a few minutes. 
Server to use partimage across a network Partition Image is a Linux/UNIX partition imaging utility. It backs up your partitions from a client to a server. All data will be transfer encripted using SSL. 
A contiguous section of a disk drive that is treated by the operating system as a physical drive. Thus, one disk drive can have several drive letters assigned to it. 
A contiguous section of blocks on your hard disk that is treated like a completely separate disk by most operating systems. 
A division of memory or storage disks into physical or logical segments such that each segment acts as an independent component. 
A section of the storage area of a bard disk created for organizational purposes or to separate different operating systems. A partition is created during initial preparation of the hard disk, before the disk is formatted. In MS-DOS, every hard disk has at least one DOS partition (Version of MS-DOS before version 4.0 required a separate partition for each I'm of disk space). Each partition is treated by DOS as though it were a separate drive. Users may partition their drives to separate one operating system from another, but utility programs such as MultiDisk, are available that let you create several system partitions. See directory and subdirectory. 
Parts Assembly and Reuse Tool Set (Visual Smalltalk) 
Publicly Available Specifications (ISO) 
Personal Application System /2 (IBM, DB2/2), "PAS/2" 
Highlight Pascal and Modula-2 sources for WWW presentation pas2html can highlight your source for presentation in the WWW. It can also be used as a CGI script and can detect whether the client browser supports compressed data to save bandwidth. 
Portable Application Standards Committee (org., IEEE) 
A high-level, procedural proramming language that encourages programmers to write well-structured, modular programs that take advantage of modern control structures and lack spaghetti code. Pascal has gained wide acceptance as a teaching and application-development language, though most professional programmers prefer C or C++. Pascal is available in interpreted and compiled versions. A major disadvantage of Pascal is that (its standard version (Standard Pascal) contains many shortcomings. The language's inventor, Nicklaus Wirth, has covered a new language, Modula-2 as a successor to Pascal, that fixes some of the language's problems, and Borland International's Turbo Pascal makes Pascal easy for personal computer owners to use. See BASIC and FORTRAN 
An Algol-descended language designed by Niklaus Wirth on the CDC 6600 around 1967-68 as an instructional tool for elementary programming. This language, designed primarily to keep students from shooting themselves in the foot and thus extremely restrictive from a general-purpose-programming point of view, was later promoted as a general-purpose tool and, in fact, became the ancestor of a large family of languages including Modula-2 and Ada. 
n. An Algol-descended language designed by Niklaus Wirth on the CDC 6600 around 1967-68 as an instructional tool for elementary programming. This language, designed primarily to keep students from shooting themselves in the foot and thus extremely restrictive from a general-purpose-programming point of view, was later promoted as a general-purpose tool and, in fact, became the ancestor of a large family of languages including Modula-2 and Ada (see also bondage-and-discipline language). The hackish point of view on Pascal was probably best summed up by a devastating (and, in its deadpan way, screamingly funny) 1981 paper by Brian Kernighan (of K&R fame) entitled "Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language", which was turned down by the technical journals but circulated widely via photocopies. It was eventually published in "Comparing and Assessing Programming Languages", edited by Alan Feuer and Narain Gehani (Prentice-Hall, 1984). Part of his discussion is worth repeating here, because its criticisms are still apposite to Pascal itself after ten years of improvement and could also stand as an indictment of many other bondage-and-discipline languages. At the end of a summary of the case against Pascal, Kernighan wrote: 9. There is no escape This last point is perhaps the most important. The language is inadequate but circumscribed, because there is no way to escape its limitations. There are no casts to disable the type-checking when necessary. There is no way to replace the defective run-time environment with a sensible one, unless one controls the compiler that defines the "standard procedures". The language is closed. People who use Pascal for serious programming fall into a fatal trap. Because the language is impotent, it must be extended. But each group extends Pascal in its own direction, to make it look like whatever language they really want. Extensions for separate compilation, FORTRAN-like COMMON, string data types, internal static variables, initialization, octal numbers, bit operators, etc., all add to the utility of the language for one group but destroy its portability to others. I feel that it is a mistake to use Pascal for anything much beyond its original target. In its pure form, Pascal is a toy language, suitable for teaching but not for real programming. Pascal has since been almost entirely displaced (by C) from the niches it had acquired in serious applications and systems programming, but retains some popularity as a hobbyist language in the MS-DOS and Macintosh worlds. 
PassiveTeX is a library of TeX macros which can be used to process an XML document which results from an XSL transformation to formatting objects. 
Some systems allow the user to entire an entire sentance (or phrase) rather than a short password. A long phrase can be significantly harder to guess than a simple password, providing better security. Since phrases can be difficult to type in, they are usually only used when extreme security is demanded. 
Change and administer password and group data. This package includes passwd, chsh, chfn, and many other programs to maintain password and group data. Shadow passwords are supported. See /usr/share/doc/passwd/README.Debian.gz 
change user password 
The passwd package contains a system utility (passwd) which sets and/or changes passwords, using PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules). To use passwd, you should have PAM installed on your system. 
The passwd package contains a system utility (passwd) which setsand/or changes passwords, using PAM (Pluggable AuthenticationModules).To use passwd, you should have PAM installed on your system. 
The password file 
A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be: 5%df(29) But don't use that one! 
A personal identifier used to validate a user's authorization to log into a Linux system. 
A security tool used to identify authorized users of a program or network and to define their privileges, such as read-only, reading and writing, or file copying. 
A type of authentication, a pasword is a secret word that a user must know in order to gain access. A passphrse is a correspondingly larger secret consisting of multiple words. History: Passwords have been used since Roman times. The Romans were some of the first large armies where people didn't recognize each other by site. In order to gain entry into the camp, a Roman soldier would have to know the secret password. Key point: The most important defensive mechanism that a corporation can take is to create and enforce policies about proper password usage. This policy should entail: length E.g. minimum of 6 characters composition E.g. upper and lower case, numbers, and punctuation. Note that one of the big support headaches is users who have the caps-lock key on which causes passwords to be mistyped. lifetime E.g. when passwords expire. A good choice would be every 6-months. Password expiration is an overated security technique. It's biggest benefit is that it will automatically age out. source Whether users select their own password or are given one by management. There are automated password programs that will generate easy-to-remember passwords. ownership A policy should declare that passwords should never be shared; many declare that a user will automatically lose privileges if they ever share their password with somebody else. distribution How does the user get his/her password? If the system administrator chooses the password, how do they securely tell the user? If the user chooses a password the first time they log on, how do you prevent other people from getting to the account before the legitimate user? Often people will distribute an initial password, but then force the user to change it. storage Most passwords these days are stored in an encrypted format such that even the administrators cannot know what the password is. authentication period When should the terminal automatically log the user out? Should their be a fixed time, or an inactivity timer? E.g. banking terminals automatically log the user out within a few minutes, PCs have password screen savers that can be configured. Key point: A leading cause of compromise are programs that leave behind default passwords. A leading cause of compromise are users who choose weak passwords that can easily be guessed or cracked. Tools: The crack programs can be used to maintain a strong policy (or break into systems). Tools: On Windows NT, the "passflt.dll" and "passprop.exe" tools can be used to enforce strong passwords. Misunderstanding: People used to believe that a good password was a random mix of UPPER and lower case, numbers, and punctuation. However, this generates passwords that are impossible for users to remember, so they find ways around the restriction, such as writing passwords down on Post-It notes. Therefore, somebody can compromise the network by simply looking for Post-It notes (such as pasted to the bottom of a keyboard). Controversy: Many policies declare that a password must be changed frequently, and most OSes come with tools for enforcing this. However, this leads to the same problem as above: it causes pain for users, so they behave in ways that reduce security. Also, it isn't clear that it dramatically increases security. Contrast: Passwords aren't the only authentication scheme possible. Crypto-cards are often used to generate "one-time passwords" or challenge-response authentication. Tip: Use a Palm Pilot and a crypt program to store your many passwords. Make sure that you choose a encryption program that cannot be broken. Notes: In June, 2001, the British CentralNic commissioned a poll to discover what kinds of passwords people choose. They found that people could be classified: family (50%) Chooses names, such as their own, their partner's (wife, husband, other), children, or pets. They further noted that such people tended to be those who used the computer the least. fan (30%) Chooses names of sports stars, cartoon characters, or pop sars. Since the study was in the United Kingdom, Britsh soccer player David Beckham emerged as the most popular. Variations of Homer Simpson and Madonna also were popular. self-obsessed (11%) Words like "sexy", "stud", "slapper", or "goddess". Note that in the 1995 movie Hackers, the plot centers around a high-level executive who chose "god" for a password, which the hacker easily guessed. cryptics (9%) Passwords with a mix of lower and upper case characters, numbers, and punctuation. See also: grind, crack, password cache, 8-character password, PIN 
password ageing
In a computer network, a feature of the network operating system (NOS) that keeps track of the last time you changed your password You should change your password frequently to help thwart computer crackers. When your password reaches the end of its "life" such as after six months, a message appears on-screen that encourages you to change your password. 
password cache
A temporary copy of the password. Internal to the computer, password information is constantly being checked. If you were queried for the password each and every time, you would find that computer would become unusable. Therefore, the computer attempts to "cache" the password so that internal prompts during the same session do not cause external prompts to the user. Key point: All systems cache passwords in memory during a login session. Therefore, if a hacker can gain access to all memory on the system, he/she can likely sift the memory for passwords. Likewise, hackers can frequently sift pagefiles for passwords. Key point: Many programs whose goal is ease-of-use will ask the user if they want to save the password on disk (in a file or registry. For example, the MS Outlook e-mail client has this feature to cache the POP3 passwords. Therefore, hackers have programs that will sift the filesystem or registry or these passwords. Some systems will store these cached passwords in clear-text, others attempt to encrypt the passwords, but usually this encryption mechanism ca be defeated. 
password file
A file, /etc/passwd, that contains basic information about each user authorized to log into a given Linux system. For each user, the file contains a line that gives the user's login name, encrypted password, user identifier, group identifier (if any), home directory, and login program patch apply a diff file to an original. 
password protection
A method of limiting access to a program, computer, or a network by requiring you to enter a password Some programs allow you to password-protect your files so they can't be read by others, but be sure to keep a record of the password. Many users have lost work permanently because they forgot the password and had no means to retrieve it. (If a method for retrieving a password were included in software programs, a clever cracker would quickly discover it, and your data wouldn't be secure) 
merge lines of files 
Port and Address Translation (IOS, Cisco, LAN, IP) 
1. n. A temporary addition to a piece of code, usually as a quick-and-dirty remedy to an existing bug or misfeature. A patch may or may not work, and may or may not eventually be incorporated permanently into the program. Distinguished from a diff or mod by the fact that a patch is generated by more primitive means than the rest of the program; the classical examples are instructions modified by using the front panel switches, and changes made directly to the binary executable of a program originally written in an HLL. Compare one-line fix. 2. vt. To insert a patch into a piece of code. 3. [in the Unix world] n. A diff (sense 2). 4. A set of modifications to binaries to be applied by a patching program. IBM operating systems often receive updates to the operating system in the form of absolute hexadecimal patches. If you have modified your OS, you have to disassemble these back to the source. The patches might later be corrected by other patches on top of them (patches were said to "grow scar tissue"). The result was often a convoluted patch space and headaches galore. 5. [Unix] the patch(1) program, written by Larry Wall, which automatically applies a patch (sense 3) to a set of source code. There is a classic story of a tiger team penetrating a secure military computer that illustrates the danger inherent in binary patches (or, indeed, any patches that you can't -- or don't -- inspect and examine before installing). They couldn't find any trap doors or any way to penetrate security of IBM's OS, so they made a site visit to an IBM office (remember, these were official military types who were purportedly on official business), swiped some IBM stationery, and created a fake patch. The patch was actually the trapdoor they needed. The patch was distributed at about the right time for an IBM patch, had official stationery and all accompanying documentation, and was dutifully installed. The installation manager very shortly thereafter learned something about proper procedures. 
A quick fix, in the form of one or more program statements, added to a program to correct bugs or to enhance the program's capabilities. 
apply a diff file to an original 
Apply a diff file to an original Patch will take a patch file containing any of the four forms of difference listing produced by the diff program and apply those differences to an original file, producing a patched version. 
The patch program applies diff files to originals. The diff command is used to compare an original to a changed file. Diff lists the changes made to the file. A person who has the original file can thenuse the patch command with the diff file to add the changes to their original file (patching the file). Patch should be installed because it is a common way of upgrading applications. 
patch (fix, update)
Security updates to products are often referred to as "patches" because they fix one small part of the product rather than updating the entire product. Analogy: Imagine that you are in a rubber raft that seems to be sinking. You look around on the boat and see small holes. You use your patch kit to fix the small holes rather than building yourself a new boat. Key point: The software you are using today likely has security holes that nobody has discovered yet. It seems unlikely, but this has been the historical precidence, whether you are using open-source (e.g. Linux), Microsoft products, or class UNIX systems (e.g. Sun). Therefore, if you don't keep up with the latest software, you will eventually get hacked. 
This is a collection of programs that can manipulate patch files ina variety of ways, such as interpolating between two pre-patches, combining two incremental patches, fixing line numbers in hand-edited patches, and simply listing the files modified by a patch. 
Utilities to work with patches This package includes the following utilities: - combinediff creates a cumulative patch from two incremental patches - filterdiff extracts or excludes diffs from a diff file - fixcvsdiff fixes diff files created by CVS that "patch" mis-interprets - grepdiff shows which files are modified by a patch matching a regex - interdiff shows differences between two unified diff files - lsdiff shows which files are modified by a patch - rediff fixes offsets and counts of a hand-edited diff - splitdiff separates out incremental patches 
generate patterns for TeX hyphenation 
n. 1. A bang path or explicitly routed Internet address; a node-by-node specification of a link between two machines. Though these are now obsolete as a form of addressing, they still show up in diagnostics and trace headers occasionally (e.g. in NNTP headers). 2. [Unix] A filename, fully specified relative to the root directory (as opposed to relative to the current directory; the latter is sometimes called a `relative path'). This is also called a `pathname'. 3. [Unix and MS-DOS] The `search path', an environment variable specifying the directories in which the shell (COMMAND.COM, under MS-DOS) should look for commands. Other, similar constructs abound under Unix (for example, the C preprocessor has a `search path' it uses in looking for #include files). 
The location of a file on a file system; describes where the file resides in a directory structure. An absolute path is the direct location of a file in the directory structure, starting at the root directory. A relative path is the location of a file relative to the current working directory. 
path name
In DOS, a statement that indicates the name of a file and precisely where it's located on a hard disk . When opening or saving a file with most applications, you must specify the full path name to retrieve or store the file in a directory other than the current directory. Suppose that you're using Wordperfect, and you want to store the file REPORT9.DOC in the directory C:\DOCS. If C:\DOCS isn't the current directory, you must type C:\DOCS\REPORT9.DOC to name arid store the file in the correct location. 
check whether file names are valid or portable 
PERL Authors Upload SErver (PERL, CPAN) 
Multiprotocol file graber with textual and graphic control. This is a file graber, which can work in text or graphic mode. Pavuk is extremly configurable, supports FTP, HTTP, HTTPS and Gopher protocols. Pavuk also supports cookies, HTTP authentification, "robots.txt". You can also use FTP and HTTP proxy caches. Graphical interface is written in Xt or GTK. 
Protection Against Wrapped Sequence space (TCP, satellite) 
'pax' is the POSIX standard archive tool. It supports the two most common forms of standard Unix archive (backup) files - CPIO and TAR. 
Pixel Addressing eXtensions (Intel, RISC, CPU) 
Portable Archive eXchange (SCO, Unix) 
Portable Archive Interchange Pax is an archiving utility that reads and writes tar and cpio formats, both the traditional ones and the extended formats specified in IEEE 1003.1. It handles multi-volume archives and automatically determines the format of an archive while reading it. Three user interfaces are supported: tar, cpio, and pax. The pax interface was designed by IEEE 1003.2 as a compromise in the chronic controversy over which of tar or cpio is best. This is the free OpenBSD's version written by Keith Muller. 
Private Automatic eXchange 
Pipeline Burst [cache] 
Peripheral Bus Computer 
Prompt By Example 
Pacific Bell Internet (ISP) 
Phone Based Interface 
Play By Mail [game] 
Process Before Output (R/3) 
personal package builder for Debian packages pbuilder constructs a chroot system, and builds a package inside the chroot. It is an ideal system to use to check that a package's build-dependencies are correct, and to be sure that unnecessary and wrong build dependencies will not exist in the resulting package. It uses apt extensively, and a local mirror, or a fast connection to a Debian mirror is ideal, but not necessary. "pbuilder create" uses debootstrap to create a chroot image. "pbuilder update" updates the image to the current state of testing/unstable/whatever "pbuilder build" takes a *.dsc file and builds a binary in the chroot image. pdebuild is a wrapper for Debian Developers, to allow running pbuilder just like "debuild", as a normal user. 
Private Branch eXchange (Nebenstellenanlage) 
Personal Computer 
Printed Circuit (IC) 
Priority Control 
Protocol Control 
Punched Card 
PC (Personal Computer)
A generic term used to describe many kinds of small format personal computer systems found at schools, homes, and offices. Sometimes identified by the speed of the central processing board ('486, 68040, etc.). Sometimes used to distinguish Intel-based personal computers from others, such as Macintoshes, etc. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
PC card
Small form-factor peripheral that conforms to the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) standard and connects to computer systems with compatible card slots. 
Downloader for pc532 monitor ROM. This is 'pc532down', a utility to support downloading to the monitor ROM on a pc532 system. If you don't already know what a pc532 is, you don't want to know, and you don't want this utility. This utility is also provided as part of the pc532 distribution of NetBSD under the name 'download.c'. 
Personal Computer 97 (MS), "PC 97" 
Policy Certification Authority (DFN, PGP) 
Power Calibration Area (CD) 
Makes printable Postscript calendars without X. "Pcal" is a program to print PostScript calendars for any month and year. By default, it looks for a file in the home directory named "calendar" for entries with leading dates matching dates on the calendar, and prints any following text under the appropriate day. 
Personal Computer - Advanced Technology, "PC-AT" 
Printed Circuit Board Design Program Pcb is a handy tool for the X Window System build to design printed circuit boards. All coordinate units are 1/1000 inch. For details see the manual. 
Printed Circuit Board 
Process Control Block (BS2000) 
Program Communication Block (IBM) 
Protocol Control Block (TCP) 
Portable C Compiler 
Personal Computer Communications Associations (org., USA) 
The Purdue Compiler Construction Tool Set (PCCTS). PCCTS consists of ANother Tool for Language Recognition (ANTLR), a DFA-based Lexical analyzer Generator (DLG) and assorted other utilities designed for the construction of compilers and other language translators. ANTLR is a parser generator which generates recursive descent parsers which are easier to debug than the table driven bottom-up parsers created by YACC. It also provides support for the automatic generation of Abstract Syntax Trees (AST's). 
Photo CD (Kodak, CD) 
Process Control Device 
Scripts to convert PCD images to commented HTML pages By giving some rules and commenting text in predefined files it is possible to convert Kodak Photo CD data into linked HTML pages with describing text. English and German pages can be created. 
Program Controlled Data Acquisition 
Personal Computer DOS (OS, DOS, IBM, PC), "PC-DOS" 
Purdue Computer Emergency Response Team 
Portable Compiled Font 
PCF fonts
A variety of bitmapped fonts to be used with the X Window System. 
Paging CHannel (GSM, CCCH, mobile-systems) 
Characterize the bandwidth, latency and loss on network links pchar is a reimplementation of the pathchar utility, written by Van Jacobson. Both programs attempt to characterize the bandwidth, latency, and loss of links along an end-to-end path through the Internet. pchar works in both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. 
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) 
Protocol Control Information (OSI, ETSI) 
PCI vendor ID and device ID
PCI supports the useful concept that every vendor and device have unique hex IDs. For instance, Intel has chosen to represent themselves by the completely random number 0x8086 as their vendor ID. PCI cards will provide their IDs on request. You will see numerical values listed in the output of lspci, scanpci, and cat /proc/pci, especially if the respective utility cannot look up the vendor name from the ID number. The file /usr/share/pci.ids ( /usr/share/misc/pci.ids on Debian) from the pciutils package contains a complete table of all IDs and their corresponding names. The kudzu package also has a table /usr/share/kudzu/pcitable containing the information we are really looking for: ID to kernel module mappings. This enables you to use the intended scientific method for locating the correct PCI module from the kernel's /proc/pci data. The file format is easy to understand, and as an exercise you should try writing a shell script to do the lookup automatically. 
Personal Communications Industry Association (org., USA, SMS) 
PC card I/O Card (PCMCIA, I/O) 
Permis de Conduire Informatique Europeen (ECDL) 
PCI Power Management [specification] (PCI), "PCI PM" 
Portable Common Interface Set 
read/write PCI config space 
Linux PCI Utilities (for 2.[1234].x kernels) This package contains various utilities for inspecting and setting of devices connected to the PCI bus. Requires kernel version 2.1.82 or newer (supporting the /proc/bus/pci interface). 
Personal Computer / unIX (IBM, PC), "PC/IX" 
Personal Computer Integrated eXchange Format (OS/2), "PC/IXF" 
Portable Common LOOPS (CLOS) 
Printer Control Language (HP) 
Programmable Command Language (CMU, DEC, TOPS) 
Clock Dock app for Window Maker window manager This is a nice analog clock. It allows different XPMs as backgrounds as well as different configurations of hands and such to match with the XPM. Make sure to check the examples for some included XPM's besides the default 
Personal Computer Manufacturer 
Physical Connection Management (FDDI, SMT) 
Plug Compatible Machine 
Pulse Coded Modulation 
PCM (Pulse code modulation)
A technique used to transform an incoming analog signal into a noise-free, digital equivalent. In multimedia, PCM us used to sample sounds digitally. 
People Can't Memorize Computer Industries Acronyms (slang) 
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (org.) 
see Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA). 
PCMCIA Card Services for Linux. PCMCIA cards are commonly used in laptops to provide expanded capabilities, such as modems, increased memory, etc. Some desktop PCs can accept PCMCIA cards as well, although this is rare. Card Services for Linux is a complete PCMCIA support package. It includes a set of client drivers for specific cards, and a card manager daemon that can respond to card insertion and removal events, loading and unloading drivers on demand. It supports ``hot swapping'' of PCMCIA cards, so cards can be inserted and ejected at any time. The actual kernel modules required for this package are contained in the pcmcia-modules-<kernel version> package, where <kernel version> is the version of the kernel for which the modules have been compiled. The wireless-tools package is required by wireless network adapters. The hotplug package is required by 2.4 (and later) series kernels to use PCI (Cardbus) devices. 
PCMCIA Modules for Linux (kernel 2.2.20). This package contains the set of loadable kernel modules for the PCMCIA Card Services applications program interface. They have been compiled to be compatible with the kernel in the kernel-image-2.2.20 package version 2.2.20-5. If you have compiled your own kernel, you will most likely need to also recompile the PCMCIA modules. The pcmcia-source package has been provided to help Debian users recompile the PCMCIA modules to work with their kernels' configurations. (It also is possible to rebuild these modules using the Debian source files for the pcmcia-cs package.) The utilities in the pcmcia-cs package are required to use these modules. 
Project & Configuration Management System 
Personal Computer Message Terminal 
Personal Communications Network 
Public Communications Network (mobile-systems) 
Personal Computer Network File System 
Personal Computer / Network Operating System (OS, MS-DOS, CP/M), "PC/NOS" 
Point of Control and Observation (ISO 9646-1, IUT) 
Programmable completion for Emacs Pcomplete provides a facility for using programmatic completion in Emacs. It is especially useful for utilities like shells and command interpretors, but can in fact be used anywhere within Emacs. 
A small command-line utility to auto-detect printers pconf-detect is a simple command-line utility for detecting parallel, USB and network-connected printers. 
Primary Control Program (IBM, OS, OS/PCP) 
Printer Control Protocol 
Personal Computers Peripheral Corporation (manufacturer) 
Peak Cell Rate (UNI, ATM, SCR) 
Processor Configuration Register (Motorola, CPU) 
Program Clock Reference 
PCR-1000 Control Daemon / Command Line Interface PCRD is a command line program, that also supports a daemon mode, for controlling an Icom PCR-1000 Wide Band Receiver via a serial port. For more info on the PCR-1000, see 
PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based onthe POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. This package contains a grep variant based on the PCRE library. 
Perl-compatible regular expression library. PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. 
Phase Change ReWritable (DVD, EMCA), "PC-RW" 
Personal Communication System (Sony, Panasonic, Motorola) 
Personal Communications Services 
Programmable Communications Subsystem 
Punched Card System (PC) 
Personal Computing Systems Architecture [= Pathworks] (DEC, NOS) 
Personal Computer / Smard Card (PC, PCMCIA), "PC/SC" 
Some tools to be used with smart cards and PC/SC This archive contains some tools useful for a user of PC/SC user. The tools provided are: pcsc_scan(1) scans available smart card readers and print detected events: card insertion with ATR, card removal; scriptor(1) Perl script to send commands to a smart card using a batch file or stdin; gscriptor(1) the same idea as but with Perl-Gtk GUI. 
PCSC Lite resource manager daemon The purpose of PCSC Lite is to provide a Windows(R) SCard interface in a very small form factor for communicating to smartcards and readers. The PCSC daemon is used to dynamically allocate/deallocate reader drivers at runtime and manage connections to the readers. 
Printer Control Sequence Description 
Pacific Communication Sciences, Inc. (manufacturer) 
Private Communication Technology (Internet, MS, Visa) 
Probe Control Table (FFST/2) 
Personal Computer/Transmission Control Protocol, "PC/TCP" 
Portable Common Tool Environment (CASE, ESPRIT) 
POSIX Compliance Test Suite (POSIX) 
P-bit Coding Violation [error event] (DS3/E3) 
Path Coding Violation [error event] (DS1/E1) 
Personal Computer - eXtended Technology, "PC-XT" 
Packetization Delay 
Plug & Display [standard] (LCD, VESA), "P&D" 
Public DOMAIN 
Public Domain. Supposedly, the "public" owns the copyright. PD SW is the only SW rightly called "free SW". Note that derivations of PD SW need not remain PD. 
Realtime Computer Music and Graphics System. A real-time graphical programming environment for audio and graphics analysis and rendering. Pd's audio functions are built-in; graphical computations require a separate package named GEM ("Graphics Environment for Multimedia"). Pd and GEM are available for SGI machines, IBM PC compatibles (running NT or W95) and Linux (PCs or Alpha machines). 
Personal Digital Assistant 
Power Disk Cartridge (ECMA) 
Primary Domain Controler. This stores security and user account info for a domain. It manages all aspects of user/domain interaction. A domain has one PDC and can have multiple BDCs. BDCs hold backup copies of the PDC's info and are occasionally synchronized with the PDC. Both PDCs and BDCs can perform some tasks like user authentication. Often, a main site will have a PDC and a BDC (which can share the PDC's load for certain tasks) and remote sites will BDCs to handle certain tasks locally. 
Primary DOMAIN Controller (MS, Windows NT, BDC) 
PROLOG Development Center (manufacturer, Denmark, PROLOG) 
Partial Differential Equation 
Personal Digital Entertainment 
Product Data / Definition Exchange Standards (USA, STEP, CIM) 
Portable Document Format (Adobe) 
Program Development Facility (IBM) 
see portable document format (PDF). 
PDF (Portable Document Format) files
Binary files created with Adobe Acrobat or other programs capable of producing output in this format. Used for producing operating system-independent documents, which can be viewed using Acrobat Reader or other programs, including Web browsers equipped with an Acrobat Reader plug-in. 
generate a PostScript page list of a PDF document 
Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator 
PDF output from e-TeX 
PDF output from e-TeX 
PDF output from e-TeX 
PDF output from e-TeX 
Portable Document Format (PDF) font analyzer (version 1.00) 
Portable Document Format (PDF) image extractor (version 1.00) 
Portable Document Format (PDF) document information extractor (version 1.00) 
PDF output from TeX 
PDF output from JadeTeX 
PDF output from TeX 
Ghostscript PDF Optimizer 
Make PDF documents which are printable and readable on screen too pdfscreen is an extension of the hyperref package to provide a screen-based document design. This package helps to generate pdf documents that are readable on screen and will fit the screen's aspect ratio. Also it can be used with various options to produce regular print versions of the same document without any extra effort. One important utility of this package is to generate slides for talks, seminars etc. It produces a pdf file which can be used for a slideshow on any machine which has a pdf viewer. (Preferrably acroread). The homepage of this project is 
PDF output from TeX 
Portable Document Format (PDF) to PostScript converter (version 1.00) 
Portable Document Format (PDF) to text converter (version 1.00) 
PDF output from TeX 
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (ATM) 
Power and Data Interface 
Peripheral Developers Kit (MS) 
A public domain version of the Korn shell PD-ksh is a mostly complete AT&T ksh look-alike (see NOTES file for a list of things not supported). Work is currently underway to make it fully compatible with both POSIX and AT&T ksh (when the two don't conflict). Since pdksh is free and compiles and runs on most common unix systems, it is very useful in creating a consistent user interface across multiple machines. For example, in the CS department of MUN, pdksh is installed on a variety of machines including Suns, HPs, DecStations, PCs running Linux, etc., and is the login shell of ~4500 users. 
Page / Program Description / Design Language 
PERL Data Language (PERL) 
Program Development Language 
The perl data language. Perl extensions for numerics. PDL (``Perl Data Language'') gives standard perl the ability to COMPACTLY store and SPEEDILY manipulate the large N-dimensional data arrays which are the bread and butter of scientific computing. The idea is to turn perl in to a free, array-oriented, numerical language in the same sense as commercial packages like IDL and MatLab. One can write simple perl expressions to manipulate entire numerical arrays all at once. For example, using PDL the perl variable $a can hold a 1024x1024 floating point image, it only takes 4Mb of memory to store it and expressions like $a=sqrt($a)+2 would manipulate the whole image in a few seconds. A simple interactive shell (perldl) is provided for command line use together with a module (PDL) for use in perl scripts. Web page: 
Process Dispatch Latency Time 
Program Development Manager (IBM, ADT) 
Small GTK-based login program Pdm is a miniature login program, intended for use on PDAs and other small systems. It is not a proper replacement for xdm, but has just about enough functionality to authenticate a user and start a session. 
Simple full screen menu program. A simple full screen menu program, intended to be comfortable login shell for inexperienced users. Pdmenu interfaces with Debian's menu system, to provide automatically-generated lists of installed programs. 
Programmer's Distribution Network (Fido) 
Public Data Network (mobile-systems) 
Proxy DNS Server pdnsd is a proxy dns server with permanent caching (the cache contents are written to hard disk on exit) that is designed to cope with unreachable or down dns servers (for example in dial-in networking). pdnsd can be used with applications that do dns lookups, eg on startup, and can't be configured to change that behaviour, to prevent the often minute-long hangs (or even crashes) that result from stalled dns queries. Some Netscape Navigator versions for Unix, for example, expose this behaviour. And it's IPv6 capable. 
Portable Distributed Objects (NeXT) 
Parallel and Distributed Operating System (OS, MIT) 
Parallel Distributed Processing (AI) 
Peripheral Data Processing 
Plasma Display Panel 
Programmable Data Processor (DEC) 
Parallel Data Query (Informix, DB) 
Simple printing system for workstations Queueless printing system for workstation installations, which also supports sending print jobs to BSD lpr queues, over Appletalk (using netatalk) or TCP connections, and over fax transmissions via the efax utilities. It also includes a contributed interface for printing to Novell NetWare-based servers. The maintainer of the Linux Printing HOWTO recommends using this system standalone, or as a front-end to LPRng. Printing to non-Postscript printers usually requires using GNU or Aladdin Ghostscript. Home Page: 
Partitioned Data Set 
Portable Display Shell (Shell) 
Processor Direct Slot / Socket (Motorola, Apple) 
Professional Development System (MS) 
Public DOMAIN Software (PD) 
Peripheral Data Storage Processor 
Post Development and Software Support 
Pacific Daylight Time [-0700] (TZ, PST, USA) 
Proposed Draft Technical Report 
Packet Data Unit 
Product Development Unit 
Protocol Data Unit (OSI) 
a daily backup system similar to Plan9's dumpfs pdumpfs is a simple daily backup system similar to Plan9's dumpfs which preserves every daily snapshot. pdumpfs is written in Ruby. You can access the past snapshots at any time for retrieving a certain day's file. Let's backup your home directory with pdumpfs! 
Photorealistic Data Visualization 
Phase Encoding 
Portable eXecutable (Win32, Java) 
Processing Element (MPP) 
Pocket Ethernet Adapter (LAN, ethernet) 
A HTML Editor for GTK+/GNOME It supports most of basic HTML. It features Session Management and HTML Preview using the GtkHTML widget, Drag N' Drop among other things. 
Peanut Linux
Peanut Linux is only a 99 Mb. download, packed with fun and useful applications. A small disk distribution. 
Process and Experiment Automation Realtime Language 
Problem Exists Between Chair And Keyboard (slang) 
Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Program Execution Control (IBM, OS/2) 
Planning, programming, budget, and execution Electronic Delivery System 
Partners Early Experience Kit (Taligent) 
peer-to-peer file transfer
A file-sharing technique for local area networks (LANs) in which each user has access to the public files located on the workstation of any other network user. Each user determines which files, if any, he or she wants to make public for network access. See TOPS. 
peer-to-peer network
A local area network (LAN) without a central server and in which all computers in the network have access to the public idles located on all other workstation. See client/server network and peer-to-peer file transfer. 
PeeWeeLinux is an ongoing development effort to provide an environment that makes the configuration and installation of a Linux operating system on an embedded platform as easy and painless as possible.> PeeWeeLinux v0.61.1 was released February 27, 2002. 
Picture ELement 
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PSRG, RFC 1421/1422/1423/1424) 
PEM (Privacy Enhanced E-mail)
Of historical interest only, PEM was the first Internet standard for encrypting/signing e-mail. It later evolved into S/MIME. Contrast: Core components of PEM influenced later standards such as SSL. For example, the certificates used by some SSL implementations end in the suffix ".pem". Contrast: PEM and PGP are functionaly similar as far as e-mail encryption is concerned. The main difference is that PEM is based upon PKI standards like X.509 certificates, whereas PGP uses more ad hoc technologies. The frameworks are completely incompatible, so that an e-mail encrypted using one system cannot be decrypted using the other. The basic difference in the framework is that PEM uses X.509 hierarchy of certificate authorities, whereas PGP uses a more distributed "web of trust". 
Public Education Network 
Download images from STV0680B-001 chip based digital cameras pencam is a command line program which can download images from digital cameras which use the STV0680B-001 chip (e.g. the Aiptek Pencam or the Nisis Quickpix 2). 
penetration testing (pen testing)
A penetration test is where a client hires ethical hackers to attempt to break into their systems. The value of pentration testing is that attack and defense are different mindsets. People who must defend against systems are frequently not very good at finding ways into systems, and vice versa. Controversy: There are several well-documented cases where clients have been burned by such tests. The penetration testers may find juicy corporate data that they cannot resist taking. Controversy: Many people debate the effecacy of such tests. Evil hackers will choose a set of techniques that protect them from being caught. Penetration testers do not fear prosecution, and will therefore choose a different set of techniques. See also: tiger team 
a missile command clone This is a clone of the classic "Missile Command" Game, but it has better graphics and music. You have to defend cities by shooting at missiles, flyers and smartbombs. 
A gtk version of xeyes penguineyes displays Tux, Evil Tux, Penguin of Lurve, Robopenguin, Gnu, Dust Puppy or Linus following your mouse cursor with their eyes. Upstream webpage: no longer available (was 
Five in a row game for X and the console Pente is the English name for the Asian game ni-nuki, which itself is a version of the game go-moku. The game is a variant of the well known five in a row. Placing five stones in a row is one way to win, the other is to capture five pairs of the opponents stones. Pente can run in three different modes: X, curses or text. You can play against the computer or another human, and there is also support for playing over a network. 
force pentium optimized compilation Replaces gcc, cc, and g++ with scripts that build pentium optimized code. (Other processors can be optimized for as well.) By default, after installing this package, the compilers will behave normally. However, if the environment variable DEBIAN_BUILDARCH=pentium is set, they will enter pentium optimized compile mode. 
Packetized Ensemble Protocol (Telebit) 
Personal Exam Prep (MS, ATEC) 
Packed Encoding Rules (ASN.1) 
Program Event Recording 
POP3 and IMAP4 Proxy server Perdition allows users to connect to a content-free POP3 or IMAP4 server that will redirect them to their real POP3 or IMAP4 server. This enables mail retrieval for a domain to be split across multiple backend servers on a per user basis. This can also be used to as a POP3 or IMAP4 proxy especially in firewall applications. Perdition supports arbitrary library based map access to determine the server for a user. POSIX Regular Expression, GDBM, MySQL, PostgreSQL and LDAP libraries ship with the distribution. 
Library to allow perdition to access LDAP based pop maps. Perdition allows for arbitrary user database access through shared libraries much in the manner of NSS in glibc. This package allows a user database to be sourced from LDAP. 
Library to allow perdition to access MySQL based pop maps. Perdition allows for arbitrary user database access through shared libraries much in the manner of NSS in glibc. This package allows a user database stored in a MySQL database. 
Library to allow perdition to access PostgreSQL based pop maps. Perdition allows for arbitrary user database access through shared libraries much in the manner of NSS in glibc. This package allows a user database stored in a PostgreSQL database. 
Utilities to save disk space GNU cp used to detect files that contain 0-filled holes and save disk space by skipping them with lseek when writing a file and thus not allocating disk blocks. Unfortunately it does no longer. So here is program to make holes in existing files. Also there are some scripts that help cleaning up the hard disk (finding duplicated and/or unstripped files). 
perimeter network
A network added between a protected network and an external network,in order to provide an additional layer of security. A perimeter network is sometimes called a DMZ. 
peripheral component interconnect (PCI)
A computer system's local bus that provides a high-speed connection between a computer system and its peripherals; allows connection of up to seven peripheral devices in a single system. 
Larry Wall's Practical Extraction and Report Language. An interpreted scripting language, known among some as "Unix's Swiss Army Chainsaw". Perl is optimised for scanning arbitrary text files and system administration. It has built-in extended regular expression matching and replacement, a data-flow mechanism to improve security with setuid scripts and is extensible via modules that can interface to C libraries. 
Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister (slang) 
Perl is a high-level programming language with roots in C, sed, awk and shell scripting. Perl is good at handling processes and files, and is especially good at handling text. Perl's hallmarks are practicality and efficiency. While it is used to do a lot of different things, Perl's most common applications (and what it excels at) are probably system administration utilities and web programming. A large proportion of the CGI scripts on the web are written in Perl. You need the perl package installed on your system so that your system can handle Perl scripts. You need perl-base to have a full perl. 
