Linux-Dictionary ( M - O )

A simple music-from-text language for use with MusiXTeX M-Tx is a music-from-text language designed to look as much as possible like printed music. Here is some typical input code: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Title: Net soos ek is Composer: Charlotte Elliott Style: SATB Sharps: 2 Meter: 3/4 PMX: w190m Space: 9 @+5 b4 b b | b2d | a4 a a | a2d | d4 e- f | g2 e4 | d2d of |] L: Net soos ek is, net soos ek is, O Lam van God, ek kom. d4s g f | e2d | e4 f e | d2d | d4 dr d | d2 c4 | d2d |] @^+5 rp | b4 e d | c2d | a4 d c | ( b2d | b2 ) g4 | f2d |] LT: Net soos ek is, O Lam van God, ek kom. a4 a a | g2d | g4 g g | f2d | b4- g+ f | e2 a4- | d2d ofd |] L: Net soos ek is, net soos ek is, O Lam van God, ek kom. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ To run M-Tx, you also need MusiXTeX, musixlyr and PMX, all available as Debian packages. Author: Dirk Laurie <> 
Modula-2 translator (compiler) m2c is a Modula-2 translator. The translator supports Modula-2 versions described in 3rd and 4th editions of famous Wirth's book _Programming_in_Modula-2_. (Note: This is not current Modula-2 ISO standard.) High portability of the translator is achieved by intermediate translation into C. The translator is aimed to be used on Unixes of different flavours. 
A GNU implementation of the traditional UNIX macro processor. M4 is useful for writing text files which can be logically parsed, and is used by many programs as part of their build process. M4 has built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc. The autoconf program needs m4 for generating configure scripts, but not for running configure scripts. Install m4 if you need a macro processor. 
a macro processing language GNU `m4' is an implementation of the traditional UNIX macro processor. It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (for example, handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros). `m4' also has builtin functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc. Autoconf needs GNU `m4' for generating `configure' scripts, but not for running them. 
Linux kernel TFTP boot loader for m68k VME processor boards. Tftplilo is a highly configurable kernel and ramdisk network boot loader for BVM and Motorola m68k VME processor boards. It provides a mechanism for one or more diskless machines to interactively select a kernel boot configuration from a set of configurations defined in a single text configuration file that is transferred from the host tftp server. Each defined configuration specifies things such as Linux kernel and initial ramdisk file names which are then also transferred from the host tftp server. 
Mandatory Access Control (MLS) 
Media Access Control (ISO, OSI) 
Membership Advisory Committee (ICANN) 
Message Authentication Code (SSL, SRT, cryptography) 
MAC (Message Authentication Code)
A specific type of message digest where the secret key is included as part of the fingerprint. Whereas a normal digest consists of a hash(data), the MAC consists of a hash(key + data). Contrast: The most common form is actually HMAC (hash MAC) that uses the algorithm hash(key + hash(key + data)). 
MAC address
Every piece of Ethernet hardware has a unique number assigned to it called it's MAC address. Remember that Ethernet is used locally to connect you to the Internet, and you share the local network with many other people. The MAC address is used by your local Internet router in order to direct your traffic to you rather than somebody else in your local area. Key point: The MAC address is 6-bytes long, and must be unique. In order to guarantee uniqueness, equipment vendors are assigned a unique 3-byte prefix, and they then assign their own 3-byte suffix. Thus, the first 3-bytes of a MAC address identifies what kind of hardware you have (3Com, Cisco, Intel, etc.). Key point: The uniqueness property of MAC addresses has interesting implications. It was an important clue in tracking down David Smith (the Melissa author). 
Multilayer ACtuator Head 
Machine language
The native binary language recognised and executed by a computer's central procsessing unit (CPU). Machine language, a low-level language symbolised by 0s and 1s, is extremely difficult to use and read. See assembly language and high-level progamming language. 
Media Access Control IDentifier, "MAC-ID" 
MACintosh Operating System (Apple, OS), "MacOS" 
/mak'roh/ n. [techspeak] A name (possibly followed by a formal arg list) that is equated to a text or symbolic expression to which it is to be expanded (possibly with the substitution of actual arguments) by a macro expander. This definition can be found in any technical dictionary; what those won't tell you is how the hackish connotations of the term have changed over time. The term `macro' originated in early assemblers, which encouraged the use of macros as a structuring and information-hiding device. During the early 1970s, macro assemblers became ubiquitous, and sometimes quite as powerful and expensive as HLLs, only to fall from favor as improving compiler technology marginalized assembler programming (see languages of choice). Nowadays the term is most often used in connection with the C preprocessor, LISP, or one of several special-purpose languages built around a macro-expansion facility (such as TeX or Unix's [nt]roff suite). Indeed, the meaning has drifted enough that the collective `macros' is now sometimes used for code in any special-purpose application control language (whether or not the language is actually translated by text expansion), and for macro-like entities such as the `keyboard macros' supported in some text editors (and PC TSR or Macintosh INIT/CDEV keyboard enhancers). 
A command that incorporates a set of other commands. You custom design a command, called a macro, from existing commands. Both the vi editor and the nroff and troff formatters use macros. The mm macro package described in this book is an example of a large collection of nroff and troff macros. 
A program consisting of recorded keystrokes and an application's command language that, when run within the application, executes the keystrokes and commands to accomplish a task. Macros can automate tedious and often-repeated tasks (such as saving and backing up a file to a floppy) or create special menus to speed data entry. Some programs provide a macro-recording mode in which the program records your keystrokes and then saves the recording as a macro. Others provide a built-in macro editor, where you type and edit macro commands directly to create IF/THEN/ELSE statements and DO/WHILE loops. 
A set of instructions stored in an executable form. Macros may be application specific (such as a spreadsheet or word processing macro that performs specific steps within that program) or general-purpose (for example, a keyboard macro that types in a user ID when Ctrl-U is pressed on the keyboard). 
macro- pref.
Large. Opposite of micro-. In the mainstream and among other technical cultures (for example, medical people) this competes with the prefix mega-, but hackers tend to restrict the latter to quantification. 
Manufacturing Application Control System (SNI) 
MODEM Access Control System (MODEM, DES, cryptography), "M.A.C.S." 
Set of tools to deal with specially encoded Macintosh files macutils is a package that contains a number of utilities that deal with Macintosh files on a Unix system. This is useful for converting BinHex-encoded files to the smaller MacBinary format before transferring them to a Mac. 
Memory Address Driver strength (BIOS) 
Message Address Directory 
A Kaboom! clone "Mad Bomber" is a clone of Activision's classic Atari 2600 console game, "Kaboom!," by Larry Kaplan, with spruced-up graphics and sound effects, and music. The Mad Bomber is loose in the city and he's dropping bombs everywhere! It's your job to catch them before they hit the ground and explode. Luckily, you have a set of trusty buckets to extinguish the bombs with. 
Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol (RFC 2730, Multicast) 
Multimedia Application Development Environment (CWI) 
An Italian Linux Distribution. 
Microsoft Activex Development Kit (ActiveX, MS) 
IRC personal proxy, stationing, logger and bot program (pirc). madoka can work as IRC personal proxy server, stationing on the IRC net with logging. and some bot plugins included. madoka is IPv6 compliant with which is in libsocket6-perl. But Documents are available only Japanese. 
MPEG audio player in fixed point MAD is an MPEG audio decoder. It currently only supports the MPEG 1 standard, but fully implements all three audio layers (Layer I, Layer II, and Layer III, the latter often colloquially known as MP3.). There is also full support for ID3 tags. All work is done in fixed point, so it even works on machines without a FPU. 
Multiple APIC Description Table (ACPI, APIC) 
Macintosh Application Environment (Apple, Sun, HPUX) 
Maelstrom is a space combat game, originally ported from the Macintosh platform. Brave pilots get to dodge asteroids and fight off other ships at the same time. 
computes fontsizes and magsteps 
magic number
In source code, some non-obvious constant whose value is significant to the operation of a program and that is inserted inconspicuously in-line (hardcoded), rather than expanded in by a symbol set by a commented #define. Magic numbers in this sense are bad style. 2. A number that encodes critical information used in an algorithm in some opaque way. 3. pecial data located at the beginning of a binary data file to indicate its type to a utility. Under Unix, the system and various applications programs (especially the linker) distinguish between types of executable file by looking for a magic number. 
magic number
n. [Unix/C; common] 1. In source code, some non-obvious constant whose value is significant to the operation of a program and that is inserted inconspicuously in-line (hardcoded), rather than expanded in by a symbol set by a commented #define. Magic numbers in this sense are bad style. 2. A number that encodes critical information used in an algorithm in some opaque way. The classic examples of these are the numbers used in hash or CRC functions, or the coefficients in a linear congruential generator for pseudo-random numbers. This sense actually predates and was ancestral to the more commonsense 1. 3. Special data located at the beginning of a binary data file to indicate its type to a utility. Under Unix, the system and various applications programs (especially the linker) distinguish between types of executable file by looking for a magic number. Once upon a time, these magic numbers were PDP-11 branch instructions that skipped over header data to the start of executable code; 0407, for example, was octal for `branch 16 bytes relative'. Many other kinds of files now have magic numbers somewhere; some magic numbers are, in fact, strings, like the !<arch> at the beginning of a Unix archive file or the %! leading PostScript files. Nowadays only a wizard knows the spells to create magic numbers. How do you choose a fresh magic number of your own? Simple -- you pick one at random. See? It's magic! The magic number, on the other hand, is 7+/-2. See "The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information" by George Miller, in the "Psychological Review" 63:81-97 (1956). This classic paper established the number of distinct items (such as numeric digits) that humans can hold in short-term memory. Among other things, this strongly influenced the interface design of the phone system. 
determine file type 
Magicdev is a daemon that runs within the GNOME environment and detects when a CD is removed or inserted. Magicdev handles running autorun programs on the CD, updating the File Manager, and playing audio CDs. 
automatic printer filter. Magicfilter is a customizable, extensible automatic printer filter. It uses its own magic database (` la file(1)) to decide how to print out a given print job. 
MagicPoint is an X11 based presentation tool. MagicPoint's presentation files (typically .mgp files) are plain text so you can create presentation files quickly with your favorite editor. 
Computational group theory software with GUI The MAGNUS computational group theory package is an innovative symbolic algebra package providing facilities for doing calculations in and about infinite groups. Almost all symbolic algebra systems are oriented toward finite computations that are guaranteed to produce answers, given enough time and resources. By contrast, MAGNUS is concerned with experiments and computations on infinite groups which in some cases are known to terminate, while in others are known to be generally recursively unsolvable. MAGNUS features an intuitive graphical user interface, facilities for running different algorithms on the same problem in parallel, generation of approximations for working on otherwise infeasible problems, genetic algorithms and a plug-in package manager. 
Debian reference librarian This program acts as a "reference librarian" for the apt(8) and dpkg(8) database, and how that information compares to the actual system. Each package is fully described on an individual page. Three additional package lists are provided: "required by," "recommended by" and "suggested by," as is a link to the Debian bug tracking system. If the package is installed, the page also shows the conffiles and any files in the package which don't match the manifest (if enabled). All package lists provide the "summary" description and the version of the package, if installed. A synopis of all packages (the 'description' field) is available, grouped by section or priority or keyword. A synopsis of all installed packages is also provided. Additional indexes include package name, maintainer, source package, package size, installed size and md5sum. Magpie also has experimental XML support, but no XSL stylesheets have been defined yet. 
The original Mah-Jong game This is a set of programs to play the original Mah-Jong game: one server, one client for a human player and one client for a programmed player. Hence the game can be played by 1 to 4 human players. You should keep in mind that the original Mah-Jong game has nothing to do with the well-known solitaire game. (It only uses the same set of tiles.) If you like the game, please consider making a donation to the (upstream) author. Read /usr/share/doc/mah-jong/README.Debian for details. 
Electronic Mail is a means of exchanging private text messages through the Internet and other networks. Common Unix mail readers include Elm, Pine, and MUSH. It is also possible to read mail across a SLIP connection with a client program connected to a popmail server. 
send and receive mail 
Programs derived from the Mail::Audit package Small programs designed to enhance the Mail::Audit package. These include proc2ma, to convert procmail rc files to mail filters using Mail::Audit, and popread, to act as a replacement for fetchmail. 
GNU sharutils 
an automatic mail-processing tool 
An automatic mail-processing tool Mailagent allows you to process your mail automatically. This has far more functionality than procmail, and is easier to configure (providing, of course, that you grok perl). As a mail processing tool, this slices, it dices, it ... Given a set of lex-like rules, you are able to file mails to specific folders (plain Unix-style folders and also MMDF and MH ones), forward messages to a third person, pipe a message to a command or even post the message to a newsgroup. It is also possible to process messages containing some commands. You may also set up a vacation program, which will automatically answer your mail while you are not there, but more flexibly than the Unix command of the same name. You only need to supply a message to be sent and the frequency at which this will occur. Some simple macro substitutions allow you to re-use some parts of the mail header into your vacation message, for a more personalized reply. You may also set up a generic mail server, without the hassle of the lower-level concerns like error recovery, logging or command parsing. The mailagent is not usually invoked manually but is rather called via the filter program, which is in turn invoked by sendmail. That means you must have sendmail/smail on your system to use this. You also must have perl to run the mailagent scripts. It is possible to extend the mailagent filtering commands by implementing them in perl and then having them automagically loaded when used. Please note that on Debian systems, mailagent can not lock /var/spool/mail directory mailboxes, and thus one must put a catch all rule saving all mail in ones home directory. This is because Debian MDA policy requires them to be setgid mail, and making anything as extensible as mailagent setgid anything negates any benefit of having group permission protection. 
In electronix mail, the storage space that has been set aside to store an individual's electronic mail messages. 
The mailcap file is used by the metamail program. Metamail reads the mailcap file to determine how it should display non-text or multimedia material. Basically, mailcap associates a particular type of file with a particular program that a mail agent or other program can call in order to handle the file. Mailcap should be installed to allow certain programs to be able to handle non-text files. 
Check multiple mailboxes/maildirs for mail Mailcheck is a simple, configurable tool that allows multiple mailboxes to be checked for the existence of new mail messages. It supports both mbox and maildir-style mailboxes, for compatibility with most mail transport agents. It also supports remote POP3 and IMAP mailboxes. 
An Emacs interface to the GNU Privacy Guard. Mailcrypt is an Emacs lisp package that provides a simple but powerful interface to cryptographic functions for mail and news. With Mailcrypt, encryption becomes a seamlessly integrated part of your mail and news handling environment. Mailcrypt can automatically fetch public keys to encode, decode, and verify messages, and can be configured to automate mailing through anonymous remailers. Although Mailcrypt may be used to process data in arbitrary Emacs buffers, it is most useful in conjunction with other Emacs packages for handling mail and news. Mailcrypt has specialized support for Rmail, VM, MH-E, and Gnus. Currently XEmacs ships with its own Mailcrypt, so this package should only be used with GNU/Emacs. (I.e., you don't need to install this package if your site uses only XEmacs.) 
Deliver bulletins directly to the users' Maildir. Deliver bulletins directly to the Maildir mail storage of users. Designed to be run from the /etc/aliases file with command-line parameters for which groups to send mail to. 
mailagent's commands 
mail delivery agent with filtering abilities maildrop is a replacement for your local mail delivery agent. maildrop reads a mail message from standard input, then delivers the message to your mailbox. maildrop knows how to deliver mail to mbox-style mailboxes, and maildirs (a mail storing format introduced by Qmail). maildrop can optionally read instructions from a file on how to filter incoming mail, and, based upon the instructions, deliver mail to alternate mailboxes, or forward it to somewhere else, like procmail. Unlike procmail, maildrop uses a structured filtering language that's a bit easier on the eyes. 
A program that filters your incoming e-mail to help remove spam. Mailfilter is very flexible utility for UNIX (-like) operating systems to get rid of unwanted e-mail messages, before having to go through the trouble of downloading them to the local computer. It offers support for one or many POP3 accounts and is especially useful for dialup connections via modem, ISDN, etc. Install Mailfilter if you'd like to remove spam from your POP3 mail accounts. With Mailfilter you can define your own filters (rules) to determine which e-mails should be delivered and which are considered waste. Rules are Regular Expressions, so you can make use of familiar options from other mail delivery programs such as e.g. procmail. If you do not get your mail from a POP3-Server you don't need Mailfilter. 
mailagent's commands 
mailing list
An e-mail address that is an alias (or macro, though that word is never used in this connection) which is expanded by a mail exploder to yield many other e-mail addresses. 
Mailing Lists
A mailing list is a special address that, when posted to, automatically sends email to a long list of other addresses. You usually subscribe to a mailing list by sending some specially formatted email or by requesting a subscription from the mailing list manager. Once you have subscribed to a list, any email you post to the list will be sent to every other subscriber, and every other subscriber's posts to the list will be sent to you. There are mostly three types of mailing lists: the majordomo type, the listserv type, and the *-request type. 
It show new mails with the keyboard-leds The Program mailleds have set the SUID-Bit! Please check the source code! mailleds is a quiet, unobtrusive way to signify that you have new mail: a user daemon to blink LEDs when there is new mail. This package don't have /usr/bin/xmailleds, because this don't work. 
mailagent's commands 
Maillist (or Mailing List)
A (usually automated) system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together. 
Powerful, web-based mailing list manager The GNU Mailing List Manager, which manages email discussion lists much like Majordomo and Smartmail. Unlike most similar products, Mailman gives each mailing list a web page, and allows users to subscribe, unsubscribe, etc. over the web. Even the list manager can administer his or her list entirely from the web. Mailman also integrates most things people want to do with mailing lists, including archiving, mail <-> news gateways, and so on. It has all of the features you expect from such a product, plus integrated support for the web (including web based archiving), automated bounce handling and integrated spam prevention. For more information see 
mailagent's commands 
Mail Transfer Agent 
Simple, but powerful WWW mail reader system Mailreader is a light and simple web based mail user agent written in PERL. It has a very simple configuration and works quite well. Mailreader currently supports only POP3 servers. Now it support Japanese locale (libjcode-pm-perl needed - otherwise please ignore this suggestion). Although mailreader's dependencies do not include a POP3 server, it does require an available POP3 server on the network for normal operation. For secure connections (HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!) you need httpd with ssl support. (You can try apache-ssl). 
An email virus scanner and spam tagger. MailScanner is a freely distributable E-Mail gateway virus scanner and spam detector. It uses sendmail or Exim as its basis, and a choice of 7 commercial virus scanning engines to do the actual virus scanning. It can decode and scan attachments intended solely for Microsoft Outlook users (MS-TNEF). If possible, it will disinfect infected documents and deliver them automatically. It also has features which protect it against Denial Of Service attacks. Virus checking is disabled by default, spam checking is enabled by default. After installation, you can enable virus checking, write your own virus scanner or install one of the supported commercial anti-virus packages. 
GNU sharutils 
shows mail-arrival statistics 
Synchronize IMAP mailboxes Mailsync is a way of keeping a collection of mailboxes synchronized. The mailboxes may be on the local filesystem or on an IMAP server. 
WWW Forms to Mail Gateway This package provides a CGI program that converts data submitted through a <forms> tag to simple mail that is sent to a given address. 
Package to facilitate upgrades This package exists to smooth upgrades from the old name of mailtools to the new name of libmailtools-perl. If all dependencies on mailtools are changed to libmailtools-perl, this package can be safely removed. 
GNU Mailutils mailx client This is GNUs version of mailx. It is capable of speaking POP3, IMAP, and mbox. 
Mailutils-based IMAP4 Daemon GNU Mailutils-based IMAP4 Daemon 
Mailutils-based POP3 Daemon GNU Mailutils-based POP3 Daemon 
A simple mail user agent. mailx is the traditional command-line-mode mail user agent. Even if you don't use it it may be required by other programs. 
The mailx package installs the /bin/mail program, which is used to send quick email messages (i.e., without opening up a full-featured mail useragent). Mail is often used in shell scripts. You should install mailx because of its quick email sending ability, which is especially useful if you're planning on writing any shell scripts. 
A multi-user computer designed to meet the computing needs of a large organisation. Originally, the term mainframe referred to the metal cabinet that housed the central processing unit (CPU) of early computers. The term came to be used gerneally to refer to the large central computers developed in the late 1950s and 1960s to meet the accounting and information-management needs of large organisations. The largest mainframes can handle thousands of dumb terminals and use terabytes of secondary storage. See minicomputer, personal computer, and workstarion. 
The largest and most powerful type of computer system that is widely used. A mainframe typically occupies many cabinets and fills an entire room. 
MAchine INdependent SAIL (SAIL) 
Debian New Maintainers' Guide This package contains the Debian New Maintainers' Guide. This document will try to describe building of a Debian GNU/Linux package to the common Debian user (and wannabe developer) in common language, and well covered with working examples. Contains following chapters: 1. Getting started "The Right Way" 2. First steps 3. Modifying the source 4. Required stuff under debian/ 5. Other files under debian/ 6. Final steps 
Maintenance programming
Altering progams after they have been in use for a while. Maintenance programming may be performed to add features, correct bugs that escaped detection during testing, or update key variables (such as the inflation rate) that change over time. 
Maintenance release
A program revision that corrects a minor bug or makes a minor new feature available, such as a new printer driver. Maintenance relesaes are usually numbered in tenths (3.2) or hundredths (2.01), to distinguish them from mahor program revisions. Synonymous with interim update. 
Microprocessor Architecture for Java Computing [pronounced 'magic'] (Sun, Java) 
Modular Application for JOURnals (EWS, SGML) 
A GNU tool for controlling the generation of executables and other non-source files of a program from the program's source files. Make allows users to build and install packages without any significant knowledge about the details of the build process. The details about how the program should be built are provided for make in the program's makefile.The GNU make tool should be installed on your system because it is commonly used to simplify the process of installing programs. 
The GNU version of the "make" utility. GNU Make is a program that determines which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled and issues the commands to recompile them, when necessary. More information about GNU Make can be found in the `make' Info page. The upstream sources for this package are available at the location 
Create simple DB database from textual input. 
create dependencies in makefiles 
Creates device files in /dev. The MAKEDEV executable is used to populate the /dev directory with device files. 
This package contains the makedev program, which makes it easier to createand maintain the files in the /dev directory. /dev directory files correspond to a particular device supported by Linux (serial or printerports, scanners, sound cards, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, hard drives,etc.) and interface with the drivers in the kernel. The makedev package is a basic part of your Mandrake Linux system and it needs to be installed. 
This package contains the MAKEDEV script, which makes it easier to createand maintain the files in the /dev directory. /dev directory files correspond to a particular device supported by Linux (serial or printer ports, scanners, sound cards, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, hard drives, etc.) and interface with the drivers in the kernel. You should install the MAKEDEV package because the MAKEDEV utility makes it easy to manage the /dev directory device files. 
A dictionary compiler for KDrill makeedict is the program to help you make custom dictionary file for KDrill. In particular, this is the program use to create the kanadic drill files. 
A file that instructs the program make how to compile and link a program. 
Creates the default floppy device nodes. TQ 
make a debuggable executable 
a general purpose, formatter-independent index processor 
translate Texinfo documents 
generate VF file from japanese TeX TFM file for dvips For japanese font, the real size of PS font and information of TFM file is a bit different and this causes unexpected output so we need VF file to fix this situation. This package provide a tool to generate such VF files from TFM files. 
typeset labels in MetaPost pictures with TeX or Troff 
Generate and encrypt passwords Generates true random passwords by using the /dev/random feature of Linux, with the emphasis on security over pronounceability. It can also encrypt plaintext passwords given on the command line. 
generate/apply patch files with more functionality than plain diff This package contains a pair of programs, makepatch and applypatch, to assist in the generation and application of patch kits to synchronise source trees. makepatch knows about common conventions for patch kits (it generates Index: and Prereq: lines, it patches patchlevel.h first, it can use manifest files), plus it prepends some shell code which if run will take care adding directories, removing files, setting execute mode on scripts, and the like. applypatch uses some extra data supplied by makepatch to verify both the patch and the source directory before applying the patch. Afterwards it will clean up the directory tree plus fix up the permissions and even the timestamps on the patched files. 
Build PostScript resource database file. 
makes string table C source and header(s) 
create a PK file for a font 
updates .xvpics thumbnails from the command line This package includes a shell script and a C helper program to update XV/Gimp/zgv/xzgv thumbnails from the command line. 
construct a codepage file for Samba 
construct a unicode map file for Samba 
A system for automatic language analysis Malaga is a system for implementing natural language analysers: both grammars and morphologies can be created. You will not be needing this package if you do not intend to do research on computer linguistics or develop computer programs that need to do advanced processing of natural languages. This package contains a set of standalone programs that can be used in developing and playing with grammars and morphologies. One of the programs uses a Tk/TCL module for displaying graphical analysis trees. Malaga support for Emacs is also included. To read the documentation in this package you will need a basic TeX environment, particularly the standard Computer Modern fonts and a DVI file viewer, which are included in the Debian tetex-bin and tetex-base packages. Alternatively, you can install the malaga-doc package, which contains the same documentation in HTML and PostScript form. 
Utility to sync AvantGo channels with a 3Com Pilot PDA malsync is a small utility that communicates between a 3Com Pilot and the AvantGo webservers (and other MAL enabled servers). 
In an abstract world, the world consists of plants and animals (flora and fauna). Hardware makes up the flora, automated programs with a life of their own make up the malware. Examples: viruses/virii, Trojan Horses, RATs (Remote Administration Trojans), spiders, bots, logic bombs. 
Multi Access Module 
Multiple Arcade Machine Emulator, "M.A.M.E." 
macros to format man pages 
Metropolitan Area Network 
The man package includes three tools for finding information and/or documentation about your Linux system: man, apropos and whatis. The man system formats and displays on-line manual pages about commands or functions on your system. Apropos searches the whatis database (containing short descriptions of system commands) for a string. Whatis searches its own database for a complete word. The man package should be installed on your system because it is the primary way for find documentation on a Mandrake Linux system. 
The UNIX/Linux command for reading online manual pages. 
man page
Every version of UNIX comes with an extensive collection of online help pages called man pages (short for manual pages). The man pages are the authoritative about your UNIX system. They contain complete information about both the kernel and all the utilities.
The on-line manual pager This package provides the man command, the primary way of examining the on-line help files (manual pages). Other utilities provided include the whatis and apropos commands for searching the manual page database, the manpath utility for determining the manual page search path, and the maintenance utilities mandb, catman and zsoelim. man-db uses the groff suite of programs to format and display the manual pages. 
man-in-the-middle attack
An attacker where the hacker interposes himself in the middle between two people. Culture: Historically, when talking about such attacks, the hacker is given male names starting with the letter M (like Mallory, Mark, Mawry, etc.). Key point: This often means that both sides of a connection really need to authenticate themselves. For example, when you log into a server, you really want to be assured it is the real server you are talking to, rather than Mark who is forwarding your requests to the real server using your identity. Key point: In the year 2000, Dug Song released a toolkit for interposing yourself in between SSL and SSH connections. It relies upon the fact that client systems do not validate the certificates on the server. Therefore, the man-in-the-middle attack can present any certificate to the client, which will not realize it is not the certificate of the server. 
A large collection of man pages (documentation) from the Linux Documentation Project (LDP). 
A large collection of man pages (reference material) from the LinuxDocumentation Project (LDP). The man pages are organized into the following sections: Section 1: User commands (intro only) Section 2: System calls Section 3: Libc calls Section 4: Devices (e.g., hd, sd) Section 5: File formats and protocols (e.g., wtmp, /etc/passwd, nfs) Section 6: Games (intro only) Section 7: Conventions, macro packages, etc. (e.g., nroff, ascii) Section 8: System administration (intro only) Section 9: Kernel internal routines 
Turns a web-browser and an httpd-server into a man pager. Point your webbrowser at and you got your manpages in the browser. Features: * Fast C CGI program for man/BSD-mandoc to HTML conversion. * Works from the unformatted nroff/troff source. * Source may be compressed. * Does tbl tables (but not eqn equations). * Generates hypertext links to foobar(1), abc@host, and xyzzy.h files * CGI script for whatis-based alpha-indexes by section. * CGI script for name-only alpha-indexes by section. * CGI script for full text search (requires glimpse) * Front-end script to talk to a pre-launched netscape. 
create or update the manual page index caches 
Mandrake Linux
MandrakeSoft makes this popular distribution. Originally based on Red Hat Linux, Mandrake Linux has grown into a unique distribution. Mandrake Linux 9.1 (Bamboo) was released March 25, 2003. 
This package displays an html file allowing users to launch browsers to other html pages (Mandrake web sites or local html documentation) or to launch Mandrake applications such as the Mandrake Control Center. 
This package contains all MIME type files not provided by desktop environment. 
Mandrake Linux release file. 
This package contains useful icons, backgrounds and others goodies for the Mandrake desktop. 
A GTK+-based Enhanced ManPage Editor ManEdit was created due to a lack of editors for UNIX manual pages, since users expect each UNIX program/configuration/api/etc to have a manual page the lack of an editor and the high demand for what it should create eventually lead to this (long overdue) application. Although most resourced developers can create a source document using a much more advanced editor and then export to multiple file formats, the average UNIX contributor isn't up to that. Even the creators of this application were intimidated at the UNIX manual page creation process. 
The Blue Mango Quest, a first person maze game Pacman meets Doom This brings the third dimension into the classical game of pacman: run arround a maze eating pills and power ups while you avoid being eaten by ghostly fiends. 
Man pages about using a Linux system. This package contains the Linux man pages for these sections: * 4 = Devices (e.g. hd, sd). * 5 = File formats and protocols, syntaxis of several system files (e.g. wtmp, /etc/passwd, nfs). * 7 = Conventions and standards, macro packages, etc. (e.g. nroff, ascii). Sections 1, 6 and 8 are provided by the respective applications. This package only includes the intro man page describing the section. The man pages describe syntaxis of several system files. 
determine search path for manual pages 
format of the /etc/manpath.config file 
A php/MySQL/web based bug tracking system. Php3 version Mantis is a php/MySQL/web based bug tracking system. The software resides on a webserver while any web browser should be able to function as a client. It is released under the terms of the GNU GPL. 