PERL is a popular scripting language. PERL is so popular because: It runs on all platforms (UNIX, Windows, etc.) It easily parses text files and generates reports. It is easily to learn. Supports a large library of utilities to work from. Easily integrated into web-servers for CGI It is open-source Key point: v5 of PERL has the concept of "tainted" input that cannot be passed raw to the operating system without preprocessing. This is an amazingly useful feature that solves the majority of input validation problems in CGI scripts. Key point: A frequent misconfiguration is putting a PERL executable directly in the cgi-bin directory, allowing remote access of it. 
Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) 
Practical Extraction and Report Language - An interpreted language developed by Larry Wall (, author of patch(1) and rn(1)) and distributed over Usenet. Superficially resembles awk, but is much hairier, including many facilities reminiscent of sed(1) and shells and a comprehensive Unix system-call interface. 
Practical Extraction and Report Language 
PERL (Practical Extraction and Report Language)
In UNIX an interpreted scripting language that is specifically designed for scanning text files, extracting information from these files, and preparing reports summarizing this information. Written by Larry Wall, pert is widely used to create Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts that handle the output of HTML forms. See HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and interpreter. 
Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language) A common scripting/programming language. It is often used on UNIX/Linux Web servers for generating CGI scripts. From I-gloss

Highlight perl sources for WWW presentation perl2html can highlight your source for presentation in the WWW. It can also be used as a CGI script and can detect whether the client browser supports compressed data to save bandwidth. 
how to submit bug reports on Perl 
generate executables from Perl programs 
A perl interface to the libMagick graphics routines. PerlMagick is a perl module which gives you all the functionality you can enjoy in the imagemagick package binaries, from perl. One can load several images with perlmagick, apply numerous transformations and operations on the images and write them back, possibly in a different format. 
Menu and Template (curses-based) UI for Perl perlmenu is a Perl module that provides your application with access to easy-to-use functions for templates, menus, forms, and the like -- everything needed to put a slick UI on a program without resorting to a GUI. 
tools to build and analyze SGML or XML document type definitions. dtd2html generates a suite of linked HTML documents listing the components and features of each element in an SGML Document Type Definition (DTD). dtddiff shows differences between two DTDs. dtdtree shows the hierarchy tree (in ASCII) of SGML elements in a DTD. dtdview is an interactive program for studying an SGML DTD. stripsgml strips SGML markup from a file, and also attempts to translate entity references to standard ASCII characters. 
A Perl script indenter and reformatter Perltidy is a Perl script which indents and reformats Perl scripts to make them easier to read. The formatting can be controlled with command line parameters. The default parameter settings approximately follow the suggestions in the Perl Style Guide. If you write Perl scripts, or spend much time reading them, you will probably find it useful. 
Pre-Embossed Rigid Magnetic (Sony, HDD) 
PERManentes InventurabwicklungsSystem (MBAG) 
Identifiers that control access to files; consists of three fields: user, group, and other; generally controls read, write, and execute operations. 
The authority to read and write files and directories, and execute programs. Varying permission levels can be assigned by the Superuser, or root operator, on a file-by-file, directory-by-directory basis or by account name (User ID). 
Permission Block
This is part of the inode table's entries for each file and directory. The permission block can be shown for files and directores by using "ls -al" - the long output directory listing and is represented by 10 characters. The first character is a file type indicator differentiating between a file and a directory. The other nine characters refer to access permissions for the owner, group and world. 
Programmable Erasable Read Only Memory (IC) 
PERpetual Processing Operating System (OS, Unix) 
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)
A standard for PC cards. Adding a modem, network card, and removable disk drives (especially on portable computers) sometime requires the use of PCMCIA cards and compatible slots on computer systems. 
A text indexing and word search program Perspic is a tool for the study of documents that change infrequently if at all, e.g. sacred texts, ancient texts of historical interest, etc. Perspic build a fully indexed and compressed version of the original text files. Word search results are summarized by line. Selecting a given line opens the full text about the given word. Other features include dictionary definition of words, scanning of word derivatives, and saving selected quotations with their accompanying attribution. 
Program Evaluation / Evolution and Review Technique 
Suite for offline reading and composing of Usenet articles News Peruser is a suite of several small programs to enable a user to do offline reading and composition of Usenet news articles. Peruser can compose replies-by-mail, as well, and pass them off to a local sendmail. The toplevel applet's filename is "npcollections", but you are able to launch News Peruser by typing both "npcollections" or "peruser" at the shell prompt, or by selecting it from your window manager's menu. 
P-bit Errored Seconds (DS3/E3) 
Photo-Electric Scanning (DTP) 
Programmed Electrical Stimulation 
Proposed Encryption Standard (cryptography) 
Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing 
Personal Electronic Translator 
Print Enhancement Technology (Compaq) 
Progressive Educational Technology 
PETSc is the "Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation", a suite of data structures and routines for the scalable (parallel) solution of scientific applications modeled by partial differential equations. It employs the MPI standard for all message-passing communication. Several sample scientific applications, as well as various papers and talks, demonstrate the features of the PETSc libraries. 
PHIGS Extension for X (X-Windows, PHIGS) 
Pexts is a collection of Pike extension modules designed to fill the gaps that are in the standard Pike distribution. 
Make an AFM file from Postscript (PFB/PFA/PFM) font files using ghostscript 
Parameter Field Address (Forth) 
Predictive Failure Analysis (HDD) 
Font Editor for PS, TrueType and OpenType fonts PfaEdit allows you to edit outline and bitmap fonts. You can create new ones or modify old ones. It is also a font format converter and can convert among PostScript (ASCII & binary Type 1, some Type 3s, some Type 0s), TrueType, and OpenType (Type2). 
convert a type1 pfb file (binary MSDOS) into a pfa (ASCII) 
Power Factor Correction 
Protocol Field Compression (PPP) 
Page Fault Error (Windows, MS) 
Portable Forth Environment, ANS standard, all wordsets. PFE (Portable Forth Environment) is a programming environment for the programming language Forth. PFE is based on the ANSI Standard for Forth. It has been created by Dirk-Uwe Zoller and is now maintained by Guido Draheim at Tektronix. Tektronix has made a number of extensions: PFE is now fully multithreaded and you can load additional C objects at runtime to extend the Forth dictionary. It is best targeted for embedded environments since you can easily exchange the terminal driver and the initilization routines. 
Program Function Key 
Postfix log entry summarizer pflogsumm is designed to provide an over-view of postfix activity, with just enough detail to give the administrator a "heads up" for potential trouble spots. 
Printer Font Metrics (Adobe) 
portable Forth interpreter pForth is a public domain, portable ANS Forth based on a kernel written in ANSI 'C'. This makes it easy to port pForth to multiple platforms. More information on pForth is available at 
Processor Frame Power Unit 
Portable Font Resource (Netscape) 
Polymeric Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
Fast file transfer program (no authentication!) This program transfers files from host to host on command line (within your telnet sessions). You may copy directories recursively, send/receive stdin/stdout, use your own filters, accept specified clients ... It is the fastest file transfer program on the net! ;^) 
Internet file transfer program 
[WAI] Protocols and Formats Working Group (WAI) 
Pin Grid Array (IC, CPU) 
Professional Graphics Adapter (IBM) 
Tk/Tcl front-end for PostgreSQL database A Tk/Tcl program for X that provides a front-end to PostgreSQL. It can be used to generate and store queries, views and new forms. 
A general-purpose genetic algorithm package PGAPack is a general-purpose, data-structure-neutral, parallel genetic algorithm package being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. 
Professional Graphics Controller 
PostgreSQL documentation in PDF format on US letter paper PostgreSQL documentation in PDF format formatted for US letter paper size 
PostgreSQL documentation in PDF format for A4 paper PostgreSQL documentation in PDF format, arranged for A4 size paper. 
Prince George Free-Net Association (org., USA) 
Parameter Group Identifier (SPDU) 
Progeny graphical installer creation system This package contains PGI, a multi-architecture graphical installer creation system for Debian GNU/Linux originally developed by Progeny Linux Systems, Inc., for their Debian-based "Progeny Debian" operating system. This package enables the user to create ISO images containing a bootable installer (PGI) which guides the user through the steps of installation. The installer supports text and graphical installation modes. PGI runs debootstrap to install a minimal Debian system to the target filesystem(s), sets up a boot loader (if the installing user requests), and uses the pivot_root() system call to "boot" into the installed system. ISO images may be generated with complete or partial Debian package archives, or with the the installer only (useful for network-only installs, which PGI supports.) PGI is extensible and customizable. Two example extensions are provided with this package; one uses the base-config package, while the other configures the installed system using the X-based Configlet system. Two manuals are provided as part of this package. "Creating Debian Installers with PGI" documents the setup and configuration of a PGI-based installer ISO in detail. "Using the PGI Debian Installer" is an example of a PGI user's manual. Those creating custom installers with PGI will want to update the user's manual for their target audience. 
Practical General Multicast (Cisco, Multicast) 
Precision Graphics Markup Language (XML, IBM, Netscape, Sun, Adobe) 
Tcl/TK script for examining the status of PostgreSQL backends This is a Tk/Tcl script for listing PostgreSQL backends and showing their current status. If run by root or the PostgreSQL admin user, it is able to show what query a backend is running. 
a Portable Game Notation (PGN) extractor Pgn-extract is a program to extract selected games from a collection of chess games in PGN format. There are several ways to specify the criteria on which to extract: textual move sequences, the position reached after a sequence of moves, information in the tag fields, and material balance in the ending. 
Profile Guided Optimization (Intel) 
Pretty Good Privacy 
see pretty good privacy (PGP). 
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)
A high-security, public-key data encryption program for UNIX/Linux and other operating systems. 
pgp (pretty-good-privacy)
Popular encryption program. It was created by a fellow named Phil Zimmerman as a subversive act. Phil later exploited it as a social-engineering attack against the business community. Key point: All true hackers use open-source versions of PGP to encrypt their data. Resources: RFC 1991: PGP Message Exchange Formats RFC 2015: MIME Security with Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format Point: Users of PGP have choices of the following algorithms. Note that older v2.6 users can only use RSA/MD5/IDEA to read messages. encryption 3DES (aka. Triple-DES) The best choice for conservative people. The NSA claims that further proliferation of triple-DES is counter to national security interests, presumably because they cannot break it. It is the most analyzed cipher (and therefore believed to be the most secure) and is extensively used in the finance industry to protect transactions. IDEA A bad choice from the standpoint that it is protected by patents and many people are unable to use it. CAST5 AES The new United States standard, a good second choice, especially if speed is a concern. Twofish Blowfish public key RSA DSS (aka. DSA) DH/ELG-E Diffie-Hellman used for encryption, but not signing. ELG ElGamal signing, not recommended as it is considered weak. hash SHA1 The best choice for security paranoid people. MD5 The worst choice for paranoids, however, it is often the most popular. RIPEMD160 
A PGP/GPG Wrapper for Pine pgp4pine supports encryption/signing and decryption/verifying of PGP2, PGP5 and GnuPG email. Currently does not support MIME attachments. 
Wrapper for using GnuPG in programs designed for PGP Pgpgpg is a wrapper around Gnu Privacy Guard which takes PGP 2.6 command line options, translate them and then call GnuPG (Gnu Privacy Guard) to perform the desired action. 
grep utility that uses perl compatible regexes. Perl-style regexps have many useful features that the standard POSIX ones don't; this is basically the same as grep but with the different regexp syntax. The other reason for the existence of pgrep is that its source code is an example of programming with libpcre. 
look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes 
Program Generation System 
short for PHonebook, a PH client program can be used to access a QI (CCSO Nameserver) database. QI databases are generally used to store phone books, timetables, and other forms of public information. 
Chess playing program. Phalanx is a simple chess playing program of conventional design. It is xboard compatible. The main aim is to write a slow thinker with a lot of chess specific knowledge. Current version plays risky, active chess and shows quite good tactical performance. 
A GNOME front-end to CVS Pharmacy intends to be a GNOME compliant front-end to CVS. Currently, it provides a limited user interface to CVS commands and a "console" for the lazy power-user. It allows you to work with several CVS servers and to have a local working directory for each. 
PSK31 terminal for X11 phaseshift is a PSK31 terminal for X11. PSK31 is a new modulation scheme popular with radio amateurs on HF radio. This program implements the PSK31 modem and a terminal to use it. 
Phat Linux
In late 1998, Phat Linux created a simple, easy to use Linux operating system that ran on a Windows 95/98 partition. Phat Linux v3.3 comes with lots of popular software, including KDE 2.0, XFree86 3.3.6, Netscape, and much much more. 
Phayoune Secure Linux
Phayoune-Desktop 0.0.11 was the most recent version when it was added to list July 8, 2002. The initial release of Phayoune Firewall was 0.3.3, dated December 25, 2002. Phayoune Firewall 0.3.6 was released May 21, 2003. Thailand based distribution. 
Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System 
PHIGS Plus Lumiere and Surfaces (PHIGS), "PHIGS-PLUS" 
Professional High-Resolution Image Processing System (CA) 
Imlib2 based Window Manager for X This is a lightweight window manager for X, based on Enlightenment's Imlib2 library. At the moment it is still in heavy development, but has basic theming support and development is happening rapidly. With Imlib2's support for alpha transparency and blending, this will rapidly turn into a superbly attractive window manager. 
paneuropean PHOtonic Transport Overlay Network (ACTS) 
Interface to digital still cameras This is a library and a command-line frontend to manipulate digital still cameras based on Fujitsu chipset and Siarra Imaging firmware. The program is known to work with Agfa, Epson and Olympus cameras. Should also work with Sanyo, but this is untested. The cameras typically come with software for Windows and for Mac, and no description of the protocol. With this tool, they are manageable from a UNIX box. Bruce D. Lightner <> has added support for Win32 and DOS platforms. Note that the program does not have any GUI, it is plain command-line even on Windows. For a GUI, check out the phototk program. 
GUI interface for digital cameras This is a GUI front-end to the photopc program that is used for downloading images and manipulating certain serial-controlled digital cameras. 
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP/FI, HTML, CGI, successorr) 
Emacs support for php files. Emacs major mode for php supporting syntax highlighting, indentation and good integration with html-statements. 
PHP extension for GTK+ client-side cross-platform GUI apps. PHP-GTK: PHP language bindings for GTK+ toolkit PHP-GTK is a PHP extension that enables you to write client-side cross-platform GUI applications. This is the first such extension of this kind and one of the goals behind it was to prove that PHP is a capable general-purpose scripting language that is suited for more than just Web applications. This extension will _not_ allow you to display GTK+ programs in a Web browser, and can be used in the Web environment only if you are running the webserver locally. It is intended for creating standalone GUI applications. 
PHP Imlib2 Extension php_imlib is an extension for PHP4 that provides access to Rasterman's image manipulation library, Imlib2, from within PHP scripts. It currently implements most of the Imlib2 API, except for some X11-specific functions. 
A server-side, HTML-embedded scripting language PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Version 3.0 is an HTML-embedded scripting language. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. This package provides the loadable module for the apache webserver, some modules providing extra functions, and a php/fi 2.0 -> php3 script converter (works most of the time). With additional modules it supports direct communication with postgresql, mysql, msql databases, dbf files, and it has an interface to the libgd graphics library. 
A server-side, HTML-embedded scripting language This package provides the loadable module for the apache webserver. Compiled in modules are: bcmath, calendar, curl, dba, exif, filepro, ftp, mm, sockets, wddx, xml, yp and zlib. PHP4 is an HTML-embedded scripting language. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. The most significant change between php3 and php4 is the new parser engine called Zend, which boosts performance quite impressively. 
Documentation for PHP4 and PHP3 This package provides the documentation for the PHP4 scripting language. It is mostly complete now, but it undergoes continual improvements. PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Version 4.0 is an HTML-embedded scripting language. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. 
Personal Home Page [construction kit]/Form Interpreter (HTML, CGI, PHP, Verlaeufer), "PHP/FI" 
Web based GroupWare system written in PHP phpGroupWare is a web based GroupWare system. It comes with several core apps for email, calendar, todo list, address book, file manager, and a notepad. It also provides a framework for add-on modules to integrate seamlessly in phpGroupWare. Some samples are a bookmark manager, a trouble ticket system, a weather reporter, a phone log, a chat program, and a forum system. There are many more in development, and you can develop your own as well. You should use it if you would like a powerful groupware system that can be access from anywhere on the Internet, and allows for custom add-ons. For companies with a distributed user base, it's an ideal solution. Oh, and did I mention that its FREE? 
Library for easy writing web applications (stable version) The library will help you to write medium and large sized data-driven web applications. "Medium to larged applications" are applications that consists of multiple database queries, have to generate tables from database data, need a user interface that generates SQL queries or need a comfortable and user-friendly way to protect pages or functionality on pages. "Data-driven" applications are applications that make use of a supported SQL databse to create HTML content and that use HTML forms to drive database transactions. This is the official stable version More information can be found at the phplib web site 
A set of PHP-scripts to administrate MySQL over the WWW. phpMyAdmin is intended to handle the administration of MySQL over the WWW. Currently it can: - create and drop databases - create, copy, drop and alter tables - delete, edit and add fields - execute any SQL-statement, even batch-queries - manage keys on fields - load text files into tables - create and read dumps of tables - export and import CSV data - administer one single database 
A set of PHP-scripts to administrate PostgreSQL over the WWW. phpPgAdmin is intended to handle the administration of PostgreSQL over the WWW. Currently it can: - create and drop databases - create, copy, drop and alter tables/views/sequences/functions - edit and add fields (to the extent Postgres does) - execute any SQL-statement, even batch-queries - manage keys on fields - load text files into tables - create and read dumps of tables - administer one single database - administer postgres users 
PHP Based Host Information phpSysInfo is a PHP script that displays information about the host being accessed. It will displays things like Uptime, CPU, Memory, LM Sensors, SCSI, IDE, PCI, Ethernet, Floppy, and Video Information. It has support for multiple languages and themes. 
Phrealon Linux
Phrealon is a bootable Linux CD based on Slackware Linux 8.0 designed to allow the easy imaging of multiple workstations. It utilizes the updcast set of Linux tools to accomplish this. The initial release, version 0.80, was released November 7, 2002. Version 0.82 was released February 27, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Phreakers and Hackers Underground Network (network) 
PHYsical Layer Control (FDDI) 
physical volume (PV)
A partition or segment of a storage disk that can be integrated into a one logical volume and controlled by logical volume management (LVM). 
Compute Archimedes' constant Pi to arbitrary precision. This is a teaser for the CLN library, to which the actual computation is delegated. You may use these decimal digits as random digits or search them for hidden messages. :-) 
Placement and Interconnect [system] (VLSI, MIT) 
Peripheral Interface Adapter 
Plug-In Administrator 
compile pictures for troff or TeX 
Personal Intelligent Communicator 
Point in Call (IN) 
Primary Independent Carrier 
Priority Interrupt Controller (IC) 
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) 
Assembler for the Microchip PIC-family Microcontrollers An assembler for the the Microchip PIC family of microcontrollers. Supports the majority of the Microchip PIC family. Uses Microchip (not Parallax) syntax. 
PCTE Interface Control Group (org., PCTE) 
command line utility to drive a PICSTART programmer picp is a utility which allows you to use the Microchip PICSTART programmer, where you would normally be required to use the Windows software. The PICSTART is a low-cost hardware PIC programmer for developing custom microcontroller applications. Faster than MPLAB, comprehensive command line interface, full source provided. (under the GPL) 
Platform for Internet Content Selection (org., Internet) 
Plug-in Inventory Control System 
Protocol Implementation Conformance Statements 
The Platform for Internet Content Selection. Proposed & developed in 1996-7 as a means for providing content information (metadata). Originally, it was designed with censorship of the Internet a hotly debated issue and it was primarily conceived as a way to assist parents and teachers monitor and control what children accessed. In later versions it also facilitates use of digital signatures and other metadata. 
PICS Detailed Continuing Property Record, "PICS/DCPR" 
Images and movie capture utility for the Sony picturebook This program captures images and movies on a Sony VAIO picturebook laptop, taking advantage of the built in CCD camera, hardware JPEG encoder, and jog dial. Please note that this package is superseded in functionality by video4linux's Motion Eye Camera Driver. 
Priority Interrupt Control Unit 
An image preview and viewing system for Gnome. Picview is an image viewing program for Gnome. Picview will create an index of all the pictures in a directory. It can have large or small previews. Images can be viewed in a window using Electric Eyes or in full screen mode. It also has drag and drop support. 
Process IDentification number (Unix) 
Protocol IDentifier [governing connection types] 
TCP/IP IDENT protocol server. Identd is a server which implements the TCP/IP proposed standard IDENT user identification protocol as specified in the RFC 1413 document. 
TCP/IP IDENT protocol server with DES support. Identd is a server which implements the TCP/IP proposed standard IDENT user identification protocol as specified in the RFC 1413 document. This package has been built with DES support. 
find the process ID of a running program. 
Personal Interactive Electronics [division] (Apple) 
Psion Interest Group (Psion) 
PCI IDE/ISA Xcelerator (Intel IC) 
Powerful interpreted programming language Pike is an interpreted, object-oriented, dynamic programming language with a syntax similar to C. It includes many powerful data types and a module system that, for instance, provides image manipulation, database connectivity and advanced cryptography. 
Problem Informant/Killer Tool (GNU, Linux) 
Morse code pileup trainer for SB compatible soundcards. Pileup is a morse code program which generates callsigns using a specified number of the SoundBlaster's voices. This simulates the sound of a CW pileup. The greater the number of voices the more difficult the program is. The idea is based on the tapes used at Amateur Radio Conventions to test people's CW skills. However it is more random and can be made more difficult! You have to use a adlib or soundblaster compatible soundcard. 
This suite of tools allows you to upload and download programs anddata files between a Linux/UNIX machine and the PalmPilot. It has a few extra utilities that will allow for things like syncing the PalmPilot's calendar app with Ical. Note that you might still need to consult the sources for pilot-link if you would like the Python, Tcl,or Perl bindings. Install pilot-link if you want to synchronize your Palm with your RedHat Linux system. 
Tools to communicate with a 3COM Pilot PDA over a serial port. pilot-link is a set of tools that communicate with a 3COM Pilot PDA. 
Perl tools to communicate with a 3COM Pilot PDA over a serial port. This package provides Perl programs with a means of communicating directly with a Pilot. 
PalmPilot PIM, UI, and Conduit Manager PilotManager is a tool that allows you to synchronize databases on your 3Com PalmPilot with applications on your Unix platform. It is a full Hotsync daemon that is user extensible. Developers can write their own conduits to synchronize Pilot databases with the desktop application of their choice. 
Code generator for PalmPilot programs pilot-template will generate skeleton code, Makefiles, icons, etc. for programming for the Palm Pilot. It is best used in conjunction with prc-tools (lets you compile for the Pilot on your Debian machine) and pilrc (the Pilot resource compiler), which are also available as Debian packages. 
PalmOS resource compiler and editor PilRC is a resource compiler for PDAs running the Pal operation system. It is intended for use with the GCC cross-compiler for PalmOS that is provided in the prc-tools package. This version of PilRC also includes pilrcui, a GTK-based beta-quality X frontend to PilRC. 
Parallel Inference Machine (FGCS, AI) 
Personal Information Manager 
Protocol Independent Multicast (ACM, Multicast) 
Photographic & Imaging Manufacturers Association (org., predecessor, I3C) 
PCTE Interface Management Board (org., PCTE) 
Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode [protocol] (PIM, ACM, Multicast), "PIM-DM" 
Paar [kabel] In MetallFolie (VDE, STP), "PiMF" 
Project Information Management System 
Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode [protocol] (RFC 2117/2362, PIM, ACM, SM, Multicast), "PIM-SM" 
Personal Identification Number (banking, ICC) 
Processor Independent Netware (Novell, HP, DEC, Apple, Sun) 
An electronic mail program for UNIX computer systems, unlike predecessor programs, such as Elm, the program contains its own easy-to-use full screen editor, thus freeing users from dependence on the not-very-easy-to-use default editors on UNIX systems (such as emacs and vi ). (The name "Pine" is actually an acronym. of the self-referential sort: Pine Is Not Elm.) 
Pine is a very popular, easy to use, full-featured email user agent that includes a simple text editor called pico. Pine supports MIME extensions and can also be used to read news. Pine also supports IMAP, mail, and MH style folders. 
Program for Internet News and Email / PINE Is No longer ELM 
Physicians Information NETwork (network, USA) 
Pinfo is an info file (or man page) viewer with a user interface similar to the Lynx Web browser interface. Pinfo supports regular expression searching and is based on the ncurses library. 
A network program which sends UDP packets to a host, and listens for responses. Used to check if a machine on the Internet is alive and reachable, and measure the Round Trip Time (RTT) between the local and remote host. 
Packet InterNet Groper (ICMP, TCP/IP) 
send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts 
The "ping" command is built into both Windows and UNIX machines as a universal way of testing network response time and performance. The name is really based off the similarity to sonar pings, though many people have create a post hoc acronym "Packet INternet Groper". Example: The ping-of-death attack used IP fragmentation to crash systems. It was so named because the ping program built-in to Windows could be easily told to fragment packets this way. Key point: Even though the ping program is simple, it can be abused. Some versions can be commanded to send packets as fast as possible, which is often done to flood networks. Most versions allow the packet size to be set to a large size, forcing fragmentation. When used with the flood above, it can overload machines since fragmentation reassembly is so slow. Contrast: There is an IRC command called "PING" that is unrelated to the ICMP ping. It is simply the text string "PING", where the target replies with "PONG". 
To check if a server is running. From the sound that a sonar systems makes in movies, you know, when they are searching for a submarine. 
[from the submariners' term for a sonar pulse] 1. n. Slang term for a small network message (ICMP ECHO) sent by a computer to check for the presence and alertness of another. The Unix command ping(8) can be used to do this manually (note that ping(8)'s author denies the widespread folk etymology that the name was ever intended as acronym for `Packet INternet Groper'). Occasionally used as a phone greeting. See ACK, also ENQ. 2. vt. To verify the presence of. 3. vt. To get the attention of. 4. vt. To send a message to all members of a mailing list requesting an ACK (in order to verify that everybody's addresses are reachable). "We haven't heard much of anything from Geoff, but he did respond with an ACK both times I pinged jargon-friends." 5. n. A quantum packet of happiness. People who are very happy tend to exude pings; furthermore, one can intentionally create pings and aim them at a needy party (e.g., a depressed person). This sense of ping may appear as an exclamation; "Ping!" (I'm happy; I am emitting a quantum of happiness; I have been struck by a quantum of happiness). The form "pingfulness", which is used to describe people who exude pings, also occurs. (In the standard abuse of language, "pingfulness" can also be used as an exclamation, in which case it's a much stronger exclamation than just "ping"!). Oppose blargh. The funniest use of `ping' to date was described in January 1991 by Steve Hayman on the Usenet group He was trying to isolate a faulty cable segment on a TCP/IP Ethernet hooked up to a NeXT machine, and got tired of having to run back to his console after each cabling tweak to see if the ping packets were getting through. So he used the sound-recording feature on the NeXT, then wrote a script that repeatedly invoked ping(8), listened for an echo, and played back the recording on each returned packet. Result? A program that caused the machine to repeat, over and over, "Ping ... ping ... ping ..." as long as the network was up. He turned the volume to maximum, ferreted through the building with one ear cocked, and found a faulty tee connector in no time. 
PING (Packet Internet Groper)
A diagnostic utlity program that is commonly used to determine whether a computer is properly connected to the Internet. 
PingOO Linux
French based distribution. This a Debian based distribution intended for servers. 
Free Lemmings(tm) clone Pingus is a free Lemmings clone covered under the GPL. Pingus uses ClanLib, which allows you to compile Pingus under Windows and Linux, other operating systems might follow. A Windows version isn't available, but it should be possible to compile it from source. Under Linux it is possible to play Pingus under X or in fullscreen, using svgalib or OpenPTC, it runs in 640x480x16bpp. Pingus will have two main modes, one will be a full featured lemmings clone, with all of the basic actions (digger, bridger, etc.) and extensible to include new action and levels. The other mode will be a worms clone, with bazooka pingus, different weapons, etc. At the moment the lemmings mode makes good progress, all basic pingus are painted and the implementation of them goes on. I haven't started to implement the worms mode yet, this will follow when I am finish with the lemmings mode. Both modes will have sub modes for multiplay, over Internet, LAN or split screen. This package contains only the executable binary. URL: http://pingus.seul.orgurl: 
Pingwinek GNU/Linux
Pingwinek is a Linux distribution made in Poland. The main desktop is GNOME 2.2. It supports only Polish and English languages. Version 0.23 was released May 22, 2003. 
lightweight finger 
PSTN INTernet Interworking [group] (PSTN, IETF) 
Parallel / Programmed Input/Output 
Personen, Institutionen, Objekte, Sachen (INPOL) 
Packet Interface Port 
Paper Impact Printing 
Peripheral Interchange Program 
Personal Information Processor 
Picture In Picture (video) 
Plug-In Protocol (ZOC) 
A programming device that lets you use the output of one process as the input of another. You must use a vertical bar (|) between two command invocations to indicate piping. 
In DOS and UNIX a symbol that tells the operating system to send the output of one command to another command rather than display this output. In the following example, the pipe (represented by the | symbol) tells DOS tosend the output of the TREE command to the MORE command; the MORE command then displays the TREE result page by page on-screen: TREE C:\ | MORE See filter and input/output (I/O) redirection. 
n. [common] Idiomatically, one's connection to the Internet; in context, the expansion "bit pipe" is understood. A "fat pipe" is a line with T1 or higher capacity. A person with a 28.8 modem might be heard to complain "I need a bigger pipe". 
pipe line
a sequence of commands connected by pipes. 
A sequence of programs through which a stream of data passes. Each stage or filter performs some operation on the data. 
Connect pipes to get the water flowing from inlet to outlet. If you know the old arcade-game "Pipe Dreams", you'll instantly recognize this. The goal is to connect different pipe segments to let the water flow from the inlet and through as many pipes as possible, until it finally reaches the outlet. This requires an even combination of speed, skill and foresight. 
pipes and sockets
Special files that programs use to communicate with one another. They are rarely seen, but you might be able to see a socket or two in the /dev/directory. From Complete-Idiot's Guide to Linux
Piping Symbol
The | keyboard character (the Shift-Backslash character above the Enter key on a typical 101-key keyboard). It is often used to feed the output from one command or program to another. For example, history | grep mcopy sends the contents of the .bash_history file (via the history command) to the grep program, searching for the string "mcopy". (Also, see Append Symbol and Redirection Symbol.) 
Parallel Information Processing System (GNU) 
Pattern Information Processing Systems 
Printing Industries Research Association (org.) 
Portable InformationsSystem Architecture (DB, infodas, PISA) 
PISA/Business Graphics (PISA), "PISA/BG" 
PISA/Data Base (PISA, DB), "PISA/DB" 
PISA/Data Dictionary (PISA), "PISA/DD" 
PISA/ ??? (PISA), "PISA/DK" 
PISA/Menue Processor (PISA), "PISA/MP" 
PISA/ ??? (PISA), "PISA/NT" 
PISA/ProduktionsPlanung und -Steuerungssystem (PISA), "PISA/PPS" 
PISA/Query Language (PISA), "PISA/QL" 
PISA/Report Generator (PISA), "PISA/RG" 
Process Interrupt Status Word (CPU, assembler) 
Programmable Interval Timer 
Pain In The Anatomy / Ass (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Path Information Unit (IBM, SNA) 
Plug-In Unit 
change the root file system 
change the root file system 
PIcture ELement 
Create an image consisting of many small images Pixelize is a program that will use many scaled down images to try to duplicate, as closely as possible, another image. Pixelize works by splitting up the image you want rendered (or duplicated) into a grid of small rectangular areas. Each area is analyzed, and replaced with an image chosen from a large database of images. Pixelize tries to pick images that best matches each area. 
Protocol Implementation eXtra Information for Testing 
A pixmap editor. Pixmap is a tool for creating or editing rectangular images made up of colored pixels, i.e., pixmaps. Pixmaps are intensively used in X to define window backgrounds, icon images, etc. These are for example used as icons on the desktop or in the debian menu. 
Public Key (cryptography) 
create a bitmap from a TeX pkfont 
Public Key Cryptography Standards (org., USA, cryptography) 
PKCS (RSA's Public-Key Cryptography Standards)
A series of documents that were part of RSA's commercial toolkit. Their popularity was such that they become part of many official standard, include S/MIME and SSL. PKCS #1 - RSA Encryption and Signature Among other things, it defines details like how to pad messages. PKCS #3 - Diffie-Hellman Defines ASN.1 structures and algorithsm for DH key agreement PKCS #5 - Password-based Encryption Defines how to hash a password into a symmetric key. PKCS #7 - Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard (RFC 2315) Defines the structure of the digital envelope. Conceptually, it is a e-mail envelope that wraps an encrypted or signed message. However, the framework is used in places outside of e-mail as well. Contrast: PKCS7 is based upon PEM (Privacy Enhanced E-mail), RFC 1422. Essentially, PKCS7 is simply a PEM email in raw binary form without the headers/footers attached. S/MIME, a later standard than PEM, is simply a different wrapper around the PKCS7 envelope that conforms to the MIME standards. PKCS #10 - Certification Request Syntax Standard Used by Netscape and Microsoft web browsers, SSL libraries, ANSI X9.30. PKCS #11 - Cryptographic Token Interface Standard Abstract API for smart cards. 
Perl Kanji code conversion Filter Pkf is a perl script and has features as nkf (Network Kanji Filter). This converts from an input code including one of JIS, SJIS, Japanese EUC to a code another assigned one. 
program and autoconf macro to gather compile/link flags pkg-config is a program to get compile and link flags for libraries you're linking with. It requires the library package to install a description file with the needed information. 
pkgconfig is a program which helps you gather information to makelife easier when you are compiling a program for those programs which support it.In fact, it's required to build certain packages. 
The pkgconfig tool determines compilation options. For each required library, it reads the configuration file and outputs the necessary compiler and linker flags. 
Package List Correcter Pkglist is the package list correcter, which help us generating mini Debian. 
Public Key Infrastructure (cryptography, Internet, ITU, PKI) 
PKI (Public Key Infrastructure)
PKI is the next wave of cryptography. Traditional cryptography (since the time of the ancient Greeks) has been based upon the concept of the "shared secret" (such as a password). This was good, but it suffered from the problem of having to communicate that secret among those people who should know it -- anybody who knew the secret could forge messages to anybody else or decrypt messages intended for other people. In 1970, a new technology called "asymmetric" cryptography was discovered in which a pair of keys could be used: one for encryption-only, and the other for decryption-only. The key used to encrypt could not decrypt, and vice versa. This peculiar mathematical property was discovered to be fantastically useful. For example, you can publish one of the keys to everyone in the world, who can then use it to encrypt a message to you that only you can decrypt. For this reason, the technology is better known as public-key cryptography. The technology works in the other direction as well. This means that you could encrypt a message with your private-key and send it out, and everyone with your public-key will know that it could only have come from you, because only you know your private-key. This authenticates that you are who you say you are. These and other properties provide solutions to a wide number of longstanding issues with cryptography. The various uses for public-keys have been bundled together in what is known as a new cryptographic infrastructure: PKI. Key point: PKI consists of: certificates A public and/or private key is stored in a file called a "certificate". It also includes identification information as to who the own of the certificate is, as well as a signature by a CA validating that the data hasn't been forged. Certificate Authorities (CA) Certificates are issued by a Certificate Authority, who usually will sign the certificate as well as provide some revocation facilities. Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) If the private-key is compromised (i.e. inadvertently made public), then the certificate containing that key needs to be "revoked". That essentially means the CA who assigned the certificate posts the certificate on its website. This allows people to publicly check this fact. repositories (e.g. LDAP directories) So that public-keys for people can be found. Uses: PKI (public-keys, certificates, etc.) is used in: S/MIME Secure e-mail. PGP Also secure e-mail. Smart card SSH SSL IPsec 
look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes 
Polizeiliche KriminalStatistik (INPOL) 
PGP Public Key Server Proxy Daemon This package implements a caching proxy to be used between any program which speaks the HKP protocol for PGP public key exchange, and any HKP-capable key server (this will probably be pks). 
PGP Public Key Server Proxy Client pkspxyc is the "smart" client to be used with the PKS proxy server. More generally, it can be used as a HKP client with almost any PGP key server. 
Partition Knowledge Table 
convert packed font files to generic font files 
Converts Metafont fonts into Type1 fonts pktrace is a small Python program that lets you trace a TeX bitmap font (a METAFONT font) into a PFA or PFB font (A PostScript Type1 Scalable Font). It is licensed under the GNU GPL. Type1 fonts offer many advantages over bitmaps, as they allow PostScript files to render correctly on printers with many resolutions. Moreover, Ghostscript can generate much better PDF, if given scalable fonts. 
verify and translate a packed font bitmap file to plain text 
Physical Layer (ISO, OSI) 
Rough tool to translate Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules. 
Program License Agreement (IBM) 
Programmable Logic Array 
plain text
Unencrypted, text-based data stored in a universal format that can be read by most computer systems and applications. 
/playn-as'kee/ Syn. flat-ASCII. 
A message that is not encrypted and therefore easily read. Key point: Depending upon context, plaintext can refer to the contents of a message before encryption, after it has been decrypted, or even a message that is in the "clear" and not encrypted at all. Key point: Many networking protocol protocols use plaintext passwords that can simply be sniffed off the wire. 
Plamo Linux
This looks like a Slackware based distribution. Japanese distribution 
X/Motif day planner (dynamically compiled with LessTif) Plan is a schedule planner based on X/Motif. It displays a month calendar similar to xcal, but every day box is large enough to show appointments in small print. By pressing on a day box, the appointments for that day can be listed and edited. Appointments are entered with the following information (everything except the time is optional): - the date, time, and length of the appointment - an optional text message to be printed, - an optional script to be executed, - early-warn and late-warn triggers that precede the alarm time - repetitions: [n-th] weekdays, days-of-the-month, every n days, yearly - optional fast command-line appointment entry - flexible ways to specify holidays and vacations - extensive context help - multiuser capability using the netplan server, provided by the netplan package 
plan file
n. [Unix] On systems that support finger, the `.plan' file in a user's home directory is displayed when the user is fingered. This feature was originally intended to be used to keep potential fingerers apprised of one's location and near-future plans, but has been turned almost universally to humorous and self-expressive purposes (like a sig block). See also Hacking X for Y. A recent innovation in plan files has been the introduction of "scrolling plan files" which are one-dimensional animations made using only the printable ASCII character set, carriage return and line feed, avoiding terminal specific escape sequences, since the finger command will (for security reasons; see letterbomb) not pass the escape character. Scrolling .plan files have become art forms in miniature, and some sites have started competitions to find who can create the longest running, funniest, and most original animations. Various animation characters include: Centipede: mmmmme Lorry/Truck: oo-oP Andalusian Video Snail: _@/ and a compiler (ASP) is available on Usenet for producing them. See also twirling baton. 