Minor mode for manued proofreading method Manued is a method for proofreading of manuscripts, proposed by Ikuo TAKEUCHI in No.39 Programming symposium of Japan. Manued is a media independent proofreading method, however, it is especially effective for exchanging electric texts via E-mail. Manued.el is an emacs lisp implementation for supporting manued method. 
Maintenance Analysis Procedure (IBM) 
Manufacturing Automation Protocol (General Motors) 
Mobile Application Part (MSC, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Mobile Access Protocol [for MPT 1327] (MPT 1327), "MAP 27" 
Mobile Application Part - Application Service Elements (MAP, MSC, GSM, mobile-systems), "MAP-ASE" 
Messaging Application Program Interface (MS, WOSA, API) 
Manufacturing Automation Protocol/Technical Office Protocol, "MAP/TOP" 
Microprogram Address Register (IC) 
A simple DNS server, aimed to be secure This DNS server has the following goals: Security. A DNS server needs to be secure. It has a number of security features in the code, including: 1.The code uses a special string library which is resistant to buffer overflows. 2.The code, if started as root, mandates running as an unprivledged user in a chroot() jail. Open-Source. This DNS server is public-domain code. There are no restrictions attached to this code. Simplicity. This DNS server has the minimum number of features needed to correctly act as an authoritative name server for a domain. MaraDNS can be found from 
A game where you build figures out of colored marbles The goal of this game is to create a more or less complex figure out of single marbles within a time limit to reach the next level. Sounds easy? Well, there is a problem: If a marble starts to move, it will not stop until it hits a wall or another marble. 
MAchine Readable Cataloging [record] 
An interpreter for a Dylan-like language Marlais is a simple-minded interpreter for a programming language strongly resembling Dylan. Dylan is an object oriented language similar to Lisp that uses infix syntax rather than prefix syntax. Marlais can use either syntax. This is a "hackers release" and is intended as a vehicle for education and experimentation. If you are interested in using Dylan you may also wish to look at the gwydion-dylan package. 
Multi Agent Systems (AI) 
Mittelstands-Anwendungs-System 90 (IBM) 
Multicast Address-Set Claim [protocol] (RFC 2909, Multicast) 
Message Administration Service Element 
Microsoft ASseMbler (MS, assembler) 
Interactively creates a Linux packet filtering firewall. Mason creates a firewall that exactly matches the types of TCP/IP traffic flowing in, out and through a Linux computer. It can be used to create a full firewall or add rules to an existing firewall. 
A mailer for hosts without permanent internet connection MasqMail is a MTA (mail transport agent) and POP3 client for hosts that don't have a permanent internet connection, eg. a home network or a single host at home. It has special support for connections to different ISPs, and will work nicely along with the masqdialer. In these cases, MasqMail is a slim replacement for full-blown MTAs such as sendmail, exim, qmail or postfix. The POP3 client can be a small replacement for other full-featured tools like fetchmail. 
An attack where somebody forges their identity, either by supplying false credentials when authenticating or by hijacking existing connections through man-in-the-middle attacks. 
mass storage device
A piece of equipment, such as a disk or tape drive, that stores large amounts of data relatively inexpensively. Although these devices cost less than the main memory in a computer system, they are much slower to access. 
Mastodon, version INST0064 was released March 9, 2001. It is a self-booting 360MB CD image, suitable for burning onto a CD-ROM. 
A X11 Window manager for handheld devices Matchbox is a X11 window manager designed for computers with little screen real estate, limited input devices and low cpu/storage resources. Touchscreen PDA's fit well into this category. 
A flash card game designed to teach maths. A GTK application that teaches kids (and adults) how to respond quickly to math problems using flash cards and timers. It includes a Computer player, where the player gets to decide if the Computer is right or not. 
An experiment in Artificial life Matrem is a computer program that simulates life. It belongs to the emerging science of "artificial life", which studies evolution and complex systems in general by simulation. Matrem is also a game, where players compete to create the fittest life form. Their efforts are the driving force behind the program. This package provides a binary generated from the original sources. You can study the evolution of the default world and species. If you wish to add your own species you will need to download and modify the source code. 
change MSDOS file attribute flags TQ 
A wrapper generator for matrix languages Matwrap is a tool for interfacing C++ code into matrix-oriented scripting languages such as Octave, Tela or Matlab 5. It generates all the code to convert from the scripting language's internal types into the types that your C++ code understands (e.g., double, char *, float *, struct abc *). You do not need to understand any of the API details of the language to use your C++ code; just give matwrap a .h file describing your functions. Brief list of features: - Functions are automatically vectorized. - Arguments containing dimensions of other vector and matrix arguments can be computed automatically and need not be specified. - Pointers to structures and classes are supported. Public member functions of classes may be called, and public data members may be evaluated or set. Inheritance is supported. 
Medium Access Unit 
Medium Attachment Unit (IEEE 802.3, Transceiver) 
Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring, Hub) 
Muensters Apple User Service (BBS, network), "M.A.U.S." 
Microsoft At Work 
a pattern scanning and text processing language Mawk is an interpreter for the AWK Programming Language. The AWK language is useful for manipulation of data files, text retrieval and processing, and for prototyping and experimenting with algorithms. Mawk is a new awk meaning it implements the AWK language as defined in Aho, Kernighan and Weinberger, The AWK Programming Language, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1988. (Hereafter referred to as the AWK book.) Mawk conforms to the Posix 1003.2 (draft 11.3) definition of the AWK language which contains a few features not described in the AWK book, and mawk provides a small number of extensions. Mawk is smaller and much faster than gawk. It has some compile-time limits such as NF = 32767 and sprintf buffer = 1020. 
pattern scanning and text processing language 
MAssively parallel uniX (Cray, OS, MIMD, MPP, Unix) 
Media Access Exchange (Ascend) 
A fairly complete computer algebra system. This system MAXIMA is a COMMON LISP implementation due to William F. Schelter, and is based on the original implementation of Macsyma at MIT, as distributed by the Department of Energy. I now have permission from DOE to make derivative copies, and in particular to distribute it under the GNU public license. 
A scientific data visualization system. MayaVi is a Python application using The Visualization Toolkit. It also provides modules which are a handy interface to VTK internals in Python. It features an easy to use GUI, and lets you save the visualized scene to PostScript file, PPM/BMP/TIFF/JPEG/PNG image, Open Inventor, VRML or RenderMan RIB files. And a lot more! MayaVi can be easily modified to do things differently. 
tests a floppy disk, and marks the bad blocks in the FAT TQ 
Mercedes-Benz AktienGesellschaft (user) 
Mercedes-Benz-Computer-Mikrofilm-System (MBAG), "MB-CMS" 
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (IC; MOSFET) 
MBONE (Multicast Backbone)
a network that works in conjunction with the Internet for audio and video applications. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Grep through mailboxes mboxgrep is a small utility that scans either standard Unix mailboxes, Gnus nnml or nnmh mailboxes, MH mailboxes or Maildirs, and displays messages matching a basic, extended, or Perl-compatible regular expression. 
MegaBits Per Second 
One million bps, actual number is 1,048,576. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
master boot record - The first sector of the disk; this is the sector that the BIOS reads in and starts when the machine is first booted. The master boot record contains a small program which reads the partition table, checks which partition is active (that is, marked bootable), and reads the first sector of that partition, the partition's boot sector. 
Master Boot Record for IBM-PC compatible computers. This is used in booting Linux from the hard disk. The MBR runs first, then transfers control to LILO, which transfers control to the Linux kernel. 
Master Boot Record 
MBR (Master Boot Record)
The first physical sector on a bootable disk drive. The place where the system BIOS looks when the computer is first booted, to determine which partition is currently active (bootable), before reading that partition's first (boot) sector and booting from the partition. 
Maximum Burst Size 
Module BUS [standard] (Sun, SPARC), "MBus" 
copy or move messages to a new mailbox 
create a new mailbox 
copy or move messages to a new mailbox, converting mailbox format 
copy or move messages to a new mailbox 
Midnight Commander - A powerful file manager. - normal version Midnight Commander is a feature-rich file manager. It has mouse support in a linux console and in an xterm. It started as a Norton Commander clone but now it is far superior to it. Among other things it can do FTP, includes a hex editor, comes with an internal editor which can be invoked separately as 'mcedit' and lets you do most system administration tasks. Browsing, unpacking and installation of Debian packages is possible by just pressing enter on a *.deb file. Handling of other archive formats like rpm, zip, zoo and tar.gz is equally supported. This version comes with undelete for ext2 filesystems compiled in. 
Common files for mc and gmc These are the files the midnight commander and the midnight commander GNOME version have in common. 
an advanced, learning, mp3 jukebox MC Foo is an advanced, adaptive and learning mp3 jukebox server. -continuous music playing -learns what music you like and dislike -no static playlists; uses a playqueue you can view and alter -can be controlled from any hosts and even with infrared remote controllers -allows multiple user/preference profiles, according to whose listening and his or her mood Note that MC Foo is in the early stages of development, and not everything works yet. 
Micro Channel Architecture (IBM, PS/2) 
Mission Critical Applications 
Mechanical CAD (AutoCAD, CAD) 
dump raw disk image TQ 
Modified Constant Angular Velocity 
Memory Control Block (DOS, TPA) 
Mean Cycle Between Failure 
Manchester Code Converter 
Manchester Computing Centre (Linux) 
Mitteldeutsches Communication Center (Leipzig) 
MCC Interim Linux
MCC Interim Linux was started by the Manchester Computing Centre in February of 1992, after they made Linux availible on their FTP site in November of 1991. The distribution was one of the first to use a combined boot/root disk. Several distributions were based off of MCC Interim Linux, including TAMU, MJ, and SLS (which later morphed into Slackware Linux, a distribution that's still alive today). Distribution development is not all that active. 
change MSDOS directory TQ 
Mini Client Driver (MS, Windows NT) 
Multimedia Cartridge Drive (Nomai) 
Military Communications-Electronics Board (org., mil., USA) 
Meta Content Framework / Format (Apple, WWW) 
Multi Color Graphics Adapter (IBM, PS/2) 
Memory Controller Hub [aka Northbridge] (Intel) 
Measurement Layer Interface (UMA) 
Media Control Interface 
Microwave Communications Incorporated 
Media Communication Lab (org., Uni Boston, USA) 
the Markov Cluster algorithm The MCL package is an implementation of the Markov Cluster algorithm, and offers utilities for manipulating sparse matrices (the essential data structure in the MCL algorithm) and conducting cluster experiments. For additional information on the MCL algorithm, see the pointers found at <>. 
MultiChip Module (CPU) 
Metropolitan Campus Network 
Master Certified Netware Engineer (Novell, Netware) 
??? [cable modem standard] (org.) 
Kernel configuration tool mconfig is a tool to configure a Linux kernel. Unlike the scripts that come with kernel source it has a grammar written in yacc and that is compiled once not for each new kernel release. It supports severals interfaces modes for different uses. 
generate magic cookies for xauth 
copy MSDOS files to/from Unix TQ 
Master Control Program (OS) 
Merlin Convenience Pack (IDB, OS/2) 
Multiport / Multiprotocol Communication Processor 
Master Control Program/Advanced System, "MCP/AS" 
Multi Channel Per Carrier 
Microsoft Certified Product Specialist (MS, ATEC) 
Minimum Cell Rate (UNI, ATM, PCR, ABR) 
Replacement for old unix crypt(1) mcrypt is a simple crypting program, intended to be replacement for the old unix crypt(1). More information can be found at the mcrypt homepage . 
Material Control System 
Message Conversion System 
Modulation and Coding Scheme (EGPRS, mobile-systems) 
MultiCast Server 
Multichannel Communications System (Mac) 
Multivender Customer Services (DEC) 
Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MS, ATEC) 
Microsoft Certified System Engineer (MS, ATEC) 
Message Conversion System Message Processor (MCS) 
Mitac Computer Security System (Mitac) 
Microsoft Certified Trainer (MS, ATEC) 
Mean Cell Transfer Delay (UNI, ATM) 
A CD player and audio mixer for X McTools-lite consists of a CD-ROM audio player with playlists and a database, a mixer control program, and a versatile file requester for shell scripts. 
Multiple Console Time Sharing System (OS, CAD) 
Management & Cascade Unit (Hub) 
Micro Controller Unit (SIA, RL) 
Multipoint Control Unit 
Modified Constant Angular Velocity (Optical Disk) 
Make Directory (DOS, OS/2) 
Management DOMAIN 
Mini Disk (Sony) 
Message Digest [algorithm] 2 (RFC 1115/1319) 
Message Digest [algorithm] 4 (RFC 1320) 
MD4 (Message Digest #4)
An older hash algorithms that used to be popular. It is important today only for historical significance because it has been discovered to be "broken". 
Message Digest [algorithm] 5 (RFC 1321) 
MD5 (Message Digest #5, 1.2.840.113549.2.5, RFC 1321)
MD5 is one of the most popular hash algorithms. It processes an input file or message into a "unique" 128-bit fingerprint. This fingerprint is believed to be "unique"; while it is theoretically possible that two inputs could hash to the same fingerprint, it is nearly statistically impossible. Contrast: Compared to other hash algorithms, MD5 is extremely popular. It is the most popular hashing algorithm, used in SSL, PGP, HTTP authentication, Tripwire, and many other places. MD5 is one of the faster hash algorithms. However, a theoretical weakness has been found such that an attacker may be able to create two separate messages that hash to the same value. Therefore, most use of MD5 is simply for backwards compatibility. History: MD5 was written by Ron Rivest as an enhanced version of the earlier MD4. MD4 is part of many standards, but is considered completely broken by today's standards (and MD5 itself is now considere to have some weaknesses). See also: integrity 
generates or checks MD5 message digests 
compute and check MD5 message digest 
Mail Delivery Agent 
Medicated Digest Authentication (HTTP) 
Monochrome Display Adapter (IBM, PC) 
Microsoft Data Access Components (MS) 
Manage MD devices aka Linux Software Raid mdadm is a program that can be used to create, manage, and monitor MD devices. As such it provides a similar set of functionality to the raidtools packages. Unlike raidtools, mdadm can perform (almost) all of its functions without having a configuration file. 
Multidimensional DataBase Management System (DBMS, DB) 
Micro Data Base System (DB) 
Message conversion system directory Component (MCS) 
Meta Data Coalition 
Modified Discrete Cosine Transformation 
MultiDimensional DataBase (DB) 
??? DatenErfassung 
delete an MSDOS file mdeltree - recursively delete an MSDOS directory and its contents TQ 
recursively delete an MSDOS directory and its contents TQ 
mouse device autodetection tool mdetect is a tool for autoconfiguring mice; it is typically used as the backend to some user-friendly frontend code. mdetect writes the autodetected mouse device and protocol (as used by gpm) to standard output. It can be invoked so as to produce output appropriate for XFree86 X server configuration files. 
Medium Dependent Interface (ethernet) 
Mobile Data Initiative (org., GSM, mobile-systems) 
Multiple Document Interface (MS, Windows) 
Multiplex Device Interface 
ident daemon that permits fake identd Mdidentd is a special ident daemon that permits processes to set their own fake ident replies regardless of the userid they are running under. For normal ident to work, a normal ident daemon must be installed as well. 
display an MSDOS directory TQ 
MetaData Interchange Specification 
MIX Development Kit MDK stands for MIX Development Kit, and provides tools for developing and executing, in a MIX virtual machine, MIXAL programs. The MIX is Donald Knuth's mythical computer, described in the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, which is programmed using MIXAL, the MIX assembly language. MDK includes a MIXAL assembler (mixasm) and a MIX virtual machine (mixvm) with a command line interface. In addition, a GTK+ GUI to mixvm, called gmixvm, and a Guile interpreter with an embedded MIX virtual machine called mixguile, are provided. Using these interfaces, you can debug your MIXAL programs at source code level, and read/modify the contents of all the components of the MIX computer (including block devices, which are simulated using the file system). 
MODEM Developers Kit (MODEM, MS) 
This package includes that translations of the main menu used by the different desktops and window managers of the distribution; as well as translations used by specifically added features. 
Mdk kdm. 
This package allows to launch khelpcenter or change khelpcenter page. 
The Mandrake Online tool is designed for registered users who want to upload their configuration (packages, hardware infos). This allows them to be kept informed about security updates, hardware support/enhancements and other high value services. Since 9.1 MandrakeClub and MandrakeOnline have been merged. 
Microstation Development Language (CAD) 
Multibank Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
Manufacturing Design Rule Checker 
Manufacturing Design System 
Message Delivery Service Element 
Mobile Device Sync Protocol (Lotus) 
Mechanical DeskTop (SGI) 
Message Distribution Terminal 
Mittlere DatenTechnik 
Mountain Daylight Time [-0600] (TZ, MST, USA) 
display the amount of space occupied by an MSDOS directory TQ 
Mapping Entity 
Millennium Edition (MS, Windows) 
a graphical front end for tar 
Debian Med bioinformatics packages This meta package will install bioinformatics related Debian packages for use in medical research. 
Debian Med packages for dental practice This meta package will install Debian packages which build a system for managing a dental practice. 
The GNOME search/indexing package Medusa is software that allows you to quickly search your system for particular types of files, using an index. 
Mega Evil Grin (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
MessdatenErfassung und Graphische Auswertung 
A million bytes. Actually, technically, 1024 kilobytes. 
a conversation simulator that can learn as you talk to it Conversation simulators are computer programs which give the appearance of conversing with a user in natural language. Such programs are effective because they exploit the fact that human beings tend to read much more meaning into what is said than is actually there; we are fooled into reading structure into chaos, and we interpret non-sequitur as valid conversation. MegaHAL differs from conversation simulators such as Eliza in that it uses a Markov Model to learn how to hold a conversation. It is possible to teach MegaHAL to talk about new topics, and in different languages. 
Matsushita Electronics Incorporated (manufacturer, Japan) 
Maya Embedded Language 
Mail notifier with configurable icons, xbiff replacement Melon is a simple utility that notifies user for newly received emails, through a couple of configurable icons. In short it is an xbiff replacement. It supports multiple mailboxes, acoustic warnings, execution of external programs on request. Since Melon's check is based on the change time of a file, it is able to monitor every kind of files, not just mailboxes. 
Website in Japanese. Handhelds/PDA based distribution. 
Shows the members of a group; by default, all members. members is the complement of groups: whereas groups shows the groups a specified user belongs to, members shows users belonging to a specified group. Given the name of a group, members will send a space-separated list of member names to stdout. Full option parsing has been added as of this version. You can ask for primary members, secondary members, both on one line, each on separate lines. If no option is selected, prints all members on one line by default. 
A extension library that adds memoization support to CMU-CL. The library adds support not only to memoize functions, but also to have persistent memoization information recording to CMU-CL. 
Memo on the GNOME panel MemoPanel applet allows you to put a memo on the GNOME panel. Basic features are follows: stay on panel (GNOME applet) , i18n support, multi line display, strftime support in memo, color and font changeable, alert schedule URL caller, Ext launcher, IMAP/POP3 mail check, Screenshot 
memory profiler and leak detector Memprof is a tool for profiling memory usage and detecting memory leaks. It can be used with existing binaries without need for recompilation. 
Micro-ElectroMechanical System 
Identify what's using up virtual memory. Lists all the processes, executables, and shared libraries that are using up virtual memory. It's helpful to see how the shared memory is used and which 'old' libs are loaded. 
A thorough real-mode memory tester. Memtest86 scans your RAM for errors. This tester runs independently of any OS - it is run at computer boot-up, so that it can test *all* of you memory. You may want to look at `memtest' (in package `sysutils'), which allows to test your memory within Linux, but this one won't be able to test your whole RAM. This used to be part of the hwtools package, which still contains another real-mode memory tester optimized for mmx machines (but less actively maintained). It can output a list of bad RAM regions usable by the BadRAM kernel patch, so that you can still use you old RAM with one or 2 bad bits. 
A menstruation calendar Mencal is a menstruation calendar written in Perl. It looks like linux program cal. The difference is, that in mencal some days are colored red. 
A collection of algorithm animations Mentor encapsulates the Zeus animation library for Modula-3 into a single application. Zeus itself is not very well documented, but a summary of the animations which are part of the mentor application is available at: 
Functions and actions of a program can be reached via a menu. Menus usually offer submenus that drop down from it. 
provides update-menus functions for some applications The intent of this package is to streamline the menu's (like the fvwm2 ones) in debian. For this purpose, menu provides an "update-menus" command, that will read all installed menu files (as provided by other packages in /usr/lib/menu), and run the frontents for various window-managers in /etc/menu-methods to create startup files for the window managers (or pdmenu). The user and system admin can easily override the menu files on a by-user or by-system bases. 
The intent of this package is to streamline the menu's. For this purpose, menu provides an "update-menus" command, that will read all installed menufiles (as provided by other packages in /usr/lib/menu), and run the frontends for various window managers in /etc/menu-methods to create startup files for the window managers (or pdmenu). The user and system admin can easily override the menu files on a by-user or by-system bases. 
Menudrake is a menu editor for the Mandrake Linux distribution. 
New logic/functional programming language Mercury is a new logic/functional programming language, which combines the clarity and expressiveness of declarative programming with advanced static analysis and error detection features. Its highly optimized execution algorithm delivers efficiency far in excess of existing logic programming systems, and close to conventional programming systems. Mercury addresses the problems of large-scale program development, allowing modularity, separate compilation, and numerous optimization/time trade-offs. 
three-way file merge 
merge one library into another 
A tool for merging http logfiles A small and fast C program which merges and sorts http log files in 'Common Log Format' from web servers behind round-robin DNS. It has been designed to easily manage huge log files from highly stressed servers. 
Gnome Clock Applet This GNOME applet displays the time and date in a compact manner. See for a screenshot of Merlin's Clock Applet. 
GNOME panel applet that displays the CPU load as a fire. See a screenshot of Merlin's Applet on 
Most Economic Route Selection 
Multiple Environment, Real Time (OS) 
Manufacturing Execution System 
Menue-EntwicklungsSystem (Sinix, SNI) 
Minimum European Set (UTF, ISO 10646) 
A free implementation of the OpenGL API, designed and written by Brian Paul, with contributions from many others. Its performance is competitive, and while it is not officially certified, it is an almost fully compliant OpenGL implementation conforming to the ARB specifications. 
An implementation of the OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) API (Application Programming Interface). It provides standard guidelines and a toolset for writing 2D and 3D hardware-assisted graphics software. 
Mesa is a free implementation of the OpenGL API, designed and written by Brian Paul, with contributions from many others. Its performance is competitive, and while it is not officially certified, it is an almost fully compliant OpenGL implementation conforming to the ARB specifications - more complete than some commercial products out, actually. From 3DFX HOWTO
MetaEmailSearchAgent (WWW, Internet) 
Example programs for Mesa (and OpenGL in general) Mesa demonstration programs, SGI sample code, and source code examples from the _OpenGL Programming Guide_ ("the Red Book"), the _OpenGL Reference Manual_ ("the Blue Book") and _Programming OpenGL for the X Window System_ ("the Green Book") Although some of the demos generate "pretty pictures", they are much more valuable in source code form. They were written in the first place for the OpenGL programmer to study and learn from. In order to compile the demos you'll need a package providing libgl-dev, as well as libglut-dev. 
A 3-D graphics library which uses the OpenGL API [libc6]. Mesa is a 3-D graphics library with an API which is very similar to that of OpenGL*. To the extent that Mesa utilizes the OpenGL command syntax or state machine, it is being used with authorization from Silicon Graphics, Inc. However, the author makes no claim that Mesa is in any way a compatible replacement for OpenGL or associated with Silicon Graphics, Inc. 
A 3-D graphics library which uses the OpenGL API [libc6]. Mesa is an OpenGL-compliant API that takes advantage of acceleration features of many cards, transparently in a number of environments. This package contains support for GGI targets; do not install this unless you are running KGI or plan to develop berlin or other apps based on GGI. X support is still included. 
A 3-D graphics library which uses the OpenGL API [libc6]. Mesa is a 3-D graphics library with an API which is very similar to that of OpenGL*. To the extent that Mesa utilizes the OpenGL command syntax or state machine, it is being used with authorization from Silicon Graphics, Inc. However, the author makes no claim that Mesa is in any way a compatible replacement for OpenGL or associated with Silicon Graphics, Inc. This version of mesa is only for use with 3DFX based graphics cards. 
Multi-WAIS Engine for Searching Commercial Hosts (WAIS, WWW) 
library for performing operations on matrices and vectors Meschach is a library of routines written in C for matrix computations. These include operations for basic numerical linear algebra; routines for matrix factorisations; solving systems of equations; solving least squares problems; computing eigenvalues, eigenvectors and singular values;sparse matrix computations including both direct and iterative methods. This package makes use of the features of the C programming language: data structures, dynamic memory allocation and deallocation, pointers, functions as parameters and objects. Meschach has a number of self-contained data structures for matrices, vectors and other mathematical objects. Web site: 
MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (IC, FET) 
control write access to your terminal 
Macintosh Enhanced SCSI Hardware (Apple, SCSI) 
Modified - Exclusive - Shared - Invalid (SMP) 
Media Event Status Notification 
In cryptography, you will often hear the word message in reference to any data. Culturally, this comes from back during WW-II era when the only thing encrypted were messages. These days we have encrypted communication channels (with no real message boundaries) and encrypted files, but conceptually we still model the problem of cryptography around messages. 
MittelEuropaeische SommerZeit [+0200] (TZ) 
Memory Enhancement Technology (HP), "MEt" 
Middle European Time [+0100] (TZ, CET, METDST, MEZ) 
/me't*/ or /may't*/ or (Commonwealth) /mee't*/ adj.,pref. [from analytic philosophy] One level of description up. A metasyntactic variable is a variable in notation used to describe syntax, and meta-language is language used to describe language. This is difficult to explain briefly, but much hacker humor turns on deliberate confusion between meta-levels. See hacker humor. 
meta bit
n. The top bit of an 8-bit character, which is on in character values 128-255. Also called high bit, alt bit, or (rarely) hobbit. Some terminals and consoles (see space-cadet keyboard) have a META shift key. Others (including, mirabile dictu, keyboards on IBM PC-class machines) have an ALT key. See also bucky bits. Historical note: although in modern usage shaped by a universe of 8-bit bytes the meta bit is invariably hex 80 (octal 0200), things were different on earlier machines with 36-bit words and 9-bit bytes. The MIT and Stanford keyboards (see space-cadet keyboard) generated hex 100 (octal 400) from their meta keys. 
extract EXIF information from digital camera files EXIF stands for Exchangeable Image File Format, and is a standard for storing interchange information in image files, especially those using JPEG compression. Most digital cameras now use the EXIF format. The format is part of the DCF standard created by JEIDA to encourage interoperability between imaging devices. In addition to the standard EXIF fields, MetaCam also supports vendor-specific extensions from Nikon, Olympus, Canon and Casio. 
A character that is used to carry a special meaning, such as a caret (^, beginning of line), a dollar sign ($, end of line), or an asterisk (*, match any character). To use one of these characters without special meaning, you must either precede it with a backslash (\) or enclose it within quotation marks. Bypassing the special meaning of a metacharacter is called escaping or quoting the character. 
metacharacter (shell metacharacters)
A metacharacter is one that represents some other concept rather than itself. For example, in entering in filenames, the metacharacter '*' doesn't represent an astrisk, but instead tells the system to match on any character. For example, looking for the filename "*.txt" will look for all files ending in the real characters ".txt". On UNIX, the most important characters are "shell" metacharacters. The reason they are important is because the shell is often used by one program to spawn another. This means that input provided to the parent program will be passed to the shell, then to the child program. If a hacker can craft special input using metacharacters, the hacker may be able to cause that shell to do something unexpected. E-mail address: A classic example is a webpage containing a FORM that asks for a user's e-mail address. The software (such as a CGI script) will often just invoke the 'mail' program using the shell. By inserting shell metacharacters into the field for the email address, a hacker may be able to execute some other program on the web server. Example: Some UNIX shell metacharacters are: [] () {} ~ # $ ^ & * \ | ; <> ? ` ' | (pipe) The pipe metacharacter links two command-line programs together, causing the output from the first program to become the input into the second program. Hackers don't care about redirecting input/output, but they will use the pipe simply as a way of confusing the shell into executing a second program. When a hacker attempts to break into a webserver, one of the first things they will do is to look for all the forms on the website and provide input containing pipe characters to see if they can force the system to execute commands. ; (semicolon) Similar to the pipe metacharacter in its ability to run multiple programs at once. However, the semicolon simply launches the programs without redirecting input/output. ` (back-quote, back-tick) The backwards quote metacharacter is similar to the pipe in that it can take the output from one command and pass it another. In this case, the output of the second program is provided as command-line input into the first. $ (dollar sign) The dollar sign prefixes a variable name. Thus, the string $FOO represents the value of the variable named "FOO" rather than the letters 'F', 'O', 'O'. In particular, you'll commonly see $IFS in attacks, where the IFS variable indicates the character used to separate lines in the shell. && and || These are logical operations used in shell programming. They look at the "result" of a program and "conditionally" execute other programs. A hacker doesn't care about this intended use, but can instead use these as yet another way to execute additional commands. See also: taint, CGI 
A lightweight GTK2 based Window Manager. Metacity is a small (<6K lines of code) window manager, using gtk2 to do everything. As HP says, metacity is a "Boring window manager for the adult in you. Many window managers are like Marshmallow Froot Loops; Metacity is like Cheerios." 
a graphics programming language (like postscript) that has applications wider than just fonts. 