The Emacs Planner This package extends emacs-wiki to act as a day planner. 
Platform is a term usually used to describe operating systems. Typically, people will refer to an IBM compatible DOS environment as a PC platform or a Macintosh System environment as a MAC platform. 
Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations 
A round magnetic plate that makes up part of a hard drive. Hard drives generally have several platters and require a read/write head for each side of the platter. 
MIDI player Playmidi is a MIDI file player that will playback to FM, GUS, and external MIDI. It also supports Creative Music Files (CMF) and Microsoft RIFF (RMI) files and large MIDI archives from games such as Ultima 7. There are 3 interfaces: text only, svgalib, and X. 
Another front-end to mpg123 with theme support Main features: o Displays a large scrollable playlist o Browse playlists, directories and 'virtual playlists', even while playing o Fully configurable key mappings and color schemes in a playmp3listrc file o Real-time toggling of shuffle/repeat modes o Instant jumps to one of 10 configurable directories/playlists o Standard player controls o PCM volume changing o Time elapsed and song format displays o Optional ID3v1 tag extraction in the playlist o Full/short (beautified) filename display in playlist o Command-line options to quickly override rc file settings o Uses mpg123 for decoding 
Picture Level Benchmark (GPC) 
Picture Level Benchmark Sample Implementation (GPC) 
Programmable Logic Controller (IC) 
Plastic Leaded [/ Leadless] Chip Carrier 
Physical Layer Convergence Procedure / Protocol (UNI, DS-3) 
PLD is a Linux distribution made mainly in Poland and by Poles. It has many interesting features. Some of the web site is in English. 
Programmable Logic Device (IC, RL) 
PLD RescueCD
PLD RescueCD is a bootable disk that contains a live Linux distribution based on PLD Linux with a 2.4.20 modular kernel. This version uses transparent compression to fit about 130 MB of software onto a single mini CD 50 MB in usable form. These images are small enough to fit on most business card-sized CD-ROMs (approx. 50MB), but can be burned onto any standard CD-R or CD-RW, as well. PLD RescueCD can be used to rescue ailing machines, perform intrusion post-mortems, act as a temporary secure linux-based workstation (using ssh, vpn connecting to remote host - other networking clients are also supported), install PLD Linux, and perform many other as yet unimagined tasks. Initial version 1.00 was released April 6, 2003. Version 1.01 was released June 17, 2003. 
Private Loop Direct Attach 
Power Line Disturbance Monitor 
PC virtualization program to run x86 operating systems. Plex86 is an extensible free PC virtualization software program which will allow PC and workstation users to run multiple operating systems concurrently on the same machine. Plex86 is able to run several operating systems, including MSDOS, FreeDOS, Windows9x/NT, GNU/Linux, FreeBSD and NetBSD. It will run as much of the operating system and application software natively as possible, the rest being emulated by the PC virtualization monitor. 
kernel code for Plex86 This package includes sources of the Plex86 kernel code. You can use them to build the linux module required to run Plex86. 
Programming Language One (DEC), "PL/I" 
Portability Libraries: Run-time package, stable release Provides a Joystick interface, a simple GUI built on top of OpenGL, some standard geometry functions, a sound library and a simple scene graph API built on top of OpenGL. 
Portability Libraries: Run-time package, unstable release Provides a Joystick interface, a simple GUI built on top of OpenGL, some standard geometry functions, a sound library and a simple scene graph API built on top of OpenGL. 
Parallel Line Internet Protocol (IP), "PL/IP" 
see parallel line Internet protocol (PLIP). 
fine tune PLIP device parameters 
Phase Locked Loop 
Create a SWI-Prolog embedded executable 
Programming Language for Microcomputers 
Public Land Mobile Network (mobile-systems, GSM) 
Program to monitor network device statistics Pload is a program to monitor ppp network device statistics and graphs information using Athena stripchart widgets. It can monitor any device that reports statistics to /proc/net/dev including ethernet, plip, loopback etc. It shows totals and current rates for a given ppp interface and is customizable to show using X resources. 
starts up, shuts down or lists the log of PPP connections 
Please Leave Our Newsgroup, Kid (Usenet, slang) 
A script driven business graphics package Ploticus is script-driven, which makes it suitable for automated, unattended uses, or for applications that will be run again and again. In general, ploticus is good at making graphs like you would see in newspapers and news magazines, business publications, journals for medical and social sciences, and so on. Ploticus is not a function or mathematical plotting package like gnuplot, nor would it be a good choice for applications where mathematical formulas or scientific notations are to be rendered as an integral part of the data display. Ploticus is also not intended as a "marketing" graphics package. Its goal is to display data crisply without extra decoration and distracting "dingbats" that cloud the picture. Ploticus supports awide range of output options, including jpeg (Joint Photographics Experts Group format), png (Portable Network Graphics format) , svg (Simple Vector Graphics), bmp (Microsoft BitMaP), ps (PostScript), and X11. 
multipurpose X11 plotting program. PLOTMTV's capabilities include 2D line and scatter plots (x-vs-y), contour plots, 3D surface, line and scatter plots as well as vector plots. The program has an rough but functional Graphical User Interface, through which it is possible to zoom in, zoom out, pan, toggle between 2D and 3D plots, and rotate 3D plots. Both color and grayscale postscript output are supported. 
The GNU plotutils (plotting utilities) package. The GNU plotting utilities include programs for plotting two-dimensional scientific data. They are built on top of GNU `libplot', a library for device-independent two-dimensional vector graphics. 
Physical Layer Overhead Unit (UNI), "PL-OU" 
Packet Layer Protocol (X.25) 
Party Line Protocol 
Presentation Level Protocol 
Scientific plotting library PLplot is relatively small, portable, freely distributable, and is rich enough to satisfy most users. It has a wide range of plot types including line (linear, log), contour, 3D, fill, and almost 1000 characters (including Greek and mathematical) in its extended font set. The package is designed to make it easy to quickly get graphical output; only a handful of function calls is typically required. For more advanced use, virtually all aspects of plotting are configurable. APIs are provided for C, C++, and Fortran (Tcl/Tk bindings are available in a separate package plplot-tcl). A program for rendering Tektronix vector files is also included in this package. See for more information on PLplot. 
Tcl/Tk support for PLplot, a plotting library This package contains the Tcl/Tk support for PLplot, a scientific plotting library: shared and static libraries, Tcl modules, some programs for interactive use of PLplot (plrender, plserver, and pltcl), and utility programs for converting PLplot meta files (plpr and plm2gif). See for more information on PLplot. 
Access Psion series 5 over a serial link This package lets you access Psion drives over a serial link. You can mount them, pseudo NFS style, or access them via ftp-like commands. The software is partially based on p3nfs, which is also packed for Debian, but plptools uses the native Psion protocol, whereas p3nfs requires a program to be installed on the Psion. 
SWI-Prolog resource archiver 
Personal Library Systems (manufacturer) 
PhysicaL Signaling 
Programmable Logic Sequencer 
Procedure Linkage Table 
convert property list files to TeX font metric (tfm) format 
Pluck stuff from the web and read on your PalmOS device Plucks stuff from the web (or any URL), and encodes them appropriately for viewing on a PalmOS device. Very flexible in the way sites are plucked, e.g. link depth, images etc. Includes the PalmOS viewer program. 
plug and play (PnP)
Legacy hardware communication standard that allows computer systems to automatically configure installed system components without user intervention or manual configuration. 
A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape. browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop. also uses plug-ins. 
pluggable authentication modules (PAM)
Method that allows a system administrator to set access and authentication policies without having to separately recompile individual programs for such features. 
IRC proxy, stationing, logging, and bot program (pirc). plum works as personal proxy, stationing, logging, and bot program on IRC (Internet Relay Chat). It has many modules, so the user can use a lot of functions. It is also easy to customize its configurations. Note that its documents are only available in Japanese. 
PlumpOS is a CD-based mini-openMosix/Linux distribution. Pop the CD into a 586+ computer and you have an instant openMosix node. It supports loading 3rd-party packages and adding custom kernels. It was originally a clone of Clump/os, but it turned into a complete rewrite. Version 6.9 RC1 was released March 27, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Presentation Level Video (DVI, Intel) 
Window Manager Library for Python A window manager library for Python, with an example window manager. 
Performance Management 
Peripheral Module 
Personal Message (BBS) 
Physical Medium 
Presentation Manager (OS/2) 
Privileged Mode (HP, MPE) 
Protected Mode (Intel, CPU) 
Polytechnique Montreal Modula-3 The Modula-3 distribution of Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal is based on the DEC SRC Modula-3 programming environment. Modula-3 is a systems programming language that descends from Mesa, Modula-2, Cedar, and Modula-2+. It also resembles its cousins Object Pascal, Oberon, and Euclid. The goal of Modula-3 is to be as simple and safe as it can be while meeting the needs of modern systems programmers. Instead of exploring new features, they studied the features of the Modula family of languages that have proven themselves in practice and tried to simplify them into a harmonious language. They found that most of the successful features were aimed at one of two main goals: greater robustness, and a simpler, more systematic type system. Modula-3 retains one of Modula-2's most successful features, the provision for explicit interfaces between modules. It adds objects and classes, exception handling, garbage collection, lightweight processes (or threads), and the isolation of unsafe features. A large number of platform independent libraries are available for easily constructing distributed, graphical, multi-threaded applications. 
Physical Medium Attachment 
Policy Management Architecture (Netmanage, Internet) 
Program Memory Area (CD) 
Packet Media Access Control (FDDI), "P-MAC" 
Peripheral Module Access Controller 
4.4BSD make (pmake). Pmake is a program designed to simplify the maintenance of other programs. Its input is a list of specifications as to the files upon which programs and other files depend. mkdep, a program to construct Makefile dependency lists, is also included. 
print a list of all registered RPC programs 
library routines for remote procedure calls 
set the list of registered RPC programs 
PIM Multicast Border Router (PIM, Multicast) 
Pseudo-Machine Code 
Physical layer, Medium Dependant [sub-layer] (FDDI, UNI) 
Page Mode Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC), "PM-DRAM" 
Pattern Matching Engine 
a command line midi player for ALSA ALSA is an effort to create a modules sound system for Linux, while maintaining full compatibility with OSS/Lite. This is a straightforward command line program to play midi files through the ALSA sequencer. As you can specify the client and port to connect to on the command line it is also useful for testing ALSA or clients that need to receive sequencer events. 
A command line midi player for ALSA 0.9 series ALSA is an effort to create a modules sound system for Linux, while maintaining full compatibility with OSS/Lite. This program works with ALSA drivers version 0.9 series. This is a straightforward command line program to play midi files through the ALSA sequencer. As you can specify the client and port to connect to on the command line it is also useful for testing ALSA or clients that need to receive sequencer events. 
Pardon Me for Jumping In (slang) 
Paged Memory Management Unit 
Positive-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Point to MultiPoint (UNI) 
Preventive Maintenance Package (AIX, IBM) 
Poor Man's Routing 
Problem Management Report (IBM) 
An MUA framework in Python PythonMS (PMS) is an MUA framework in Python, with pluggable back-end and front ends. Supported front ends are CLOOM, pms and pythonms 
Personal Mailing System 
Processor Memory Switch 
Project Management System 
Public Message System 
Preliminary Message Security Protocol 
Perl module tools Perl module tools is a suite of small tools that help manage and inspect perl modules, perl Plain Old Documentation files, and perl programs. Some of the things these tools can do include: - show the full path to a module - show the version and description of a module - list all installed modules with descriptions - show what files a given program or module loads at compile time - show what symbols a module exports - list the methods of a class - display the source code of a function of a module 
PowerMeter Unit 
Project Manager Workbench 
A Preprocessor for MusiXTeX PMX is a preprocessor for MusiXTeX that produces near-publication quality scores and parts with far less effort than would be required using MusiXTeX alone. Among the new features are several that facilitate detailed editing, for example fine-tuning positions of dots, ornaments, and xtuplet numbers. It now also generates MIDI output! Author: Don Simons <> URL: 
Packet MultipleXer (MUX) 
Presentation Manager for the X window system, "PM/X" 
Portable Network Graphics [format] (RFC 2083) 
PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
PNG is a graphics format specifically designed for use on the World Wide Web. PNG enable compression of images without any loss of quality, including high-resolution images. Another important feature of PNG is that anyone may create software that works with PNG images without paying any fees - the PNG standard is free of any licensing costs. 
An optimizer for PNG (Portable Network Graphics) files. Pngcrush is an optimizer for PNG (Portable Network Graphics) files. Its main purpose is to reduce the size of the PNG IDAT datastream by trying various compression levels and PNG filter methods. It also can be used to remove unwanted ancillary chunks, or to add certain chunks including gAMA, tRNS, and textual chunks. 
Pnm2ppa is a color driver for HP PPA host-based printers such as the HP710C, 712C, 720C, 722C, 820Cse, 820Cxi, 1000Cse, and 1000Cxi. Pnm2ppa accepts Ghostscript output in PPM format and sends it to the printer in PPA format. 
PPM to PPA converter Using pnm2ppa it's possible to run HP-GDI printers on Linux. These printers are normally "Windows-only" and use the PPA protocol which is proprietary. pnm2ppa supports color and is supposed to work faster than pbm2ppa. pnm2ppa supports the following printers: HP Deskjet 7XX Series, HP Deskjet 820 Series and HP Deskjet 1000 Series. 
Private Network to Network Interface (ATM), "P-NNI" 
[phase 0] Public Network Node Interface [protocol] (ATM) 
Plug 'N Play (PNP), "PnP" 
Plug and Play Basic Input Output System (PNP, BIOS), "PnP BIOS" 
Positive Negative Positive Negative [devices] 
PeaceNet Sweden (network) 
Multi threaded port scanner. Pnscan is a multi threaded port scanner that can scan a large network very quickly. If does not have all the features that nmap have but is much faster. 
Personal NetWare (Novell, Netware) 
Tool collection for handling PO files PO utilities is meant to become a collection of tools for handling PO files. Currently it contains just the xpot utility, which is a replacement for xgettext that can not only handle C and C++ source code, but also Python. 
PC-On-A-Chip (PC) 
Proof of Concept 
Developed by Transvirtual Technologies, PocketLinux 1.0 was released January 18, 2001. Handhelds/PDA based distribution. 
Post Office Code Standard Advisory Group (org., SMS) 
Plain Old Document [format] 
Print / Publishing On Demand, "PoD" 
convert .pod files to .html files 
convert pod documentation to latex format 
Convert POD data to formatted *roff input 
Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text 
print usage messages from embedded pod docs in files 
Piloting of ODA (ESPRIT, SNI, Bull, TITN, ICL, Olivetti, ODA) 
Priority Orientated Demand Assignment (MAC, TDM) 
check the syntax of POD format documentation files 
print selected sections of pod documentation on standard output 
PowerOpen Association (Apple, IBM, Motorola, ..., org.) 
Cross-platform gettext catalog editor Generator for po to mo. It is built with wxWindows toolkit and can run on Unix or Windows. It aims to provide convenient way of editing gettext catalogs. It features UTF-8 support, fuzzy and untranslated records highlighting, whitespace highlighting, references browser, header editing and can be used to create new catalogs or update existing catalogs from source code with a single click. 
Portable Object-orientated Entity Manager (SGML) 
Platinum Open Enterprise Management System 
Primary Operand Execution Pipeline (Motorola, CPU), "pOEP" 
Plastic Optical Fiber (OWG) 
starts up, shuts down or lists the log of PPP connections 
Programmer-Oriented Graphics Operation 
Path OverHead (SONET) 
Path Overhead Indicator (SONET) 
Point Of Information 
Point Of Interaction (IN) 
point-to-point protocol (PPP)
Successor to the serial line internet protocol (SLIP) protocol for computer system connectivity to TCP/IP networks. Commonly used in connecting to the Internet via dial-up modem. 
Internationalization utilities, based on gettext pointerize is a set of tools used to generate message catalogs from a set of specially formated C source files. Those message catalogs are loaded at run-time, making it possible to have one binary that displays messages in several languages. It's based on gettext, but it makes smaller binary message catalogs (a must when one is making internationalized boot floppies). The programmer may use his gettexttified C source files just applying one small change to the main() function. The translator will work with the well known PO format. 
Problem / Procedure / Process Oriented Language 
policy independence
A characterstic of the X window system in which windows can look and act any way the software developers want. This idea is the converse of the idea that, if all the windows on your screen look and act in a similar way, they will be easier for you to use. 
Passive Optical Network 
starts up, shuts down or lists the log of PPP connections 
Preference/Property dialogs maker for GNOME PonG is a library for making preference/property dialogs. By default it does very simple dialog layout, however you can also use glade to design parts of the dialogs. This package contains the dialog editor. 
Parallel Object Orientated Language (DOOM, OOP) 
display a WEB pool file 
/pop/ [from the operation that removes the top of a stack, and the fact that procedure return addresses are usually saved on the stack] (also capitalized `POP') 1. vt. To remove something from a stack or PDL. If a person says he/she has popped something from his stack, that means he/she has finally finished working on it and can now remove it from the list of things hanging overhead. 2. When a discussion gets to a level of detail so deep that the main point of the discussion is being lost, someone will shout "Pop!", meaning "Get back up to a higher level!" The shout is frequently accompanied by an upthrust arm with a finger pointing to the ceiling. 3. [all-caps, as `POP'] Point of Presence, a bank of dial-in lines allowing customers to make (local) calls into an ISP. This is borderline techspeak. 
Package for Online Programming 
Point Of Presence (Internet, ISP) 
see post office protocol (POP). 
POP (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol)
Two commonly used meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to a way that e-mail client software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain an account from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail. Another protocol called IMAP is replacing POP for email. 
POP (Post Office Protocol)
An Internet electronic mail standard that specifies how an Internet-connected computer can function as a mail-handling agent. Messages arrive at a user's electronic mailbox, which is housed on the service provider's comuter. From this central storage point, you can access your mail from different computers - a networked workstation in the office as well as a PC at home. In either case, a POP-compatible electronic mail program, which runs on your workstation or PC, establishes a connection with the POP server, and detects that new mail has arrived. You can then download the mail to the workstation or computer, and reply to it, print it, or store it, as you prefer. 
watch log for pop/imap auth, notify Postfix to allow relay Spam prevention requires preventing open relaying through email servers. However, legitimate users want to be able to relay. If legitimate users always stayed in one spot, they'd be easy to describe to the daemon. However, what with roving laptops, logins from home, etc., legitimate users refuse to stay in one spot. pop-before-smtp watches the mail log, looking for successful pop/imap logins, and posts the originating IP address into a database which can be checked by Postfix, to allow relaying for people who have recently downloaded their email. Contrary to other similar tools pop-before-smtp needs no hacking in the mail daemons. On the other hand it requires the pop3/imap daemons to run on the same machine as pop-before-smtp and postfix. 
Post Office Protocol 3 (Internet, RFC 1939) 
POP3 (Post Office Protocol v3)
This is the most popular protocol for picking up e-mail from a server. The e-mail client program will open a connection to port 110 on the server, then pull down each e-mail message from the server. Key point: Since e-mail is one of the most popular services on the Internet, there are a huge number of different implementations of POP3 services. 
Allows to check a pop3 mailbox before downloading any mail. It is intended to delete unwanted (SPAM) mails before downloading via a low-bandwidth connection. 
A tiny POP3 daemon, designed with security as the primary goal popa3d is fast, small and secure pop3 daemon. It's written from scratch by Solar Designer for OWL (Openwall Gnu/*/Linux). Popa3d can work both in standalone or inetd mode. For more information see DESIGN file. 
- manipulate POP authorization DB 
Small tool to view and delete messages on a pop3-server. Using this tool one can view sender, subject and size of messages and delete messages from a pop3-server without downloading them. It has nearly the same functionality as pop3browser, but with a ncurses gui. 
A program used to remotely read e-mail across a network, often used in conjunction with SLIP. The most commonly used version, Pop3, is described in RFC number 1081. 
Password change server for Eudora and NUPOP This package provides a daemon for changing passwords on POP mail accounts, a feature common to Eudora and other MacOS/Win32 mail user agents. This feature is also commonly used for TCP loopback password changing from web scripting languages like PHP or Perl, so that the webserver process doesn't need to be run as root (on in the shadow group). This version of poppassd changes passwords via PAM (as opposed to other versions of the same daemon that used the newusers(8) application to change passwords), allowing for great flexibility. 
Popt is a C library for parsing command line parameters. Popt was heavily influenced by the getopt() and getopt_long() functions, but it improves on them by allowing more powerful argument expansion. Poptcan parse arbitrary argv[] style arrays and automatically set variables based on command line arguments. Popt allows command line arguments to be aliased via configuration files and includes utility functions for parsing arbitrary strings into argv[] arrays using shell-like rules. 
Vote for your favourite packages automatically. When you install this package, it sets up a cron job that will anonymously e-mail the Debian developers periodically with statistics about your most used Debian packages. This information helps us make decisions such as which packages should go on the first Debian CD. Also, we can improve future versions of Debian so that the most popular packages are the ones which are installed automatically for new users. 
Point Of Return (IN) 
Power-On Reset (BIOS) 
1. A socket used to connect external peripherals such as keyboards, pointing devices, scanners, and printers to computer systems. 2. In a communications network, a logical channel which identifies a communications protocol, such as port 23 for Secure Shell (SSH) connections.
3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected. 
In TCP/IP, a port is an extension of an Internet address that tells which program is to receive the data. In other words, if I send data to, port 110, then I'm talking to the POP3 e-mail service. However, if I send something to port 80 on the same machine, then I'm talking to the web server on that machine. Key point: I can have two URLs that look like and These two URLs access different web server programs running on the same machine, one at port 80 and that other at port 90. Misconception: Many people believe that the port correctly identifies the protocol that runs on that port. For example, the port 110 has been assigned to the POP3 e-mail service. However, even though this is the correct port for the protocol, somebody could put a different service on this port, such as HTTP. In this example, I could then supply URLs that looked like 
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form: gopher:// This shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70). Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh. 
On the Internet, port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server. 
port forwarding
To route all inbound traffic on a particular source port to one host on a network. Port forwarding is commonly implemented by a firewall. 
port scan
In hacker reconnaissance, a port scan attempts to connect to all 65536 ports on a machine in order to see if anybody is listening on those ports. Contrast: A stealth scan attempts to evade detection. The most common kind is a TCP half-open scan which fails to complete the three-way handshake. This prevents the application listening on a port from being notified that a connection attempt has taken place, so it won't log that fact. Most "stealth" scans attempt to evade logging on the host, but this makes more distinctive signatures that intrusion detection systems can detect. Key point: Ports scans are not illegal in many places, those laws have yet to be written on the subject. The Norwegian Supreme court ruled that they are not illegal because they don't actually compromise the system. There is also the technical problem that they can easily be spoofed, so it is hard to prove guilt. There is even the third problem that virtually any machine on the Internet can be tickled into scanning somebody else; the hacker doesn't break into that third party, but triggers special conditions that causes the effect of a port scan. Controversy: Many people think that port scanning is an overt hostile act and should be made illegal. Contrast: Full port scans of all 65536 ports are rarely seen, especially since they are so obvious. Instead, hackers will strobe for just the ports he/she is interested in. These strobes are for typically fewer than 10 ports. Also, the hacker will often sweep thousands (or millions) of machines rather than a single machine looking for any system that might be vulnerable. Tool: The best tool for doing port scans is nmap from 
The process of taking a program written for one operating system platform and modifying it to run on another OS with similar functionality. There is generally little or no attempt to customize the program to take advantage of the unique capabilities of the new operating system, as opposed to optimizing an application for a specific operating system. 
A term referring to software that is designed to be use on more than one operating system with only minor modifications and recompilation. 
Pertaining to software that can be ported, or modified to run in another environment. Linux is an example of a portable system. Because all the programming that is hardware-specific is restricted to the kernel, a programmer can port Linux to a new computer system by changing only the kernel. 
portable document format (PDF)
A file format for rendering document objects (including text) as images, making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on a recipient's monitor or printer as they are intended. 
Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to the Web. 
DARPA port to RPC program number mapper 
The portmapper program is a security tool that prevents theft of NIS(YP), NFS, and other sensitive information via the portmapper. A portmapper manages RPC connections, which are used by protocols like NFS and NIS. The portmap package should be installed on any machine which acts as a server for protocols using RPC. 
The RPC portmapper Portmap is a server that converts RPC (Remote Procedure Call) program numbers into DARPA protocol port numbers. It must be running in order to make RPC calls. Services that use RPC include NFS and NIS. 
portmapper (rpcbind, portmap)
In the UNIX RPC protocol suite, portmapper is responsible for locating which port number a particular RPC-based service is using. RPC programs are assigned a well-known "RPC program number" rather than well-known ports. In the RPC suite, the only program that is assigned a "well-known" port is the portmapper service at port 111. All the rest obtain a randomly assigned port number when they start up, then tell portmapper which port they are using. For example, the rpc.mountd RPC program is assigned the well-known program number of 100005. When it starts up, it might obtain the port number like 635. It then registers with the local portmapper (on the same machine) and gives it the [100005,635] combination. When a client program whishes to contact rpc.mountd, it first contacts portmapper and asks "where is program 1000005?". Portmapper replies with the current port, at which point the client program proceeds to talk with rpc.mountd on the correct port. Key point: In theory, you must have access to port 111 on the target machine in order to reach any RPC service. Therefore, some firewall administrators block access to port 111 on the mistaken belief that this will protect them. This belief is wrong because while it prevents an intruder from easily finding the target RPC services, they can still hunt for them. Using nmap, an intruder can first do a port scan to find open ports, then use the "NULL proc grinding" feature of nmap to figure out which RPC is listening on that port. Also, sometimes Sun puts another portmapper at a high port (like 32773) 
Terminal server that does PPP and authenticates via RADIUS This package provides a program named portslave which will use AT commands to answer a modem when it rings. It will then display a login: prompt at which the user can enter a user-name and password. If the user sends PPP data then portslave will run it's own pppd instead and authenticate the user via PAP. When the user-name and password are received they will be verified via a RADIUS server. At the end of the call the accounting data will be written to the RADIUS server. 

Piece of S*** 
Primary Operating System (OS, RCA Spectra 70) 
Professional Operating System (OS, DEC), "P/OS" 
Programmable Object Select 
Palm Operating System Emulator (Palm) 
PalmOS Emulator An emulator for Palm Computing organizers. Requires a ROM file, which can be transferred from a physical Palm device, or downloaded from Palm's website (if you sign a license agreement). 
Promoting conference for OSI (Japan, org., conference) 
Portable Operating System for unIX (OS, IEEE 1003, ISO 9945, PASC, Unix) 
Portable Operating System Interface: a suite of applications program interface standards to provide for the portability of source code applications where operating systems services are required. POSIX is based on the UNIX (tm adminstrated by X/Open) Operating System, and is the basis for the X/Open specifications of The Open Group. 
POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX)
A set of programming interface standards governing how to write application source code so that the applications are portable between operating systems. POSIX is based on UNIX and is the basis for the X/Open specification of The Open Group. 
Power-On Self-Test 
POST (Power-On Self-Test)
Internal testing performed when you start or reset your computer. Encoded in read-only memory (ROM) the POST program first checks the microprocessor by having it perform a few simple operations. Then it reads the CMOS ROM, which stores the amount of memory and type of disk drives in your system. Next, the POST writes, then reads, various data patterns to each byte of memory (you can watch the bytes count off on-screen and often end the test with a keystroke); Finally, the POST communicates with every device; you see the keyboard and drive lights flash and the printer resets, for example. The BIOS continues with hardware testing, then looks in drive A for an operating system if drive A isn't found, it looks in drive C. See basic input/output system (BIOS) and boot sector. 
post office protocol (POP)
Network protocol used to retrieve email from a mail server. Clients that connect to a POP mail server must download and store all of their incoming email messages on the local system. 
emacs major mode for editing mail This is an emacs major mode for use in conjunction with mutt, the spiffy *nix mailreader du jour (see, or slrn, the spiffy *nix newsreader du jour (see, or any other mailreader or newsreader that supports an external editor. 
Post periodic FAQs to Usenet newsgroups. The purpose of this package is to handle the posting of periodic informational postings to the USENET using cron. For this it adds appropriate Message-ID, Expires, Supersedes, and References headers. 
In information security terms, a method of data analysis and investigation performed after an intrusion has already occurred. 
Web Based Protocol Independent(IMAP, POP3) Mail Program Postaci can handle both protools and the defaul protocol can be changed from a single configuration file. Postaci is platform independent. It can work on any operating system which PHP supports. Postaci is also database independent. It can handle with MySQL, mSQL, Microsoft SQL, Sybase,PostgreSQL. It uses very complicated database operations for handling with POP3 folder simulation. Postaci is Turkish word for Postman. 
SMTP benchmark - the mad postman. This program starts a specified number of processes to send as much random data to random accounts as possible. Adds the X-Postal header to email it sends, so if someone uses it unethically then it will be easy to filter via procmail. 
make big posters out of PostScript pages Poster takes a one-page PostScript file and scales it to a specified size. It can tile the resulting image into multiple smaller pages that can be pasted together to form the big poster. Poster prefers EPS as its input although freer forms of PostScript are also understood. 
A high-performance mail transport agent Postfix is Wietse Venema's mail transport agent that started life as an alternative to the widely-used Sendmail program. Postfix attempts to be fast, easy to administer, and secure, while at the same time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users. Thus, the outside has a sendmail-ish flavor, but the inside is completely different. This package does not have SASL support. For SASL support, install postfix-tls. 
Postfix is a Mail Transport Agent (MTA), supporting LDAP, SMTP AUTH (SASL), TLS and running in a chroot environment. Postfix is Wietse Venema's mailer that started life as an alternative to the widely-used Sendmail program. Postfix attempts to be fast, easy to administer, and secure, while at the same time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users. Thus, the outside has a sendmail-ish flavor, but the inside is completely different. This software was formerly known as VMailer. It was released by the end of 1998 as the IBM Secure Mailer. From then on it has lived on as Postfix. This rpm supports LDAP, SMTP AUTH (trough cyrus-sasl) and TLS. If you need MySQL too, rebuild the srpm --with mysql. 
A free SQL server run under the BSD license. 
Object-relational SQL database, descended from POSTGRES. PostgreSQL is an object-relational database, which supports a large part of SQL-92. It is under continuous development and each release implements more of the SQL standard, to the extent that it is now probably more compliant than many commercial databases. It also supports some object-oriented features. As compared to MySQL, PostgreSQL is more fully featured - most importantly, PostgreSQL supports transactions on all tables, something which is essential to multi-user update of a database and referential integrity, which, equally, is essential to a reliable database. The trade-off is that it can be slower, though again, each release sees improvements in efficiency. For more information, see <>. This package provides the backend features; you need postgresql-client or some other front-end to be able to access them. A package providing ident-server is needed if you want to authenticate remote connections with identd. 
PostgreSQL is an advanced Object-Relational database management system (DBMS) that supports almost all SQL constructs (including transactions, subselects and user-defined types and functions). The postgresql package includes the client programs and libraries that you'll need to access a PostgreSQL DBMS server. These PostgreSQLclient programs are programs that directly manipulate the internal structure of PostgreSQL databases on a PostgreSQL server. These client programs can be located on the same machine with the PostgreSQL server, or may be on a remote machine which accesses a PostgreSQLserver over a network connection. This package contains the client libraries for C and C++, as well as command-line utilities for managing PostgreSQL databases on a PostgreSQL server. If you want to manipulate a PostgreSQL database on a remote PostgreSQL server, you need this package. You also need to install this package if you're installing the postgresql-server package. 
An X Mail User Agent which handles MIME, PGP and Spelling. It is mainly written in C but the user interface is done in tcl/tk. The following is a non exhaustive list of the capabilities: * Multilingual Interface * MIME Support * Composing * Multiple Address Books * Message Database * Virtual Folders * Message Hold * Watcher * Spell Checking "As One Types" * POP3 and IMAP Folders * Supports Delivery Status Notifications * Supports PGP/MIME 
A single message entered into a network communications system. 
A program sending news Sending news from your local inn newsserver to another host 
File system benchmark from NetApp. Benchmark that's based around small file operations similar to those used on large mail servers and news servers. Has been ported to NT so should be good for comparing OSs. 
n. The email contact and maintenance person at a site connected to the Internet or UUCPNET. Often, but not always, the same as the admin. The Internet standard for electronic mail (RFC-822) requires each machine to have a `postmaster' address; usually it is aliased to this person. 
Post Usenet articles via NNTP from the command line Postnews is a small command line utility written in Python that posts Usenet articles onto remote servers. 
A page description language developed by Adobe Systems that tells a printer how to display text or graphics on a printed page. 
A Page Description Language that gets its leverage by using a full programming language, rather than a series of low-level escape sequences, to describe an image to be printed on a laser printer or other output device (in this it parallels EMACS, which exploited a similar insight about editing tasks). It is also noteworthy for implementing on-the fly rasterization, from Bezier curve descriptions, of high-quality fonts at low (e.g. 300 dpi) resolution. 
A sophisticated page description language (PDL) that's used for high-quality printing on laser printers and other high-resolution printing devices. Though Postscript is a programming language adn you can learn to write page descriptions in it, Postscript is usually invisible and automatic. Programs generate Postscript code that goes to the printer, where a Postscript interpreter follows the coded instructions to generate an image of the page precisely according to there instructions. A major benefit of Postscript is its device independence; you can print the Postscript code generated by an application on any printer with a Postscript interpreter. You can take Postscript files generated on your PC to a service bureaus which can print the document using expensive typesetting machines with resolutions of up to 2,400 dots per inch (dpi). See Postscript font, and Postscript printer. 
n. A Page Description Language (PDL), based on work originally done by John Gaffney at Evans and Sutherland in 1976, evolving through `JaM' (`John and Martin', Martin Newell) at XEROX PARC, and finally implemented in its current form by John Warnock et al. after he and Chuck Geschke founded Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1982. PostScript gets its leverage by using a full programming language, rather than a series of low-level escape sequences, to describe an image to be printed on a laser printer or other output device (in this it parallels EMACS, which exploited a similar insight about editing tasks). It is also noteworthy for implementing on-the fly rasterization, from Bezier curve descriptions, of high-quality fonts at low (e.g. 300 dpi) resolution (it was formerly believed that hand-tuned bitmap fonts were required for this task). Hackers consider PostScript to be among the most elegant hacks of all time, and the combination of technical merits and widespread availability has made PostScript the language of choice for graphical output. 
PostScript (PS)
A standardized document rendering computer language that treats document text, images, and borders as objects. Most printers can output PS documents, and most desktop publishing applications can render PS files. 
PostScript Fonts
A wide variety of fonts that can be used with OS/2, MS Windows and the X Window System. Font files include those with .afm, .pfa and .pfb extensions. Sometimes called Adobe Type 1 fonts, or ATM (Adobe Type Manager) fonts. PostScript fonts typically require a PostScript-compatible printer. (Also, see BDF Fonts and TrueType Fonts.) 
PrOgramming SYstem for distriButed appLications 
A program to aid manipulation of gettext po files This package contains the filter program 'potool', as well as a few helper scripts: poedit - helps editing of po files in your favourite editor postats, postats1 - prints statistics of how much of a file is translated 
Plain Old Telephone System (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Persistence of Vision (raytracing) 
Power Optimization With Enhanced RISC [chip] (IBM, Apple, Motorola) 
GNOME battery monitor applet GNOME panel applet to read /proc/apm. It has theming (evil) and does nifty stuff like animations when low on power (because when you're low on power, you want to waste cpu cycles on animation). 
A vertical shoot 'em up for X11 with colourful 3D graphics. Powermanga is a shoot 'em up with 60 different enemies, 40 meteors, numerous weapons, many end of level baddies, spaceship power-ups and lots of other surprises. 
stop the system. 
powerful terminal emulator for GNOME PowerShell is a GNOME/GTK+ based terminal emulator which supports many terminals in a single window (limited only by available RAM). Each terminal is given a "notebook" tab which makes switching between terminals easy. It also has URL recognition capabilities and things like transparency, pixmap backgrounds, etc. 
Tool to tune system for optimal performance Powertweak is a tool for tweaking Linux systems to peak performance. It tunes PCI devices to use optimal settings and enables performance enhancing features of the CPU(s). This package contains no files. It does only ensure that you install the following packages: powertweakd, powertweak-extra, powertweak-text, powertweak-gtk 
Tool to tune system for optimal performance Powertweak is a tool for tweaking Linux systems to peak performance. It tunes PCI devices to use optimal settings and enables performance enhancing features of the CPU(s). To use all of powertweak's features you need to be running a Linux kernel which supports the /proc/bus/pci and /dev/cpu/<n> interfaces. This package contains the daemon that needs to be run to do the actual tuning. You need either powertweak-text or powertweak-gtk to choose which tweaks you want to perform on your system in addition to this package. The package powertweak-extra contains some additional tweaking plugins. 
Configurable UPS monitoring daemon Assuming you have a relay-based "dumb" UPS that corresponds with your machine via a serial connection, you should be able to configure powstatd in just a few minutes. It is easily configured, and can be expected to support most "dumb" UPS supplies. UPS models known to work: CyberPower PowerSL series CyberPower Power2000 1500VA CyberPower Power99 325VA, 400VA, 500VA and 720VA Some older CyberPower 385VA and 450VA models TrippLite Internet Office 500 UPS Various older APC units. Powstatd can also be configured to allow a master machine to control (Via a network connection) up to 2 (by default) additional slave machines connected to the same UPS. This allows you to run several machines off the same UPS, with only one of the machines actually reading the UPS status over the serial line. See also powstatd-crypt in the non-us section. 