Machine Evaluation and Translation Language (Siemens) 
An implementation of MIME. Metamail is an implementation of MIME (Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions), a proposed standard for multimedia electronic mail on the Internet. Metamail is configurable and extensible via the "mailcap" mechanism described in an informational RFC that is a companion to the MIME document. Metamail can be used to turn virtually any mail reader program into a multimedia mail reader. For information about how to change mail readers so that they can use Metamail, please read the file `/usr/share/doc/metamail/mailers.txt.gz'. 
Metamail is a system for handling multimedia mail, using the mailcapfile. Metamail reads the mailcap file, which tells Metamail what helper program to call in order to handle a particular type of non-text mail. Note that metamail can also add multimedia support to certain non-mail programs. Metamail should be installed if you need to add multimedia support to mail programs and some other programs, using the mailcap file. 
Metcalfe's Law
A philosophical point of view: "The power of the network increases exponentially by the number of computers connected to it. Therefore, the every computer added to the network both uses it as a resource while adding resources in a spiral of increasing value and choice." -- Dr. Bob M. Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet, co-founder of 3Com, editor-in-chief of InfoWorld. The idea is that the power of the Internet is not simply all the websites that you can access (linear), but the power represented by everyone else also on the Internet (exponential). For example, organizations like cannot only harness lots of machines in order to tackle large problems (linear), but they also can exploit the word-of-mouth on the Internet to sign up (exponential). Similarly, consider the growth in sites like that start out as hobbyist sites, but eventually blossom into large money making ventures, tossing pre-Internet-age business philosophies on their ear. Key point: Hacker attacks grow exponentially because more and more hackers are getting online (especially from 3rd world countries) and more and more resources (businesses) are getting online. Key point: The amount of computing resources a hacker can tap into from his/her computer desktop is more than the combined might of all governments and militaries. 
Middle European Time Daylight Saving Time [+0200] (TZ, MET, MEZ) 
Messaging in the Emacs World Mew is an interface to integrate - Email - MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) - PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) and to make it easy to view and compose them. Thread, POP biff, POP folder, and icon-based interface are supported. More information is available at 
The external commands for Mew Mew has thrown away IM and is being implemented purely by Elisp with these external commands: - The mewencode utility encode/decode MIME objects. - The mewls utility extracts necessary fields from messages stored in folders. - The incm utility incoporates new mails from the mbox or the maildir to Mew's inbox folder. 
MittelEuropaeische [sommer] Zeit [+0200] (TZ) 
Metafont, a language for font and logo design 
Multi Frequency 
Mwave Folded Array Signal Transform [DSP] (IBM, DSP) 
Microsoft Foundation Classes 
Music Feature Card (IBM, Yamaha, MIDI) 
Magnetic Fusion Energy NETwork 
Mit Freundlichen Gruessen [= best wishes] 
Multi-Function Gateway 
MainFrame Interactive (IBM) 
Multi-Functional [keyboard] II (IBM) 
Multi-Function Interoperability Processor 
MultiFunktionales KonferenzSystem 
Million FLoating-point Operations Per Second (CPU) 
Modified Frequency Modulation 
add an MSDOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk TQ 
MultiFunction Product 
Define Tex/LaTeX commands to draw using metafont/metapost MFpic defines a command group \mfpic...\endmfpic (optionally in LaTeX an environment mfpic) and drawing commands to be used inside this group. When TeX (or LaTeX) is run on a file containing those commands, a Metafont or MetaPost source file is created. When that file is correctly processed by Metafont (or MetaPost), and LaTeX or TeX is run again, the result is a figure in the TeX document in the location of the environment. 
Macintosh File System (Apple) 
Message Format Service (IBM, IMS) 
Mobile File Sync (IBM) 
MOSIX File System (MOSIX, DFSA) 
Master File Table (NTFS) 
Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks (IBM, OS, OS/MFT, OS/MVT) 
translate Metafont code to TeX code for prettyprinting 
Metafont, a language for font and logo design 
Matrox Graphics Adapter (Matrox) 
Monochrome Graphics Adapter 
X configuration tool for Matrox video card. Configuration tool for Xfree86 version 4.x to set up your X-server to support single and dual monitors. Support for Matrox Millennium G200, G400 and G450 cards. For best operation you should download the Matrox HAL library from the Matrox homepage. But this tool works without it even if it complains because the xserver can not use all config options. 
xdiff clone mgdiff is modeled after xdiff and provides a nice graphical interface for comparing the contents of two text files. rmgdiff recurses down two directories collating difference information and invoking mgdiff whenever two text files differ. 
Smart Modem getty replacement Mgetty is a versatile program to handle all aspects of a modem under Unix. This package includes basic modem data capabilities. Install mgetty-fax to get the additional functionality for fax. Install mgetty-voice to get the functionality to operate voice modems. Mgetty is also configurable to select programs other than login for special connections (eg: uucico, fido or other programs) depending on the login userid. It also supports caller-id if the modem and phone line supply it, and can deny connections based on originating telephone number. 
Multi-Function Interpreter 
A highly configurable, very gaudy system load meter MGM is the Moaning Goat Meter, a system load monitor along the lines of procmeter3 but much prettier (and with a much higher resource usage). It's written in Perl/Tk, uses a nice antialiased Helvetica font, is configurable with X resource, and can have a larger memory footprint than Emacs. 
Memory Grant Manager (Informix, DB) 
MagicPoint- an X11 based presentation tool MagicPoint is an X11 based presentation tool. It is designed to make simple presentations easy while to make complicated presentations possible. Its presentation file (whose suffix is typically .mgp) is just text so that you can create presentation files quickly with your favorite editor (e.g. Emacs). 
a game record display/editor for the oriental game of go Mgt allows the user to examine Go game tree files in the SmartGo format. Mgt also has basic Go game tree editing capabilities and may be used to create or edit game tree files. Mailgo is a utility which manages E-mail Go games using mgt as the Go board editor. It is included in the mgt package. 
Mobile Host (MHP) 
Modified Huffman (Fax) 
MH & nmh: Email for Users & Programmers online book This is the book written by Jerry Peek and published by O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. This book covers MH, nmh, and several interfaces to MH including xmh, exmh and mh-e. This package is a recent snapshot of 
the GNU Emacs front end for MH and nmh mail user agents. This is likely a more recent version of mh-e than the one packaged with the flavor of Emacs you use. It also includes latest version of Info format documentation as well as contributed files that are not distributed with GNU Emacs: mh-alias.el - MH mail alias expansion and substitution. mh-frame.el - Open mh-e in a separate frame. The mh-e web page is 
Message Harmonized Calendaring system MHC is designed to help those who receive most appointments via email. Using MHC, you can easily import schedule articles from emails. MHC has following features: + Simple data structure allows you to manipulate stored data in many ways. + Appointments can be made to repeat in flexible ways. + powerful but simple expression of appointments. + Multiple User Interface such as commandline/emacs/GUI/Web. MHC currently has following interfaces: + Elisp package cooperative with Mew, Wanderlust or Gnus (popular MUA in the Emacs world) (emacs/mhc.el) MHC stores schedule articles in the same form of MH; you can manipulate these messages not only by above tools but also by many other MUAs, editors, UNIX commandline tools or your own scripts. For more information, you can find at 
MIMIC Hardware Description Language 
Multimedia and Hypermedia information coding Expert Group (JTC1, ISO) 
Mail to HTML converter _MHonArc_ is a Perl program for converting e-mail messages as specified in RFC 822 and RFC 1521 (_MIME_) to HTML. 
Multimedia Home Platform (ETSI) 
[columbia] Mobile Host Protocol 
Maui High Performance Computing Center (org., USA) 
Message Handling System (GOSIP, X.400, Novell, SPX, IPX) 
Messaging HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 
MIME [e-mail encapsulation of aggregate documents, such as] HTML (MIME, HTML, RFC 2110) 
Management Interface 
Missing In Action (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Movie In A Window 
Management Information Base (OSI, SNMP) 
Media Interface Connector (FDDI, PMD) 
Memory in Cassette (Seagate, EEPROM, Streamer, AIT) 
Message Integrity Check / Code 
Multiple Interface Connection (Kyocera) 
MODEM ISDN Channel Integration (Telebit, MODEM, ISDN) 
Modular Integrated Communications Environment 
A fully compliant CORBA implementation, executables The acronym MICO expands to MICO Is CORBA. The intention of this project is to provide a freely available and fully compliant implementation of the CORBA standard. MICO has become quite popular as an OpenSource project and is widely used for different purposes. As a major milestone, MICO has been branded as CORBA compliant by the OpenGroup. Executables 
MICO Is CORBA (ORB, CORBA, Uni Frankfurt) 
text based ICQ client with many features mICQ is a small, yet powerful console based ICQ client. It supports password changing, auto-away, creation of new accounts, and other features that makes it a very complete yet simple client. It now has complete support for the new v8 protocol. 
Intel IA32 CPU Microcode Utility The microcode_ctl utility is a companion to the IA32 microcode driver written by Tigran Aivazian <>. The utility has two uses: a) it decodes and sends new microcode to the kernel driver to be uploaded to Intel IA32 family processors. (Pentium Pro, PII, Celeron, PIII, Xeon, Pentium 4 etc.) b) it signals the kernel driver to release any buffers it may hold The microcode update is volatile and needs to be uploaded on each system boot i.e. it doesn't re-flash your CPU permanently, reboot and it reverts back to the old microcode. The ideal place to load microcode is in BIOS, but most vendors never update it! To enable microcode update, I need some kernel support, thus I need the linux kernel 2.2.18 or later, or 2.4.0 or later. 
An approach to operating systems design which puts emphasis on small modules which implement the basic features of the system kernel and can be flexibly configured. 
Message IDentifier (ATM) 
identd replacement with masquerading support. An identd replacement with masquerading support. With your average identd on a masquerading firewall, if an ident request comes in for a masqueraded connection, it will return 'ERROR : NO-USER' or something along those lines. This may be quite irritating at times, with, for example, IRC servers that won't let you in if they don't get a valid ident reply. 
Musical Instruments Digital Interface (MIDI) 
Microsoft Interface Definition Language (NT) 
Midori Linux, from Transmeta, is an Open Source project for delivering system software on small devices. It includes a build system, a Linux kernel with memory- and storage-conserving features, and system-level support for normal Linux software on platforms which might otherwise require custom "embedded" applications. 
Mobile Information Device Profile (J2ME) 
Mobile Information Device Profile Expert Group (Sun, AOL, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Palm, Samsung, Sharp, ...) 
Module Interconnection Facility (Proteus) 
A full text inverted indexer The purpose of mifluz is to provide a C++ library to build and query a full text inverted index. It is dynamically updatable, scalable (up to 1Tb indexes), uses a controlled amount of memory, shares index files and memory cache among processes or threads and compresses index files to 50% of the raw data. The structure of the index is configurable at runtime and allows inclusion of relevance ranking information. The query functions do not require to load all the occurrences of a searched term. They consume very few resources and many searches can be run in parallel. 
Mach Interface Generator (Mach) 
The GNU distribution of the Mach 3.0 interface generator `MiG'. You need this tool to compile the gnumach and hurd distributions, and to compile GNU libc for the Hurd. 
Japanese incremental search with Romaji on Emacsen migemo is a tool that supports Japanese incremental search with Romaji. It release you from heavy tasks of Kana Kanji conversion in order to search. This is Emacsen interface, that is wrapper for isearch. 
Japanese incremental search with Romaji on Emacsen migemo is a tool that supports Japanese incremental search with Romaji. It release you from heavy tasks of Kana Kanji conversion in order to search. This is Emacsen interface, that is wrapper for isearch. This is obsolete version of migemo. Newer version is written in ruby. 
Migration scripts for LDAP The MigrationTools are a set of Perl scripts for migrating users, groups, aliases, hosts, netgroups, networks, protocols, RPCs, and services from existing nameservices (flat files, NIS, and NetInfo) to LDAP. 
Media Independent Interface 
A little tool to manipulate network cards Examines and sets the MII registers of network cards. This is a genral program. You can find specialized programs for several network cards in the nictools-pci and nictools-nopci packages. 
view, manipulate media-independent interface status 
MikMod is a MOD music file player. MikMod uses the OSS /dev/dsp driver including all recent kernels for output, and will also write .wavfiles. Supported file formats include MOD, STM, S3M, MTM, XM, ULT, andIT. The player uses ncurses for console output. It supports transparent loading from gzip/pkzip/zoo archives and the loading and saving of playlists. 
Portable tracked music player Mikmod is a very portable tracked music player which supports a wide variety of module formats including compressed sample Impulse Tracker modules. It also supports many archive formats, as well as on the fly decompression. 
Matrox Imaging Library 
Miller, Cliff
president and CEO of TurboLinux, a popular Linux distribution. 
Miller, David
responsible for the TCP/IP coding in the Linux kernel, David Miller is also responsible for UltraPenguin (a project to port Linux to Sparc CPUs), kernel fixes and developments such as fuzzy hashing. 
MILitary NETwork (USA, mil., network) 
Maschinelle Indizierung auf Linguistischer Grundlage fuer OPAC Systeme (OPAC) 
Military Strategic TActical Relay (mil., USA) 
Military STandarD (mil., USA), "MIL-STD" 
Multiple Instruction [stream], Multiple Data [stream] (CPU) 
(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) The protocol for attaching non-text files to email messages (graphics, spreadsheets, formatted text documents, sound files, Quicktime, multimedia files, etc.) MIME is utilised by some email packages & is universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients. 
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (RFC 2045/2046/2047/2048/2049, IETF) 
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
Originally a standard for defining the types of files attached to standard Internet mail messages. The MIME standard has come to be used in many situations where one cmputer programs needs to communicate with another program about what kind of file is being sent. For example, HTML files have a MIME-type of text/html, JPEG files are image/jpeg, etc. 
MIME encapsulation
Most graphical mail readers have the ability to attach files to mail messages and read these attachments. The way they do this is not with uuencode but in a special format known as MIME encapsulation. MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a way of representing multiple files inside a single mail message. The way binary data is handled is similar to uuencode, but in a format known as base64. Each MIME attachment to a mail message has a particular type, known as the MIME type. MIME types merely classify the attached file as an image, an audio clip, a formatted document, or some other type of data. The MIME type is a text tag with the format <major>/<minor>. The major part is called the major MIME type and the minor part is called the minor MIME type. Available major types match all the kinds of files that you would expect to exist. They are usually one of application, audio, image, message, text, or video. The application type means a file format specific to a particular utility. The minor MIME types run into the hundreds. A long list of MIME types can be found in /etc/mime.types. If needed, some useful command-line utilities in the same vein as uuencode can create and extract MIME messages. These are mpack, munpack, and mmencode (or mimencode). 
Fast Quoted-Printable and BASE64 MIME transport codecs At its most basic MIME is a set of transfer encodings used to ensure error free transport, and a set of content types. VM understands the two standard MIME transport encodings, Quoted-Printable and BASE64, and will decode messages that use them as necessary. VM has Emacs-Lisp based Quoted-Printable and BASE64 encoders and decoders, but you can have VM use external programs to perform these tasks and the process will almost certainly be faster. This package provides external executables for Quoted-Printable and BASE64 encoders and decoders. 
construct/send MIME messages from the command line mime-construct constructs and (by default) mails MIME messages. It is entirely driven from the command line, it is designed to be used by other programs, or people who act like programs. 