Configurable UPS monitoring daemon Assuming you have a relay-based "dumb" UPS that corresponds with your machine via a serial connection, you should be able to configure powstatd in just a few minutes. It is easily configured, and can be expected to support most "dumb" UPS supplies. UPS models known to work: CyberPower PowerSL series CyberPower Power2000 1500VA CyberPower Power99 325VA, 400VA, 500VA and 720VA Some older CyberPower 385VA and 450VA models TrippLite Internet Office 500 UPS Various older APC units. Powstatd can also be configured to allow a master machine to control (Via a network connection) up to 2 (by default) additional slave machines connected to the same UPS. This allows you to run several machines off the same UPS, with only one of the machines actually reading the UPS status over the serial line. This version of powstatd uses secure cryptography to communicate between master and slave(s). See the powstatd package for a version that does not encrypt communications. 
tools for using PO-files to translate DocBook XML files This is a collection of tools that facilitate translating DocBook XML files using gettext message files (PO-files). Also included are some miscellaneous command-line utilities for manipulating DocBook XML files and PO-files. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
Physical Partition (LVM) 
Physical Plane (IN) 
Parallel Port Adapter 
PowerPC (Apple) 
Program to Program Communication (Apple) 
Postscript Printer Description specification. Adobe's spec of a standard virtual printer. 
filter that inserts printer specific commands into print jobs ppdfilt is a filter program designed to be used within a filter script or from the command line tool to insert printer specific commands to a PostScript print job. This can be used to tell the printer to duplex or staple the print job, or tell it what paper tray to draw paper from. In the GNULpr printing environment, users do not call ppdfilt directly, but its features are accessed by using 'lpr' or 'gpr' (see) 
Personal Printer Data Stream 
Presentation Protocol Data Unit (PDU, OSI, ISO 8823, OSI/RM) 
Packet Processing Engine (Hub) 
Plastic Pin Grid Array (CPU) 
Parallel Port Interface 
Pixels Per Inch 
Programmable Peripheral Interface 
Parent Process IDentification number (Unix) 
The process ID of the shell's parent. 
the processes Parent PID, the creator of the process. 
Pcboard Programming Language (BBS) 
Polymorphic Programming Language (Harvard, Xerox, PARC) 
Pages Per Minute 
Pulse Position Modulation (MMVF) 
PCI bus Power Management Interface (PCI) 
Professional Productivity Management System 
Display netpbm graphics on Linux framebuffer devices The ppmtofb package supports displaying netpbm-format graphics (PBM, PGM and PPM) on Linux systems with framebuffer devices (available with 2.1 kernels on all platforms and 2.0 kernels on m68k). With the included fbview program, you can display virtually any picture format on any framebuffer. ppmtofb supports virtually all framebuffer devices, including vesafb and the VGA16 framebuffer for PCs. On Amigas it can take advantage of the Hold and Modify (HAM) modes for virtual truecolor display on both standard and AGA systems. Home Page: 
Project Programmer Number 
Public Packet Switching 
Plain Paper Optimized Printing (Canon), "P-POP" 
An acronym for Point-to-Point-Protocol, an advanced serial packet protocol similar to SLIP. 
Point-to-Point Protocol (Internet, PPP, RFC 1171/1661) 
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) daemon. The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard way to transmit datagrams over a serial link, as well as a standard way for the machines at either end of the link (the "peers") to negotiate various optional characteristics of the link. Using PPP, a serial link can be used to transmit Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams, allowing TCP/IP connections between the peers. This package contains pppd with PAM support built-in, so `ppp-pam' package is obsolete. 
see point-to-point protocol (PPP). 
The ppp package contains the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) daemon and documentation for PPP support. The PPP protocol provides a method for transmitting datagrams over serial point-to-point links. PPP isusually used to dial in to an ISP (Internet Service Provider) or other organization over a modem and phone line. 
PPP (Point of Presence)
Actual site of an ISP or other service. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
One of the two standards for directly connecting computers to the Internet via dialup telephone connections (the other is SLIP). Unlike the older SLIP protocol, PPP incorporates superior data negotiation, compression, and error correction. However, these features add overhead to data and transmission, and are unnecessary when both the sending and receiving modems offer hardware error correction and on-the-fly data compression. See Serial Linux Internet Protocol (SLIP). 
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
The most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over regular phone lines. Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IPconnections and thus be really and truly on the Internet. 
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
The standard protocol for connection via a modem to an ISP. The term "point-to-point" is used to contrast this technology with preceding techniques that where based upon "multi-point" communication. For example, the popular Ethernet technology is used to connect many computers together in a single local network. Key point: Sniffing PPP dial-up connections is very hard and is virtually never done. 
PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
This provides fairly high speed direct Internet connectivity using a modem. Unlike earlier modem connection methods (which many people still use) PPP is not limited by the software that exists on the host computer. With PPP, all client software (such as Netscape) runs on the local computer. 
A text menu based utility for configuring ppp. It provides extensive explanations at each step. pppconfig supports PAP, CHAP, and chat methods of authentication. It uses the standard ppp configuration files and sets ppp up so that the standard pon and poff commands can be used to control ppp. Some features supported by pppconfig are: - Multiple ISPs with separate nameservers. - Modem detection. - Dynamic DNS. - Dial on demand. 
configure pppd 
Point to Point Protocol daemon 
Point-to-Point Protocol Deamon (PPP) 
plugin for pppd to communicate with CAPI-capable ISDN cards Some ISDN cards (notably the AVM passive cards, when a module from the AVM website is loaded) can be used by CAPI utilities. This is a plugin for the regular PPP daemon to use CAPI on such cards. See /usr/share/doc/pppdcapiplugin/* for some (rudimentary) info. 
convert PPP record file to readable format 
A technique for the encapsulation of PPP streams inside of Ethernet frames. This technology is being deployed by high-speed Internet access providers (cable modems, xDSL, etc.) in order to decouple the supply of bandwidth from ISP services. 
Point-to-Point Protocol Over Ethernet [protocol] (ADSL, RFC 2516), "PPPoE" 
PPP over Ethernet driver PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a protocol used by many ADSL Internet service providers. This package allows you to connect to those PPPoE service providers. 
user-space PPPoE client. 
user-space PPPoE relay agent. 
user-space PPPoE server 
examine network for non-standard PPPoE frames 
configures a PPPoE (ADSL) connection 
configures PPPoE/ADSL Userfriendly tool for initial configuration of a DSL (PPPoE) connection. 
print PPP statistics 
console-based PPP status monitor PPPstatus is a console-based utility for displaying the status of a PPP link, including connection verification, connecting time, costs calculation, top speed, e-mail check, ip address, graphical statistics, TX and RX leds, interface selection, and more. It even supports xDSL with pppoe. 
Packets Per Second 
Parallel Processing System 
ProduktionsPlanung und -Steuerung 
Public Packet Switching [network] 
Public Packet-Switched Network 
Personal Printer Spooling Utility 
A program for converting Microsoft Power Point Files .ppt The ppthtml program will take a PowerPoint 97/95 file as input and convert it to html. The output is via standard out so it can be re-directed to files or piped to filters or used as a gateway to the internet. 
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (MS, Ascend, IP) 
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol - a networking technology that allows the use of the Internet as a secure virtual private network (VPN). 
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Client Client for the proprietary Microsoft Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, PPTP. Allows connection to a PPTP based VPN as used by employers and some cable and ADSL service providers. Requires MPPE support in kernel, use package kernel-patch-mppe. 
PoPToP Point to Point Tunneling Server This implements a Virtual Private Networking Server (VPN) that is compatible with Microsoft VPN clients. It allows windows users to connect to an internal firewalled network using their dialup. 
Peripheral Processing Unit 
Yet another PPP program. PPxP is user process ppp program with Kernel/User netlink driver. PPxP provides easy setup, easy to connection(qdial), on demand dial up, IP Masquerade(experimental), IP Filtering, DNS relay, and more features. Of course, can work as ppp server. This package included standard CUI console. If use on 2.0.x kernel, need userlink kernel external driver. (see /usr/share/doc/ppxp/README.Debian) 
PPxP GNOME panel applet console PPxP GNOME panel applet console. PPxP is yet another ppp program. 
tk console of ppxp tk console of ppxp 
X console of ppxp X console of ppxp 
Print Quality Enhancement Technology (Lexmark) 
Plastic Quad Flat Package (CPU) 
convert text files for printing 
Packet Radio 
Pattern Recognition 
Pentium Rating (AMD) 
Placement & Routing (RL, IC), "P&R" 
Public Remote-Access Computer Standards Association (org., USA) 
Parameter Random Access Memory (RAM, IC, Apple), "P-RAM" 
A guide to great and usually unknown features in Debian (pt only) This is a practical guide to the Debian GNU/Linux Operating System. It intends to be a reference manual for the useful features that are quite unknown to most of the Debian users. It is primarily written in Portuguese, an english translation is expected, if you want to help with this, contact me. 
clone of the legendary first person shooter Doom Doom is a 3d shoot'em'up game, written by id Software, first released in 1993. PrBoom is a version of Doom using the Simple Direct Media layer (SDL) library, which enables it to use XFree86, Linux framebuffer console, GGI, SVGALib or even color or monochrome text consoles as display. PrBoom is based on MBF and LxDoom, which in turn is based on Boom, a freely available port of Doom for DOS, written by TeamTNT ( To play you need some maps, called "WAD", the shareware version of doom is included in the doom-wad-shareware package (non-free section). You can use any other DOOM WADs as well. 
GCC, GDB, binutils, etc. for PDAs using the PalmOS This package provides the GNU assembler, linker, compiler, debugger, and binary utilities necessary to compile PalmOS native programs on your Debian system. The created executables may be hot-synced to your Pilot using its included cradle and the pilot-link or kpilot software, also available as Debian packages. A brief list of included software is: nm, ar, strings, strip, gcc, as, ld, gdb, txt2bitm, obj-res, and build-prc. Please see the prc-tools-doc package for detailed documentation on the standard toolchain components (gcc, as, ld, gdb etc). 
Project Revision Control System (GNU) 
The Project Revision Control System PRCS, the Project Revision Control System, is the front end to a set of tools that (like CVS) provide a way to deal with sets of files and directories as an entity, preserving coherent versions of the entire set. Its purpose is similar to that of SCCS, RCS, and CVS, but (according to its authors, at least), it is much simpler than any of those systems. Emacs-Lisp support is distributed in a separate package, prcs-el. Another package called prcs-synch contains a tool to synchronize PRCS projects between repositories, both locally and remotely. For further information look at 
ELisp support for the Project Revision Control System This package contains Emacs-Lisp add-on support for PRCS, the Project Revision Control System. It provides a useful interface for some PRCS commands (checkin, diff, info, and rekey) while editing project descriptor files (.prj). prcs-el is distributed separately from the prcs package because it depends on Emacs (or another "emacsen" flavor). 
Synchronize PRCS projects between repositories The prcs-synch script tries to synchronize two PRCS (Project Revision Control System) repositories. It requires a "remote" repository, which is assumed to have recent changes, vs. a "local" repository which is out of date. 
Utilities for PRCS Some utilities to be used in combination with PRCS (Project Revision Control System). Contains the following scripts: prcspatch, prcspatch2, prcsfind, prcsbranches, prcsguess, prcsentry, prcsstatus, and prcs_checkfiles. 
Visualize PRCS projects in a graph Scripts to show PRCS (Project Revision Control System) version tree as a graph using VCG (a visualization tool for compiler graphs). 
Satellite Tracking Program with Optional Voice Output This is a satellite tracking program. It is probably mostly of interest to users of amateur satellites, but includes support for optionally announcing azimuth and elevation to help in manual antenna pointing, or optical observation of satellites. Several client programs are provided: earthtrack provides the ability to combine predict with xearth for pretty graphics, xearth must be installed to use it. geosat determines the 'look angles' for geostationary satellites based on their longitude, uses predict's data files for the groundstation location gsat graphical front-end for predicut using gtk The upstream predict sources also come with a front-end called 'map', but it is not included in the Debian package both because it requires the non-free xforms library, and because the name is too generic. 
preemptive multitasking
In an operating system, a means of running more than one program at a time. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system decides which application should receive the processor's attention. In contrast to cooperative multitasking, in which a busy application could monopolize the computer for as much as several minutes, a computer with a preemptive multitasking system seems much more responsive to user commands. Microsoft Windows 95 employs preemptive applications for 32-bit applications, but not for 16-bit applications. 
GNUstep is, functionally, a clone of NeXTstep/OPENSTEP tool of the same name. Just like the original program, it's a simple application for setting preferences for the GNUstep system, with a friendly interface. The program is simple, but powerful -- people can create new modules, called "bundles", that add new things to the program that its original developers did not think of or even intend -- that don't require recompiling the main program. 
An e-mail privacy package. Premail adds support for encrypted e-mail to your mailer, using plain PGP, PGP/MIME, MOSS, or S/MIME. In addition, premail provides a seamless, transparent interface to the anonymous remailers, including full support for Mixmaster remailers and the nymservers. Nymservers provide crypto- graphically protected, fully anonymous accounts for both sending and receiving e-mail. 
PowerPC REferenz Plattform (IBM, Apple), "PReP" 
/pree`pend'/ vt. [by analogy with `append'] To prefix. As with `append' (but not `prefix' or `suffix' as a verb), the direct object is always the thing being added and not the original word (or character string, or whatever). "If you prepend a semicolon to the line, the translation routine will pass it through unaltered." 
Pennsylvania Research and Economic Partnership NETwork (network, USA), "PREPnet" 
Tool to create presentations from a XML-file For each slide, PresTiMeL will create one (or a set of) HTML file(s), which can be shown in a Web browser of your choice. Cascading Style Sheets are used to provide the minor details of text styling, font, and color. 
pretty good privacy (PGP)
Software that allows users to exchange files and messages encrypted over networks. The receiver cannot read the messages without a decryption key. 
Prettyprinter generator for noweb Pretzel is a system that builds prettyprinters; that is programs that will take some plain ASCII source code and generate a LaTeXified version for presentation. Pretzel has hooks to integrate with noweb, so that code chunks may be prettyprinted with pretzel's generated prettyprinters. Example prettyprinter source for C, C++, Pascal, and Dijkstra's Guarded Command Language are included. 
Render LaTeX equations etc. in an emacs buffer Purpose of the package is to embed LaTeX environments such as display math or figures into the source buffers. Only Emacs 21 is supported and XEmacs is not supported at present. Emacs 20 is (and will be) not supported. By mouse-clicking, you can open the original text. After editing, another click will just run the region in question through LaTeX and redisplay the new results. 
Problem Report Form (IBM) 
Primary Rate Interface (ISDN) 
PRofitable Information by DEsign (IRM) 
Primax Colorado Direct scanner software. This is a stand-alone driver program for the Primax Colorado Direct scanners and compatibles (e.g. Storm Totalscan, Network Scanny MM100, Genius Colorpage Vivid+) The command must be run by root because it wants direct access to the hardware parallell port. The software seems to be written only for i386 hardware. 
execute programs via entries in the mailcap file 
v. To output, even if to a screen. If a hacker says that a program "printed a message", he means this; if he refers to printing a file, he probably means it in the conventional sense of writing to a hardcopy device (compounds like `print job' and `printout', on the other hand, always refer to the latter). This very common term is likely a holdover from the days when printing terminals were the norm, perpetuated by programming language constructs like C's printf(3). See senses 1 and 2 of tty. 
print queue
A list of files that a print spooler in the background while the computer performs other tasks in they foreground. 
print server
In a local area network (LAN), a PC that has been dedicated to receiving and temporarily storing files to be printed, which are then doled out one by one to a printer. The print server, accessible to all the workstations in the network, runs print spooler software to manage a print queue. 
print spooler
A utility program that temporarily stores files to be printed in a print queue and doles them out one by one to the printer. See background printing, and print server. 
print all or part of environment 
Peripheral that uses ink or toner to output documents, images, and plain text files onto paper. 
Printer Control Language (PCL)
A document rendering computer language developed by Hewlett-Packard Company for its line of inkjet and laser printers. 
These are sample files to check the output quality of printers. There is the CUPS test page with colour gradients, the Red Hat test pagewith image position checks, a photo test page and a text test page. 
format and print data 
formatted output conversion 
filters from the GNUlpr printing system These are a set of data conversion filters designed to work with ppdfilt. 
Graphical interface to the LPRng print system. printop is a Tcl/Tk program that gives you a graphical interface to control the printers and queues for UNIX-like systems using the LPRng print system. It uses the commands lpq, lpc, lprm to get information and control the printers and you just have to click with your mouse. In a large network it shows you all the printers and gives you the full functionality of the lprng commands, so you have a good overview of what is happening. 
Tk-based printer configuration tool This is an enhanced version of the Red Hat printtool, with autodetection of printers and PPD support. 
priority interrupt
n. [from the hardware term] Describes any stimulus compelling enough to yank one right out of hack mode. Classically used to describe being dragged away by an SO for immediate sex, but may also refer to more mundane interruptions such as a fire alarm going off in the near vicinity. Also called an NMI (non-maskable interrupt), especially in PC-land. 
Print IP address on a given range prips can be used to print all IP addresses of a specified range. This allows the enhancement of the usability of tools that have been created to work on only one host at a time (e.g. whois). 
Parallel Reduced Instruction Set Multiprocessing 
PRogrammed Integrated System Maintenance 
private key
A unique file containing a password or other authentication information. It is used for decryption or encryption of transmitted data. Private keys are not shared, should not be readable by other users, and should be guarded from theft. 
private key
It contains encryption information and a fingerprint. It is generated locally on your system and should remain in a secure environment. If the private key is compromised, a perpetrator essentially has the code to your security system. 
privilege escalation (privilege elevation)
A classic attack against a system. A user has an account on a system, and uses that account to gain additional privileges they weren't meant to have. Key point: Virtually all local exploits are privilege escalation attacks. Key point: The most common example of this attack is through setuid programs that have known bugs in them, often through buffer overflows or race conditions. 
PRivate Management DOMAIN (X.400, MHS) 
Partial Response - Maximum Likelihood (HDD) 
Pseudo Random Noise [code] (GPS) 
Pseudo Random Numer Generator 
Precision RISC Organization (org.) 
A program or service running on a UNIX or UNIX-compatible computer system. Use the ps command to view running processes on a Red Hat Linux system. 
An executing program. (Also, see Multitasking and Multithreading.) 
An executing program. A process consists of the program code (which may be shared with other processes which are executing the same program), and some private data. 
process (process ID, PID)
All software runs within an operating system concept known as a process. Each program running on a system is assigned its own process ID (PID). Users can easily obtain a process list (using Task Manager on Windows or ps on UNIX) in order to see what is running. Key point: Trojans, rootkits, and other evil software will attempt to hide themselves from the process list, either by providing replacements to the programs that list processes (like ps), or by hooking the system calls that enumerate processes. 
process identifier
An integer used by the Linux kernel to uniquely identify a process. PIDs are returned by the fork system call and can be passed to wait() or kill() to perform actions on the given process. 
process identifier
Shown in the heading of the ps command as PID. The unique number assigned to every process running in the system.
process state
the stage of execution that a process is in. It is these states which determine which processes are eligible to receive CPU time. 
See central processing unit (CPU). 
autonomous mail processor 
The procmail program is used by Red Hat Linux for all local maildelivery. In addition to just delivering mail, procmail can be used for automatic filtering, presorting, and other mail handling jobs. Procmail is also the basis for the SmartList mailing list processor. 
Versatile e-mail processor. Can be used to create mail-servers, mailing lists, sort your incoming mail into separate folders/files (real convenient when subscribing to one or more mailing lists or for prioritising your mail), preprocess your mail, start any programs upon mail arrival (e.g. to generate different chimes on your workstation for different types of mail) or selectively forward certain incoming mail automatically to someone. 
A library of useful procmail recipes. Includes recipes for auto-acknowledgement of incoming mail, recipes which recognize commands in the Subject: header and perform them, recipes to extract addresses, and a 'lint' script for procmail scripts. 
X based system status monitor, older version This is the older version of procmeter. You probably want to install the procmeter3 package instead of this one, unless you need features only present in this older version - namely, the ability to log to a file or syslog, and the ability to read data from named pipes. ProcMeter displays constantly updating graphs of system information. Many different graphs are supported, including: Total CPU usage, CPU used by user, niced, or system processes, CPU idle time, load average, number of context switches, number of processes. Amount of swapping, paging, swap in, page in, swap out, page out. Amount of disk accesses, reads, writes, or interrupts. MB of free, used, buffer, or cached memory. Amount of swap space used. Number of packets received or transmitted over local interfaces, ethernet, or slip/ppp. Number of collisions on ethernet, battery life stats. As if all that wasn't enough, procmeter also allows you to write programs that communicate with procmeter and add new graphs to the display. Procmeter can also log statistics to a file, and play it back later. 
X based system status monitor ProcMeter displays constantly updating graphs of system information. Many different graphs are supported, including: APM information. Mailbox monitoring. Date, time, uptime. Amount of free and used disk space. Size, number of lines, rate of growth of log files. Amount of used and free memory and swap. Traffic on network devices. Load average, number of processes running and starting. Low level system statistics like CPU usage, disk usage and swapping. Wireless network link quality. As if all that wasn't enough, procmeter is designed to be easily extendable via plugins. 
The /proc file system utilities. These are utilities to browse the /proc filesystem, which is not a real file system but a way for the kernel to provide information about the status of entries in its process table. (e.g. running, stopped or "zombie") Both command line and full screen utilities are provided. Ncurses is needed for the full screen utilities. 
The procps package contains a set of system utilities that provide system information. Procps includes ps, free, skill, snice, tload,top, uptime, vmstat, w, and watch. The ps command displays a snapshot of running processes. The top command provides a repetitive update of the statuses of running processes. The free command displays the amounts of free and used memory on your system. The skill command sends a terminate command (or another specified signal) to a specifiedset of processes. The snice command is used to change the scheduling priority of specified processes. The tload command prints a graph of the current system load average to a specified tty. The uptime command displays the current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are logged on, and system load averages for the past one, five, and fifteen minutes. The w command displays a list of the users who are currently logged on and what they are running. The watch program watches a running program. The vmstat command displays virtual memory statistics about processes, memory, paging, block I/O, traps,and CPU activity. 
professional workstation
A high-performance personal computer optimized for professional applications in fields such as digital circuit design, architecture, and technical drawing. Professional workstations typically offer excellent screen resolution, fast and powerful microprocessors, and lots of memory. Examples include the workstations made by Sun Microsystems and NeXT, Inc. Professional workstations are more expensive than personal computers and typically use the UNIX-operating system. The boundary between high-end personal computers and professional workstations, however, is eroding as personal computers become more powerful. 
PROcess FIeld BUS 
n. 1. A control file for a program, esp. a text file automatically read from each user's home directory and intended to be easily modified by the user in order to customize the program's behavior. Used to avoid hardcoded choices (see also dot file, rc file). 2. [techspeak] A report on the amounts of time spent in each routine of a program, used to find and tune away the hot spots in it. This sense is often verbed. Some profiling modes report units other than time (such as call counts) and/or report at granularities other than per-routine, but the idea is similar. 3.[techspeak] A subset of a standard used for a particular purpose. This sense confuses hackers who wander into the weird world of ISO standards no end! 
PRofessional OFfice System (IBM, VM) 
Versatile, virtual-hosting FTP daemon A powerful replacement for wu-ftpd, this File Transfer Protocol daemon supports hidden directories, virtual hosts, and per-directory ".ftpaccess" files. It uses a single main configuration file, with a syntax similar to Apache. Because of the advanced design, anonymous-FTP directories can have an arbitrary internal structure (bin, lib, etc, and special files are not needed). Advanced features like multiple password files and upload/download ratios are also supported. This package contains only the basic functionality of proftpd and PAM authentication. If you need SQL, use proftpd-sql and if you need LDAP, use proftpd-ldap. More information can be found at 
Versatile, virtual-hosting FTP daemon A powerful replacement for wu-ftpd, this File Transfer Protocol daemon supports hidden directories, virtual hosts, and per-directory ".ftpaccess" files. It uses a single main configuration file, with a syntax similar to Apache. Because of the advanced design, anonymous-FTP directories can have an arbitrary internal structure (bin, lib, etc, and special files are not needed). Advanced features like multiple password files and upload/download ratios are also supported. This package provides the common administrative programs. More information can be found at 
Versatile, virtual-hosting FTP daemon (with LDAP support) A powerful replacement for wu-ftpd, this File Transfer Protocol daemon supports hidden directories, virtual hosts, and per-directory ".ftpaccess" files. It uses a single main configuration file, with a syntax similar to Apache. Because of the advanced design, anonymous-FTP directories can have an arbitrary internal structure (bin, lib, etc, and special files are not needed). Advanced features like multiple password files and upload/download ratios are also supported. This package contains the proftpd daemon compiled with support for LDAP user authentication. It also supports PAM authentication. More information can be found at 
Versatile, virtual-hosting FTP daemon (with SQL support) A powerful replacement for wu-ftpd, this File Transfer Protocol daemon supports hidden directories, virtual hosts, and per-directory ".ftpaccess" files. It uses a single main configuration file, with a syntax similar to Apache. Because of the advanced design, anonymous-FTP directories can have an arbitrary internal structure (bin, lib, etc, and special files are not needed). Advanced features like multiple password files and upload/download ratios are also supported. This package contains the proftpd daemon compiled with support for MySQL user authentication. It also supports PAM authentication. More information can be found at 
Versatile, virtual-hosting FTP daemon (with SQL support) A powerful replacement for wu-ftpd, this File Transfer Protocol daemon supports hidden directories, virtual hosts, and per-directory ".ftpaccess" files. It uses a single main configuration file, with a syntax similar to Apache. Because of the advanced design, anonymous-FTP directories can have an arbitrary internal structure (bin, lib, etc, and special files are not needed). Advanced features like multiple password files and upload/download ratios are also supported. This package contains the proftpd daemon compiled with support for PostgreSQL user authentication. It also supports PAM authentication. More information can be found at 
A list of instructions, written in a programming language, that a computer can execute so that the machine arts in a predetermined way. Synonymous with software. The world of computer programs can be divided into system programs, utility pograms, and application programs: * System programs include all the programs the computer requires to function effectively, including the operating system, memory management software, and command-line interpreters The MS-DOS operating system is an example of system software. * Utility programs include all the programs you can use to maintain the computer system. MS-DOS includes several utility programmed such as CHKDSK. Most users equip their systems with utility packages (such as Norton Utilities or PC Tools) that go beyond the basics that MS-DOS provides. * Application programs transform the computer into a tool for performing a specific kind of work, such as word processing, financial analysis (with an electronic spreadsheet), or desktop publishing. Additional software categories include programming languages, games, educational programs, and a variety of vertical market programs. See executable program, high-level programming language, and machine language. 
n. 1. A magic spell cast over a computer allowing it to turn one's input into error messages. 2. An exercise in experimental epistemology. 3. A form of art, ostensibly intended for the instruction of computers, which is nevertheless almost inevitably a failure if other programmers can't understand it. 
Cartographic projection filter and library Proj and invproj perform respective forward and inverse transformation of cartographic data to or from Cartesian data with a wide range of selectable projection functions (over 100 projections). Geod and invgeod perform geodesic (Great Circle) computations for determining latitude, longitude and back azimuth of a terminus point given a initial point latitude, longitude, azimuth and distance (direct) or the forward and back azimuths and distance between an initial and terminus point latitudes and longitudes (inverse). See the package proj-ps-doc for documentation in PostScript format. 
A high-level programming language used in artificial intelligence research and applications, particularly expert systems. PROLOG, short for PROgramming in LOGic, is a declarative language; rather than tell the computer what procedure to follow to solve a problem, the programmer describes the problem to be solved. The language resembles the query language of a database management system such as Standard Query Language (SQL) in that you can use PROLOG to ask a question such as, "Is Foster City in Californian's But an important difference exists between PROLOG and a database management system (DBMS). A database contains information you can retrieve; a PROLOG program, in contrast, contains knowledge, from which the program can draw inferences about what is true or false. 
PROgramming in LOGic 
SWI-Prolog 5.0.0 
Partial Read Only Memory (ROM), "P-ROM" 
Programmable Read Only Memory (ROM, IC) 
procmail reader for Mew This Emacs lisp acts as a bridge between Mew the mailer and e-mail processors like procmail. It analyzes the log generated by procmail, then tells you which letters are unread and where they are. The usage is somewhat similar to that of GNUS/Gnus. Note: the upstream author has lost interest in the development of this utility, so do not expect further improvement. Bug reports are still welcome. 
PROgrammable Magnetic Tape System 
promiscuous mode
Operation status where a network device such as a network interface card (NIC) is able to read and intercept all traffic on a network to which it is connected. Malicious users can set this mode on a network device to capture private information that was not intended for them. 
Object that is displayed on a computer screen as an indication to the user to perform a task, such as type a command, a password, or file name. 
Highly modularized GTK+ mail client written in Perl Features include full mbox support, qmaildir support, multiple POP3 account support, filters, MIME support, smart addressbook, and more. 
A Propaganda background image volume for Debian. This package contains images intended to be used as desktop backgrounds. This particular propaganda volume was especially put together for Debian and includes images from previous volumes as well as some tiles especially put together for debian. 
PROgrammed PAL 
adj. 1. In marketroid-speak, superior; implies a product imbued with exclusive magic by the unmatched brilliance of the company's own hardware or software designers. 2. In the language of hackers and users, inferior; implies a product not conforming to open-systems standards, and thus one that puts the customer at the mercy of a vendor able to gouge freely on service and upgrade charges after the initial sale has locked the customer in. Often in the phrase "proprietary crap". 3. Synonym for closed-source, e.g. software issued in binary without source and under a restrictive license. Since the coining of the term open source, many hackers have made a conscious effort to distinguish between `proprietary' and `commercial' software. It is possible for software to be commercial (that is, intended to make a profit for the producers) without being proprietary. The reverse is also possible, for example in binary-only freeware. 
Propagate X selections between displays propsel is useful to people who work with more than a single X11 display on their desk. It allows one to paste into a xterm on one display the contents of the selection of another display. For example, it's useful for situations where you have a URL on one display, and want to access it with a browser running on another display. You can select the URL, click "propagate", move over to the other display, and then paste into the browser. If you have the two displays on the same desk, you might be more interested in the package x2x. However, x2x can only link two displays at once, whereas propsel can propagate selections between up to 8 displays. 
??? [protocol] 
LaTeX class for writing transparencies Prosper is a LaTeX class for writing transparencies. It is written on top of the seminar class by Timothy Van Zandt. It aims at offering an environment for easily creating slides for both presentations with an overhead projector and a video projector. Slides prepared for a presentation with a computer and a video projector may integrate animation effects, incremental display, and such. 
PRocedure Oriented Type Enforcing Language 
A formal set of standards, rules, or formats for exchanging data that assures uniformity between computers and applications. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
a set of rules that defines exactly how information is to be exchanged between two systems. This allows different types of machine to communicate in a form both understand. 
A standard framework or procedure for communication and data transmission. 
n. As used by hackers, this never refers to niceties about the proper form for addressing letters to the Papal Nuncio or the order in which one should use the forks in a Russian-style place setting; hackers don't care about such things. It is used instead to describe any set of rules that allow different machines or pieces of software to coordinate with each other without ambiguity. So, for example, it does include niceties about the proper form for addressing packets on a network or the order in which one should use the forks in the Dining Philosophers Problem. It implies that there is some common message format and an accepted set of primitives or commands that all parties involved understand, and that transactions among them follow predictable logical sequences. See also handshaking, do protocol. 
The rules that govern how things communicate over the network. Key point: By manipulating the protocol raw themselves, hackers can do powerful things that are impossible in an application. For example, client applications typically limit the length of a username that can be typed in. By manipulating the protocol raw, hackers can supply any sized username they want, sometimes causing a buffer overflow exploit. Key point: Protocols are either text-based or binary. Text-based protocols can be read directly off the wire and manipulated directly. Binary protocols require a protocol analyzer to decode them, and must be manipulated programmatically. See also: See the section on "banners" for examples of what some protocols look like on the wire. 
protocol stack
In networking, protocols are layered on top of each other, with each layer responsible for a different aspect of communication. For TCP/IP, the protocol stack looks something like: HTTP Telnet POP3 SNMP bootp TCP UDP ICMP IP ARP PPP Ethernet The way that you would use this diagram is the following paragraph: You use the protocol HTTP to request a web-page. The HTTP client (web-browser) contacts the HTTP server (web-site) using the protocol TCP. The protocol TCP segments all its work into IP packets. Routers on the Internet know how to forward the IP packets, but are clueless as to whatever is inside the IP packets. Your machine will use something like PPP or Ethernet in order to send IP packets to the nearest router. Key point: Encryption can happen at any layer. Payload The data itself can be encrypted independent of the protocols used to transport it. For example, a typical use of PGP is to encrypt a message before sending via e-mail. All the e-mail programs and protocols are totally unaware that this has occurred. Application Layer Some applications have the ability to encrypt data automatically. For example, SMB can encrypt data as it goes across the wire Transport Layer SSL is essentially encryption at the transport layer. Network Layer IPsec provides encryption at the network layer, encrypting all the contents above IP, including the TCP and UDP headers themselves. 
Formal descriptions of what format should be used for messages by two or more computers wishing to communicate. FTP and SMTP are examples of such protocols. 
Create/remove ANSI prototypes from C code "protoize" can be used to add prototypes to a program, thus converting the program to ANSI C in one respect. The companion program "unprotoize" does the reverse: it removes argument types from any prototypes that are found. 
Create/remove ANSI prototypes from C code NOTE: This is not a final release, but taken from the CVS gcc-2_95-branch (dated 2001-10-02). 'protoize' can be used to add prototypes to a program, thus converting the program to ANSI C in one respect. The companion program 'unprotoize' does the reverse: it removes argument types from any prototypes that are found. 
In communications, a proxy is something that acts as a server, but when given requests from clients, acts itself as a client to the real servers. Analogy: Consider talking to somebody who speaks a foreign language through a translator. You talk to the translator, who receives your statements, then regenerates something else completely to the other end. The translator serves as your proxy. Key point: The communication terminates at the proxy. In other words, the proxy doesn't forward data so much as it tears it completely apart. For example, an HTTP proxy doesn't forward every request sent through it. Instead, it first examines if it already has the requested web page in its cache. If so, then it returns that page without sending another request to the destination server. Because proxies completely terminate the communication channel, they are considered a more secure firewall technology than packet filters, because they dramatically increase the isolation between the networks. Key point: You will occasionally be scanned for proxies. ISPs scan their users for proxies. Hackers scan the Internet looking for proxies they can anonymize their connections with. Certain servers (like IRC servers) scan clients for proxies in order to prevent anonymous connections. Several websites maintain lists of such proxies. e.g. 
Proxy Server
A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks. 
Proxy Servers
a type of firewall that allows indirect internet access. 
Proxyfloppy is a floppy disk that contains a bootable Linux system with 3 different types of web proxy and some added tools. The goal is to make it simple and safe for people with an always-on Internet connection to turn their desktop into a anonymous proxy server during the time that the computer would normally go unused. Version 1.1 was released on February 15, 2002. 
proxy manager service 
X proxy services manager proxymngr is responsible for resolving requests from xfindproxy (in the xbase-clients package) and other similar clients, starting new proxies when appropriate, and keeping track of all the available proxy services. 
A FLTK-based GUI front end for prozilla prozgui is a graphical front end based on the Fast and Light Toolkit for prozilla. Prozilla is a download acellerator that opens multiple connections to get the file faster. Prozilla's features include proxy, redirection and ftpsearch support (the last one is still not supported by prozgui). 
Multi-threaded download accelerator Prozilla uses multiple connections to download the file faster. It breaks the files in pieces and downloads all them at once increasing the download speed. Its progress is displayed in an ncurses based UI. 
Programming Request for Price Quotation 
Pattern-Recognition System (PR) 
Portable Remote Terminal 
Program Reference Table 
Printing Response Time Monitor 
displays information about your processes/jobs/programs which are running on the server. 
PostScript (Adobe) 
Power Supply 
Privilege Service (DCE) 
Process Status (Unix) 
report process status 
PS/2 port
A six-pin socket for connecting keyboards and mice to computer systems. 
Personal System /2, "PS/2" 
Ghostscript translator from PostScript or PDF to ASCII 
generate conforming Encapsulated PostScript 
obsolete shell script for the PSfrag system. 
Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript 
Convert PostScript to PDF 1.2 (Acrobat 3-and-later compatible) using ghostscript 
Convert PostScript to PDF 1.3 (Acrobat 4-and-later compatible) using ghostscript 
Convert PostScript to PDF using ghostscript 
Convert PostScript to PDF without specifying CompatibilityLevel, using ghostscript 
creates a TeX pkfont from a type1 PostScript font 
Ghostscript PostScript "distiller" 
Python Software Activity (Python) 
Presentation Service Access Point (OSI, OSI/RM, SAP) 
Program Specification Block (IBM) 
Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (org., USA) 
Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center NETwork (network, USA), "PSCnet" 
Printer Sharing Device 
Programmer's Supplementary Documents (BSD, Unix) 
Public Switched Digital Capability 
Packet-Switching Data Network 
Public-Switched Digital Service 
Packet Switch Exchange 
Port Switched Ethernet (Bytex, VLAN, ethernet) 
P-bit Severely Errored Seconds (DS3/E3) 
Permanent Swap File 
Print Services Facility (IBM) 
Python Software Foundation (org., Python) 
add a Unicode character table to a console font 
extract the embedded Unicode character table from a console font 
PostScript font manager -- part of Defoma, Debian Font Manager. psfontmgr is part of Defoma distribution, and manages PostScript fonts through Defoma framework. It registers the name of available PostScript fonts to Defoma in postscript category, so applications which output a postscript file have all the available PostScript fonts in their font-choosing menus. It also provides a tool named defoma-psfont-installer, which registers PostScript fonts installed in a PostScript printer. This tool benefits those who want to print a PostScript file with the printer fonts and have the printer fonts appear in the font-choosing menu. 
remove the embedded Unicode character table from a console font 
An Emacs major mode for editing SGML documents. PSGML is a major mode for editing SGML documents. It contains a simple SGML parser and can work with any DTD. (The most popular nowadays are the HTML DTDs. This package turns your emacs into the one of most powerful HTML editors and will be ultimately flexible as well, since you could upgrade your editor by just installing new DTDs). Functions provided includes menus and commands for inserting tags with only the contextually valid tags, identification of structural errors, editing of attribute values in a separate window with information about types and defaults, and structure based editing. Since psgml parses the DTD to allow you to edit SGML documents, you do need to have the DTDs installed in order to use psgml. Since psgml installs itself as an HTML mode in Emacs, it depends on sgml-data. Some other packages which also provide SGML DTDs are suggested, like debiandoc-sgml and linuxdoc-sgml. SGML, a language for encoding the structure of a document, is an ISO standard: ISO 8879:1986 "Information processing - Text and office systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)". Psgml is a standard package for XEmacs, and thus this package does not install itself for XEmacsen. 
Emacs is an advanced and extensible editor. An Emacs major mode customizes Emacs for editing particular types of text documents. PSGML is a major mode for SGML (a markup language) documents. PSGML provides several functionalities for editing SGML documents: indentation according to element nesting depth and identification of structural errors (but it is not a validating SGML parser); menus and commands for inserting tags with only the contextually valid tags; editing attribute values in a separate window with information about types and defaults; structure based editing, including movement and killing; and also several commands for folding editing. 
interactive shell with the power of perl The Perl Shell is a shell that combines the interactive nature of a Unix shell with the power of Perl. The goal is to eventually have a full featured shell that behaves as expected for normal shell activity. But, the Perl Shell will use Perl syntax and functionality for control- flow statements and other things. 
jabber client using qt psi is a jabber client looking (by design) like licq. While this is a work in progress and by far not complete, it is already working nicely. For more information on jabber, see (or the jabber package which contains the jabber server software). 