MIME files 'mime.types' & 'mailcap', and support programs As these files can be used by all MIME compliant programs, they have been moved into their own package that others can depend upon. Other packages add themselves as viewers/editors/composers/etc by using the provided "update-mime" program. In addition, the commands "see", "edit", "compose", and "print" will display, alter, create, and print (respectively) any file using a program determined from the entries in the mime.types and mailcap files. 
Decodes transfer encoded text type mime messages. This program performs the decoding of transfer encoded text type mime messages. The message in its entirety is read from stdin. The decoded message is written to stdout; hence, this program behaves as a filter which may be placed wherever convenient. It is assumed that the message has reached its point of final delivery and at that point 8-bit text types can be handled natively. Hence, the need for transfer-encodings is not present any more. Only some cases are handled: - encoded header fields are decoded from QP or B encoding. - The charset is assumed to be iso-8859-1 - part or subparts of content-type text only are decoded - all other content-types are passed transparently. 
Strips some unwanted MIME parts out of a MIME message. This program may be useful as a filter on a mailing list. It strips every unwanted MIME part from a MIME compliant message, warning by email the original author about this, and outputs a MIME compliant cleaned message, to be further processed by a mailing list software. You may find it useful if you don't want certain attachments on your mailing lists, or if you want to allow just the text part from multipart/alternative messages, and so on. You can easily fine tune the list of allowed MIME types to suit your particular needs, using normal Perl regexps. 
Machine Independent MicrOprogramming LAnguage (HDL) 
Multistage Interconnection Networks 
Multilingual Internet Names Consortium (org., Internet, DOMAIN) 
Creates boot/root disks based on your system Mindi is a script that creates boot/root disks based on your system. It uses your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. It is use for the Mondo disaster recovery scripts and tools to create the boot CD/disks. 
Mindi Linux
Mindi builds boot/root disk images using your existing kernel, modules, tools and libraries. Version 0.71_20021109 was released November 10, 2002. Version 0.85 was released May 21, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
java ssh client that can be used as a web applet Mindterm is a ssh client written in java that can be used as a web applet. This package installs it so it will be available on your web site; users can then ssh into the system from most web browsers that have java support. Warning: By its very nature, installing this package and making it available on your web server constitutes exporting cryptographic software. If you're in a country that does not look kindly on this act, use caution. 
A Dylan interpreter. Mindy is a Dylan bytecode interpreter, originally written as part of CMU's Gwydion Dylan project. It compiles faster than d2c and includes much better debugging tools. Unfortunately, Mindy makes no attempt to run fast. Documentation for Mindy can be found in the main gwydion-dylan package, or on the web at <>. 
print the parameters of a MSDOS filesystem TQ 
The mingetty program is a lightweight, minimalist getty program foruse only on virtual consoles. Mingetty is not suitable for serial lines (you should use the mgetty program instead for that purpose). 
Minimalist GNU win32 (cross) compiler A Linux hosted, win32 target, cross compiler for C/C++ Freedom through obsolescence. Those who still really need to can now build windows executables from the comfort of Debian. 
Minimalist GNU win32 (cross) compiler runtime This package contains the target runtime files for a Linux hosted, win32 target, C/C++ cross compiler. 
Clone of the MS-DOS "Telix" communications program. Minicom is a menu driven communications program. It emulates ANSI and VT102 terminals. It has a dialing directory and auto zmodem download. 
friendly serial communication program 
Minicom is a simple text-based modem control and terminal emulation program somewhat similar to MSDOS Telix. Minicom includes a dialing directory, full ANSI and VT100 emulation, an (external) scripting language, and other features. 
MiniLinux is for Hams (Ham Radio). There do not appear to be recent updates, the latest is v2.2.15b 8.V.2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
a MINImalist MAiling LIST manager Minimalist is a MINImalist MAiling LIST manager. It is fast, extremely easy to setup and support. Minimalist has these features: - subscribing/unsubscribing users by request - several levels of security - additional services such as information about list, archiving lists, information about users of list and so on - support for read-only/closed/mandatory lists - support for Blacklist - logging activity Minimalist has also a notion of 'trusted users'. They have full rights to subscribe/unsubscribe other users; get any information related to lists and users. 
Models for INformatIon STorage and REtrievaL (OA, BIS, ESPRIT) 
Mini-Commander Applet for the GNOME panel. 
nonlinear equations and nonlinear least squares shared library Minpack includes software for solving nonlinear equations and nonlinear least squares problems. Five algorithmic paths each include a core subroutine and an easy-to-use driver. The algorithms proceed either from an analytic specification of the Jacobian matrix or directly from the problem functions. The paths include facilities for systems of equations with a banded Jacobian matrix, for least squares problems with a large amount of data, and for checking the consistency of the Jacobian matrix with the functions. This package provides the shared library. 
Mint is Not TOS (Atari), "MiNT" 
Multimedia-kommunikation aif Integrierten Netzen und Terminals 
Multimedia Information Network eXchange 
Memory Input/Output (Motorola) 
Modular Input/Output [architecture] (HP) 
Multimission Interactive Picture 
Multum In Parvo (3D, SAT) 
Microprocessor without Interlocked Piped Stages 
Million Instructions Per Second (CPU) 
Maximum Information Rate 
Micro-Instruction Register (IC) 
Miracle Linux
Miracle Linux is a high reliability, scalability and availability server OS for the enterprise market, according to MIRACLE LINUX CORPORATION, the developer of the distribution. MIRACLE LINUX CORPORATION was originally founded by Oracle Corporation Japan. (Currently Oracle Japan owns about 60% of MIRACLE LINUX.) They offer not only "MIRACLE LINUX with Oracle," but also "MIRACLE LINUX for Samba" and "MIRACLE LINUX for PostgreSQL." Japanese distribution 
Mird database library (runtime files) Mird is a database library, for operating on simple disk-based databases. This package contains files necessary for runing applications that use Mird database 
Generally speaking, "to mirror" is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource. For example, one site might create a library of software, and 5 other sites might maintain mirrors of that library. 
Keeps FTP archives up-to-date Mirror uses the FTP protocol to locally duplicate remote host files and directories selected with Perl regular expressions. By default transfers only files missing locally or whose remote sizes or time-stamps have changed. Can reduce directory download using compressed listings in ls-lR.gz files or further using compressed differences of daily listings in ls-lR.patch.gz files. Amongst many flexible options it can gzip and split files. Tracks large distant FTP archives accurately with low download volume. Simpler programs like "mirrordir" use less memory and may copy directory trees faster between local machines. From mirror.tar.gz 2.9 in Perl by Lee McLoughlin. 
duplicate a directory by making a minimal set of changes mirrordir forces the mirror directory to be an exact replica of the control directory tree in every possible detail suitable for purposes of timed backup. Files whose modification times or sizes differ are copied. File permissions, ownerships, modification times, access times, and sticky bits are duplicated. Devices, pipes, and symbolic and hard links are duplicated. Files or directories that exist in the mirror directory that don't exist in the control directory are deleted. It naturally descends into subdirectories to all their depths. mirrordir tries to be as efficient as possible by making the minimal set of changes necessary to mirror the directory. 
Easy to use ftp mirroring package - simply usemirrordir /some/local/dir 
Shoot around obstacles to collect energy using your beam. A game like "Deflektor" (C 64) or "Mindbender" (Amiga). The goal is to work out how to get around obstacles to shoot energy containers with your beam, enabling the path to the next level to be opened. Included are many levels known from the games "Deflektor" and "Mindbender". Some features: - stereo sound effects and music - music module support for SDL version (Unix/Win32) - fullscreen support for SDL version (Unix/Win32) - complete source code included under GNU GPL 
Management Information System 
Mega Iterations per Second 
Dictionaries and other interesting files. These files are not crucial to system administration or operation, but which have come to be common on various systems over the years. They originated from various sources and are freely redistributable (see the copyright file for more information). These files include those of general interest (English `connectives', Webster's Second International English wordlist, traditional stone and flower for each month, Precedence table for operators in the C language, description of the ISO Latin-1 character set, two-letter codes for languages, from ISO 639, International country telephone codes, geographic coordinates of many major cities, Some common abbreviations used in electronic communication, GNU tasks and mailing lists, country and currency abbreviations, rfc-index, etc.). There also is information specific to the United States (List of three letter codes for some major airports, North American (+1) telephone area codes, postal codes for US and Mexican states and Canadian provinces, the Constitution of the United States of America, the Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies). 
obsolete utilities package miscutils is an obsolete package and may be removed safely. miscutils was replaced by the following packages: getty, login, util-linux, update, fdutils, debianutils, passwd. Since fdutils is not required, it must be installed separately. After this version miscutils is installed, it is safe and desirable to purge miscutils. If miscutils is purged while it still has conffiles, then important conffiles may be lost. 
Multiple Instruction [stream], Single Data [stream] (CPU) 
Mecklenburg Internet Service System (ISP) 
Multilevel Information System Security Initiative (org.) 
mission critical
Describes a system that is absolutely necessary. It comes from NASA where mission critical elements were those items that had to work otherwise the billion dollar space mission would blow up. Key point: A big problem with corporations is that they do not spend enough time hardening mission critical applications, or spend too much effort on non-mission critical elements. 
Metered Services Information eXchange (Internet) 
Management Information Tree 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (org., USA) 
The MIT Scheme development environment MIT Scheme is an implementation of the Scheme programming language, providing an interpreter, compiler, source-code debugger, integrated Emacs-like editor, and a large runtime library. MIT Scheme is best suited to programming large applications with a rapid development cycle. 
A MIT shared-memory Ximage \ref {X extension}. It provides both shared memory XImages and shared memory pixmaps based on the SYSV shared memory primitives. 
A MIX emulator and MIXAL interpreter Mixal is an implementation of the imaginary computer called MIX and its assembly language MIXAL, which were invented by Donald E. Knuth in the 1960's for use in his monumental and yet unfinished book series "The Art of Computer Programming". All actual programs and all programming exercises in the series are written in MIXAL. This package contains a modified version of Darius Bacon's Mixal implementation. It takes a MIXAL source file, translates it to MIX machine code and then executes the resulting program, all in a single run. The result of the assembler step cannot be extracted to a file. Similarly, one cannot take a precompiled MIX program and try to execute it in this emulator - only MIXAL source is accepted. The MIX emulator does not support floating-point operations nor the tape devices described in Knuth's book. This is not fatal, however, and most of the programs and exercise answers in Knuth's book can be run in this MIXAL implementation.
Another mixer application designed for WindowMaker There's nothing in the program that makes it *require* WindowMaker, except maybe the look. is a mixer utility for Linux systems. Requires /dev/mixer to work. Provides three customizable controls on a tiny 64x64 app. 
Mixer Applet for the GNOME panel. 
MIZI Linux
MIZI Linux is a Korean distribution. Version 2.0 was released October 19, 2001. MIZI the company also provides Linu, which can be found in the Embedded section of this list. 
Modular Jack 
makes a bootdisk 
The mkbootdisk program creates a standalone boot floppy disk for booting the running system. The created boot disk will look for the root filesystem on the device mentioned in /etc/fstab and includes an initial ramdisk image which will load any necessary SCSI modules for the system. 
mkCDrec makes a bootable disaster recovery image (CDrec.iso), including backups of the Linux system to the same CD-ROM (or CD-RW) if space permits, or to a multi-volume CD-ROM set. Otherwise, the backups can be stored on another local disk, NFS disk or (remote) tape. After a disaster (disk crash or system intrusion) the system can be booted from the CD-ROM and one can restore the complete system as it was (at the time mkCDrec was run). 
create summaries of font metric files in CID font directories 
Make a CramFs (Compressed ROM File System) mkcramfs lets you construct a CramFs (Compressed ROM File System) image from the contents of a given directory. Cram file systems are used for Debian INITRD images. 
create a directory 
creates directories with the specified names. 
make directories 
The Unix command to create a new directory. 
makes a directory hierarchy 
create a Linux second extended file system 
creates FIFOs (also called "named pipes") with the specified filenames. 
make a FIFO special file (a named pipe) 
make FIFOs (named pipes) 
utility to create PK font description files 
create an index of X font files in a directory 
build a Linux file system 
create a Linux second extended file system 
create a Linux second extended file system 
make a Linux MINIX filesystem 
generate index files for HTML man pages 
script to process LaTeX index and glossary files 
Mkinitrd creates filesystem images for use as initial ramdisk (initrd) images. These ramdisk images are often used to preload the block device modules (SCSI or RAID) needed to access the root filesystem. In other words, generic kernels can be built without drivers for any SCSI adapters which load the SCSI driver as a module. Since the kernel needs to read those modules, but in this case it isn't able to address the SCSI adapter, an initial ramdisk is used. The initial ramdisk is loaded by the operating system loader (normally LILO) and is available to the kernel as soon as the ramdisk is loaded. The ramdisk image loads the proper SCSI adapter and allows the kernel to mount the root filesystem. The mkinitrd program creates such a ramdisk using information found in the /etc/modules.conf file. 
Creates an initrd image suitable for booting from a live CD-ROM This is the package used by the Gibraltar project to create the initrd images used for booting from CD-ROM. The bootable CD-ROMs are actual live CD-ROMs. That is, the root file system is the CD-ROM, ramdisks are the only things needed for operation without a harddisk. Although a harddisk can be used for e.g. storing log files permanently or when the machine acts as a proxy server. Given a kernel image and the corresponding modules, it creates a complete boot image that can be written to floppy or be used as El Torito image for a bootable CD-ROM. Upon bootup, the initrd image will try to locate an ATAPI CD-ROM drive. When this does not succeed, it auto-probes for SCSI adapters and tries to locate SCSI drives. It also works when multiple CD-ROM drives are installed in the system by checking if the inserted CD is the correct one for booting. The package can be of use to developers and packagers who want to create their own bootable, live Debian CD-ROM. It will probably not be of any use to others. 
Creates ISO-9660 CD-ROM filesystem images. mkisofs is a pre-mastering program for creating ISO-9660 CD-ROM filesystem images, which can then be written to a CD-ROM using the cdrecord program. mkisofs now includes support for making bootable "El Torito" CD-ROMs, as well as CD-ROMs with support for the Macintosh HFS filesystem (as in the old "mkhybrid" package). 
The mkisofs program is used as a pre-mastering program which generates an ISO9660 filesystem. Mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory tree and generates a binary image of the tree which will correspond to an ISO9660 filesystem when written to a block device. Mkisofs is used for writing CD-ROMs and includes support for creating bootable El Torito CD-ROMs. 
This is the mkisofs package. It is used to create ISO 9660 file system images for creating CD-ROMs. Now includes support for making bootable "El Torito" CD-ROMs. 
MkLinux is an open source operating system which consists of an implementation of the Linux operating system hosted on the Mach microkernel. It is estimated that there are somewhere between 50,000 and 100,000 MkLinux users. A significant number of the installed MkLinux systems are being used in mission-critical applications. Pre-R2 was released August 5, 2002. 
create a lost+found directory on a mounted Linux second extended file system 
makes list of file names and their DOS 8+3 equivalent TQ 
Create tagged images for Etherboot or Netboot With mknbi you can create tagged images for Etherboot. Tagged images are data files, which contains the necessary files for booting up (kernel+root for linux, kernel+minifs for dos, ...) bundled together with a special format. These tagged images are downloaded and understood by Etherboot and Netboot during the boot process. This package should be used on the server and not on the client. It doesn't contain code which handle the network card, download the image, etc. 
create a special or ordinary file 
make block or character special files 
creates a FIFO (named pipe), character special file, or block special file with the specified name. 
frontend to otp2ocp(1) 
front end to mktextfm(1) 
Overfeatured front end to crypt(3) 
Make a kernel + rootimage bootable from one disk or from DOS mkrboot generates bootdisks that contain both a kernel and a rootimage. This enables debian bootup for installation purposes from one floppy. mkrboot can also use loadlin to make a floppyless installation possible. Boot methods supported: - Loadlin from running DOS/Windows without a floppy - Loadlin from a FreeDOS bootup disk - Lilo from one floppy - Kernel Boot loader from one floppy - Syslinux from one floppy 
make rescue floppy 
Mortice Kern Systems (manufacturer) 
formats a /etc/passwd entry for a smbpasswd file 
set up a Linux swap area 
Multifunktionelles KartenTerminal (CT, ICC) 
make a unique temporary file name 
make temporary filename (unique) 
The mktemp utility takes a given file name template and overwrites a portion of it to create a unique file name. This allows shellscripts and other programs to safely create and use /tmp files. Install the mktemp package if you need to use shell scripts or other programs which will create and use unique /tmp files. 
create ls-R databases 
create a Metafont source file 
create a PK file for a font 
create a TFM file for a font 
The mkxauth utility helps create and maintain X authentication databases (.Xauthority files). Mkxauth is used to create an .Xauthority file or to merge keys from another local or remote .Xauthority file. .Xauthority files are used by the xauthuser-oriented access control program, which grants or denies access to X servers based on the contents of the .Xauthorityfile. The mkxauth package should be installed if you're going to use user-oriented access control to provide security for your X Window System (a good idea). 
Mail List 
Meta Language 
Mail List Agent 
Micro Lens Array 
make an MSDOS volume label TQ 
MultiLevel Cell (IC, PCMCIA, Flash, Intel) 
MultiLine Entry field (IBM, OS/2) 
a glade to OCaml compiler Mlglade is a tool to translate a glade xml file into a set of modules for OCaml. 
Measurement Layer Interface (UMA) 
Multiple Link Interface (ODI) 
[symposium on] Machine Learning in Information Access (AAAI, AI, conference) 
Multiple Link Interface Driver (ODI, LAN) 
Mailing List Manager [software] 
Multi-Level Multi-Access (MAC) 
disable paging for some parts of memory 
lock a mailbox 
Mailbox locking program from UW uses this program to lock mailbox files so they don't get corrupted. 
Meridian Lossless Packaging (DVD, audio) 
MultiLink Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 
Multi-channel Linear Recording [technology] (Tandberg, Streamer) 
MultiLevel Secure [operating systems / platforms] 
Master Lower Tester (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
MuLTilevel-3 [encoding] (Schneider & Koch, FDDI), "MLT-3" 
MultiLingual TERMinal This is a terminal emulator for X Window System, which supports various encodings including ISO-8859-[1-10,13-16], TCVN5712, VISCII, KOI8-{R,U}, EUC-JP, EUC-JISX0213, ISO-2022-JP{,1,2,3}, Shift_JIS, Shift_JISX0213, ISO-2022-KR, EUC-KR, UHC, JOHAB, EUC-CN (aka GB2312), GBK, ISO-2022-CN, Big5, EUC-TW, HZ, UTF-8, and GB18030. Doublewidth characters for east Asian, combining characters for Thai, Vietnamese, and other diacritics, and BiDi (bi-direction) for Arab and Hebrew, and Arab shaping are supported. Though mlterm supports Indic complex languages such as Hindi, this Debian package is not compiled with Indic support. Since mlterm checks the current locale and selects appropriate encoding, you don't need to configure mlterm to display your language and encoding. mlterm also supports unique features such as scrollbar API, multiple windows, multiple XIM, anti-alias using FreeType and Xft, and so on. 
Whole-program optimizing compiler for Standard ML MLton is a whole-program optimizing compiler for Standard ML that runs on X86 machines under Linux. MLton generates standalone executables with good runtime performance, is SML 97 compliant, and has a mostly complete basis library. MLton has support for profiling and a fast C FFI. MLton has additional libraries for continuations, interval timers, random numbers, signal handlers, sockets, system logging, threads, and heap save and restore. It also has a fast implementation of IntInf using the GNU multiprecision library. 
Media Manager (Novell, Netware, SMS) 
Military Message (mil.) 
Mobile Management (RR, CM, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Microcomputer Managers Association (org., USA) 
MIDI Manufacturer Association (org., IMA) 
Makefile generator for Java programs mmake will generate a master Makefile for your Java programs. This generated Makefile fully understands the subdirectories that are required if your program consists of multiple packages. mmake also automatically generates dependencies, and can use the C preprocessor for Java programs and generate javadoc documentation. mmake defaults to using Sun's javac from the jdk but can easily use guavac or a different GPL alternative as well. 
Microsoft Management Console (MS, Windows NT) 
MIDI Machine Control 
MultiMedia Commands (SAM) 
MultiMedia Compact Disk (Sony, Philips, CD) 
MultiMedia Compact Disk - Erasable (Sony, Philips, CD), "MMCD-E" 
MultiMedia Communications Forum (org.) 
make an MSDOS subdirectory TQ 
Magnetic Modulation Direct Overwrite 
Multi-channel, Multi-point Distribution System 
Make Money Fast (Usenet, ECP, EMP) 
Memory Mapped File (Windows 95, Windows NT) 
Multimode Fiberoptic cable 
Manufacturing Message Format Standard (MAP) 
MultiMedia Human Interface Device 
Military Message Handling System (mil., MHS) 
Mixed Mode Interpreter (JIT, IBM, Java) 
Multiple master font utilities to create AFM or PFB files. These tools let you use multiple-master fonts with programs that require single-master fonts (afm2tfm, ps2pk, fontinst, etc.). Both programs work fine with fonts that contain intermediate masters (e.g., Adobe Jenson MM and Adobe Kepler MM). Mmafm creates an AFM (Adobe font metric) file corresponding to a single instance of a multiple-master font. It reads (and therefore requires) the AMFM and AFM files distributed with the font. Mmpfb creates a normal, single-master font program that looks like an instance of a multiple-master font. It reads the multiple-master font program in PFA or PFB format. 
Memory Mapped I/O (I/O) 
Maker Markup Language (FrameMaker) 
Multiple Major Mode for Emacs MMM Mode is a minor mode for Emacs that allows Multiple Major Modes (hence the name) to coexist in one buffer. It is particularly well-suited to editing embedded code, such as Mason server-side Perl, or HTML output in CGI scripts. 
A two-level morphology tool for natural language processing The MULTEXT morphology tool, mmorph, is a free implementation of the two-level formalism for natural language morphology. If you don't know what that means, you probably don't need this package. 
mount an MSDOS disk TQ 
move or rename an MSDOS file or subdirectory TQ 
Multilink Multichasis PPP (PPP) 
MultiMedia Presentation Manager /2 (IBM, OS/2), "MMPM/2" 
Modified Modified Read (Fax) 
Manufacturing Message Specifications / Standard (MAP, EIA, RS-511, ISO, DIS 9506) 
Maximum Message Size 
Module Making System (VMS) 
Multilevel Mail Server 
Multimedia Message Service 
Mass Memory Unit 
Memory Management Unit 
Mark's MUd CLient Mark's MUd CLient ("muckle") is a mud client using Tcl/Tk. 
Move/Copy/Append/Link multiple files mmv is a program to move/copy/append/link multiple files according to a set of wildcard patterns. This multiple action is performed safely, i.e. without any unexpected deletion of files due to collisions of target names with existing filenames or with other target names. 
MultiMedia Video File [disk] (NEC, DVD) 
MultiMedia Window Manager (X-Windows) 
MultiMedia eXtensions (Intel, CPU) 
MMX Emulation Library This library provides a simple (but slow) way to execute binaries that use MMX instructions, on processors that do not support them. The emulator also contains emulation code for Cyrix and AMD variants of MMX (EMMX and 3DNow!). 
Multiple-image Network Graphics [format] 
A full-featured web search engine (common files) MnogoSearch consists of two parts. The first part is indexing mechanism (indexer). Indexer walks over html hypertext references and stores found words and new references into database. The second part is web front-end to provide search using data collected by indexer. For more information, look at This package contains common files for all database types. 
A full-featured web search engine (postgresql) MnogoSearch consists of two parts. The first part is indexing mechanism (indexer). Indexer walks over html hypertext references and stores found words and new references into database. The second part is web front-end to provide search using data collected by indexer. For more information, look at This package contains postgresql specific files. 
PHP frontend for mnoGoSearch mnoGoSearch is a website indexer and search engine. This package provides a PHP frontend so you can query the indexed data. You will need PHP4 and either the PostgreSQL or MySql modules for PHP4. There also needs to be the relevant database holding the mnoGoSearch data somewhere. To index your website install the mnoGoSearch package. 
Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Microcom Networking Protocol 
Management Object (OSI) 
mobile code
A term that describes any software that is mobile, being passed from one system to another. In particular, it is used to describe applets within web browsers based upon Microsoft's ActiveX, Sun's Java, or Netscape's JavaScript technologies. 
Mobile IP
specifies enhancements that allow transparent routing of IP datagrams to mobile nodes in the Internet. 
Microsoft Official Curriculum Seminar (MS, ATEC, MCSD) 
Magneto-Optical Disk (OD) 
MObile DAta COMmunication 
Mixed Object Document Content Architecture (IBM), "MO:DCA" 
a module configuration utility 
Device Driver Configuration Modconf provides a GUI for installing and configuring device driver modules. 
n. [common] A general state, usually used with an adjective describing the state. Use of the word `mode' rather than `state' implies that the state is extended over time, and probably also that some activity characteristic of that state is being carried out. "No time to hack; I'm in thesis mode." In its jargon sense, `mode' is most often attributed to people, though it is sometimes applied to programs and inanimate objects. In particular, see hack mode, day mode, night mode, demo mode, fireworks mode, and yoyo mode; also talk mode. One also often hears the verbs `enable' and `disable' used in connection with jargon modes. Thus, for example, a sillier way of saying "I'm going to crash" is "I'm going to enable crash mode now". One might also hear a request to "disable flame mode, please". In a usage much closer to techspeak, a mode is a special state that certain user interfaces must pass into in order to perform certain functions. For example, in order to insert characters into a document in the Unix editor vi, one must type the "i" key, which invokes the "Insert" command. The effect of this command is to put vi into "insert mode", in which typing the "i" key has a quite different effect (to wit, it inserts an "i" into the document). One must then hit another special key, "ESC", in order to leave "insert mode". Nowadays, modeful interfaces are generally considered losing but survive in quite a few widely used tools built in less enlightened times. 
mode bit
n. [common] A flag, usually in hardware, that selects between two (usually quite different) modes of operation. The connotations are different from flag bit in that mode bits are mainly written during a boot or set-up phase, are seldom explicitly read, and seldom change over the lifetime of an ordinary program. The classic example was the EBCDIC-vs.-ASCII bit (#12) of the Program Status Word of the IBM 360. 
calculates modelines for use with SVGAlib and VESA Framebuffer modeline is an utility to calulate modelines for use with SVGAlib and VESA Framebuffer. No invocaction of X11 is necessary. 
Acronym for MOulate DEModulate. Hardware that allows computers to interact with each other via telephone lines by converting digital signals to analog for transmission along analog lines. MOdulator/DEModulator, a gizmo which translates the digital information your computer produces into analogue signals that can be sent down the phone lines. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
MOdulator DEModulator 
Shorthand for MODulator/DEModulator, a modem allows the transmission of digital information over an analog phone line. A modem dictionary is available that defines all the basic terms. 
Modem (MOdulator, DEModulator)
A device that connects a computer to a phone line. A telephone for a computer. A modem allows a computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans. 
AO-40 (Phase3D) Soundcard Telemetry Decoder This software allows a standard PC soundcard to be used as Amsat Oscar 40 (Phase 3D) Telemetry Decoder. Unlike previous packet radio telemetry decoders, this new release offers several new benefits: Open Source (Source Code available). Multiplatform builds from a single source code. Can decode from soundcard input or from a wave file. May use MMX or VIS to speed up computation. No tuning required, any center frequency between 1.2kHz and 2kHz detected. Outputs decoded frames over UDP using Phil Karn's STP protocol 
Telnet services for communication programs modemu is a program that lets you telnet to remote sites using any standard communications program such as Minicom or Seyon. It emulates a modem, including options for 8-bit clean mode so one can use Zmodem or Kermit over a telnet connection. It can also be used for other tasks, such as UUCP over telnet. 
display information about a kernel module 
A modular logfile analyzer Modlogan is a modular logfile analyzer which is currently able to parse ftp-, webserver and squid logs. The generated output can be viewed by a web browser (->moglogan, webalizer) or your favorite text editor (->text). The different input and output modes are provided by some surrounding plugins. For example the modlogan output plugin provides three different menu structure for the same colourfull output while the output which is generated by the webalizer output plugin looks similar to the output generated by the original Webalizer known from The input is handled the same way. One plugin is for the web server logs, the next is for xferlog from FTP-servers like WuFTP and the third input plugin is a NULL plugin which does nothing (but this perfectly :). 
high level handling of loadable modules 
A high-level programming language that extends Pascal so that the language can execute program modules independently. Developed in 1980 by computer wizard and Pascal creator Niklaus Wirth, Modula-2 supports the separate compilation of program modules and overcomes many other shortcomings of Pascal. A programer working as part of a team can write and compile the module he or she has been assigned, and then test the module extensively before integrating it with other modules. Although Modula-2 is increasingly popular as a teaching language at colleges and universities, C dominates professional software development. See modular progrmming and structured programming. 
Modular programming
A programming style that braks down program functions into modules, each of which accomplishes one function and contains all the source code and variables needed to accomplish that function. Modular programming is a solution to the problem of very large programs that are difficult to debug and maintain. By segmenting the program into modules that perform clearly defined functions, you can determine the source of program erros more easly. Object-orientated programming languages, such as SmallTalk and HyperTalk, incorporate modular programming principles. 
The conversion of a digital signal to its analog equivalent, especially for the purposes of transmitting signals using telephone lines and modems. See demodulation. 
A collection of routines that perform a system-level function; may be loaded and unloaded from the running kernel as required. 
A non-linked driver which contain device specific system routines and fills in non-boot gaps in the kernel. Modules can be loaded and removed dynamically and allow for smaller generic kernels. 