Performance Systems International, inc. 
Presentation Space IDentifier (IBM) 
PsiLinux is a project to port Linux to a group of palmtops produced by Psion, and related machines such as the Geofox One. At present, working Linux systems can be installed on any of the Series 5, Series 5MX, Series 5MX-Pro, Revo (Revo+, Mako), Series 7 and netBook machines. Handhelds/PDA based distribution. 
PostScript - Intelligent Processing Unit (Canon, Adobe, CLC), "PS-IPU" 
Packet Switch Interface Unit 
Phase Shift Keying (DFUe) 
Soundcard-based ncurses program for operating PSK31 Psk31lx uses a soundcard to receive and transmit PSK31, an extremely narrow band HF-mode. PSK31 is a mode for keyboard QSO's. 
PD Service Lage (Haendler) 
Public Software Library 
utility to typeset LaTeX files using PostScript fonts 
Persistent Storage Manager (Maxtor) 
Persistent Stored Modules (SQL) 
Personal Software Marketing (IBM) 
The psmisc package contains utilities for managing processes on your system: pstree, killall and fuser. The pstree command displays a tree structure of all of the running processes on your system. The killall command sends a specified signal (SIGTERM if nothing is specified) to processes identified by name. The fuser command identifies the PIDs of processes that are using specified files or filesystems. 
Utilities that use the proc filesystem This package contains three little utilities that use the proc FS: `fuser' identifies processes using files (similar to Sun's or SGI's fuser). `killall' kills processes by name, e.g. killall -HUP named. `pstree' shows the currently running processes as a tree 
Packet / Public Switched Network 
Packet Switch Node (ARPANET, MILNET) 
Persistency framework in SOMobjects (IBM, DSOM) 
Provably Secure Operating System (OS) 
Perl Server Pages - Web scripting environment runtime Perl Server Pages provides a versatile dynamic web scripting environment for Perl, featuring advanced input validation and data flow management. Support for mod_perl provided. Psp attempts to provide easy construction of large websites in Perl, much the same way that ASP and JSP provide this support for other languages. This package provides the runtime necessary to run website fragments (piles) that have already been parsed. 
Personal Software Products (IBM) 
Program Segment Prefix (DOS) 
Perl Server Pages - Web scripting environment authoring tools Perl Server Pages provides a versatile dynamic web scripting environment for Perl, featuring advanced input validation and data flow management. Support for mod_perl provided. Psp attempts to provide easy construction of large websites in Perl, much the same way that ASP and JSP provide this support for other languages. This package provides piler, the tool to convert a set of PSP pages into a website fragment. 
Perl Server Pages - compiled samples Perl Server Pages provides a versatile dynamic web scripting environment for Perl, featuring advanced input validation and data flow management. Support for mod_perl provided. Psp attempts to provide easy construction of large websites in Perl, much the same way that ASP and JSP provide this support for other languages. 
Perl Server Pages - Sample source code Perl Server Pages provides a versatile dynamic web scripting environment for Perl, featuring advanced input validation and data flow management. Support for mod_perl provided. Psp attempts to provide easy construction of large websites in Perl, much the same way that ASP and JSP provide this support for other languages. 
Packet Switched Public Data Network (IN) 
The Pspell library provides a generic interface to any spell checker libraries installed on the system. 
Get information about a libpspell installation 
Statistical analysis tool PSPP is a replacement for SPSS, a powerful program for statistical analysis of sampled data. This is a test release of PSPP. Please use caution in interpreting results. 
Tools for PostScript printers and devices The psptools suite comprise tools for manipulating PostScript (PS) files before sending them to a PostScript device. The available tools do use PostScript Printer Description (PPD) files to handle the features that are available on a given device (for example selecting a color model or the way two-sided pages are bound). The actual tools are psplpr, a printing/filtering tool that manipulates a PostScript document to control which features of a PS device will be used to print the document, and npslpr, a small command-line compatible replacement for pslpr which uses psplpr. 
Phase Shift Register (IC) 
Program Support Representative 
Privacy and Security Research Group (IRTF) 
Professional Standards Review Organization 
Packet Switch Services / Stream 
Personal System Support Family (IBM) 
Pacific Standard Time [-0800] (TZ, PDT, USA) 
Public Switched Telephone Network (IN) 
H.323 to PSTN gateway Very simple PSTN (normal telephone) to H.323 gateway program using the OpenH323 library. It allows H.323 clients to make outgoing calls, and incoming calls to be routed to a specific H.323 client. It needs special hardware to do this. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at 
PostScript and PDF files to editable vector graphics converter. pstoedit converts Postscript and PDF files to various editable vector graphic formats including tgif, xfig, PDF graphics, gnuplot format, idraw, MetaPost, GNU Metafile, PIC, Kontour and flattened PostScript. 
Extract text from PostScript and PDF files. pstotext extracts text (in the ISO 8859-1 character set) from a PostScript or PDF (Portable Document Format) file. Thus, pstotext is similar to the ps2ascii program that comes with ghostscript. The output of pstotext is however better than that of ps2ascii, because pstotext deals better with punctuation and ligatures. 
display a tree of processes 
Dump C structures as generated from *(C`cc -g -S*(C' stabs 
Portable Storage Unit 
Primary Sampling Unit 
Program Storage Unit 
A collection of PostScript document handling utilities This collection of utilities is for manipulating PostScript documents. Page selection and rearrangement are supported, including arrangement into signatures for booklet printing, and page merging for n-up printing. 
psutils contains some utilities for manipulating PostScript documents. Page selections and rearrangement are supported, including arrengement into signatures for booklet printing, and page merging for n-up printing. 
Program Status Word 
creates C procedures from segments of PostScript language code 
Payload Type (ATM) 
Payment Transaction Application Layer (Internet, banking) 
Private Trans-Atlantic Telecommunications 
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (org.) 
Pacific Telecommunications Council (org.) 
Parallel Test Component (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
Parallel Transfer Disk / Drive 
Packet Transport Equipment 
Path Terminating Equipment (SONET) 
Physical TERMinal (IBM), "PTerm" 
basic ASCII pTeX library files ASCII pTeX is a Japanized TeX distribution. Together with ptex-bin you have a complete installation. Includes: platex 
ASCII pTeX binary files This is ASCII pTeX, a Japanized TeX distribution. These are all the binaries for the pTeX system. You need at least ptex-base together with it. Includes: platex 
Support files for building ASCII pTeX This package actually contains a fragment of the latest teTeX source tarball(will be placed in /usr/src). Since ASCII pTeX is provided as a set of additional source files to teTeX source tree, you need to install this package when you build ptex-bin package. A little shell script to strip down big teTeX source tarball is also included. You don't need to install this package to have a running pTeX system. 
Provide an environment of jis.tfm and jisg.tfm for pTeX/dvips This includes TFM files and VF files for jis.tfm and jisg.tfm which might produce better output than ordinary/traditional min*.tfm and goth*.tfm would do. 
Program Temporary Fix (IBM) 
Payload Type Identifier (ATM, PT) 
Polskie Towarzystwo Informatyczne (org., Poland) 
A selection of Internet service clients written in Perl/Tk This package contains a selection of TCP/IP Internet service clients written in Perl/Tk (for use under X). It including clients for Finger, Whois, Time, QOTD and NSLookup. 
Packet Transfer Mode (ATM) 
Point-To-Multipoint Service Center (GPRS, mobile-systems, Multicast), "PTM-SC" 
Patent and Trademark Office (org., USA) 
Presentation Text Object Content Architecture (IBM, MO:DCA) 
Paper Tape Operating System (OS) 
Paper Tape Punch 
Picture Transfer Protocol (PIMA 15740) 
Paper Tape Reader 
People's Time Sharing System (OS; CDC 6600) 
Postes, Telegraphe et Telephone (org., Switzerland) 
Point-to-PoinT Tunneling Protocol 
Primary Translation Word 
produce a permuted index of file contents 
Pseudo-Terminal driver 
Physical Unit (NAU) 
Power Unit 
Processing Unit 
Profiling User Agent 
Physical Unit Block 
Public Domain
Software that is available to be used and modified by anyone, for any purpose, and may even be incorporated for distribution in commercial software. Public domain software is not copyrighted, and no rights are retained by the author. (Also, see Open Source and Shareware.) 
public key
A shared data file that is distributed to any interested recipient for the secure transmission of data. Used in conjunction with a private key to decrypt data. 
Public Key Encryption
A method of data encryption that involves two separate keys: a public key and a private key. Data encrypted with the public key can be decrypted only with the private key and vice versa. Typically, the public key is published and can be used to encrypt data sent to the holder of the private key, and the private key is used to sign data. 
public-key (private-key, asymmetric cryptography)
Public-key cryptography uses two mathematically related keys, where a message encrypted by one key can only be decrypted by the other key. This is in stark contrast to traditional cryptography (now known as symmetric cryptography) where the same key was used for both encryption and decryption. The reason this is so important is because one of the two keys can be made public, hence the name "public-key cryptography". When this technique was discovered, it solved the biggest problem in cryptography at that time. In traditional symmetric cryptography, both the sender and receiver of a message had to agree upon the same key. Imagine your country has spies out in the field. If a spy gets captured, then the adversary could steal that key and decrypt messages. With asymmetric keys, however, the enemy can only steal the key the spy is using to encrypt messages, but cannot use that key to decrypt anything. The enemy may be able to forge messages, but the system wouldn't otherwise be compromised. Furthermore, the key could be extremely public: you could simply broadcast your public-key on the open airwaves for your spies to use. This is indeed what happens with SSL, the protocol you use to connect to e-commerce sites and pay for stuff with credit-cards. The public-key of the server is given out to everybody who connects to the site. However, each user encrypts his data using the public-key, which means nobody else can decrypt it without the secret private-key known only to the owners of the website. Example: Some uses of public-key encryption are: e-mail encryption Allows anybody to send an encrypted message to you that only you can read. The two most popular ways of doing this are PGP and S/MIME. digital signatures You can encrypt something with your private-key that can be decrypted by everyone (using your public-key). Therefore, if you encrypt a message, it proves it came from you, because only you know the private-key. Thus, you can digitally "sign" documents. President Clinton signed the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act" into law using a digital signature in this manner (using a smart-card with the password "Buddy"). Point: The public and private keys are mathematically related. In order to create them, you start with some randomly generated prime numbers. You then run these through some mathematical operations in order to generate the two keys. You publish one of the keys (making it "public") and you keep the other one private. Since the keys are rather large (hundreds of bytes), you generally store them in an encrypted file. Whenever you need to decrypt a message, you type in a password to decrypt the private-key, then use the private-key to decrypt the message. Key point: Protecting the "private key" from theft/disclosure is the most important thing any company can do. There is exist private keys whose value lie in the range of hundreds of millions if not billions of dollars (such as the key Verisign uses to sign certificates). The private key is usually protected with strong encryption based upon a strong password. In paranoid cases, parts of the password are given to different people, so that more than one person must be present in order to recover the private key for use (note: redundancy is also used, if the key is XYZ, then Alice knows XY, Bob knows YZ, and Charlene knows XZ, meaning that any two can unlock the private key). The paranoid things you see in movies about high-security installations apply: background checks on employees with access to the private key physical security consisting of photo IDs, searches, and strict entry/exit controls the two-person rule biometrics (retina/palm/finger/handwriting) additions to normal authentication physical keys Private-keys are frequently stored on separate objects. The most common is the floppy disk, which can be inserted into a server when booted, but removed to a safety deposit box. Other examples include crypto-cards. (Note: when you get a certificates from a CA, they usually require that the private-key never be stored on a computer). Servers that must use private keys must employ heavy countermeasures: intrusion detection systems firewalls (both packet filtering as well as more complex ones) frequent vulnerability assessments and auditing limited people who have access to the server full use of the security features of the server (i.e. turn on logging, enforce strong passwords, etc.) Example: Some public-key algorithms are: Diffie-Hellman The original one, though only designed for key-exchange. RSA The most popular algorithm. ElGamal Extends Diffie-Hellman algorithms to support the same features as RSA, such as encryption and digital-signatures. DSA Government standard for digital-signatures based upon ElGamal. Elliptic Curves Based upon a different mathematical problem from number theory and algebraic geometry. It results in smaller keys and faster operation, but is not as well analyzed as other systems. Other There are other systems based upon different hard-to-solve mathematical problems. Antonym: Sometimes the word "secret-key" is used as an antonym to "public-key" in order to highlight the fact that it is a shared-secret. Also, "symmetric" encryption is the antonym to "asymmetric". 
public-key encryption
An encryption scheme, introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976, where each person gets a pair of keys, called the public key and the private key. Each person's public key is published while the private key is kept secret. Messages are encrypted using the intended recipient's public key and can only be decrypted using his private key. 
Peripheral Unit Controller 
Public Utilities Commission 
Physical Unit Control Point (IBM, SNA) 
Parallel URL fetcher puf is a download tool for UNIX-like systems. You may use it to download single files or to mirror entire servers. It is similar to GNU wget (and has a partly compatible command line), but has the ability to do many downloads in parallel. This is very interesting, if you have a high-bandwidth internet connection. 
Purdue University Fast FORTRAN compiler (FORTRAN) 
Physical Unit IDentifier (IBM) 
Personal / PIN Unblocking Key (PIN) 
Power User's Macintosh Association (org., Apple) 
Processor Upgradable Modular Architecture 
Programmable Universal Micro Accelerator 
Simple DHCP/BOOTP client. This is the DHCP/BOOTP client written by RedHat. 
Physical Unit Management Services 
PARC Universal packet Protocol 
Printer Utility Program This is a GUI utility for maintaining your printer under Linux. For uni-directional mode it supports the Lexmark Optra Color 40 and 45, Lexmark Optra E310, HP 2100M, HP 4000, and HP LJ4 Plus. For bi-directional mode it supports any PJL printer (or partially, depending on the printer). 
Automated purity testing software. For many years now, the purity test, (in various forms) has been widely available on the net. This package provides an automated way of taking the test. Purity tests are an amusing way to see how much of a nerd or a hacker you are. More tests are available in the purity-off package. 
Sex related purity tests This package installs the sex related purity tests not included in the purity package. If you are offended by sex or by unusual sexual activities please do not install this package. 
Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (URL, WWW) 
Program Update Tape 
Physical Volume (LVM, HDD) 
Packetized Video Audio 
Permanent Virtual Circuit (SVC) 
Permanent Virtual Circuit / Channel / Connection (ATM) 
Permanent Virtual Channel Connection (ATM) 
Polytron Version Control System 
Primary Volume Descriptor (CD, IS 9660) 
Program-Variation-In-The-Large (SCM) 
Program-Variation-In-The-Small (SCM) 
Parallel Virtual Machine (SMP, Cluster) 
Parallel Virtual Machine - binaries and shared libraries Console and communication daemon binaries for the Parallel Virtual Machine. Should be sufficient to utilize a node in a dynamically linked PVM program such as pvmpov. 
Private Virtual Network 
Packet Video Protocol 
Permanent Virtual Path Connection (ATM) 
Printer Wire Board 
Programmers Work Bench (MS) 
verify integrity of password files 
convert to and from shadow passwords and groups. 
print name of current/working directory 
Print Working Directory (Unix) 
Configuration package for the libpwdb, the password database library. 
Automatic Password generation pwgen generates random, meaningless but pronounceable passwords. These passwords contain either only lowercase letters, or upper and lower case mixed, or digits thrown in. Uppercase letters and digits are placed in a way that eases remembering their position when memorizing only the word. 
Lightweight window manager with frames PWM is a rather lightweight window manager for X11. It has the unique feature that multiple client windows can be attached to the same frame. This feature helps keeping windows, especially the numerous xterms, organized. 
Pulse Width Modulation (DVD) 
Peacenet World News 
Programmable WorkStation Communication Services 
convert to and from shadow passwords and groups. 
Pulse-Wave Velocity 
Preboot eXecution Environment (Intel) 
The pxe package contains the PXE (Preboot eXecution Environment) server and code needed for Linux to boot from a boot disk image on aLinux PXE server. 
PXES Linux Thin Client
PXES will convert any complaint hardware into a versatile thin client capable of accessing any Microsoft Terminal Server through RDP protocol. (Future versions will include XDM, VNC and other protocols). This thin client boots from the network. Version 0.4 was released March 27, 2002. Version 0.5-final was released September 3, 2002. Version 0.5.1-41 was released May 15, 2003. 
Palatino-likes fonts for TeX The PX fonts consist of: 1. virtual text roman fonts using Adobe Palatino (or URWPalladioL) with some modified and additional text symbols in the OT1, T1, and TS1 encoding 2. virtual text sans serif fonts using Adobe Helvetica (or URW NimbusSanL) with additional text symbols in OT1, T1, TS1, and LY1 encodings (Provided in the TX fonts distribution) 3. monospaced typewriter fonts in OT1, T1, TS1, and LY1 encodings (Provided in the TX fonts distribution) 4. math alphabets using Adobe Palatino (or URWPalladioL) with modified metrics 5. math fonts of all symbols corresponding to those of Computer Modern math fonts (CMSY, CMMI, CMEX, and Greek letters of CMR) 6. math fonts of all symbols corresponding to those of AMS fonts (MSAM and MSBM) 7. additional math fonts of various symbols 
Person Years 
A tool for manipulating bibliographic databases. It currently supports BibTeX, Medline, Ovid and Refer files. It is useful for viewing, editing and searching, but also to convert bibliographic databases into HTML pages for example. Home Page: 
Finds common bugs in python source code PyChecker is a tool for finding common bugs in python source code. It finds problems that are typically caught by a compiler for less dynamic languages, like C and C++. Because of the dynamic nature of python, some warnings may be incorrect; however, spurious warnings should be fairly infrequent. 
A Python program to cast and interpret I Ching hexagrams pyChing is a program that allows you to 'consult' the I Ching. The I Ching is an ancient Chinese book of wisdom, which, apart from being read as a book, has also traditionally been consulted as an oracle. pyChing allows you to perform an I Ching 'reading' using the coin oracle, and then look up a brief interpretation from the I Ching. pyChing is completely written in Python, a cross platform, object oriented, programming language, using the Tkinter interface to the Tk GUI toolkit. 
mail sorter written in python mail sorter similar to procmail, written in python, using python syntax for mail delivery 
An enhanced Python command-line debugger Pydb is a command-line debugger for Python. It is based on the standard Python debugger pdb, but has a number of added features. Particularly, it is suitable for use with DDD, a graphical debugger front end. 
colourised df(1)-clone pydf is all-singing, all-dancing, fully colourised df(1)-clone written in python. 
an English/Chinese Dictionary written with python/gtk This is an English/Chinese Dictionary written by Daniel Gau with python/gtk. The word base was originally from xdict, and was converted and modified by Daniel Gau and bv1al. This program can be run in both console mode and X Window GUI mode. Author: Daniel Gau <> Maintainer: Shang-Feng Yang <> Home Page: 
ftp daemon with advanced features multithreaded ftp daemon written in python, featuring advanced permission scheme, upload/download speed throttling, GUI configuration, internal database of users and more. Does not need to run as root. 
Python Mail <-> News Gateway Python Gateway Script from news to mail and vice versa. It is intended to be a full SMTP/NNTP rfc compliant gateway with whitelist manager. You will probably have to install a mail-transport-agent and/or news-transport-system package to manage SMTP/NNTP traffic. MTA is needed for mail2news service, since mail have to be processed on a box where pyg is installed. You can use a remote smtpserver for news2mail. News system is useful but not needed, since you can send articles to a remote SMTP server (ie: moderated NG) where is installed pyg, otherwise you will need it. It refers to rfc 822 (mail) and 850 (news). 
SDL bindings for games development in Python A multimedia development kit for Python. Pygame provides modules for you to access the video display, play sounds, track time, read the mouse and joystick, control the CD player, render true type fonts and more. It does this using mainly the cross-platform SDL library, a lightweight wrapper to OS-specific APIs. 
Pygmy Linux is small distribution of the Linux operating system, based on Slackware 7.1. PL use UMSDOS filesystem, it allows an user to install a fully functional operating system, that co-exists peacefully with DOS/Win9x on the same partition. PL is Internet ready, it supports connection via modem and network card. It is a console minilinux, so there are no X windows, Netscape or etc. 
PyGTK is an extension module for python that gives you access to the GTK+widget set. Just about anything you can write in C with GTK+ you can write in python with PyGTK (within reason), but with all the benefits of python. 
This module contains a wrapper for the libglade library. Libglade allows a program to construct its user interface from an XML description, which allows the programmer to keep the UI and program logic separate. 
A Python-GTK powered GUI mail-/newsreader Pyne is a graphical (GTK+) offline news- and mailreader written in Python. Multiple POP3, SMTP, IMAP and NNTP boxes are supported. Features include threading of newsgroups, optional expiry of news and mail, filters, attachment support, etc. 
High-level wrapper around a subset of the OpenSSL library, includes* SSL. Connection objects, wrapping the methods of Python's portable sockets* Callbacks written in Python* Extensive error-handling mechanism, mirroring OpenSSL's error codes... and much more ;) 
Convert html and text documents to palm DOC format Pyrite Publisher can convert a variety of input formats into several different variations on the palm doc format. This package requires python 2.1. This new version includes experimental support for a gui interface; see /usr/share/doc/pyrite-publisher/README.GUI for details. 
X11 solitaire game written in Python PySol is an X11 solitaire game with a number of nice features, including hints, autoplay, unlimited undo, player statistics, demo mode, selectable card set and background graphics, and integrated help. It currently plays over one hundred different games and variants, and has a plug-in architecture which makes adding more easy. Install python-cardsets for a wide variety of cardsets. Install pysol-sound-server and pysol-sounds to get support for sound effects and background music. 
Additional card graphics for Pysol This package contains several additional sets of card graphics for the X11 solitaire game PySol. 
Sound server for PySol When installed along with the pysol-sounds package, allows PySol to play sounds and background music. 
Sounds and background music for use with PySol When this package is installed along with pysol-sound-server, PySol can play sounds and background music. It is mostly useless without the server. 
/pi:'thon/ In the words of its author, "the other scripting language" (other than Perl, that is). Python's design is notably clean, elegant, and well thought through; it tends to attract the sort of programmers who find Perl grubby and exiguous. Python's relationship with Perl is rather like the BSD community's relationship to Linux - it's the smaller party in a (usually friendly) rivalry, but the average quality of its developers is generally conceded to be rather higher than in the larger community it competes with. There's a Python resource page at See also Guido. 
a scripting language that is designed notably clean, elegant, and well thought through. 
An interactive object-oriented scripting language (default version) Python, the interpretive, interactive object oriented language, includes an extensive class library with lots of goodies for network programming, system administration, sounds and graphics. This package is a dependency package, which depends on Debian's default Python version (currently v2.1). 
An object-oriented p-code programming language. 
Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language often compared to Tcl, Perl, Scheme or Java. Python includes modules, classes, exceptions, very high level dynamic data types and dynamic typing. Python supports interfaces to many system calls and libraries, as well as to various windowing systems (X11, Motif, Tk, Mac and MFC). Programmers can write new built-in modules for Python in C or C++. Python can be used as an extension language for applications that need a programmable interface. This package contains most of thestandard Python modules, as well as modules for interfacing to the Tix widget set for Tk and RPM. 
two-player networked console tetris clone two-player networked console based tetris clone, written in python, similar to xtet42. 
Python wrappers for the XFree86 library libxf86config. It is used to read and write XFree86 configuration files. 
PyXML is a package of libraries to process XML with Python. The distribution contains a validating XML parser, an implementation of the SAX and DOM programming interfaces, and an interface to the Expat parser. 
Phil Zimmermann Defense Fund (PGP) 
Quality Assurance 
Question & Answers, "Q&A" 
Quality-Assurance Program (QA) 
Quality-Assurance Program Inspections (QA) 
Quality-Assurance Program Plan (QA) 
In the year 2000, there was a wide outbreak of the QAZ virus/trojan. The trojan leaves allows remote control TCP port 7597. Rumor has it that a Microsoft engineer disklike the performance cost of running anti-virus and disabled it. The engineer then got infected with QAZ. Somebody trolling on the Internet found the open port, remotely controlled the machine, and used it to log back into Microsoft and was able to steal some source code. 
Quick Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC, DOS) 
Quick Bulletin Board System (BBS) 
Query By Example (DB) 
Query By Forms (DB) 
Query By Image Content (IBM) 
homebrew recipe calculator QBrew is a homebrewer's recipe calculator. It provides facilities for creating beer recipies. 
professional CAD System. QCad is a professional CAD System. With QCad you can easily construct and change drawings with ISO-texts and many other features and save them as DXF-files. These DXF-files are the interface to many CAD-systems such as AutoCADR and many others. 
QuickCam image grabber Tools for grabbing single frames and videos from black and white Connectix QuickCam digital cameras. Includes X11 and svgalib versions. Note that nowadays there is support in the 2.2 kernels for this camera in the video4linux project, which is probably better than this. 
Queue Control Block 
Quality Color Dithering Modus 
Quarter Common Interchange Format 
Queueing Delay 
Quick and Dirty Operating System (OS, PC, MS-DOS, predecessor) 
A PE2-like text full-screen color text editor qe is a PE2-like full-screen color text editor. It's called "qe" because the letter "Q" comes after "P", so hopefully QE will exceed PE2! Like PE2 on DOS, QE is a great editor for both English and Chinese (Big5 or GB) text. Features include: * Optional Big5/GB Chinese interface. * User-definable macros and keyboard settings. Author: Jiann-Ching Liu <> Home Page: (Big5 Chinese) (English) 
Query Filter (DB) 
Quick File Access 
Quick Fix Engineering (MS) 
Qt-based Maidenhead grid squares calculator Qgrid converts from Maidenhead grid squares to latitude/longitude, converts from latitude/longitude to Maidenhead grid squares, calculates the distance in miles or kilometers, calculates the bearing and shows a graphical representation of the bearing. 
Calculate convex hulls and related structures These executables use a practical convex hull algorithm that combines the two-dimensional Quickhull Algorithm with the general dimension Beneath-Beyond Algorithm. This algorithm is robust against floating point errors, often a problem for less sophisticated computational geometry algorithms. There are also programs that perform related computations, such as Delaunay triangulation. 
An acronym for Query Interface, The QI (generally based on the CCSO Nameserver) is a database system that can be accessed by ph client programs to retrieve and edit entries in the server. This is generally used for phonebook services, but can be used in any database application. Further information is available. 
Quarter Inch Committee (org., Streamer) 
Quarter Inch Cartridge Standards Committee (QIC) 
Quarter Inch Cartridge Wide (QIC) 
Quality Information System 
a quick image viewer for X Quick Image Viewer (qiv) is a very small and pretty fast GDK/Imlib image viewer. Features include zoom, maxpect, scale down, fullscreen, brightness/contrast/gamma correction, slideshow, flip, horizontal/vertical, rotate left/right, delete (move to .qiv-trash/), jump to image x, jump forward/backward x images, filename filter and you can use qiv to set your X11-Desktop background. 
qiv is a fast image viewer for X based on gdk and imlib. 
Query Language 
Queuing Literature Database (DB) 
Query Language Interpreter 
Qualified Logical Link Control [protocol] (IBM) 
Quality Management Tools Quality Management Tools, the former 'Software Carpentry Project'. QMTest is the first tool released as a result of the Software Carpentry project. (Hopefully) forthcoming tools are: - a platform investigation and project reconfiguration tool to supersede autoconf. - a dependency management and program reconstruction tool to to supersede make. - an issue tracking system to supersede gnats and bugzilla. 
QM's ExtensionClass Python Module The ExtensionClass Python Module distributed with the Quality Management Tools. Improves integration between Python and C++ classes. This is a lightweight mechanism, named "ExtensionClass", developed for making Python extension types more class-like. Classes can be developed in an extension language, such as C or C++, and these classes can be treated like other python classes. 
A Testing Framework CodeSourcery's QMTest provides a cost-effective general purpose testing solution that allows an organization to implement a robust, easy-to-use testing program tailored to its needs. QMTest works with most varieties of UNIX, including GNU/Linux, and with Microsoft Windows. QMTest's extensible architecture allows it to handle a wide range of application domains: everything from compilers to graphical user interfaces to web-based applications. 
Quality Of Service (ATM, CLR, CTD, CDV), "QoS" 
Quality Program Analysis 
Icom PCR-1000 GUI control icomlib is the PCR-1000 control suite. It consists of a library, command line programs, and a QT widget GUI application. This software controls an ICOM PCR-1000 receiver via a serial interface. 
Qplus-P is ETRI's embedded Linux solution for internet appliances such as PDA, Digital TV setopbox and webpad. Target Builder is an embedded Linux development toolkit tightly coupled with ETRI Qplus-P . It provides many features for developers to build embedded Linux systems. These features include configuration, dependency checking, conflict resolution, project management and deployment support to the target system. Using Target Builder, developers can make fully functional operating systems easily and quickly. Version 1.0 was released December 16, 2002. 
Enhanced Post Office Protocol server (POP3). This is The Qualcomm enhanced version of the Post Office Protocol Daemon (POP3 daemon), based on the latest BSD version. The QualComm popper has some extensions to the normal pop3 daemon, such as UIDL and bulletin support. 
Qpopper with DRAC Support Qpopper is The Qualcomm enhanced version of the Post Office Protocol Daemon (POP3 daemon), based on the latest BSD version. The QualComm popper has some extensions to the normal pop3 daemon, such as UIDL and bulletin support. DRAC means Dynamic Relay Authorization Control. Please read documents of the drac package for detail. This package included a version of qpoper with DRAC support. Please read the README.Debian of drac package to setup your MTA. 
Qt based process status monitor qps is an X11/Qt version of top or ps. qps is for Linux only, since there is no good standard way of getting process status information. It uses the /proc file system and need not to be run as root. 
Quark Publishing System (DTP) 
Quadri Phase Shift Keying [modulation] 
Queue Packet and Synchronous circuit Exchange 
Queued Sequential Access Method (SAM) 
Qt-based slow-scan TV and fax Qsstv is a program for receiving slow-scan television and fax. These are modes used by hamradio operators. Qsstv uses a soundcard to send and receive images. 
Command-line tool for querying quake (and other) servers Qstat provides a simple interface for querying servers for a number of games, including but not limited to quake, quakeworld, quake2, quake3arena, unreal tournament, kingpin and others. 
A powerful, fast open source graphics library for the X Window System on UNIX/Linux, which is used by programmers to create buttons, menus, and other graphical objects. (Also, see Gtk/Gtk+ and KDE.) 
At about that time, a new GUI library was released. It was called Qt and was developed by Troll Tech. It was not free, but it was an outstanding technical accomplishment in that it worked efficiently and cleanly on many different platforms. It was shunned by some factions of the Free software community because it was written in C++, [Which is not considered to be the standard development language by the Free Software Foundation because it is not completely portable and possibly for other reasons.]and was only free for noncommercial applications to link with. Nevertheless, advocates of Qt went ahead and began producing the outstanding KDE desktop project--a set of higher-level development libraries, a window manager, and many core applications that together make up the KDE Desktop. The licensing issues with Qt have relaxed somewhat, and it is now available under both the GPL and a proprietary license. 
Qt is a GUI software toolkit which simplifies the task of writing and maintaining GUI (Graphical User Interface) applications for the X Window System. Qt is written in C++ and is fully object-oriented. This package contains the shared library needed to run qt applications, as well as the README files for qt. 
Qt GUI Designer This package contains Qt Designer. Qt Designer is a tool that makes designing and implementing user interfaces a lot easier. With Qt Designer, you will learn how to create your own dialogs and how to arrange the user interface elements in the dialogs so that the dialogs look both nice and natural and can accommodate various environments, like different languages and user settings. This package does NOT contain KDE widget support 
Qt GUI Designer and other Qt3 based tools This package contains Qt Designer, Qt Linguist, and other tools out of the Qt3 toolset. They are being provided in this package as to better allow testing of this beta release of Qt3. Once Qt3 is released this package will go away. 
Queued Terminal Access Method 
Qt front-end for CUPS. This front-end is designed to behave like standard print front-ends like lpr or lp. It can be used to print a file "qtcups <filename>" and popup a nice configuration dialog. The Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS(tm)) is a printing system and general replacement for lpd. The terms "Common Unix Printing System" or "CUPS" are trademarks of Easy Software Products ( 
BBS client for X Window System written in Qt QTerm is a BBS client for X Window System. The goal is to make a client similar to STerm and CTerm in MS Windows. Home Page: 
A program for ERP (enterprise resource planning) and administrative accounting. The main qualities are: Stability and security: LINUX is a high stability and security operating system and therefore especially fit for the operational encouragement and QtTudo base. Open Source concept with consequently openness: This guarants you 100% independence. You have the possibility to view and edit all program parts without exception. Exchangeable database: The program uses only simple SQL-Syntax. You can change fast to the database of another manufacturer, therefore you are also independent. You choose the database, which is the best for your operational requirements. 
multiplayer puzzle game This is Quadra, a full-featured multiplayer action puzzle game for the X Window System and Svgalib. Features include: - Recursive block chaining - Blocks shadows - Teams playing - TCP/IP networking (free Internet playing! Supports SOCKS proxies) - Smooth block falling - Sound effects - Watches on other players - Chat window - CD-based music - And much more! 
popular 3D first person shooter game (engine only) Quake II is a 3D action game engine in first-person perspective, commonly known as a First Person Shooter. This package contains no data files. You will need to either install the commercial data from the Quake II CD-ROM with the quake2-data package, or install some free data files. This game currently supports software rendering with X11, SDL, or SVGAlib, or hardware accelerated rendering with OpenGL (directly or via SDL). 
Quanta Plus is an HTML editor for the K Desktop Environment. This program is designed for quick Web development. Quanta is rapidly becoming a mature editor with a number of great features. The objective of Quanta is to produce a complete Web development environment for active development with a focus on supporting professional level development. This means full HTML 4.0 support including cascading style sheets and lots of time saving features. Support for Perl, Javascript, and PHP is currently being developed. 
Web Development Environment for KDE Quanta Plus is a web development environment for HTML and associate languages. It is designed for quick web development and is rapidly becoming a mature editor with a number of great features. Quanta already has a good deal of PHP support in it including the ability to run a debugger. Quanta Plus is not in any way affiliated with any commercial versions of Quanta. The primary coders from the original team left the GPL'd version to produce a commercial product. 
The Quantian Scientific Computing Environment is a Knoppix / Debian variant tailored to numerical and quantitative analysis. Quantian is an extension of Knoppix from which it takes its base system of about 2.0 gigabytes of software, along with fully automatic hardware detection and configuration, then Quantian adds a set of programs of interest to applied or theoretical workers in quantitative or data-driven fields. Version 0.3 (now based on ClusterKnoppix) was released June 10, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
To request or search for information contained in a database. 
view outstanding bug reports on a debbugs server 
Guess the operating system of a remote machine This program probes a remote machine with a certain sequence of TCP packets. By analysing the response packets it can determine the type of operating system that runs on the remote machine, the version of that OS and sometimes it can even give information about the configuration of that machine. 
(Sometimes incorrectly spelled Que.) A list of tasks awaiting execution, as in the print queue. 
A list of jobs awaiting execution. Queues in a Linux system are nearly always processed by daemons. 
transparent load balancing system GNU Queue is a load-balancing system that lets users control their remote jobs in an intuitive, transparent and nearly seamless way. This is done with local shell job control and signaling and with Queue's innovative proxy daemon mechanism. Queue can be used as a local replacement for rsh to hosts within a homogeneous cluster under single administrative control. Queue also supports the more traditional email-based load-balancing and distributed batch-processing facilities using a number of criteria to decide where to send jobs. 
QUad Integrated Communications Controller (Motorola) 
A library offering less flexible, but faster arrays. This library offers a replacement for the standard array-type in Lisp. It has less features then the standard type, but it's a little faster. 
A simple GTK app for making lists of things QuickList allows novice and experienced users to keep track of "things" without any help from a system administrator. "Things" can be anything, including (but certainly not limited to!) bug lists, phone lists, restaurants, team members, calendars, cool urls, checkbooks, fishing holes, CDs, bunjee jumping cool sites, etc. It is completely flexible. QuickList lists "things" in column format, much as they would appear in a spreadsheet. Quicklist can sort lists of "things," search from them and generate printable reports from them. The native (.qlf) file format is non-relational, non-SQL. Comma and tab delimited files can be imported and exported. In addition, html can be exported for publishing to the World Wide Web. If you liked the Appleworks or Microsoft Works databases, you will like QuickList. 
X-based data viewer A 2-D plotter that lets you "swim through" your data quickly, in X, "a zooming pager for data". It gives you a quick look at all your data, even when you don't have a clue of what your data looks like. 
PPP configuration tool QuickPPP is a simple utility that sets up a PPP connection to your ISP using pppd. It uses PAP/CHAP authentication, so it will work with pretty much any ISP that works in Windows 9x Dial Up Networking. It has been tried with a few ISPs and has worked great. 
GNOME applet providing one-click recording quickrecord lives on your task bar, and when you click on it, begins recording audio to a wav file named by a user specified convention. It also features a pre-record buffer, so no audio is lost while you go to click the button to start recording. The purpose of quickrecord is to allow you to easily save things you like as soon as you hear them. 
GNOME QuickResolution Applet GNOME QuickRes Applet is a small program that sits on a GNOME panel, providing you with a list of all the valid X11 video modes defined in the XF86Config file for fast mode switching, just like that icon in Windoze 9X. More information can be found at the QuickRes-Applet web site 
quicktime utilities This package has a few small utilities which come with the quicktime4linux library. 
Quinlan, Daniel
chairman of the Linux Standards Base. The LSB is an attempt to define compatibility standards for Linux distributions -- a project that many feel will be of crucial importance as Linux develops. 
Compares a Packages files and a Sources file This is a program to compare a Packages files and a Sources file to see which programs need (re)compiling for any given architecture. Quinn diff knows about architecture specific packages (e.g. lilo) and can easily exclude them via a Packages-arch-specific file. The output is a list of source packages complete with accurate section and version information, suitable for use in build daemons or just in a script to auto-snarf the necessary source. 
Secure store for secrets (passphrases, etc.). quintuple-agent serves as a cache for secrets, so that you don't have to enter them over and over again. You enter a secret once, and quintuple-agent stores it for a configurable timespan. Programs needing the secret can query the agent for it instead of bothering you. Included are wrappers for PGP 2 and GnuPG. 
An implementation of the disk quota system. QUOTA is implemented using the BSD system call interface as the means of communication with the user level. This is based on the Melbourne quota system which uses both user and group quota files. 
The quota package contains system administration tools for monitoring and limiting user and or group disk usage per filesystem. 
Value limits set to manage access to system and network resources or the amount of storage used by a particular user or group. 
tool to edit disk quotas from the command line Quotatool lets you edit disk quotas from the command line. This is very useful to edit disk quotas from scripts. 
Preventing special characters from being interpreted as special characters, often using quotation marks. 
Casio QV Camera Communications Tool Downloads/uploads and controls a Casio QV XX Digital Still Picture camera. 
Windows95 like window manager for X Window System Qvwm is a Window95 like window manager for X Window System. The name is derived from 'q' standing for '9' (pronouncing '9' as [kju:] in Japanese) and 'v' standing for '5' in Roman numerals. All of the possible features of Windows95 and complete features as a window manager will be realized in the future. 
Standard English-language keyboard arrangement; name represents the first six alphabetical keys on the top left corner of the keyboard. 
A format for offline mail and news reader packets, originally made popular on MS-DOS but available as a Unix command. 
??? Graphics Array [2048 x 1536] 
GNU R statistical computing language and environment R is `GNU S' - A language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is similar to the award-winning S system, which was developed at Bell Laboratories by John Chambers et al. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, ...). R is designed as a true computer language with control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation, and it allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions. For computationally intensive tasks, C, C++ and Fortran code can be linked and called at run time. S is the statistician's Matlab and R is to S what Octave is to Matlab. This packages is a meta-package which eases the transition from the pre-1.5.0 package setup with its larger r-base package. Once installed, it can be safely removed and apt-get will automatically upgrade its components during future upgrades. Providing this packages gives a way to users to then only install r-base-core (but not, say, r-base-latex) if they so desire. 
GNU R Gnome gui for statistical computing system R is `GNU S' - A language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is similar to the award-winning S system, which was developed at Bell Laboratories by John Chambers et al. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, ...). R is designed as a true computer language with control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation, and it allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions. For computationally intensive tasks, C, C++ and Fortran code can be linked and called at run time. This package provides the dynamic link libraries needed to start GNU R with the GNOME libraries frontend as in "R --gui=GNOME" 
GNU R standalone mathematics library R is `GNU S' - A language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is similar to the award-winning S system, which was developed at Bell Laboratories by John Chambers et al. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, ...). R is designed as a true computer language with control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation, and it allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions. For computationally intensive tasks, C, C++ and Fortran code can be linked and called at run time. This packages provides the libRmath shared and static libraries which can be called from standalone C or C++ code. 
GNU R collection of recommended packages R is `GNU S' - A language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is similar to the award-winning S system, which was developed at Bell Laboratories by John Chambers et al. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, ...). This Debian package contains the R packages that are recommended by the upstream R core team as part of a complete R distribution. It comprises the following packages: - KernSmooth: Functions for kernel smoothing for Wand & Jones (1995) - VR: The MASS, class, nnet and spatial libraries from Venables and Ripley, `Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS' (3rd edition). - boot: Bootstrap R (S-Plus) Functions from the book "Bootstrap Methods and Their Applications" by A.C. Davison and D.V. Hinkley (1997). - cluster: Functions for clustering (by Rousseeuw et al.) - foreign: Read data stored by Minitab, S, SAS, SPSS, Stata, ... - grid: The grid graphics package (required by lattice) - lattice: Implementation of Trellis (R) graphics - mgcv: Multiple smoothing parameter estimation and GAMs by GCV - nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models - rpart: Recursive partitioning and regression trees - survival: Survival analysis, including penalised likelihood. 
Registration Authority (PKI, ITU) 
Remote Access (BBS) 
Rabid Squirrel Linux
Development on this distribution appears to have ceased early in 2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
A generator of LALR parser written by Ruby Racc is LALR(1) parser generator coded for Ruby. Written by Ruby and output Ruby source. 
Runtime library for parser which is generated by Racc. Runtime library for parser which is generated by Racc. 
Security Tool to audit remote systems Remote Access Session is a security tool to analyze the integrity of systems. The program tries to gain access to a system using the most advanced techniques of remote intrusion. It lets to work on normal mode (fast) and hard mode (more intensive). There is a big difference between "Remote Access Session" and other remote security audit tools: If "Remote Access Session" find a remote vulnerability that gives user account or root, it will try to exploit it and it will return a shell in order to discard false positives. It is actually under development and it just has a few features of the future final version: *Advanced scanning capabilities. This tool doesn't block against firewall and it's fast. *Total service's banner info added: Includes web server detection version and named version, and the classical too (ftp, pop ...) *Writes reports with info of the host analyzed to the hard disk. *Remote OS detect feature with QueSO. *If detects any vulnerability, the tool chooses the right exploits based on version, vendor and OS of the services that run on the remote host and ask you on a interactive way if you want to run these exploits in order to check the real danger the remote host can receive and discard false positives. Includes 69 remote exploits for various OS and services. 
DTMF support and utilities for vbox3 raccess4vbox3 provides initial configuration of vbox3, support for DTMF, and comes as a sample answering machine with remote access mode plus example modes for remote control of the system. A set of american voice sound files created with festival is included. 
A 3D arcade overhead car game. Race is a 3D racing game where you compete against computer opponents. The objective is to finish first. The setting is mostly off-road. This package contains the executable. 
Research and technology development in Advanced Communications technologies in Europe (Europe, predecessor, CORDIS) 
Rowbased ASCII Compatible Encoding (ASCII, Internet, DOMAIN, VeriSign/NSI) 
Resource Access Control Facility (IBM, MVS/ESA) 
Random Access CHannel (GSM, CCCH, mobile-systems) 
Rapid Access Disk 
Rapid Application Development [toolkit] (Delphi, Borland) 
Research And Development [data communications] (manufacturer) 
ncurses-bases radio application This is a ncurses-based radio application. It supports the video4linux API. 
simple ntp refclock daemon for MSF/WWVB/DCF77 time signals radioclkd takes the demodulated time signals from simple MSF/WWVB/DCF77 time signal receivers on the DCD line of a serial port, decodes the signals, and provides an interface to ntp via the shared memory refclock driver. 
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RFC 2138) 
Remote Authentication Dial-In user Service. A standard for authentication and accounting, RADIUS is primarily used to control dial-up access to PPP and other services. The protocal was standardized in RFC 2058, the current implementation is defined in RFCs 2138 and 2139. RADIUS uses UDP packets, older servers use ports 1645 and 1646, the current standard is port 1812 for authentication and 1813 for accounting. 
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
RADIUS allows distributed "modem pools" to use the same authentication server. When a user dials-up to an ISPs, the username/password is transmitted across the Internet to the central RADIUS server. This allows an ISP to easily manage many dialin locations. Key point: Since its humble beginnings, RADIUS has spread to become a generic remote authentication service. For example, it is becoming the desired standard to fix IEEE 802.11 wireless authentication problems. random
/bin/login replacement which uses the RADIUS protocol for authentication. Radiusclient is a /bin/login replacement which gets called by a getty to log in a user and to setup the user's login environment. Normal login programs just check the login name and password which the user entered against the local password file (/etc/passwd, /etc/shadow). In contrast to that Radiusclient also uses the RADIUS protocol to authenticate the user. This is the main binary archive. 
Radius log parser and report generator. Parses radius detail logfiles and generates pretty reports in plaintext, html, or csv. 
Radius server written by Cistron. RADIUS is a means of managing clients' access to network services, and is described by RFCs 2865 to 2869. This GPLed Radius server is not based on any Livingston code. It is compatible with the Livingston-2.01 server though. Over radius-2.01, it has support for Exec-Program on authentication, it is possible to limit the number of concurrent logins reliably, it has tagged attribute support, it can replicate accounting packets, and more. 
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server Provides the RADIUS server from Lucent Technologies Inc, formerly Livingston Enterprises Inc. RADIUS is a means of managing clients' access to network services, and is described by RFCs 2865 to 2869. 
Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 
Router Advertisement Daemon IPv6 has a lot more support for autoconfiguration than IPv4. But for this autoconfiguration to work on the hosts of a network, the routers of the local network have to run a program which answers the autoconfiguration requests of the hosts. On Linux this program is called radvd, which stands for Router ADVertisement Daemon. This daemon listens to router solicitations (RS) and answers with router advertisement (RA). Furthermore unsolicited RAs are also sent from time to time. 
A group of hard disks under the control of array management software that work together to improve performance and decrease the odds of losing data due to mechanical or electronic failure by using such techniques as data striping. RAID implementations, because of their complexity and steep cost, are most often used on network servers. Several RAID levels exist, each with advantages and disadvantages. See RAID level 0 through RAID level 53. 
Redundant Array of Independent / Inexpensive Disks (HDD, RAID) 
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks - a method whereby information is spread across several disks, using techniques such as disk striping (RAID Level 0) and disk mirroring (RAID level 1) to achieve redundancy, lower latency and/or higher bandwidth for reading and/or writing, and recoverability from hard-disk crashes. 
see redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID). 
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks/Devices)
A method of providing data redundancy, improved performance and/or quick data recoverability from disk crashes, by spreading or duplicating data across multiple disk drives. Commonly used RAID types include RAID 0 (Data Striping), RAID 1 (Disk Mirroring) and RAID 5 (Striping with Distributed Parity). RAID configurations typically require SCSI disk drives (not IDE/EIDE) and may require identical drives (same capacity, brand, etc.). RAID arrays appear to the operating system as a single device. 
RAID level 0
A redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) scheme that includes data strinping to improve disk performance but offers no protection against data loss due to drive failure. 
RAID level 0 & 1
See RAID level 10. 
RAID level 1
A redundant array of inexpemive disks (RAID) scheme involving an array of two hard disks with identical contents. RAID level 1 does not employ data striping, so it offers no speed advantage and is not economical. 
RAID level 10
A redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) implementation that combines the data striping of RAID level 0 with the data-redundancy of RAID level 1. RAID level 10 array have high performance, but are not economical. 
RAID level 2
A redundant array of inexprnsive disks (RAID) scheme that uses data striping over an array of as many as a bard disks. Several of the drives in the array have copies of data that exist elsewhere, enabling them to catch and fix errors in the outgoing data stream. RAID level 2 is one of the most popular implementations. 
RAID level 3
A redundant array of inexpemive disks (RAID) implementation very similar to RAID levels 2, in which the level disks that contain the copies of data that appears elsewhere can detect but not fix errors in the outgoing data stream. Though RAID level 3 is slightly slower than RAID level 2 when errors occur, modern hard disks rarely make errors. 
RAID level 4
A redundant array of inexprnsive disks (RAID) implementation that distributes copies of sectors across an array of hard disked and uses one drive to check for, but not correct, errors in the outgoing data stream. RAID level 4's sector-copying technique is a special type of data striping. 
RAID level 5
The most commonly used redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) implementation. RAID level 5 uses a sector-based data striping scheme like RAID level 4, but does ant require a special data-checking disk since it distributes that function across the entire array as well. 
RAID level 53
A redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) scheme that uses data striping on two separate RAID level 3 arrays RAID level 53 arrays are very fast and quite fault-tolerant. 
RAID level 6
A redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) implementation that allows two hard disks to fail without loss of data and boasts very good data-reading performance, but also has poor data-writing performance. RAID level 6 is similar to RAID level 5, except that it distributes two copies of the error-checking data across the array. 
The raidtools package includes the tools you need to set up and maintain a software RAID device (using two or more disk drives in combination for fault tolerance and improved performance) on a Linux system. It only works with Linux 2.2 kernels and later, or with a 2.0 kernel specifically patched with newer RAID support. 
Utilities to support 'old-style' RAID disks The Multiple Device driver's main goal is to group several disks or partitions together, making them look like a single block device. This includes linear adding of disks, RAID-0, RAID-4 and -5. If you are creating new RAID arrays, the raidtools2 package and newer RAID drivers may be a better choice. This package may only installed on systems with a kernel version higher than 2.1.62. With kernels from the 2.4 series or newer, or with 2.2 kernels with the 'new-style' RAID-patches, you should use raidtools2 instead. 
Utilities to support 'new-style' RAID disks The Multiple Device driver's main goal is to group several disks or partitions together, making them look like a single block device. This includes linear adding of disks, RAID-0, -1, -4 and -5. 'New-style' RAID arrays have a lot features not present in the 'older' RAID arrays, including autodetection. Old arrays can be upgraded with this package, and it is mostly a good idea to use this package when creating new RAID arrays. In order to use this package, you must have a kernel with 'new-style' RAID drivers, which are included in stock kernels since the 2.4 series. For older kernels, you can find patches at 
packet builder for testing IP protocols implementations. rain is a powerful packet builder for testing stability of hardware and software utilizing IP protocols. It offers its users the capability of fully customizing their own packets with a wide variety of command line options. 
Random Access Information Retrieval 
Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
RAM device
is a block device that can be used as a disk but really points to a physical area of RAM. 
RAM disk
An area of random-access memory (RAM) configured by a utility program to emulate a hard disk drive. Data stored in a RAM disk can be accessed more quickly than data stored on a disk drive, but this data is erased whenever you turn off or reboot the computer. See configuration file, device driver, and RAMDRIVE.SYS. 
Random Access Memory Digital to Analog Converter (RAM) 
Rapid Access Management Information System 
Remote Access Maintenance Protocol 
Record Archival Management System 
query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode 
Rural Area Network Design 
adj. 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. "The system's been behaving pretty randomly." 2. Assorted; undistinguished. "Who was at the conference?" "Just a bunch of random business types." 3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. "He's just a random loser." 4. Incoherent or inelegant; poorly chosen; not well organized. "The program has a random set of misfeatures." "That's a random name for that function." "Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly." 5. In no particular order, though deterministic. "The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly." 6. Arbitrary. "It generates a random name for the scratch file." 7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e., poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless way, or an assembler routine that could easily have been coded using only three registers, but redundantly uses seven for values with non-overlapping lifetimes, so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What randomness! 8. n. A random hacker; used particularly of high-school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way. 9. n. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking); the noun form of sense 2. "I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions". 10. n. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also J. Random, some random X. 11. [UK] Conversationally, a non sequitur or something similarly out-of-the-blue. As in: "Stop being so random!" This sense equates to `hatstand', taken from the Viz comic character "Roger Irrelevant - He's completely Hatstand." 
random access memory (RAM)
The main memory of a computer. RAM is used for temporarily storing currently running applications and accessed data. 
random-access memory digital-to-analog convertor (RAMDAC)
A chip in the video adapter that converts three digital signals (one for each primary color) into one analog signal that is sent to the monitor. RAMDACs use on-board randomaccess memory (RAM ) to store information before processing it. 
semi-random text typer Randtype is a small utility to output characters or lines at random intervals. There are a few command line options to refine the output. With it you can output files to the screen, and if you configured it well, it will look like someone is actually typing - with optional typos even. 
generate index to archive. 
Remote Access Point 
[internet] Route Access Protocol (RFC 1476, Internet) 
Resource And Performance Interactive Display system 
Real Application on Parallel Systems 
Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne (org.) 
manipulate the system RARP table 
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (Internet, RFC 903) 
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol daemon RARP is a protocol which allows individual devices on an IP network to get their own IP addresses from the RARP server. You need this daemon only if you have on your LAN machines like diskless Sun boxes. With kernels up to 2.2 you have the option of using the integrated RARP support instead of this daemon. 
Adds redundancy files to archives for data recovery. Ras is a program that adds m extra files to a set of n files, such that the contents of the n original files can be regenerated from any n of the n+m original files and extra files. Normally, these extra files will all be 6 bytes larger then the largest of the original files, but ras has a mode in which the extra files are exactly the same size as the original files. Ras was originally intended for transporting a large file split over several floppy disks in a manner resilient to the corruption of a few of the disks, and a pair of example shell scripts to do this (rassplit and rasmerge) is included in the distribution. 
Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (IBM) 
Remote Access Software 
Row Address Strobe (IC, DRAM) 
molecule visualization and rendering RasMol is a molecular graphics program intended for the visualisation of proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules. The program is aimed at display, teaching and generation of publication quality images. Currently supported input file formats include Brookhaven Protein Databank (PDB), Tripos' Alchemy and Sybyl Mol2 formats, Molecular Design Limited's (MDL) Mol file format, Minnesota Supercomputer Center's (MSC) XMol XYZ format and CHARMm format files. The loaded molecule may be shown as wireframe, cylinder (drieding) stick bonds, alpha-carbon trace, spacefilling (CPK) spheres, macromolecular ribbons (either smooth shaded solid ribbons or parallel strands), hydrogen bonding and dot surface. Rasmol homepage: 
Unicast and multicast voice-over-IP application RAT is a network audio tool that allows users to participate in audio conferences over the Internet. These can be between two participants directly, or between a group of participants on a common multicast group. No special features are required to use RAT in point-to-point mode, but to use the multicast conferencing facilities of RAT, a connection to the Mbone, or a similar multicast capable network, is required. RAT is based on IETF standards, using RTP above UDP/IP as its transport protocol, and conforming to the RTP profile for audio and video conferences with minimal control. Further information is available on the WWW, at: 
Rational Fortran preprocessor for Fortran 77. Ratfor77 is a preprocessor that converts the Rational Fortran dialect into ordinary Fortran 77. The output can then be compiled using g77 or f2c + gcc. The Ratfor dialect provides C-like control structures and some syntactic sugar that makes Fortran programs easier to read and write. 
Creates X menus from the shell. This is ratmenu, a simple program that allows you to create X menus from the shell. It is a simplified version of 9menu, with the crucial difference that where 9menu only responds to the mouse, and ignores the keyboard, ratmenu has all mouse sensitivity taken out, and only responds to the keyboard. It is meant to be used with the ratpoison window manager. Although it should work with other window managers, YMMV. 
Reliable Asynchronous Transfer Protocol (RFC 916) 
Simple window manager with no fat library dependencies. ratpoison is a simple Window Manager with no fat library dependencies, no fancy graphics, no window decorations, and no flashy wank. It is largely modelled after GNU Screen which has done wonders in virtual terminal market. All interaction with the window manager is done through keystrokes. ratpoison has a prefix map to minimize the key clobbering that cripples EMACS and other quality pieces of software. 
Radio-Amateur Telecommunications Society (org., USA) 
Rough Auditing Tool for Security RATS, the Rough Auditing Tool for Security, is a security auditing utility for C, C++, php, perl, and python code. RATS scans source code, finding potentially dangerous function calls. The goal of rats is not to definitively find bugs (yet), but to provide a reasonable starting point for performing manual security audits. The initial vulnerability database is taken directly from things that could be easily found when starting with the book, "Building Secure Software" by Viega and McGraw. 
Relational Advanced Visual Environment 
bind a Linux raw character device 
Linux IPv4 raw sockets 
raw mode
A mode in which characters entered into the Linux system are read and interpreted one at a time. 
Buffered raw audio recorder/player The rawrec/rawplay utilities provide a simple way to record or play back raw audio data. Options exist to control the timing of the run, add silent guard time, jump into data files, set DSP parameters, and control buffer size and latency. rawrec should be particularly useful for scripting applications that need to deal with raw audio data. Compared to bplay, rawrec tries to do less (it only handles raw audio) and does it more correctly (all the options work right for raw audio. I think :). rawrec can work to or from standard io, so if you also get the sox program, you will be able to record and play a wide variety of sound formats. You will need a mixer program, such as aumix. 
Raymond, Eric
a software developer who has written a number of important Open Source programs including fetchmail and sed. Eric also maintains 8 FAQs, amd has written a number of influential papers including The Cathedral and the Bazaar: an analysis of how and why the Linux development model works. 
spam-catcher using a collaborative filtering network Vipul's Razor is a distributed, collaborative, spam detection and filtering network. Razor establishes a distributed and constantly updating catalogue of spam in propagation. This catalogue is used by clients to filter out known spam. On receiving a spam, a Razor Reporting Agent (run by an end-user or a troll box) calculates and submits a 20-character unique identification of the spam (a SHA Digest) to its closest Razor Catalogue Server. The Catalogue Server echos this signature to other trusted servers after storing it in its database. Prior to manual processing or transport-level reception, Razor Filtering Agents (end-users and MTAs) check their incoming mail against a Catalogue Server and filter out or deny transport in case of a signature match. Catalogued spam, once identified and reported by a Reporting Agent, can be blocked out by the rest of the Filtering Agents on the network. 
constantly changing 3D stereogram generator razzle generates constantly changing 3D stereograms using SVGAlib. For instructions on viewing stereograms, please see /usr/doc/razzle/README or the man page. WARNING! if you have an epileptic condition, *READ* /usr/doc/razzle/README. 
Relative Byte Address 
restricted bash, see bash(1) 
Remote Bulletin Board System (BBS) 
Random Block Filemanager (OS-9) 
Remote Bridge Hub 
Realtime Blackhole List (Internet, SPAM) 
Tool to Query RBL Servers This program is a very basic interface to DNS listings such as the RBL filter developed by Paul Vixie and the MAPS project. The basic idea of the filter is that when someone is blacklisted for email abuse of some sort, a new domain name is resolved of the form "", where is the abusive IP address in reverse (for example, would be the IP address, and "" is the base domain name of the filtering service (such as "" for the MAPS project RBL filter). 
Realtime Batch Monitor (OS, Xerox) 
Remote Bridge Management Software 
Regional Bell Operating Company (USA) 
Remote Boot Daemon The rbootd daemon is used for booting some HP workstations over the network (such as the 9000/300 and 9000/400 series). It can also boot PA RISC workstations. It handles the first stage of the boot sequence and can be used to start booting Linux, NetBSD or HPUX. 
An implementation of the AT&T Plan 9 shell. rc is a command interpreter and programming language similar to sh(1). It is based on the AT&T Plan 9 shell of the same name. The shell offers a C-like syntax (much more so than the C shell), and a powerful mechanism for manipulating variables. It is reasonably small and reasonably fast, especially when compared to contemporary shells. Its use is intended to be interactive, but the language lends itself well to scripts. 
Reconfigurable Computer / Computing (RL) 
Region Co-ordinator (FidoNet) 
Release Candidate (MS) 
Return Code (REXX, ...) 
Routing Control 
RC File
A script file containing the startup instructions for a program (an application or even the operating system). The file, to be executed automatically when the operating system is started, contains a list of instructions (commands or other scripts) to run. 
rc file
Script file containing startup instructions for an application program (or an entire operating system), usually a text file containing commands of the sort that might have been invoked manually once the system was running but are to be executed automatically each time the system starts up. 
RC2 (Rivest Cipher 2)
A popular symmetric block-cipher alogirthm created by Ron Rivest>. It allows keys between 1 and 2048 bits, though most implementations limits keys to 40-bits due to historic export controls. History: The algorithm was a trade-secret until it was posted anonymously in 1996 to USENET. Applications: SSL, SET 
Ron's Code 2/4 (cryptography), "RC2/4" 
RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4, Arcfour, ARC4)
A symmetric stream cipher developed by RSA Data Security, Inc.. Whereas most ciphers have been optimized for hardware (e.g. DES), RC4 was optimized for software. Applications: SSL, which means RC4 is built into your Netscape and Microsoft web browser. CDPD (Cellular) connections for your Palm modem using OmniSky. Lotus Notes, MS Access, Adobe Acrobat, PPTP, Oracle Secure SQL. IEEE 802.11 WEP Key point: RC4 supports variable length keys (up to 2048-bits), but most uses are 40-bits due to historic export controls. History: The algorithm was a trade-secret until 1994 when somebody reverse engineered it and anonymously posted it to the cypherpunks list and USENET. This reverse engineered version is known as "Arcfour" or "ARC4", which stands for "Alleged RC4". It isn't patented. Therefore, RSA Inc. is trying to move all its customers to RC5, which is both patented and copyrighted. The source code is essentially: while (length--) { x++; sx = state[x]; y += sx; sy = state[y]; state[y] = sx; state[x] = sy; *data++ ^= state[(sx+sy)&0xFF];} RSA Inc. still claims that it is a trade secret; however, due to its simplicity, its description is in virtually all crypto textbooks -- it is the most widely known secret on the net. Key point: RC4 works by XORing the plain-text against a stream of random numbers. Unless a whitening seed is provided at the begining, the plain-text may be recovered. This is a common bug in products. 
Rivest Cipher 5 (RFC 2040, cryptography) 
The successor to RC4. Key point: In order to promote RC5, RSA conducts contests that pay people if they can crack it. The first contest used a 56-bit key, took 212 days to crack by using a total of roughly 1-million computers trying all possible 35,000,000,000,000,000 combinations. The message was "It is time to move to a longer key length.", and it was encrypted using the key 0x532B744CC20999. 
A symbolic calculator for the GNOME desktop. rCalc is a scientific calculator for the GNOME desktop environment. It aims to occupy the middle ground between simple `point-and-click' calculators and full featured mathematical packages, and hopefully take some of the best of both worlds. 
Reserve Component Automation System 
Radio Common Carrier 
Regional Control Center 
Remote Cluster Controller 
Routing Control Center 
Debian Runlevel configuration tool This tool configures system services in connection with system runlevels. It turns on/off services using the scripts in /etc/init.d/. Rcconf works with both System-V style and file-rc runlevel configuration. It is a TUI frontend to the update-rc.d command. 
Console frontend to DCTC - Direct Connect (peer-based file-sharing) RCCP (Red Connect Console Program) is text front-end for the dctc program. Dctc handles all communication with dchubs and clients. RCCP is designed to allow both scripting and command line interaction. Besides supporting all the basic Direct Connect commands such as downloading, searching, uploading, resuming, multihub search etc RCCP can be scripted. Selected scripts from many included with the package: * multi hub spider search * last seen user script (ala irc !seen script) * list all files from all users * download bot - watches query results and downloads all of them * segmented downloading * ... plus many more ... Direct Connect protocol is intended for peer-based file-sharing. In practise it works better than gnutella and other similar systems as it allows dc hubs (servers) administators to require clients to share specified amount of data. The amount is usually based on type of client's connection and it is used not to hurt or exclude anybody but to make file sharing "fair play". 
Receiver-Carrier Detector 
Regional Code Enhancement (DVD) 
Resident Command Extension (DOS) 
Reader's Comment Form (IBM) 
Remote Call-Forwarding 
Remote Common Gateway Interface (CGI, WWW, Novell) 
Runtime Control Library 
Remote Carrier Module 
OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) 
Remote Copy Program 
change RCS file attributes 
Overview of RCS. RCS, the revision control system, is a suite of programs that tracks changes in text files and controls shared access to files in work group situations. It is generally used to maintain source code modules. It lends itself to tracking revisions of document files as well. RCS was written by Walter F. Tichy and Paul Eggert. The latest version which has been ported to Linux is RCS Version 5.7. There is also a semi-official, threaded version available. Much of the information in this HOWTO is taken from the RCS man pages. RCS includes the rcs(1) program, which controls RCS archive file attributes, ci(1) and co(1), which check files in and out of RCS archives, ident(1), which searches RCS archives by keyword identifiers, rcsclean(1), a program to clean up files that are not being worked on or haven't changed, rcsdiff(1), which runs diff(1) to compare the revisions, rcsmerge(1), which merges two RCS branches into a single working file, and rlog(1), which prints RCS log messages. Files archived by RCS may be text of any format, or binary if the diff program used to generate change files handles 8-bit data. Files may optionally include identification strings to aid in tracking by ident(1). RCS uses the utilities diff(1) and diff3(3) to generate the change files between revisions. A RCS archive consists of the initial revision of a file, which is version 1.1, and a series of change files, one for each revision. Each time a file is checked out of an archive with co(1), edited, and checked back into the archive with ci(1), the version number is increased, for example, to 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, and so on for successive revisions. The archives themselves commonly reside in a ./RCS subdirectory, although RCS has other options for archive storage. For an overview of RCS, see the rcsintro(1) manual page. From RCS-HOWTO
Reloadable Control Storage 
Remote Connection Service (IBM, OS/2, LAN) 
Resource Construction Set 
Revision Control System (Unix, CM, GNU) 
The GNU Revision Control System The Revision Control System (RCS) manages multiple revisions of files. RCS automates the storing, retrieval, logging, identification, and merging of revisions. RCS is useful for text that is revised frequently, for example programs, documentation, graphics, papers, and form letters. 
RCS (Revision Control System)
A suite of programs that controls shared access to files in a group environment and tracks text file changes. Generally used for maintaining programming source code modules. 
LaTeX macro package for handling RCS keywords This allows the user to typeset RCS keywords in their document without being concerned about dollar signs and the like. 
generates a changelog from RCS files 
clean up working files 
compare RCS revisions 
freeze a configuration of sources checked in under RCS 
merge RCS revisions 
Rewritable Consumer Time Code (video) 
Resistor-Capacitor-Transistor Logic 
Receive Data (MODEM) 
Recursive Design (CASE) 
Remove Directory (DOS, OS/2) 
Research and Development, "R&D" 
Route Descriptor 
Remote Database Access (ISO, OSI) 
Set the system's date from a remote host. Rdate displays and sets the local date and time from the host name or address given as the argument. It uses the RFC868 protocol which is usually implemented as a built-in service of inetd(1). 
The rdate utility retrieves the date and time from another machine on your network, using the protocol described in RFC 868. If you run rdate as root, it will set your machine's local time to the time of the machine that you queried. 
Receive Data Buffer 
Relational DataBase (DB) 
Rigid Disk Block (Amiga, Commodore) 
Relational DataBase Management System (DBMS, DB) 
Relational DataBase Management System - Management Information Base (DB), "RDBMS-MIB" 
Remote Data Connector 
Random Digital Dial 
Replaceable Database Driver (Clipper, CA-VO, DB) 
Received Data Enable 
Remote Data Entry System 
rdesktop is an open source client for Windows NT Terminal Server and Windows 2000 Terminal Services, capable of natively speaking Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) in order to present the user's NT desktop. Unlike Citrix ICA, noserver extensions are required. rdesktop currently runs on most UNIX based platforms with the X Window System, and other ports should be fairly straightforward.
RDP client for Windows NT/2000 Terminal Server rdesktop is an open source client for Windows NT/2000 Terminal Server, capable of natively speaking its Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) in order to present the user's NT/2000 desktop. Unlike Citrix ICA, no server extensions are required. 
A utility for obtaining information about a Linux system. It is used to query and set the image root device, the video mode, the swap device and a RAM disk. 
query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode 
A utility which can be used to obtain information about your Linux system. It can query/set the image root device, the swap device, the RAM disk size or video mode. 
Rate Decrease Factor 
Record Definition Field 
Resource Description Framework (IBM, Netscape, MS, ..., WWW) 
RSA-DES-Hybridverschluesselung (cryptography, HBCI) 
Remote Defect Identification / Indicator (UNI) 
Binary diff tool for signature-based differences rdiff is a little like diff and patch all rolled into one, with support for binary files. rdiff is a tool to do this. 
Backup program to use deltas for history rdiff-backup is a script that backs up one directory to another. The target directory ends up a copy of the source directory, but extra reverse diffs are stored in a special subdirectory of that target directory, so you can still recover files lost some time ago. The idea is to combine the best features of a mirror and an incremental backup. rdiff-backup also preserves subdirectories, symlinks, special files, permissions, uid/gid ownership (if it is running as root), and modification times. Finally, rdiff-backup can operate in a bandwidth efficient manner over a pipe, like rsync. Thus you can use rdiff-backup and ssh to securely back a hard drive up to a remote location, and only the differences will be transmitted. 
is an open source program to maintain identical copies of files over multiple hsots. It preserves the owner, group, mode, and mtime of files if possible and can update programs that are executing. Almost all versions of UNIX include rdist. However, most that do include a very old version sometimes referred to as "4.2BSD rdist", "rdist classic", or "rdsit version 3". From MagniComp
Remote file distribution client and server. Rdist is a program to maintain identical copies of files over multiple hosts. It preserves the owner, group, mode, and mtime of files if possible and can update programs that are executing. 
The RDist program maintains identical copies of files on multiple hosts. If possible, RDist will preserve the owner, group, mode, andmtime of files and it can update programs that are executing. 
Relational Database Language (DB) 
Remote Digital Loopback 
Radio Data Link Access Protocol (MODACOM), "RD-LAP" 
Relational Data Modeler 
Reliably Delivered Message 
Relative Distinguished Name (X.500) 
Research Data Network Cooperative Research Centre (org., Australia) 
??? (CICS, IBM) 
??? (CICS, IBM) 
Remote Data Objects (DB) 
Reliable Datagram Protocol 
Remote Desktop Protocol (MS) 
Remote Display Protocol (MS, Windows NT, ASP) 
Request Data with Reply (Feldbus) 
Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, IC, Rambus) 
Rapidly Deployable Radio Networks (USA, Uni Kansas) 
Radio Digital System 
Rapid Development System (DB, Informix) 
Remote Data Services 
Region Digital Switched Network 
Radio Digital Terminal 
Restricted Data Transmissions 
RD document formatter RD is Ruby's POD. RDtool is formatter for RD. 
Emacs-lisp rd-mode for writing RD document Emacs major mode for RD editing. 
Research and Engineering, "R&E" 
Russian Anywhere -- russian text converter Russian Anywhere is a russian character decoding program. It allow transfer russian characters between different codepages. It's main purpose is to convert damaged russian e-mail messages to readable form and also may be used to convert files from/to known and unknown codepages. 
Tool for generating fast C-based recognizers re2c is a great tool for writing fast and flexible lexers. Unlike other such tools, re2c concentrates solely on generating efficient code for matching regular expressions. Not only does this singleness make re2c more suitable for a wider variety of applications, it allows us to generate scanners which approach hand-crafted ones in terms of size and speed. 
Research and Educational Applications of Computers in the Humanities 
Relative Element Address Designate (cryptography) 
hardware information-gathering tool for VESA PnP monitors read-edid consists of two tools; get-edid uses a VESA VBE 2 interrupt service routine request to read a 128 byte EDID version 1 structure from your graphics card, which retrieves this information from the monitor via the Data Display Channel (DDC). parse-edid parses this data structure and outputs data about the monitor suitable for inclusion into an XF86Config file. get-edid uses real-mode x86 instructions to communicate with the video hardware; therefore, it is usable only by root, and this package is only available for the i386 architecture. 
A file that can be read (copied, and so on) but not written (changed). Linux has a system of permissions that enables the owner of the file, the owner's group, or all users to have or not have permission to read, write, or execute file. 
Data or storage device that can be accessed and read but cannot be modified. 
Displays information about ELF files. 
The Readline library provides a set of functions that allow users to edit command lines. Both Emacs and vi editing modes are available. The Readline library includes additional functions for maintaining a listof previously-entered command lines for recalling or editing thoselines, and for performing csh-like history expansion on previous commands. 
display target of symbolic link on standard output 
read value of a symbolic link 
A roadmap of your source distribution. By ancient convention, this is the first file intrepid explorers will read after unpacking the source. 
A text file that comes with some software and gives information on the program, often additional information not found in the manual. 
Any essential information. This is usually an explanation of what the package does, promotional material, and anything special that need be done to install the package. 
n. Hacker's-eye introduction traditionally included in the top-level directory of a Unix source distribution, containing a pointer to more detailed documentation, credits, miscellaneous revision history, notes, etc. (The file may be named README, or READ.ME, or rarely ReadMe or readme.txt or some other variant.) In the Mac and PC worlds, software is not usually distributed in source form, and the README is more likely to contain user-oriented material like last-minute documentation changes, error workarounds, and restrictions. When asked, hackers invariably relate the README convention to the famous scene in Lewis Carroll's "Alice's Adventures In Wonderland" in which Alice confronts magic munchies labeled "Eat Me" and "Drink Me". 
a tool to read kernel profiling information 
[Biology] Conversion between sequence formats Reads and writes nucleic/protein sequences in various formats. Data files may have multiple sequences. Readseq is particularly useful as it automatically detects many sequence formats, and converts between them. URL: 
adj. Not simulated. Often used as a specific antonym to virtual in any of its jargon senses. 
real time
1. [techspeak] adj. Describes an application which requires a program to respond to stimuli within some small upper limit of response time (typically milli- or microseconds). Process control at a chemical plant is the canonical example. Such applications often require special operating systems (because everything else must take a back seat to response time) and speed-tuned hardware. 2. adv. In jargon, refers to doing something while people are watching or waiting. "I asked her how to find the calling procedure's program counter on the stack and she came up with an algorithm in real time." 
Real time OS
a real-time operating system is able to execute all of its tasks without violating specified timing constraints. 
real user
n. 1. A commercial user. One who is paying real money for his computer usage. 2. A non-hacker. Someone using the system for an explicit purpose (a research project, a course, etc.) other than pure exploration. See user. Hackers who are also students may also be real users. "I need this fixed so I can do a problem set. I'm not complaining out of randomness, but as a real user." See also luser. 
Real World
n. 1. Those institutions at which `programming' may be used in the same sentence as `FORTRAN', `COBOL', `RPG', `IBM', `DBASE', etc. Places where programs do such commercially necessary but intellectually uninspiring things as generating payroll checks and invoices. 2. The location of non-programmers and activities not related to programming. 3. A bizarre dimension in which the standard dress is shirt and tie and in which a person's working hours are defined as 9 to 5 (see code grinder). 4. Anywhere outside a university. "Poor fellow, he's left MIT and gone into the Real World." Used pejoratively by those not in residence there. In conversation, talking of someone who has entered the Real World is not unlike speaking of a deceased person. It is also noteworthy that on the campus of Cambridge University in England, there is a gaily-painted lamp-post which bears the label `REALITY CHECKPOINT'. It marks the boundary between university and the Real World; check your notions of reality before passing. This joke is funnier because the Cambridge `campus' is actually coextensive with the center of Cambridge town. See also fear and loathing, mundane, and uninteresting. 
Return the canonicalized absolute pathname The package contains a small utility realpath, which converts each pathname argument to an absolute pathname, which has no components that are symbolic links or the special . or .. directory. 
Programming game RealTimeBattle is a programming game in which robots controlled by programs are fighting each other. The goal is to destroy the enemies, using the radar to examine the environment and the cannon to shoot. Robot programs can be written in any language, all communication with the main program is done via stdout/stdin. 
reboot or enable/disable Ctrl-Alt-Del 
stop the system. 
To restart a computer without turning off the power. 
English text speech synthesizer Recite is a program to do speech synthesis. The quality of sound produced is not terribly good, but it should be adequate for reporting the occasional error message verbally. Given some English text, recite will convert it to a series of phonemes, then convert the phonemes to a sequence of vocal tract parameters, and then synthesise the sound a vocal tract would make to say the sentence. Recite can perform a subset of these operations, so it can be used to convert text into phonemes, or to produce an utterance based on vocal tract parameters computed by some other program. 
Character set conversion utility. Free `recode' converts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or produces nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported. 
The GNU recode utility converts files between various character sets. 
Save and index notes in Emacs environment Records-mode is a major mode for editing and indexing notes. Notes are per-day files containing one or more subjects, subjects from different days are indexed and can be traversed, etc. 
Save and index notes in Emacs environment Records-mode is a major mode for editing and indexing notes. Notes are per-day files containing one or more subjects, subjects from different days are indexed and can be traversed, etc. 
Save and index notes in Emacs environment Records-mode is a major mode for editing and indexing notes. Notes are per-day files containing one or more subjects, subjects from different days are indexed and can be traversed, etc. 
Undelete files on ext2 partitions Recover automates some steps as described in the ext2-undeletion howto. This means it seeks all the deleted inodes on your hard drive with debugfs. When all the inodes are indexed, recover asks you some questions about the deleted file. These questions are: * Hard disk device name * Year of deletion * Month of deletion * Weekday of deletion * First/Last possible day of month * Min/Max possible file size * Min/Max possible deletion hour * Min/Max possible deletion minute * User ID of the deleted file * A text string the file included (can be ignored) If recover found any fitting inodes, it asks to give a directory name and dumps the inodes into the directory. Finally it asks you if you want to filter the inodes again (in case you typed some wrong answers). 
Recovery Is Possible! (RIP)
RIP is a CD or floppy boot/rescue/backup system. It has support for a lot of filesystem types (Reiserfs, ext2/3, iso9660, UDF, XFS, JFS, UFS, HPFS, MINIX, MS DOS, NTFS, UMSDOS, and VFAT) and contains a bunch of utilities for system recovery. It might also be possible to install and boot it from a LS-120 floppy drive. It has been designed for non-networked stand-alone home PC hard drive booting and rescue. Only the CD version has UDF/HPFS/MINIX/XFS/JFS filesystem support. V51 was released March 21, 2002. V53 was released June 15, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
text editor 
Red Flag
Red Flag also claims to be the leading Linux OS provider in China. Redflag Linux Desktop 3.2 beta was released August 12, 2002. 
Red Hat Linux
Red Hat, Inc. is perhaps the best known distribution. Red Hat Linux 9 became available to Red Hat Network subscribers on March 31, 2003 and generally available on April 7, 2003. 
RedBlue Linux
Esfia, Inc. is based in Taipei, Taiwan. Its RedBlue Linux is used in the company's BlueTooth enabled PDA. 
redhat-config-date is a graphical interface for changing the system date and time, configuring the system time zone, and setting up the NTP daemon to synchronize the time of the system with a NTP time server. 
A graphical configuration tool for the Apache Web server. 
redhat-config-keyboard is a graphical user interface that allows the user to change the default keyboard of the system. 
redhat-config-kickstart is a graphical tool for creating kickstart files. 
redhat-config-language is a graphical user interface thatallows the user to change the default language of the system. 
redhat-config-mouse is a graphical user interface that allows the user to change the default mouse of the system. 
Netconf is the network configuration tool for Red Hat Linux, supporting ethernet, ADSL, ISDN, and PPP. It can also configure firewalls and masquerading, and can use profiles. 
redhat-config-nfs is a graphical user interface for creating, modifying, and deleting nfs shares. 
redhat-config-packages is the package manager for Red Hat Linux. It supports installation of interesting packages from CD. 
The printconf utility is a printer configuration and filtration system based on magicfilter (the alchemist data library) and the foomaticfilter system. It rebuilds local print configuration and spool directories from data sources at lpd init time, and is integrated touse the multi-sourced features of the alchemist data library. 
The printconf-gui package contains a GUI tool for the printconfutility. 
This is a tool for configuring operating system tunable parameters. It eases modifying /etc/sysctl.conf. 
redhat-config-rootpassword is a graphical user interface that allow sthe user to change the root password of the system. 
redhat-config-securitylevel is a graphical user interface for setting basic firewall rules. 
redhat-config-services is a utility which allows you to configure which services should be enabled on your machine. 
redhat-config-soundcard is a graphical user interface thatd etects and configures the soundcard(s) on the system. 
Redhat-config-users is a graphical utility for administrating users and groups. It depends on the libuser library. 
redhat-config-xfree is a graphical user interface that allows the user to configure their XFree86 Xserver. 
The redhat-logos package (the "Package") contains files of the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo and the RPM logo (the "Logos"). Red Hat, the RedHat "Shadow Man" logo, RPM, and the RPM logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and other countries. See the included COPYING file for information on copying and redistribution. 
Red Hat Log Viewer is a graphical interface for viewing and searching log files. 
This package contains the XML files that describe the menu layout for GNOME and KDE, and the .desktop files that define the names and icons of "subdirectories" in the menus. 
The redhat-release package identifies the release of Red Hat Linux. 
Red Hat specific rpm configuration files. 
redhat-switch-printer is the Printing System Switcher for Red Hat Linux. It enables users to easily switch between various printing systemthat they have installed. 
The redhat-switch-printer-gnome package contains a GNOME interface for the The Printing System Switcher. 
The Mail Transport Agent Switcher is a tool which enables users to easily switch between various Mail Transport Agents that they have installed. 
The redhat-switchmail-gnome package contains a GNOME interface for the Red Hat Mail Transport Agent Switcher. 
RedHawk Linux
Concurrent Computer Corporation's RedHawk Linux is not a mini-distribution, but as a full featured real-time distribution, it is somewhat specialized. It's an industry-standard, POSIX-compliant, real-time version of Linux, based on the Red Hat Linux distribution. RedHawk features high I/O throughput, fast response to external events, and optimized interprocess communication. Version 1.3 was released May 22, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
REDSonic's REDICE-Linux is a real-time Linux kernel, designed to support mission and time critical applications and provide quality of service to your system. 
Redirect TCP connections It can run under inetd or stand alone (in which case it handles multiple connections). Its 8 bit clean, not limited to line mode, is small and light. Supports FTP redirects and supports transparency support. redir is all you need to redirect traffic across firewalls authenticate based on an IP address etc etc. No need for the firewall toolkit. The functionality of inetd/tcpd and "redir" will allow you to do everything you need without screwy telnet/ftp etc gateways. (I assume you are running IP Masquerading of course.) 
Accepting input from a source other than the standard input or sending output to a destination other than the standard output. Use the less than sign (<) for redirection of input and the greater than sign (>) for redirection of output. 
Redirection Symbol
The > keyboard character. It is often used to send the output from a command to a text file. For example, ls -a > output.txt sends the current directory list to a file called output.txt. Repeating the command will replace the content of the file with new data. (Also, see Append Symbol and Piping Symbol.) 
redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID)
The use of two or more disk drives in a single computer system, which can provide better disk performance, error recovery, and fault tolerance. 
REGular EXpressions (GREP, EMACS, ...) 
/reg'eksp/ n. [Unix] (alt. `regex' or `reg-ex') 1. Common written and spoken abbreviation for `regular expression', one of the wildcard patterns used, e.g., by Unix utilities such as grep(1), sed(1), and awk(1). These use conventions similar to but more elaborate than those described under glob. For purposes of this lexicon, it is sufficient to note that regexps also allow complemented character sets using ^; thus, one can specify `any non-alphabetic character' with [^A-Za-z]. 2. Name of a well-known PD regexp-handling package in portable C, written by revered Usenetter Henry Spencer <>. 
See regular expression. 
A visual regular expression explorer RegExplorer is a visual regular expression explorer, it allows for writing regular expressions and visually see the matches, thus making regular expression much easier to write and maintain. More information can be found at the RegExplorer web site 
The Regina REXX interpreter. Regina is Anders Christensen's REXX interpreter for Unix and VMS. REXX is a procedural language that allows programs and algorithms to be written in a clear and structured way, it is also designed to be used as a macro language by arbitrary application programs. Contains the Regina REXX interpreter (regina and rexx), and external function package to interface to curses library. 
The Regina REXX interpreter, run-time library. Regina is Anders Christensen's REXX interpreter for Unix and VMS. REXX is a procedural language that allows programs and algorithms to be written in a clear and structured way, it is also designed to be used as a macro language by arbitrary application programs. Contains runtime shared libraries. 
REmote Graphics Instruction Set 
register dancing
n. Many older processor architectures suffer from a serious shortage of general-purpose registers. This is especially a problem for compiler-writers, because their generated code needs places to store temporaries for things like intermediate values in expression evaluation. Some designs with this problem, like the Intel 80x86, do have a handful of special-purpose registers that can be pressed into service, providing suitable care is taken to avoid unpleasant side effects on the state of the processor: while the special-purpose register is being used to hold an intermediate value, a delicate minuet is required in which the previous value of the register is saved and then restored just before the official function (and value) of the special-purpose register is again needed. 
REGulierungsbehoerde fuer Telekommunikation und Post Org., Germany, "RegTP" 
regular expression
A set of symbols, including text and metacharacters, used to search for text. The most common components are the period (.), which matches one character; the asterisk (*), which matches any number of characters; and brackets ([string]), which list a set of characters to be matched. 
Regular Expressions
A regular expression is a sequence of characters that forms a template used to search for strings [Words, phrases, or just about any sequence of characters. ] within text. In other words, it is a search pattern. To get an idea of when you would need to do this, consider the example of having a list of names and telephone numbers. If you want to find a telephone number that contains a 3 in the second place and ends with an 8, regular expressions provide a way of doing that kind of search. Or consider the case where you would like to send an email to fifty people, replacing the word after the ``Dear'' with their own name to make the letter more personal. Regular expressions allow for this type of searching and replacing. 
The reiserfs-utils package contains a number of utilities for creating, checking, modifying, and correcting any inconsistencies in ReiserFS filesystems, including reiserfsck (used to repair filesystem inconsistencies), mkreiserfs (used to initialize a partition to contain an empty ReiserFS filesystem), debugreiserfs (used to examinethe internal structure of a filesystem, to manually repair a corrupted filesystem, or to create test cases for reiserfsck), and some other ReiserFS filesystem utilities. You should install the reiserfs-utils package if you want to use ReiserFS on any of your partitions. 
User-level tools for ReiserFS filesystems This package contains utilities to create, check, resize, and debug ReiserFS filesystems. NOTE: Releases of Linux prior to 2.4.1 do not support ReiserFS on their own. Thus, these tools will only be useful with Linux 2.4.1 or later, or if your kernel has been built with the ReiserFS patch applied. This patch can be found in the appropriate kernel-patch-<version>-reiserfs packages. 
In file system navigation, a path to a file or directory as it relates to a user's or program's current directory location. 
Relative vs. Absolute Pathnames
Commands can be given file name arguments in two ways. If you are in the same directory as the file (i.e., the file is in the current directory), then you can just enter the file name on its own (e.g., cp my_file new_file). Otherwise, you can enter the full path name, like cp /home/jack/my_file /home/jack/new_file. Very often administrators use the notation ./my_file to be clear about the distinction, for instance, cp ./my_file ./new_file. The leading ./ makes it clear that both files are relative to the current directory. File names not starting with a / are called relative path names, and otherwise, absolute path names. 
Relax Linux
Relax Linux is a free Linux distribution targeted towards desktop users. It has compiler tools and glibc2.1, you can install to a dos loop image (safer for you windows users) or to a seperate ext2 partition. It's easy to install and the whole thing fully installed is less than 350 megs. A small disk distribution. 
relay (mail relay)
E-mail relay is where spammers hijack an e-mail server in order to forward their spam through the server. Usually, the spammer (from the Internet) sends the e-mail server a single e-mail with thousands of recipients. Similarly, any open USENET server can be hijacked to relay spam to newsgroups. Key point: This allows a spammer with a dial-up account to send e-mail as fast as a high-speed Internet connection, since it is the victim who breaks apart the recipient list and sends each person a separate copy. Therefore, one e-mail goes into the server, thousands come out. Key point: Relaying can be turned off in the e-mail server configuration. Such configuration will force the server to accept either incoming mail, or outgoing mail, but not incoming e-mail destined back out to the Internet. There are several sites on the Internet that will scan your corporate e-mail server to see if will relay spam. Key point: Some e-mail relays are completely open, others are closed to open relaying, but have bugs that can be exploited in order to relay spam. Resource: Paul Vixie's MAPS (MAPS is SPAM spelled backwards). 
SMTP Relaying Control for qmail & tcpserver This package allows SMTP relaying for any host that authenticates with POP3. 
Remote Equipment Module 
Ring Error Monitor 
Emacs mode to help find relevant texts The Remembrance Agent is one of the projects being developed by the MIT Media Lab's software agents group. Given a collection of the user's accumulated email, usenet news articles, papers, saved HTML files and other text notes, it attempts to find those documents which are most relevant to the user's current context. That is, it searches this collection of text for the documents which bear the highest word-for-word similarity to the text the user is currently editing, in the hope that they will also bear high conceptual similarity and thus be useful to the user's current work. These suggestions are continuously displayed in a small buffer at the bottom of the user's emacs buffer. If a suggestion looks useful, the full text can be retrieved with a single command. 
a sophisticated reminder service Remind allows you to remind yourself of upcoming events and appointments via a reasonably easy to understand config file. Each reminder or alarm can consist of a message sent to standard output, or a program to be executed. It also features: sophisticated date calculation, moon phases, sunrise/sunset, Hebrew calendar, alarms, PostScript output, tcl/tk front-end, multilingual messages, and proper handling of holidays. Includes scripts for making a nice WWW calendar server (in the /usr/share/doc/remind/examples directory). And provides a graphical front-end for people who don't want to learn the scripting language. 
Real Estate Management Information System 
Resources Management On-Line System 
remote (remote attack, remote exploit)
A common way to classify attacks is whether they are done remotely by a hacker from across the Internet, or whether they are done locally by a user who already has privileges on the system. The important difference is that a "remote" attack can be launched by any of the hundreds of the of millions of people on the Internet at any time without first logging on. Point: A hacker may need to use a combination of remote and local exploits in order to gain control over a system. More and more services are running within sandboxes in order to limit the "spread of the infection". A local exploit may be needed in order to break out of the sandbox. Key point: The most common remote exploits are buffer overflow and other unchecked input attacks. They are either done against public services (such as HTTP and FTP) or during the logon of protected services (such as POP and IMAP). 
remote administration trojan (RAT)
A trojan that when run, provides a hacker remote administration to the machine. Contrast: A trojan is any program with a hidden intent. A RAT is one whose hidden intent is to remotely control the machine. In particular, once the program is run and installs itself as a hidden background service, it ceases to a trojan in the classic sense and is now better thought of as a rootkit. Example: Back Orifice, NetBus, SubSeven, Hack'a'tack Contrast: A remote administration trojan is not a virus. The general populace uses the word virus to apply to any hostile program a hacker might use. Normally, being a purist using the correct word is futile, but in this case the distinction is important. You catch viruses accidentally, and the virus rarely does anything hostile to your system. Conversely, when a hacker attempts to infect your system with a remote administration trojan, the hacker is attacking you personally. Key point: Infections by remote administration Trojans on Windows machines are becoming as frequent as viruses. One common vector is through File and Print Sharing, when home users inadvertently open up their system to the rest of the world. If a hacker has access to the hard-drive, he/she can place the trojan in a location known as the startup folder. This will run the trojan the next time the user logs in. Another common vector is when the hacker simply e-mails the trojan to the user along with a social engineering hack that convinces the user to run it against their better judgment. 
remote procedure call (RPC)
A protocol where a program or routine on a server can be run remotely on a client. 
Remote Statistics System: collectors and presentation-cgis A system of programs to: * gather data from remote machines * store and maintain the data for long periods * produce graphs and web-pages tieing them together * monitor the data for anomalous behavious and issue alerts * modular support for various data sources MRTG and NOCOL provided the inspiration. Rrdtool provided the guts. Perl provided the platform. This is the data-collection and -presentation-package. Install remstats-servers on all hosts that are to be observed. 
Remote Statistics System: traceroute and multiping Special multiping and traceroute for remstats to be used by the data collection scripts and the remote information servers. Specially patched. 
Remote Statistics System: remote information servers Remote information servers to be run on all hosts that are to be observed. * unix-status-server: Basic system statistics * log-server: get data from logfiles * remoteping-server: "next hop"-server. Gives information about other hosts connected to the host the server is running on. * nt-status-server: It had to go somewhere ;-] Get it to a NT-Box and read remstats-doc for further information. Only unix-status and log-server are enabled by default in /etc/inetd.conf. 
GNU sharutils 
change the name or location of a file 
Rename attachments on the fly. Renattach is a small, efficient and surprisingly effective filter designed primarily to offer an additional level of safety to Windows users whose e-mails pass through a UNIX-like mail server. Many modern viruses are spread through e-mail, and renattach combats such viruses by filtering e-mail attachments based on file extension. In version 1.1.1, the MIME type is also renamed. The idea is to rename potentially dangerous attachments (executable ones) so that the user, or the user's poorly written e-mail software, does not accidentally execute the attachment. 
alter priority of running processes 
lisp command interpreter frontends to librep This package contains the command-line frontends to the librep lisp interpreter. 
GTK binding for librep This package provides an interface to the GTK graphical toolkit for the librep lisp interpreter. 
GTK binding for librep with gnome support This package provides an interface to the GTK graphical toolkit for the librep lisp interpreter. 
provides a protocol for executing all of librep's file operations on that host 
rep language bindings for XMMS Language bindings for the rep lisp dialect for XMMS. 
Repairlix is a networked Linux distribution/bootable system intended to fit in 12MB of media - so small that an image can be burned onto a business-card-sized shaped CDROM, suitable for your wallet. It has a suite of utilities for doing system recovery. A CD-based distribution. 
A replay attack is a type of sniffer attack where the traffic is captured then retransmitted back at a computer. Analogy: In the 1992 movie Sneakers, the victim uses a voice identification system. Therefore, the heroes record the voice of one of the victim's employees, edit it with a computer, then play it back into the voice recognition system. Key point: It seems the first generation of any security architecture is vulnerable to replay attacks. For example, IPsec was original vulnerable to some replay attacks, even though it had provisions against the most obvious ones. Key point: The anti-replay remedy is to include a timestamp with a message. This then implies that everyone needs to have their clocks synchronized in order to communicate correctly. 
play back typescripts, using timing information 
automate new computer installations in a networked site. Using a nfs-root filesystem and rsync, replicator allow you to non-interactively install a target computer identical to the model computer. It can handle differences in partitioning and hardware. Designed for clusters, classrooms and wherever you need identical Debian boxes. It's REALLY faster than normal Debian installation method. 
Set to the line of input read by the read builtin command when no arguments are supplied. 
reports a bug to a debbugs server 
Reports bugs in the Debian distribution. reportbug is a tool designed to make the reporting of bugs in Debian and derived distributions relatively painless. Its features include: * Integration with the mutt, af, and mh/nmh mail readers. * Access to outstanding bug reports to make it easier to identify whether problems have already been reported. * Support for following-up on outstanding reports. * Optional PGP/GnuPG integration. reportbug is designed to be used on systems with an installed mail transport agent, like exim or sendmail; however, you can edit the configuration file and send reports using any available mail server. 
request for comment (RFC)
A technical note submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that describes novel techniques or technologies that can be eventually voted into a standard. 
Request Tracker, a GPL'd Trouble Ticket System Request Tracker helps you handle and track problem reports, it features web interfaces for queue administration and report submitting and sends out email with replies and comments to those reports. Be sure to read /usr/share/doc/request-tracker1/README.Debian for installation instructions !!! This package used to be called webrt and was renamed in preparation of packaging Version 2 for Debian (see changelog). 
Remote Entry Services 
rescue mode
To boot a small Linux environment entirely from a diskette or CD-ROM, used mostly if a user is unable to boot the operating system or is having hardware or software issues. 
terminal initialization 
set TERMCAP and terminal settings to current xterm window size 
ext2 file system resizer 
change kernel idea of the console size 
RESeau Teleinformatique de l'Education NAtionale et de la recherce (network, Luxembourg) 
Report Engine Technology (CA, DB) 
Resolution Enhancement Technology (HP), "REt" 
Rare Earth / Transition Metal (MO), "RE/TM" 
reverse lines of a file 
reverse engineering
A technique whereby the hacker attempts to discover secrets about a program. Some reverse engineering techniques are: strings Dumps all the human-readable strings within a program. In 1999, hackers looked for "strings" within Microsoft's products and found something labeled NSA_KEY. This led the paranoid delusion that the NSA had somehow convinced Microsoft to put a backdoor key into the system. Similarly, early in year 2000, hackers discovered strings like GetPrivateProfileString in the BlackICE Defender personal firewall and made paranoid assumptions (in reality, GetPrivateProfileString is a standard Win32 function). The most commonly used tool for this is the program strings included with UNIX. disassemble Takes the compiled output of a program and retrieves the original assembly language mnemonics, which are easier for humans to read. For example, the byte "0x90" might be converted back into NOOP (no operation) instruction. An example of using this technique to discover code being sent across the wire is at The problem with disassembly is that it only makes the object files slightly more readable -- it doesn't reconstruct the full original source code or comments. decompile Decompilation produces high-level source code from an executable. The technique has proven essentially worthless for languages like C/C++, but works well on languages like Java, VisualBasic, and Delphi. It still doesn't obtain the original comments, however. Reverse engineering is often used to: anti-virus Discover how viruses work in order to write more effective signatures against them. cracking serialz Figuring out how copy protection works in order to break it. 
reverse engineering
The process of systematically taking apart a chip or application program to discover how it works, with the aim of imitating or duplicating some or all of its functions. 
reverse lookup
is the determining of the host name from the IP address. The course of queries is similar to forward lookups using part of the IP address to find out what machines are responsible for what ranges of IP address. 
generate a relative path that can be used to undo a change-directory 
Documentclass for the journals of the American Physical Society LaTeX 2e document class distributed by the American Physical Society (APS) in order to expedite the handling of manuscripts by the APS journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, and Reviews of Modern Physics) while reducing costs and avoiding unnecessary duplication of effort. A manuscript prepared using the REVTeX 4 documentclass and following the guidelines presented in the enclosed documentation is considered by APS as a "compuscript." Compuscripts face lower publication charges as compared to non-compuscript manuscripts and supposedly get published faster. 
A nice little ncurses mixer. rexima is 'a mixer' spelled backwards. A humble little mixer which is easy to use. 
Restructured EXtended eXecutor [language] (IBM, SAA, ANSI) 
Interface to Tcl/Tk for Regina REXX Rexx/Tk gives GUI capabilities to the interpreted language Regina Rexx by interfacing it with the Tcl/Tk libraries. It enables Rexx programmers to write portable GUI applications by calling functions that wrap the GUI portions of the Tcl/Tk package. It is also available on several other operating systems. Nearly all Tk functions have been implemented and support has been added for some third party widgets such as tree, combobox and muliticolumn listboxes. 
Radio Frequency (mobile-systems) 
Request for Assistance (Internet) 
Remote FrameBuffer [protocol] 
The heXoNet RFB Software package includes many different projects. The goal of this package is to provide a comprehensive collection of rfb enabled tools and applications. One application, x0rfbserver, was (and maybe still is) the only complete remote control solution for the X Window System. 
rfbdrake is a tool to setup a client/server remote framebuffer for virtual network computing. It use vncviewer backend at the client side and x0rfbserver for the server side. 
/R-F-C/ n. [Request For Comment] One of a long-established series of numbered Internet informational documents and standards widely followed by commercial software and freeware in the Internet and Unix communities. Perhaps the single most influential one has been RFC-822 (the Internet mail-format standard). The RFCs are unusual in that they are floated by technical experts acting on their own initiative and reviewed by the Internet at large, rather than formally promulgated through an institution such as ANSI. For this reason, they remain known as RFCs even once adopted as standards. The RFC tradition of pragmatic, experience-driven, after-the-fact standard writing done by individuals or small working groups has important advantages over the more formal, committee-driven process typical of ANSI or ISO. Emblematic of some of these advantages is the existence of a flourishing tradition of `joke' RFCs; usually at least one a year is published, usually on April 1st. Well-known joke RFCs have included 527 ("ARPAWOCKY", R. Merryman, UCSD; 22 June 1973), 748 ("Telnet Randomly-Lose Option", Mark R. Crispin; 1 April 1978), and 1149 ("A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers", D. Waitzman, BBN STC; 1 April 1990). The first was a Lewis Carroll pastiche; the second a parody of the TCP-IP documentation style, and the third a deadpan skewering of standards-document legalese, describing protocols for transmitting Internet data packets by carrier pigeon. The RFCs are most remarkable for how well they work -- they manage to have neither the ambiguities that are usually rife in informal specifications, nor the committee-perpetrated misfeatures that often haunt formal standards, and they define a network that has grown to truly worldwide proportions. 
Acronym for Request For Comment, these a broad range of notes covering a variety of topics related to the Internet. RFCs are handled by the IETF and are archived at several sites. 
Remote Function Call (SAP, CPIC) 
Request For Comments (Internet, RFC) 
Request for Comments - Standards that define the Internet and how it operates. RFC also refers to the way these documents are discussed and approved by the Internet community. 
See request for comment (RFC). 
RFC (Request For Comments)
The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on the Internet, as a Request For Comments. The proposal is reviewed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (, a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail message formats is RFC 822. 
An indispensable source of information for serious administrators or developers is the RFCs. RFC stands for Request For Comments. RFCs are Internet standards written by authorities to define everything about Internet communication. Very often, documentation will refer to RFCs. 
RFCs (Request for Comments)
An Internet publication that constitutes the chief means by which standards are promulgated (although not all RFCs contain new standards). More than 1,000 RFCs are accessible from network information centers (NIC). The publication of RTFs is currently controlled by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). 
Report Fragmentation Done [bit] (CATNIP) 
Request For Discussion (Internet, Usenet), "RfD" 
Request For Enhancement (Internet) 
Radio Frequency Interference 
Request For Information (Internet) 
Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (IC) 
Radio Frequency IDentification (ANSI, NCITS) 
Remote File Management System 
Request For Next Message (IMP) 
Request for Package (Linux, Debian) 
Request For Proposal (Internet) 
Request for Quatation 
Remote File Sharing (AT&T, Unix) 
Remote File Sharing. Like NFS, a program that lets you treat files on another computer in more or less the same way as you treat files on your own computer. 
Remote File System 
RFS (Remote File Sharing)
A program that lets the user access files on another computer as if they were on the user's system. 
Request For Technology (OSF) 
Revisable Form Text 
Remote File Transfer System (DDVS) 
Rot Gruen Blau / Red Green Blue (color system, DTP) 
Raster Graphics Processor 
Remote Graphics Processor 
Remote gPS poller rgpsp provides a top-like output through a tcp port, so that machines running gPS can remotely monitor information about processes and load on the machine rgpsp is running on. 
The rgrep utility can recursively descend through directories as it greps for the specified pattern. Note that this ability does take a toll on rgrep's performance, which is somewhat slow. Rgrep will also highlight the matching expression. Install the rgrep package if you need a recursive grep which can highlight the matching expression. 
Request Header 
JavaScript engine written in Java Rhino is an open-source implementation of JavaScript written entirely in Java. It is typically embedded into Java applications to provide scripting to end users. 
Panel applet for indication that newer Red Hat packages are available. 
This package contains Python libraries developed specifically for interfacing with Red Hat Network. 
On UNIX, the "rhosts" mechanism allows one system to trust another system. This means that if a user logs onto one UNIX system, they can further log onto any other system that trusts it. Only certain programs will use this file: rsh Tells the system to open a remote "shell" and run the specified program. rlogin Creates an interactive Telnet session on the other computer. Key point: A common backdoor is to place the entry "+ +" in the rhosts file. This tells the system to trust everybody. Key point: The file simply contains a list of named hosts or IP addresses. Sometime the hacker can forge DNS information in order to convince the victim that he has the same name as a trusted system. Alternately, a hacker can sometimes spoof the IP address of a trusted system. See also: hosts.equiv 
The rhpl package contains Python code used by programs in Red Hat Linux. 
Ring Indicator (RS-232, MODEM) 
Routing Information 
Ruby Interactive reference ri is a command line tool that displays descriptions of built-in Ruby methods, classes, and modules. For methods, it shows you the calling sequence and a description. For classes and modules, it shows a synopsis along with a list of the methods the class or module implements. All information is taken from the reference section of the book Programming Ruby. 
an emacs interface for ri A set of Emacs macros which implement a function, `ri', with which you can browse pages of Ruby documentation generated by the command 'ri'. Formatting is done in background so that you can continue to use your Emacs while processing is going on. 
an emacs interface for ri Provide three kinds of support for 'ri' inside emacs: - simple interactive query - a browsable index, where you can follow links to do things like drill down on the methods within a class or module. - pop-up help on the class or method under point. 
Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (org.) 
Relative IDentifier 
Research Issues in Data Engineering (IEEE-CS) 
Reactive Ion Etching (IC) 
Routing Information Field (Token Ring) 
Resource Interchange File Format (MS, IBM, MM) 
Random identity generator RIG (Random Identity Generator) is a free replacement for a shareware program out there called 'fake'. It generates random, yet real-looking, personal data. It is useful if you need to feed a name to a Web site, BBS, or real person, and are too lazy to think of one yourself. Also, if the Web site/BBS/person you are giving the information to tries to crosscheck the city, state, zip, or area code, it will check out. 
Related Interest Group 
Rochester Intelligent Gateway (OS) 
Routing Information Indicator 
Remote Installation and Maintenance 
Relaynet International Message Exchange 
RIMiGate is a floppy-based Linux distribution for running WA4DSY's aprsd. Its goal is to make it easy to deploy igates for the APRS project. Version 0.2 was released April 4, 2003. 
Rambus Inline Memory Module (Rambus, IC) 
Internet redirection server rinetd redirects TCP connections from one IP address and port to another. rinetd is a single-process server which handles any number of connections to the address/port pairs specified in the file /etc/rinetd.conf. Since rinetd runs as a single process using nonblocking I/O, it is able to redirect a large number of connections without a severe impact on the machine. This makes it practical to run services on machines inside an IP masquerading firewall. 
A command line Diamond Rio MP3 player controller rio is a Diamond Rio MP3 CLI controller program The home website is This program supports file uploads and downloads, on both the Classic Rio and the 64 Meg Rio, and supports plug in cards. The default port is 0x378, if your rio is plugged into a different port, you will need to use the -p option. This program directly controls various IOports. The program need to be run as root, or setuid root. If you execute the following line as root after package installation, the program will be setuid root. chmod 4755 /usr/bin/rio Do NOT do that unless you understand the security implications of a setuid binary that can "easily" overwrite any system file. 
Redistributed Internet Objects (S3, VRML, Internet) 
Diamond Rio500 digital audio player support A set of command-line utilities which provide support for the Diamond Rio500 digital audio player. You'll need a kernel with USB support enabled in order to make use of these utilities... 2.4.0 and later should be fine, as should 2.2.18 or later in the 2.2 series. In addition, the Rio500 driver must be enabled. 
??? (OS), "RIO/CP " 
Raster Image Processor (DTP) 
Remote Imaging Protocol (BBS) 
Routing Information Protocol (BSD, IGP, RFC 1721, IP) 
Reseaux IP Europeenne (Europenet) 
Remote Initial Program Load (IBM) 
Routing Information Protocol Next Generation (RIP, IPV6, RFC 2080), "RIPng" 
a GTK-based ripper/encoder ripperX is a graphical interface to a CD ripper (cdparanoia) and the Vorbis/Ogg encoder (and MP3 encoders too). It is very much like grip, but IMO easier to use. 
Raster Image Processing Systems corporation (manufacturer) 
Remote Installation Service 
Reduced Instruction Set Code (CPU) 
Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (org., Austria) 
RISC Operating System (MIPS, Acorn, OS), "RISC OS" 
Remote Integrated Services Line Unit 
Resolution Improvement TECHnology (Epson) 
Regional Information Technology and Software Engineering Center 
Registered Jack 45 (cable) 
Remote Job Entry (IBM, Internet, RFC 407) 
Remote Job Entry Function 
Remote Job Processing 
ROM Kernel Reference Manual (Amiga, Commodore) 
Real Life (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Reconfigurable Logic (RL) 
Radio Link Control (GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Run-Length Encoded 
Research Libraries Information Network (network) 
gruesomely over-featured inetd replacement rlinetd is designed to replace the BSD inetd. Feature-wise, it is a proper superset of the BSD inetd, including rpc support and both udp and tcp services. In addition, it supports a number of resource limiting features, including full resource limits a la setrlimit(2), renicing, chroot and limited per-service instances. To round out the features stolen from xinetd, it also supports binding to individual interfaces on request, and configurable logging. 
Run Length Limited [encoding] 
Remote LAN Nodes (LAN) 
print log messages and other information about RCS files 
OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) 
Rlogin starts a terminal session on a remote host. 
Radio Link Protocol (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Resource Location Protocol (Internet, RFC 887) 
A utility for lpd printing without using /etc/printcap Rlpr makes it possible (or at the very least, easier), to print files on remote sites to your local printer. The rlpr package includes BSD-compatible replacements for `lpr', `lpq', and `lprm', whose functionality is a superset of their BSD counterparts. In other words, with the rlpr package, you can do everything you can do with the BSD printing commands, and more. The programs contained within the rlpr package are all GPL'd, and are more lightweight, cleaner and more secure than their BSD counterparts. 
Received Line Signal 
Received Line Signal Detector 
Read Last Spool File Buffer (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Remote Line Test 
removes each given file. By default, it does not remove directories. 
Resource Management 
The Unix command. To delete a file from a directory. 
Report Magic for Analog. With Report Magic for Analog, anyone can create great looking website statistics reports. Report Magic for Analog uses the Computer Readable Output format created by Analog, the most popular logfile analyser in the world. Using this and some simple settings you provide, Report Magic formats beautiful reports with tables, descriptions and graphs. Using Report Magic for Analog, you can easily maintain a consistent company image with all your reports. By designing the report format to mimic your site's colors and graphics, you can have Analog's statistics reports seem to "fit-in" with the rest of your website. Report Magic for Analog lets you set things like font, foreground and background colors, background images, color themes, and more, thus ensuring a perfect fit with your already designed site. 
Mail Transfer Agent 
PolyglotMan - Reverse compile man pages PolyglotMan (formerly RosettaMan) is a filter for UNIX manual pages. It takes as input man pages formatted for a variety of UNIX flavors (not [tn]roff source) and produces as output a variety of file formats. For more info see: 
Remote Memory Administration System 
Remote Maintenance Administration and Traffic 
remove comments from C and C++ programs 
Ryan-McFarland COBOL (????) Operating System (OS, COBOL), "RM/COS" 
remove empty directories 
The Unix command. To delete a directory. 
Resource Measurement Facility (IBM, MVS) 
Remote Method Invocation (Java, API) 
Ring Management Module (Token Ring) 
unload loadable modules 
Remote MONitoring 
Realtime Multitasking Operating System (SNI, OS) 
??? [bus] 
Reason Maintenance System (AI) 
Richard Matthew Stallman (FSF, EMACS) 
Raw Magnetic Tape (Unix) 
Reliable Multicast Transport (IETF, WG, Multicast) 
remote magtape protocol module 
REXXware Migration Tool (Simware, REXX) 
Ring ManagemenT (FDDI, SMT) 
The rmt utility provides remote access to tape devices for programs like dump (a filesystem backup program), restore (a program for restoring files from a backup) and tar (an archiving program). 
Remote Network Access 
RAD Network Devices (RAD, manufacturer) 
name server control utility 
rndc key generation tool 
Raw Native Interface (MS, Java) 
Regional Network Operations Center 
Read Next PRint Spool File Block (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Read Next PUnch Spool File Block (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Receive Not Ready (LAPB) 
Read Next Spool Buffer (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Remote Network User Identification (Datex-P) 
Read-Only (I/O) 
Reusable Object Access and Management System 
A program documentation tool. The idea is to include for every function or procedure a standard header containing all sorts of information about the procedure or function. ROBODoc extracts these headers from the source file and puts them in a separate autodocs-file. ROBODoc thus allows you to include the program documentation in the source code and avoid having to maintain two separate documents. Or as Petteri puts it: "robodoc is very useful - especially for programmers who don't like writing documents with Word or some other strange tool." ROBODoc can format the headers in a number of different formats: HTML, ASCII, AmigaGuide, LaTeX, or RTF. In HTML mode it can generate cross links between headers. You can even include parts of your source code. ROBODoc works with many programming languages: For instance C, Pascal, Shell Scripts, Assembler, COBOL, Occam, Postscript, Forth, Tcl/Tk, C++, Java -- basically any program in which you can use remarks/comments. 
Zen Simulation of robot finding kitten In this simulation, you play the part of robot. Your task is to complete the simulation by finding kitten, as is your destiny, and indeed your wont. You (robot) are represented by the # character, and you move around with the arrow keys touching things. If the thing you touch is kitten, you get a cute little animation (which was cuter in the DOS version) and the simulation ends. Otherwise, you get a brief description of what it is you touched. 
RAID On a Chip (RAID) 
Remote Object Class Factory 
Rock Linux
This is a source based distribution. Rock Linux comes in a variety of flavors, from the Rock Linux massive parallel project (cluster) to the rocksolid credit card rocklinux, with the dROCK desktop in between. Rock Linux version 2.0.0-beta6 was released June 25, 2003. The dRock desktop distribution released version 2.0.0-beta6 on June 24, 2003. 
Rocket Design Utilities The Rocket Workbench Project is a mission to develop open source high quality software tools for the design of experimental rockets. Using the most up to date rocket theory allows the software to produce the most accurate results. This package currently implements the following tools: cpropep - Propellant Evaluation Program 
Rockridge extensions
They are an add-on to the traditional ISO 9660 format. These extensions are necessary to handle the long file names and deeply nested directories frequently used in Linux programs. 
Make network sockets reliable in a transparent way Rocks protect sockets-based applications from network failures, particularly failures common to mobile computing, including: - Link failures (e.g., unexpected modem disconnection); - IP address changes (e.g., laptop movement, DHCP lease expiry); - Extended periods of disconnection (e.g., laptop suspension). Rock-enabled programs continue to run after any of these events; their broken connections recover automatically, without loss of in-flight data, when connectivity returns. Rocks work transparently with most applications, including SSH clients, X window applications, and network service daemons. 
Boulderdash-like game This game should be instantly familiar to those who have tried "Boulderdash" on the C-64, or "Emerald Mine" on the Amiga. For the rest of you, it is a game in which you basically collect emeralds, stay away from monsters and try to avoid being squished by rocks. This version includes sound and supports joysticks, but your keyboard can also be used. It is even possible to design your own levels with the built-in editor, and to record your game, replay it, and save it! 
Rewritable Optical Disk (OD) 
Roar Out From Laughing (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Relational OnLine Analytical Processing (OLAP, DB) 
Routing Over Large Clouds 
A database system for role players The Role Playing DataBase System is a database system for Role Playing Gamers. It provides a way for players and game masters to store the many pieces of information needed for Role Playing. The Role Playing Database package consists of a collection of C++ classes that implement a series of structures that contain the various data entities that represent the various aspects and features used in a Role Playing Game, including the characters, monsters, spells, treasures, tricks, traps, etc. The database can be accesed through a Tcl/Tk interface but it the library can also be used to develop other applications related to role-playing. 
A virtual dice roller A virtual dice roller that takes a string on the command line in the format of some fantasy role playing games like Advanced Dungeons & Dragons [1] and returns the result of the dice rolls. [1] Advanced Dungeons & Dragons is a registered trademark of TSR, Inc. 
Read Only Memory (ROM) 
Read-Only Memory - Basic Input Output System (ROM, BIOS), "ROM-BIOS" 
Required Operational Messaging Characteristics 
1. The name of the login account given full access to all system resources. 2. The directory named / as in, "the root directory." root partition The partition where / (the root directory) will be located on a UNIX or UNIX-compatible system. 
n. [Unix] 1. The superuser account (with user name `root') that ignores permission bits, user number 0 on a Unix system. The term avatar is also used. 2. The top node of the system directory structure; historically the home directory of the root user, but probably named after the root of an (inverted) tree. 3. By extension, the privileged system-maintenance login on any OS. See root mode, go root, see also wheel. 
root (superuser, administrator)
On UNIX, root is the superuser or administrator account that has complete control over everything in the machine. Often used as a verb: to root a box is to gain administrative (i.e. full) control over the system and own it. Key point: The term can be used as a verb. To "root" machine is to break in and obtain root privileges, and their own the machine. 
Root directory
The top-level directory created when you format the disk. 
ROOT Linux
ROOT Linux is an advanced GNU/Linux operating system. It aims to be fast, stable and flexible. ROOT Linux is not recommended as a first Linux distribution. People should have experience with Linux and computers in general. Version 1.3 was released August 27, 2002. 
root mode
n. Syn. with wizard mode or `wheel mode'. Like these, it is often generalized to describe privileged states in systems other than OSes. 
Root Operator
The user ID with authority to perform all system-level tasks. (Also called Superuser.) 
root window
the background of your screen. It is referred to a window in name alone, it does not behave like any other window, but rather you run your applications on the root window, or put a picture on it, or just a solid color. 
Root Window
The underlying session in which the Linux desktop runs. 
Monitors the system and displays the results on the desktop Originally intended to provide a tail -f into the root-window, it is now also able to monitor pipes, sub-processes, system load, network usage and the names of opening/closing processes. This data can optionally be put through regex filters and search/replaces. Monitors can be run on remote systems through a remote shell such as ssh. 
Displays select log files in the X root window. Root-tail, is a program that displays one or more log files, on the X root window, through the use of transparent windows. 
The rootfiles package contains basic required files that are placed inthe root user's account. These files are basically the same as those in /etc/skel, which are placed in regular users' home directories. 
query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode 
The name for a kit of hacker utilities placed on a UNIX machine after a successful compromise. A typical rootkit includes: password sniffer log cleaners replacement binaries for common programs on the system (e.g. inetd) backdoor programs replacements to programs like ls and find so that they will not reveal the presence of the rootkit files. Key point: A rootkit contains many trojaned programs. These programs are used to allow the hacker entry back into the system and to hide the presence of the hacker. For example, a trojaned "ps" command might hide the hacker's sniffer daemon from appearing in the process list. Alternatively, the hacker might trojan an existing daemon like inetd to run a background sniffer. Key point: The most important trojaned programs are those that deal with gaining access back into the system with a special password. Therefore, trojaned versions of login daemon, su, or telnetd are needed. Key point: Rootkits often contain setuid programs that normal users can run in order to elevate their privileges to root. Look for these in order to see if your system has been hacked. Culture: Also called "daemon kits". Example: The "t0rn" kit, including utilities like "t0rnsniff" and replacement binaries. In 2001, this kit was included as part of several Linux worms. 
A tool for building complete Linux filesystem images Rootstrap was originally written to provide a facility for building filesystems for use with User-mode Linux, but can be useful in other applications as well. It uses a modular set of shell scripts to create the filesystem image, install a base system, and customize it for a particular application. Currently, it only builds Debian systems, but the architecture is such that other base systems could be used instead. Use of rootstrap does not require root access, or special privileges of any kind. This is because it builds the filesystem inside a User-mode Linux system running under an unprivileged uid. Filesystem creation with rootstrap is quick and painless. With a local mirror and a single command, a fresh Debian woody filesystem can be created in about 3 minutes on relatively modest hardware. 
Remote Operations Service (IBM, OS/2) 
Read-Only Storage 
Resident Operating System (OS) 
Remote Operations Service Element (OSI, RPC) 
An integrated MIDI sequencer and musical notation editor. Rosegarden is a free integrated musical notation editor and MIDI sequencer for Unix/X platforms, with specific support for Linux PCs and SGI IRIX workstations. See the Rosegarden Web page at for more information. 
A simple encryption technique that offsets each character by 13 place (so that an e becomes an r, for example). 
A simple form of encryption in which the letters A-M are transposed with the letters L-Z, often used in Usenet postings of offensive jokes to prevent people from accidentally reading a disturbing message. 
/rot ther'teen/ n.,v. [Usenet: from `rotate alphabet 13 places'] The simple Caesar-cypher encryption that replaces each English letter with the one 13 places forward or back along the alphabet, so that "The butler did it!" becomes "Gur ohgyre qvq vg!" Most Usenet news reading and posting programs include a rot13 feature. It is used to enclose the text in a sealed wrapper that the reader must choose to open -- e.g., for posting things that might offend some readers, or spoilers. A major advantage of rot13 over rot(N) for other N is that it is self-inverse, so the same code can be used for encoding and decoding. See also spoiler space, which has partly displaced rot13 since non-Unix-based newsreaders became common. 
Rolling On The Floor Laughing (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Rolling On The Floor Laughing and Biting The Carpet (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Rolling On The Floor Laughing My Ass Off (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
A program to generate rotational obfuscations Rotix allows you to generate rotational obfuscations, like the world-famous ROT-13. Note that this is not an encryption pack. Install Rotix if you want to generate ROT-13 variants. 
show / manipulate the IP routing table 
Network routing daemon. Routed is invoked at boot time to manage the network routing tables. The routing daemon uses a variant of the Xerox NS Routing Information Protocol in maintaining up to date kernel routing table entries. It used a generalized protocol capable of use with multiple address types, but is currently used only for Internet routing within a cluster of networks. 
A highway trip planner This is a highway trip planning program, similar to programs like Rand McNally's "TripMaker." It allows you to plan road trips between two or more locations, using various interchangeable map files (or databases). Currently, the program includes two databases covering North America; one is fairly simplistic, and one is quite detailed. You can also create new databases with the included editor. For retrocomputing nuts, this program traces its lineage back to a 1980s program called "RoadRoute" written by Jim Butterfield for the Amiga. AFAIK all of the code has been rewritten, but the Basic-USA database included here is Jim's original dataset. The package includes two console-based interfaces; for the GNOME interface and the editor, you should install routeplanner-gnome as well. Home Page: 
A highway trip planner (GNOME interface) This is a highway trip planning program, similar to programs like Rand McNally's "TripMaker." It allows you to plan road trips between two or more locations, using various interchangeable map files (or databases). Currently, the program includes two databases covering North America; one is fairly simplistic, and one is quite detailed. You can also create new databases with the included editor. For retrocomputing nuts, this program traces its lineage back to a 1980s program called "RoadRoute" written by Jim Butterfield for the Amiga. AFAIK all of the code has been rewritten, but the Basic-USA database included here is Jim's original dataset. This package includes the GNOME interface and the database editor (which also requires GNOME). Home Page: 
A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on. See also: Network, Packet Switching. 
A type of hub that connects to a gateway and forwards packets between a host on a private network and the Internet. 
The Roxen Challenger Webserver The Roxen Challenger is a very powerful and easy to maintain web server. The server is written in Pike which is C-like but interpreted at runtime. Roxen may be configured comfortable via any web browser. The Roxen Challenger server is the foundation of a powerful information and communication environment. Challenger is a secure and competent web server. If your intention is minimizing your Total Cost of Ownership, Challenger is entirely in line. Challenger offers a smorgasbord of features, and on top of that, a whole suite of commercial and tightly integrated extensions. Challenger is just as suitable for powering an any-sized web site, as for an intranet application. 
Extra fonts for roxen Fonts for the iso-8859-1 character set. 
Extra fonts for roxen Fonts for the iso-8859-2 character set. 
The Roxen Challenger Webserver The Roxen Challenger is a very powerful and easy to maintain web server. The server is written in Pike which is C-like but interpreted at runtime. Roxen may be configured comfortable via any web browser. The Roxen Challenger server is the foundation of a powerful information and communication environment. Challenger is a secure and competent web server. If your intention is minimizing your Total Cost of Ownership, Challenger is entirely in line. Challenger offers a smorgasbord of features, and on top of that, a whole suite of commercial and tightly integrated extensions. Challenger is just as suitable for powering an any-sized web site, as for an intranet application. This is the official version of the new 'Roxen WebServer' (the new name of the webserver). This is still a beta release and the old configuration files of the server is not fully compatible with this version. There will be a conversion script in a later version, but until then I'm installing in .../roxen2/ without any automatic config transference. You will have to configure the server manually... You can still have both the stable (1.3) version, since they don't clash (at least not filesystem wise), but make sure they don't try to talk/listen on the same ports! 
SSL3 modules for the Roxen Challenger Webserver This is the 128/168-bit encryption add-ons for the Roxen Challenger webserver. Uses the Crypto/SSL3 library in pike-ssl, so this is not NonUS specific... The package depends on pike-crypto, which doesn't exists as a package. It have to be built by the installer (ie, you) out of pike-crypto-build. Once built, the pike-crypto-build package can be removed... 
Royal Linux
Integrated Software & Devices Corporation (ISDCorp) has focused on porting Linux to the ARM, MIPS and Motorola RISC-based processors to reduce the cost and footprint of products utilizing these chips. ISDCorp was acquired by LynuxWorks. 
Relay Party (IRC) 
Rendezvous Point (PIM, Multicast) 
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is a protocol used bymany ADSL Internet Service Providers. This package contains the Roaring Penguin PPPoE client, a user-mode program that does not require any kernel modifications. It is fully compliant with RFC 2516, the official PPPoE specification. 
Remote Phrase Authentication 
Remote Procedure Call (Sun, Xerox, OSF, ECMA, RFC 1831) 
Remote Procedure Call. RPC routines allow C programs to make procedure calls on other machines across the network. When people talk about RPC they most often mean the Sun RPC variant. 
RPC (Remote Procedure Call)
A popular UNIX network protocol, RPC allows programs on one machine to make a "procedure" call on another machine. The upshot of this is that you could split a program in two halves, each part running on a separate machine. The procedure calls are invisibly mapped so that the programmer doesn't have to worry about the details. Contrast: The oldest form of RPC in use is Sun's RPC, upon which many famous protocols (such as NFS) are based. A newer form known as DCE RPC is used by Microsoft as the basis for its RPC services. The DCE version is dramatically more complex than the Sun variant, but supplies more services (such as built-in security). History: In the year 1999 (and early 2000), a wave of hacker attacks against Sun's RPC services swept the net. Virtually any Sun box connected to the net whose default RPC services were enabled, was hackable. Many Linux boxes were also hackable through RPC-based services. Virtually all of these attacks where through buffer overflow exploits. Example: Some RPC services are: portmapper Forms the core of the RPC system allowing a client to find servers. NFS This is the best known of all RPC services. Virtually all "file servers" use either Sun's NFS (in the UNIX world) or Microsoft's SMB (in the Windows world). Whenever one UNIX system is sharing a filesystem with another UNIX system, you can bet that they are using NFS. The name "NFS" means both the specific protocol called "NFS", but also the entire suite of supporting protocols like "mountd", "statd", and "lockd". rpc.mountd The "mount" sub-protocol of the NFS suite is used by a client to connect to the file service. It is named after the "mount" command in UNIX that is used to connect any filesystem into the main directory structure. This includes not only remote filesystems from NFS, but also floppy disks, CD-ROM drives, other partitions on the same hard-disk, or other hard-disks. Exploit: In 1998/1998 timeframe, a buffer-overflow in a Linux rpc.mountd implementation led to widespread compromises. See also: showmount rpc.statd Monitors the status of files; bugs in Linux and Solaris version have led to widespread exploits in 1998 through 2001. 
RPC (Remote Procedure Calls)
It enables a system to make calls to progams such as NFS across the network transparently, enabling each system to interpret the calls as if they were local. In this case, it would make exported filesystems appear as thought they were local.
start kernel lockd process 
NFS mount daemon 
NFS server process 
NSM status monitor 
Region code Playback Control phase 2 (DVD), "RPC-2" 
tool for executing client side MS-RPC functions 
an RPC protocol compiler 
report RPC information 
Remote Procedure Call Language (ONC, Sun) 
Remote Peripheral Equipment 
Regular Pulse Excitation with Long-Term Prediction [loop] (LPC), "RPE-LTP" 
RePeat active File (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Reverse Path Forwarding (PIM, Multicast) 
Report Program Generator - A system produced by IBM in 1965 for easy production of sophisticated large system reports. 
Report Program Generator 
Remote Program Load 
Requested Privilege Level 
Resident Programming Language 
A fake transitional package. Contains a set of dependencies designed to mitigate upgrade problems. This package will cause all of the rplay packages to be installed, after which time it can safely be removed. rplay-server contains the rplay server. rplay-client contains the rplay clients. librplay3{,-dev} contains the rplay libraries. rplay-perl contains the rplay perl modules. rplay-contrib currently only contains the mailsound stuff. RPlay allows sounds to be played to and from local and remote Unix systems. Sounds can be played with or without sending audio data over the network using either UDP or TCP/IP. RPlay audio servers can be configured to share sound files with each other. Support for RPlay is included in several applications. These include xpilot, xlockmore, xboing, fvwm, and ctwm. 
The basic rplay clients. This package contains the basic rplay clients (rplay, rptp). The clients are used to play sounds on the local host or remote systems. RPlay allows sounds to be played to and from local and remote Unix systems. Sounds can be played with or without sending audio data over the network using either UDP or TCP/IP. RPlay audio servers can be configured to share sound files with each other. Support for RPlay is included in several applications. These include xpilot, xlockmore, xboing, fvwm, and ctwm. 
Contributed binaries for the rplay network audio system. Contains mailsounds and Mailsounds each of which can be used to play sounds on a system when new mail arrives. RPlay allows sounds to be played to and from local and remote Unix systems. Sounds can be played with or without sending audio data over the network using either UDP or TCP/IP. RPlay audio servers can be configured to share sound files with each other. Support for RPlay is included in several applications. These include xpilot, xlockmore, xboing, fvwm, and ctwm. 
Perl modules for the rplay network audio system. Contains perl modules which aid in creating rplay-aware perl scripts. RPlay allows sounds to be played to and from local and remote Unix systems. Sounds can be played with or without sending audio data over the network using either UDP or TCP/IP. RPlay audio servers can be configured to share sound files with each other. Support for RPlay is included in several applications. These include xpilot, xlockmore, xboing, fvwm, and ctwm. 
The rplay network audio system server. This package contains the rplay server. The rplay server allows sounds to be played on the system. RPlay allows sounds to be played to and from local and remote Unix systems. Sounds can be played with or without sending audio data over the network using either UDP or TCP/IP. RPlay audio servers can be configured to share sound files with each other. Support for RPlay is included in several applications. These include xpilot, xlockmore, xboing, fvwm, and ctwm. 
Radio Packet Modem (Motorola) 
Redhat Package Manager (Linux) 
Remote Port Module (Ascend) 
The RPM Package Manager (RPM) is a powerful command line driven package management system capable of installing, uninstalling, verifying, querying, and updating software packages. Each software package consists of an archive of files along with information about the package like its version, a description, etc. 
RPM (RPM Package Manager)
A packaging and installation tool for Internet downloads, included with some Linux distributions. It produces files with a .RPM extension. Similar to Dpkg. 
RPM Package Manager (RPM)
Management system of tools, databases, and libraries that handle the installation and removal of RPM packages. Run the command rpm to use the program. 
The rpm-build package contains the scripts and executable programs that are used to build packages using the RPM Package Manager. 
This package contains the RPM C library and header files. These development files will simplify the process of writing programs that manipulate RPM packages and databases. These files are intended to simplify the process of creating graphical package managers or any other tools that need an intimate knowledge of RPM packages in order to function. This package should be installed if you want to develop programs that will manipulate RPM packages and databases. 
Helper scripts for rpm scriptlets to help create/remove :- groups- services- shells- users 
rpm-livelinuxcd is a 120MB RedHat-based distribution that runs completely from CD, fits into around 80MB of RAM and is nearly indistinguishable from a system installed on a hard disk. Features include hardware recognition at boot, samba, dhcpd, name, xinetd, and SSH servers, virtual terminals, PAM, etc. Useful for dedicated servers, routers, emergency systems, cluster nodes and such, it does not contain an X11 Server. Initial version 0.9 was released March 5, 2003. Version 0.9-98 was released April 22, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
The rpm-python package contains a module that permits applications written in the Python programming language to use the interface supplied by the RPM Package Manager libraries. This package should be installed if you want to develop Python programs that will manipulate RPM packages and databases. 
Extract cpio archive from RPM Package Manager (RPM) package. 
Generate HTML index from directories of RPMs rpm2html automatically generates Web pages describing a set of RPM packages. The goal of rpm2html is also to identify the dependencies between various packages, and being able to find the packages providing the resources needed to install another package. 
RPM Package Manager 
RPM Package Manager 
rpmdrake is a simple graphical frontend to manage software packages on a Mandrake Linux system; it has 3 different modes:- software packages installation;- software packages removal;- Mandrake Update (software packages updates). A fourth program manages the sources (add, remove, edit). 
RPM Package Manager 
RPM Package Manager 
RPM Package Manager 
RPM Package Manager 
Various tools needed by urpmi and drakxtools for handling rpm files. 
RPM Package Manager 
RPM Package Manager 
Reverse Polish Notation 
RPN (Reverse Polish Notation)
A means of describing mathematical operations that makes calculations easier for computers. Many compilers convert arithmetic expressions into RPN. In RPN, the expression ''a b +'' adds the variables a and b, and would be written as ''a + b'' in standard notation. Synonymous with Polish notation. 
a RPN calculator trying to emulate an HP28S rpncalc is a calculator similar to dc(1), but it uses the readline library and shows the stack visually. 
Relative Processor Performance (CPU, Cray) 
A cache which uses differences to speed up retrievals rproxy stores hashed values of retrieved pages and when you next access the same page it computes the difference between the current page and the recently stored page. The rproxy extensions to HTTP allow the server to generate a hsync relative to the cached instance in a way that is completely general, and transparent to both the server and user agent. rproxy, and clients and servers which implement hsync, calculate a block-by-block signature of the file, by computing a checksum over consecutive extents of equal length, such as 1024 bytes. This checksum is then added into a header of the request and transmited as usual. To be useful, there should be at least two rproxy instances between the client and the server. Transfers between the proxies will be delta-encoded, while the browser and server will just see standard HTTP. For example, it is very useful to run on instance on each side of a modem link, so that data across the slow link will be delta-encoded. Further information is available at 
Realtime Programming System (OS, IBM) 
Relational Query By Example (DB, QBE) 
Radio Resource management (MM, CM, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Routing and Remote Access Service (MS, Windows NT) 
Reservation Request Control Mechanism (DQDB) 
Relative Record Data Set (VSAM) 
Time-series data storage and display system (programs) RRD is the Acronym for Round Robin Database. RRD is a system to store and display time-series data (i.e. network bandwidth, machine-room temperature, server load average). It stores the data in a very compact way that will not expand over time, and it presents useful graphs by processing the data to enforce a certain data density. It can be used either via simple wrapper scripts (from shell or Perl) or via frontends that poll network devices and put friendly user interface on it. This package contains command line programs used to access and manipulate RRDs. 
Time-series data storage and display system (tcl) RRD is the Acronym for Round Robin Database. RRD is a system to store and display time-series data (i.e. network bandwidth, machine-room temperature, server load average). It stores the data in a very compact way that will not expand over time, and it presents useful graphs by processing the data to enforce a certain data density. It can be used either via simple wrapper scripts (from shell or Perl) or via frontends that poll network devices and put friendly user interface on it. This package contains a tcl interface to RRDs. 
Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (CD, Unix) 
Login daemon for the Road Runner Cable Modem Service Login daemon for the Road Runner Cable Modem Service. You need a dhcp client as well. This program takes care of the authentication piece for the Road Runner Cable Modem Service. These areas include, but are not limited to: North Eastern Ohio, Columbus Ohio, Austin Texas, Hawaii, Tampa Bay Fla, and Charlotte NC. 
Regionales RechenZentrum Erlangen (org.) 
Regionales RechenZentrum fuer Niedersachsen (org.) 
Recommended Standard 
Registry Service (DCE) 
Random Scheduling Algorithm [protocol] 
Reference System Architecture 
Reusable Software Assets 
Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (cryptography, RSA) 
RSA is the name of the most prevalent public/private key algorithm. It is also the name of the company (RSA Security) that originally held the patent rights to this system. It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. Details: In order to generate the keys: First, some random data is generated. Most of the successful attacks against RSA implementations have been against this step. Two large primes are randomly chosen. This can be a time consuming step as the computer randomly generates numbers and tests to see if they are prime. These two numbers are traditionally called p and q. The two numbers are multiplied together, n = pq. We will be publishing n as part of the public-key. The security of RSA lies in the fact that it is computationally too difficult to factor n back into p and q. (However, somebody may in the future discover a way to easily factor large numbers, in which case all of today's cryptography will be rendered useless in one fell swoop). A number e is chosen, where e is less than n and "relatively prime" (no common factors) to (p-1)(q-1). The public-key will consist of the pair (n,e). A number d is chosen, where (ed-1) is divisible by (p-1)(q-1). The private-key consists of the pair (n,d). Usually, the original prime numbers p and q are discarded after this step. The numbers n, e, and d are of interest because they serve as fields within digital certificates. Details: In order to encrypt/decrypt something using RSA, the following algorithm is used. Start with the original message called m. Note that in reality, we've already encrypted the real message with a randomly generated symmetric key, and we really are just encrypting this key to send along with the encrypted message. Public-key cryptography is generally used for key-exchange because it is too slow for general-purpose encryption. Therefore, m is really just a small 128-bit key rather than the entire message. Create the ciphertext c using the equation c = me mod n, where (n,e) are the public-key. Send the ciphertext message c. Upon reception, use the equation m = cd mod n, where (n,d) is the private-key and m is the decrypted message. (Again, this is usually just the symmetric key that we will use to decrypt the actual message). Point: RSA forms the basis for X.509 certificates in web servers and browsers. Key point: RSA Security charges a hefty license to use the RSA algorithm. However, the patent expires in September of the year 2000. At that time, the number of products using the RSA algorithm are likely to explode. Key point: An alternative to RSA is the "Diffie-Hellman" algorithm. This is used in many cases, but it is hampered by the fact that many products that could use it (like Netscape and Microsoft browsers) do not; for interoperability you often need to use RSA over DH. History: When exporting RSA was illegal, a popular form of disobedience would be to wear T-shirts with the algorithm or us it as part of your .sig. #!/bin/perl -sp0777i<X+d*lMLa^*lN%0]dsXx++lMlN/dsM0<j]dsj $/=unpack('H*',$_);$_=`echo 16dio\U$k"SK$/SM$n\EsN0p[lN*1lK[d2%Sa2/d0$^Ixp"|dc`;s/\W//g;$_=pack('H*',/((..)*)$/) Applications: PGP, SSL, SET, DNSSEC, SSH See also: DSA 
Recreational Software Advisory Council (org.) 
Remote Service Access Point (SAP) 
RSA Reference Implementation. This was a fairly open implementation of the RSA algorithm that has been embedded into many problems. This is not the source code that RSA sells to vendors, but an open-source version that has been imbedded within freeware/open-source products (like ssh). A patent-license is still required when using this code in commercial products, though. Key point: RSAREF has been supported by RSA (the company) for a long time, and a number of security holes have been found in this implementation. RSA wants people to use the BSAFE development kit instead. In late 1999 in particular, a bug was found that allows ssh to be hacked. 
Reliability and System Architecture Testing 
Remote Source Control System 
Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem (IBM, VM, NJE) 
Root System Description Pointer (ACPI) 
Root System Description Table (ACPI) 
Removable Storage Elements 
Research and Systems Engineering 
Remote Support Facility 
ReStart active File (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Retrieve Subsequent File Descriptor (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Retrieve Subsequent File Descriptor Not Previously Retrieved (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) 
Remote SHell (Unix, BSD, Shell) 
Restricted SHell (Unix, Shell) 
The rsh package contains a set of programs which allow users to run commmands on remote machines, login to other machines, and copy files between machines (respectively, rsh, rlogin, and rcp). All three ofthese commands use rhosts style authentication. 
rsh clients. This package contains rsh, rcp and rlogin. 
rsh servers. This package contains rexecd, rlogind and rshd. 
The rsh-server package contains a set of programs which allow users to run commmands on remote machines, login to other machines, and copy files between machines (respectively, rsh, rlogin, and rcp). All three of these commands use rhosts style authentication. This package contains the servers needed for all of these services. It also contains a server for rexec, an alternate method of executing remote commands. 
Repetitive Strain Injury 
Relocateable Screen Interface Specification 
Remote Subscriber Line Module 
Remote Switching Module 
Mail Transfer Agent 
Real Soon Now (slang) 
Reality Signal Processor (Nintendo) 
Reed Solomon Product Code (SDD), "RS-PC" 
Radio Shortest Path Daemon RSPF is a routing protocol for hamradio wireless links. This package provides a daemon with the latest version of the protocol. 
Remote System Services Control Point (SSCP) 
a sample implementation of a Remote Start client 
a sample implementation of a Remote Start rsh helper 
a sample implementation of a Remote Start rsh helper 
A client for rstatd. This package contains rup(1) and rsysinfo(1), clients for rstatd. 
Display uptime information for remote machines. This allows other machines on your local network to get information about your computer - especially uptime. This will allow you to use the rup(1) command. 
Resource Sharing Time Sharing (DEC) 
Resource System Time Sharing/Enhanced (DEC), "RSTS/E" 
Remote Software Update (IBDM, OS/2, ...) 
Remote Switching Unit 
Resource reSerVation Protocol (IP) 
Realistic Sound eXperience (Intel, audio) 
Resource Sharing eXecutive - 11 (DEC, OS, PDP 11), "RSX-11" 
Realistic Sound eXperience - 3D (Intel, audio, VRML), "RSX-3D" 
fast remote file copy program (like rcp) rsync is a program that allows files to be copied to and from remote machines in much the same way as rcp. It has many more options than rcp, and uses the rsync remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file transfers when the destination file already exists. The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network link. 
Rsync uses a quick and reliable algorithm to very quickly bring remote and host files into sync. Rsync is fast because it just sends the differences in the files over the network (instead of sending the complete files). Rsync is often used as a very powerful mirroring process or just as a more capable replacement for the rcp command. A technical report which describes the rsync algorithmis included in this package. Install rsync if you need a powerful mirroring program. 
Register Transfer 
Remote Terminal 
Research and Technology, "R&T" 
Routing Type 
Rapid Thermal Annealling (IC, MOSFET) 
Real-Time Accelerator 
Remote Teleprocessing Access Method 
Read Tape Binary 
Real Time Bit Mapping 
Real Time Clock 
Real-Time Command 
Real Time Control Protocol (RTP) 
Real Time Computer System 
Real Time Control Unit 
Real Time Display 
RealTime Deformation And Tessellation [engine] (3D, Shiny), "RT-DAT" 
Real Time Data Handling System 
Real Time Execution 
Real Time Executive (OS, HP, HP 2000) 
Remote Terminal Emulation 
Run Time Environment 
Real Time Executive - 6 / Virtual Memory (OS, HP, RTE, HP 1000), "RTE-6/VM" 
Real Time EXecutive (OS, Interdata) 
Rich Text Format 
RTF (Rich Text Format)
A text formatting standard developed by Microseft Corporation that allows a wordprocrssing program to create a file encoded with all the document's formatting instructions, but without using any special hidden codes. An RTF-encoded document can be transmitted over telecommunications links or read by another RTF-compatible word processing program, without loss of the formatting. 
Convert RTF files to LaTeX rtf2latex converts Microsoft RTF (Rich Text Format) files to LaTeX source files. If imagemagick is installed, rtf2latex tries to use it to convert embedded images from the RTF source file. 
programs to postprocess the raw RTF generated by the mapping files 
Read The F****** FAQ (slang, Usenet) 
Read The Flaming / F****** Manual (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Real Time Gambling 
Real Time Geometry (manufacturer) 
Routing Table Generator 
ReTurn from Interrupt 
Real Time Language 
Register Transfer Language (GCC) 
Resistor-Transistor Logic 
RunTime Library 
FSMLabs makes RTLinux, providing hard real-time solutions. 
Registered Transfer Module 
Release To Manufacture / Market 
Remote Test Module 
Real Time Multiprogramming Operating System (OS, GE) 
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (AppleTalk) 
Real Time Multiprogramming System (???) (OS) 
Real Time Operating System (OS, Interdata, Prime, ...) 
Real Time Operating System - 16 (OS, Digico), "RTOS-16" 
Real Time Operating System /360 (IBM, OS, S/360), "RTOS/360" 
Real Time Operating System - Universitaet Hannover (OS), "RTOS-UH" 
Real Time Protocol (Internet, RFC 1889/1890, RTCP) 
Real Time System 
Reliable Transfer Service (OSI) 
Request To Send (MODEM, RS-232) 
Residual Time Stamp 
Reliable Transfer Service Element (OSI) 
RealTime System Manager 
Real Time Streaming Protocol (TV, WWW, UDP, TCP/IP, RDP, Multicast) 
Round-Trip Time 
Run-Time Type Identification (ANSI) 
Round-Trip Time Measurements (TCP, satellite) 
Real Time Task Scheduler (OS, August Systems) 
Radio Tele TYpe 
Real Time Unix (Unix) 
Real Time UniX (OS, Emerge Systems) 
Real Time Video 
RealTime Variable Bit Rate (VBR, ATM), "rt-VBR" 
Real Time eXecutive (OS) 
Real Time eXecutive - 16 (OS, Honeywell, ...), "RTX-16" 
RU.nix is devoted to running Linux on the PlayStation and on MIPS. Some of the site is in English, but to get real information you will need to read the Russian pages. Last entry dated January 22, 2003. 
Remote User Agent 
Remote User Access Centers 
make a bibliography for (La)TeX using Russian letters as item names 
An interpreter of object-oriented scripting language Ruby Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. It has many features to process text files and to do system management tasks (as in perl). It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible. 
the "Programming Ruby" book This book is a tutorial nd reference for the Ruby programming language. Use Ruby, and you'll write better code, be more productive, and enjoy programming more. The book is a guide to working with the object-oriented programming language, teaching the basics, plus how to write large programs, how to extend Ruby using C code, and much more. This is the HTML version of the "Programming Ruby" book by David Thomas and Andrew Hunt, published by Addison-Wesley and graciously licensed under the Open Publication Licence. 
Ruby interface for ImageMagick Ruby interface for ImageMagick. (beta release) 
Simple testing framework for Ruby RubyUnit is a simple Testing Framework for Ruby. You can get the information about Testing Framework on next web site: <URL:> 
Reality User Interface 
process a LaTeX index using Russian Cyrillic characters 
Sample programs that use RUMBA brain imaging main library Sample programs that use RUMBA brain imaging main library Main library 
RUMBA brain imaging utility programs RUMBA brain imaging system utility programs 
RUMBA project brain imaging viewer RUMBA project brain imaging viewer 
Watch programs and restart them if they die Run allows you to run a program, and ensure that you have only one of that program running simultaneously. i.e. we would like to run some program, but not if its already running. We also may need to restart the program if it dies. Run accomplishes these tasks giving all the functionality that would otherwise require tedious shell scripting to accomplish. PLEASE NOTICE that upstream considers this package "a broken program" and advises on his home page not to use run unless one is prepared to debug. However, run seems to be working reasonably well, but be warned. Remove the Conflicts: line from control file if you want to build on potato 
execute programs via entries in the mailcap file 
run scripts or programs in a directory 
A script to help use aspell as an ispell replacement 
a minimal console getty that can run any process rungetty might be the getty you were looking for. It is able to run any program, not just login. If a different program than login is used it usually is run as nobody.nobody, or the user/group specified on the commandline. rungetty can even be configured to autologin, under certain circumstances. See the manual page for more information. You have to change some lines in /etc/inittab for having any effect after installing the package. rungetty is based on mingetty and therefore not suitable for serial use. 
find the current and previous system runlevel. 
The groups of processes which are started by init are controlled by the runlevel. The runlevel is a digit from 0 to 6 or the letter S. Runlevels 0, 6 and S are reserved for shutdown, reboot and single user mode. Runlevel 1 is also single user mode. 
Working modes of a UNIX or UNIX-compatible operating system. Red Hat Linux has seven runlevels (0-6). 0 = a halted system; 1 = a single-user, stand-alone system; 2-5 = various multi- user modes; and 6 = system reboot. Each runlevel designates a different system configuration and allows access to different processes. 
Use Linux without the installation. Version 2.1 of RunOnCD is based on Red Hat 7.1. This site is mostly in Korean, with some English. Version 2.1 is dated December 7, 2001. A CD-based distribution. 
Mail Transfer Agent 
script interpreter for minicom 
RUNT (ResNet USB Network Tester) is Slackware Linux designed to run off of a 128 MB USB pen drive. It consists of a boot floppy image and a zip file, similar to zipslack. It is intended to be a fairly complete Linux installation for use as a testing tool capable of booting on any x86 computer with a USB port and a bootable floppy drive. RUNT 0.92, the initial version, was released November 27, 2002. Version 1.11 was released May 5, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Remote Unit Of Work (DRDA, IBM), "RUoW" 
Rechenzentrum der Universitaet Stuttgart (org., Uni Stuttgart, Germany) 
Displays who is logged in to machines on local network. The rusers command produces output similar to who, but for the list of hosts or all machines on the local network. For each host responding to the rusers query, the hostname with the names of the users currently logged on is printed on each line. The rusers command will wait for one minute to catch late responders. 
Logged in users server. This is a server which returns information about users currently logged in to the system. 
Remote Virtual Disk 
Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor 
Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor 
Read/Write (I/O), "R/W" 
Send a message to users logged on a host. The rwall command sends a message to the users logged into the specified host. The message to be sent can be typed in and terminated with EOF or it can be in a file. 
Write messages to users currently logged in server. rpc.rwalld is a server which will send a message to users currently logged in to the system. This server invokes the wall(1) command to actually write the messages to the system. 
Real World Computing Partnership (org., Japan) 
Clients to query the rwho server The rwho command produces output similar to who, but for all machines on the local network. If no report has been received from a machine for 11 minutes then rwho assumes the machine is down, and does not report users last known to be logged into that machine. The ruptime command gives a status line like uptime for each machine on the local network; these are formed from packets broadcast by each host on the network once a minute. 
The rwho command displays output similar to the output of the who command (it shows who is logged in) for all machines on the local network running the rwho daemon. Install the rwho command if you need to keep track of the users whoare logged in to your local network. 
System status server Rwhod is the server which maintains the database used by the rwho(1) and ruptime(1) programs. Its operation is predicated on the ability to broadcast messages on a network. 
Remote WinSock (Windows, TCP/IP) 
Control a Ten-Tec RX-320 receiver Control a Ten-Tec RX-320 receiver via a serial port, providing a command line interface to the radio. 
RxLinux seeks to centralize configuration and management of multiple Linux servers. A Web interface is used to build custom ISO CD-ROMs dedicated for specific servers. Servers, also called rxnodes, boot up from that CD-ROM and get the rest of the configuration and software from a master server. No administration is done directly on the nodes; everything is controlled from the master servers. When the rxnode has finished booting up and all software is running, it is completely independent from the rxmaster until the next reboot. The initial version, 1.0 beta1 was released July 5, 2002. Version 1.3.3 was released April 5, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
A validating XML parser Rxp reads, parses, and can optionally validate XML. 
Socket function library for Regina REXX RxSock provides socket functions for the interpreted language Regina REXX. It provides the same functions as the OS/2 and Object Rexx RxSocks. 
Rxvt is a color VT102 terminal emulator for the X Window System. Rxvt is intended to be an xterm replacement for users who don't need the more esoteric features of xterm, like Tektronix 4014 emulation, session logging and toolkit style configurability. Since it doesn't support those features, rxvt uses much less swap space than xterm uses. This is a significant advantage on a machine which is serving a large number of X sessions. The rxvt package should be installed on any machine which serves a large number of X sessions, if you'd like to improve that machine's performance. This version of rxvt can display Japanese, Chinese (Big5 and GuoBiao) and Korean. 
VT102 terminal emulator for the X Window System Rxvt is an 8-bit clean, color xterm replacement that uses significantly less memory than a conventional xterm, mostly since it doesn't support toolkit configurability or Tek graphics, but also since features can be removed at compile-time to reflect your needs. The distribution also includes rclock, the smaller/better xclock replacement with appointment scheduling and xbiff functionality. 
VT102 terminal emulator for the X Window System Rxvt is an 8-bit clean, color xterm replacement that uses significantly less memory than a conventional xterm, mostly since it doesn't support toolkit configurability or Tek graphics, but also since features can be removed at compile-time to reflect your needs. The distribution also includes rclock, the smaller/better xclock replacement with appointment scheduling and xbiff functionality. This package contains the developer (beta) version of rxvt. See the rxvt package for the current stable version of rxvt. 
multi-lingual VT102 terminal emulator for the X Window System Rxvt is an 8-bit clean, color xterm replacement that uses significantly less memory than a conventional xterm, mostly since it doesn't support toolkit configurability or Tek graphics, but also since features can be removed at compile-time to reflect your needs. This package contains three versions of rxvt: krxvt and crxvt, which support Japanese and Chinese characters, and grxvt, which supports both ELOT-928 (ISO-8859-7 standard) and IBM-437 keyboard translations for Greek character entry. This package contains the developer (beta) version of rxvt. See the rxvt-ml package for the current stable version of rxvt. 
multi-lingual VT102 terminal emulator for the X Window System Rxvt is an 8-bit clean, color xterm replacement that uses significantly less memory than a conventional xterm, mostly since it doesn't support toolkit configurability or Tek graphics, but also since features can be removed at compile-time to reflect your needs. This package contains three versions of rxvt: krxvt and crxvt, which support Japanese and Chinese characters, and grxvt, which supports both ELOT-928 (ISO-8859-7 standard) and IBM-437 keyboard translations for Greek character entry. 
Return-to-Zero [recording] 

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