In a program, a unit or section that can function on its own. In an integrated program, for instance, you can use the word processing module as though it were a separate, stand-alone program. 
/mod'yu-loh/ prep. Except for. An overgeneralization of mathematical terminology; one can consider saying that 4 equals 22 except for the 9s (4 = 22 mod 9). "Well, LISP seems to work okay now, modulo that GC bug." "I feel fine today modulo a slight headache." 
Linux module utilities. These utilities are intended to make a Linux modular kernel manageable for all users, administrators and distribution maintainers. 
The modutils package includes various programs needed for automatic loading and unloading of modules under 2.2 and later kernels, as well as other module management programs. Device drivers and filesystems are two examples of loaded and unloaded modules. 
The modutils packages includes the kerneld program for automaticloading and unloading of modules under 2.2 and 2.4 kernels, as well as other module management programs. Examples of loaded and unloaded modules are device drivers and filesystems, as well as some other things. 
Measure of Effectiveness 
Molekulare Optisch-Elektrische Schaltungstraeger 
Modified - Owner - Exclusive - Shared - Invalid (AMD) 
Managed Object Format (CIM, DMTF) 
Meta Object Facility 
Multidimensional OnLine Analytical Processing (OLAP) 
Molecule Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED) 
Microsoft OnLine Institute (MS) 
Microsoft Open Licence Pack (MS) 
Message Orientated Middleware (IBM) 
monitor hosts/services/whatever and alert about problems "mon" is a tool for monitoring the availability of services. Services may be network-related, environmental conditions, or anything that can be tested with software. If a service is unavailable mon can tell you with syslog, email, your pager or a script of your choice. You can control who gets each alert based on the time of day or day of week, and you can control how often an existing problem is re-alerted. More information can be found at 
a theorem prover based on automata MONA is a tool that translates formulas in the logics WS1S or WS2S into finite-state automata represented by BDDs. The formulas may express search patterns, temporal properties of reactive systems, parse tree constraints, etc. MONA also analyses the automaton resulting from the compilation, and determines whether the formula is valid and, if the formula is not valid, generates a counter-example. Documentation is available from the MONA website 
MOdelling NAturaL Images for Synthesis and Animation, "MONA LISA" 
System to backup your filesystem to CDs Mondo uses afio as the backup engine. Mondo creates ISO images of your data to make a full backup of your system. It also makes the CDs to autorun and gives you several options to restore your system. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you may restore some or all of your system from those CDs, even if your hard drives are now blank. 
high data rate MObile interNET (network) 
Monkey Linux
Monkey Linux can be extracted to the DOS filesystem (to the FAT32 too). This is complete small ELF distribution on 5 diskettes. Monkey can run on this minimal HW: 386SX, 4MB RAM, 30MB on IDE HDD. It contains X Windows for any SVGA videocard, support for network, support for 3C5x9, 3c59x, 3c900, NE2000/NE1000, WD80x3 ethernet cards, ATAPI/MITSUMI CD. There are some ready-to-install packages, GCC and kernel source for compiling your own kernel too. Monkey Linux v06 was released May 8, 1997. Documentation is available in English and Czech. 
MontaVista Linux
Once known as Hard Hat Linux this embedded distribution from MontaVista, Inc., is more than just another general-purpose Linux distribution. MontaVista provides a cross development platform and a set of tool kits designed specifically for embedded solutions using the x86/IA-32, PowerPC, StrongARM, XScale, MIPS, SH, ARM and an ever expanding array of other microprocessor architectures. Renamed MontaVista Linux with the release of v2.1 on January 29, 2002. MontaVista Linux Professional Edition 3.0 was released November 18, 2002. 
Acronym for a lot of things, one of which is Multiuser dimension Object Oriented. They are multimedia, interactive environments in virtual space. Formerly in the confines of Telnet, MOOs now have taken advantage of the WWW. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
MUD Object Orientated (Internet, OOP, MUD) 
MOO (Mud, Object Oriented)
One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing environments. 
Modular object oriented dynamic spread-sheet 2D-visualisation for periodically updated data using drag and drop in a spreadsheet-like environment. Extensible via your own Tcl/Tk modules. Intended for use in system administration but should work in a lab just as well... 
Drive some car across the moon Moon-buggy is a simple character graphics game, where you drive some kind of car across the moon's surface. Unfortunately there are dangerous craters there. Fortunately your car can jump over them! 
Drive some car across the moon (version with sound) Moon-buggy is a simple character graphics game, where you drive some kind of car across the moon's surface. Unfortunately there are dangerous craters there. Fortunately your car can jump over them! This version includes experimental support for sound and thus requires a soundcard to run! 
A fun and entertaining game based on the classic moon lander. Moonlander is a fun and enjoyable modern graphical version of the classic moonlander game. WARNING: Contains one mild profanity. 
Moore's Law
Gordon Moore, one of the founders of Intel, remarked in the late 1960s that computing power seemed to double every 12 to 18 months. This prophecy is remarkably accurate. With the rise of the Internet and computing in our lives, this Law has become a basic feature of our society every much so as Newton's Law's. Key point: Every bit of key length doubles the security, making it twice as difficult to crack. However, because of Moore's Law, every year that passes makes all keys twice as easy to crack. Therefore, if it takes 1-week to break a message encrypted with a 40-bit key, it will likewise take 1-week to break a message encrypted with a 128-bit key roughly 100 years from now. 
Daemon/client combo to easily queue music files for playing Moosic is a music player that focuses on easy playlist management. It consists of a server process that maintains a queue of music files to play and a client program which sends commands to the server. The server continually runs through its playlist, popping items off the top of the list and playing each with an external program. The client is a simple command-line utility which allows you to perform powerful operations upon the server's queue, including the addition of whole directory trees, automatic shuffling, and item removal according to regular expressions. The server comes configured to play MP3, Ogg, MIDI, MOD, and WAV files. 
Maintenance Operations Protocol (DEC) 
Meta Object Protocol (CLOS) 
Multiple Original Prints 
The Maintenance Operations Protocol (MOP) loader daemon. The Maintenance Operations Protocol (MOP) loader daemon services MOP load requests on one or all Ethernet interfaces. Normally, a filename (uppercase and ending in .SYS) is included in the load request. 
Million Operations Per Second 
file perusal filter for crt viewing 
Morphix is a modular distribution, with live-CD support. No configuration is necessary, just burn the CD and boot it. Morphix is partly based on KNOPPIX, the rest comes directly from Debian. The initial version, 0.3-2, was released February 27, 2003. Version 0.3-6 was released May 17, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Morris Worm
Unleashed on the morning of Thursday, November 3, 1988, the Morris Worm essentially crashed the Internet. In true worm fashion, it exploited bugs in several UNIX programs (sendmail, finger) to break into machines. Once in a machine, it would then look for other machines and launch attacks against them. Due to a programming mistake, the Morris Worm would not recognize when it had already broken into a machine. As the worm multiplied, machines would get broken into over and over, eventually overloading the machine and taking it offline. The worm is named after its creator, Robert Tapam Morris. 
Simple morse code trainer for the PC speaker Morse code trainer which allows you to play morse at a range of speeds and frequencies through the PC internal speaker. You can specify the text to be played either from the command line, from a file, or the program is capable of generating random character groups. As it sounds each character it lists the character in verbal form (Dit, Dit, Dah etc.) to the screen. Morse has to run from a VC. 
Master Operating System (OS, Varian) 
Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Minimum Operating System (OS, UNIVAC 9200, UNIVAC 9300) 
Multiprogramming Operating System (OS, NCR) 
A Web browser created by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and placed in the public domain. Though Mosaic was one of the earliest Web browsers, it has been superseded by Netscape Navigator See World Wide Web. 
The first WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic was licensed by several companies and used to create many other web browsers. Mosaic was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), at the Univeristy of Urbana-Champange in Illinois, USA. The first version was released in late 1993. 
Major Open Systems Environment Standards 
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (IC, FET) 
a software package that turns a network of GNU/Linux computers into a computer cluster.
Multiprocessor ??? Operating System for unIX (Unix, Cluster) 
Utilities to administer a mosix cluster node Mosix is an extension to the linux kernel to support scalable and transparent cluster computing. The enhanced kernel allows a cluster of workstations and servers based on the Intel x86 architecture to work cooperatively as if part of a single system. This package provides the utilities to run a mosix cluster. 
Microsoft Online Services Partnership (MSN) 
Multicast [extensions to ] Open Shortest Path First [routing] (IP, OSPF, RFC 1584) 
a more/less paging type program Most is a paging program that displays, one windowful at a time, the contents of a file on a terminal. It pauses after each windowful and prints on the window status line of the screen the file name, current line number, and the percentage of the file so far displayed. Unlike other paging programs, most is capable of displaying an arbitrary number of windows as long as each window occupies at least two screen lines. Each window may contain the same file or a different file. In addition, each window has its own mode. In addition to displaying ordinary text files, most can also display binary files as well as files with arbitrary ascii characters. 
Media Orientated Systems Transport 
Mobile Open Systems Technologies (UK, Uni Lancaster) 
Means of Test 
The central circuit board inside a computer, which houses the central processing unit (CPU), the system bus, memory slots, expansion slots, and more. 
A powerful proprietary graphics library for UNIX/Linux, developed by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and used by programmers to create buttons, menus and other graphical objects for the X Window System. (Also, see Gtk/Gtk+.) 
A widely-accepted set of user interface guidelines developed by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) around 1989 which specifies how an X Window System application should "look and feel". Motif includes the Motif Toolkit (also called "Xm" or the "Motif widgets"). 
Files needed to run some Motif applications. This package provides the XFree-2.1 configuration files needed to allow Motif applications compiled under XFree-2.1 to run under XFree-3.1. Without these files, some Motif applications compiled on other machines (such as Netscape) may crash when attempting to copy or paste from or to a text field, and may also exhibit other problems. 
V4L Capture Program supporting Movement Detection Motion is a V4L image capture program which supports: - Motion detection - MPEG output - Loopback output (if a module is compiled for your kernel) - webcam output 
Message-Orientated Text Interchange System (ISO 10021, JTC1) 
C/C++/Java Integrated Development Environment Motor is a text mode based programming environment for Linux. It consists of a powerful editor with syntax highlight feature, project manager, makefile generator, gcc and gdb front-end, etc. Deep CVS integration is also provided. 
More Of The Sameold Sameold (Usenet) 
Memorandum Of Understanding (IPOC, TLD, Internet) 
Identify a disk drive to the file system before use. 
mount and unmount filesystems. 
The mount package contains the mount, umount, swapon and swapoff programs. Accessible files on your system are arranged in one big tree or hierarchy. These files can be spread out over several devices. The mount command attaches a filesystem on some device to your system's file tree. The umount command detaches a filesystem from the tree. Swapon and swapoff, respectively, specify and disable devices and files for paging and swapping. 
To access a storage device or medium on a directory within a computer file system. 
Tools for mounting and manipulating filesystems. This package provides the mount(8), umount(8), swapon(8), swapoff(8), and losetup(8) commands. 
mount point
The directory under which a file system is accessible after being mounted. 
mount an smbfs filesystem 
mount an smbfs filesystem 
Tool to (un)mount devices, dockable in Window Maker. This is a Window Maker dock app which allows you to browse all your mount points and to mount/unmount devices in a simple point and click manner. 
A pointing device for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). 
allows you to configure your mouse. 
Mouseconfig is a text-based mouse configuration tool. Mouseconfig setsup the files and links needed for configuring and using a mouse on a Red Hat Linux system. The mouseconfig tool can be used to set the correct mouse type for programs like gpm, and can be used with Xconfigurator to set up the mouse for the X Window System. 
Scripts for Mova-format dictionary Scripts that help finding words and viewing articles in dictionaries in mova format. One of them is English/Russian dictionary by by V. K. Mueller. 
Microsoft Overlay Virtual Environment (MS) 
[projekt] MObile VIsualisierung (DFG) 
MoviX is a CD-ready tiny (~5MB) Slackware-based Linux distribution containing all you need to boot a PC from CD (using syslinux) and automagically play all the avi files you put in the CD root with mplayer through the framebuffer. You can use it to play all your movies, even on a diskless PC. MoviX2 is a related distribution aimed at transforming your PC into a powerful multimedia box. The initial release of MoviX, version 0.2, was announced September 16, 2002. Version 0.8.0rc1 was released June 12, 2003. MoviX2 v0.3.0rc1 was released June 16, 2003. eMoviX is another branch, a micro (7MB) Linux distro meant to be embedded in a CD together with all the video/audio files you want. eMoviX version 0.8.0pre6 was released March 13, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Magneto-Optical Write Once Read Many, "MO-WORM" 
The Mozart Programming System The Mozart Programming System is an advanced development platform for intelligent, distributed applications. Mozart is based on the Oz language, which supports declarative programming, object-oriented programming, constraint programming, and concurrency as part of a coherent whole. For distribution, Mozart provides a true network transparent implementation with support for network awareness, openness, and fault tolerance. Security is upcoming. Mozart is an ideal platform for both general-purpose distributed applications as well as for hard problems requiring sophisticated optimization and inferencing abilities. For more information, see the Mozart project home page at 
Mozilla is an open-source web browser, designed for standards compliance, performance and portability. 
Mozilla was the code-name behind the original version of the Netscape web-browser, which itself was essentially a re-write of the popular Mosaic web-browser. Netscape later created an open-source version of their source base called Mozilla. Netscape version 6 is based upon this newer Mozilla. Point: Both Netscape and Microsoft web-browsers identify themselves as being "Mozilla" in the User-Agent: field. When Netscape officially created the name "Navigator" for their web-browser, the engineers didn't bother changing this field. When Microsoft came out with version 3.0 of their "Internet Explorer", they attempted to emulate all the features of Navigator. In order to take advantage of web-sites that provided richer multimedia content based upon whether Mozilla was running, Microsoft put "Mozilla" as the version of their browser, with additional content identifying itself as "MSIE". 
Mozilla Web Browser - core and browser Mozilla is a sophisticated graphical World-Wide-Web browser, with a large number of various browser features like support for HTML 4.0, CSS 2, JavaScript and Java. Of course, besides the network option, it can also be used as a standalone HTML viewer. Mozilla is based on part of the code base of the well known "Netscape" ("Communicator" or "Navigator") browser. It was opened up to the free software community by Netscape Communications under a new NPL license. See the website for more information on the development of Mozilla. 
Mozilla Web Browser - irc client This is an irc client written completely in javascript, XUL, and Mozilla's XP framework. Give it a try, you might like it. 
A tool for inspecting the DOM of pages in Mozilla. This is a tool that allows you to inspect the DOM for web pages in Mozilla. This is of great use to people who are doing Mozilla chrome development or web page development. 
JavaScript debugger for use with Mozilla JavaScript debugger for use with Mozilla. 
Mail/news client based on the Mozilla web browser. The mail/news client supports IMAP, POP, and NNTP and has an easy to use interface. 
Mozilla Web Browser - mail and news support Mail/news client based on the Mozilla web browser. The mail/news client supports IMAP, POP, and NNTP and has an easy to use interface. 
NSPR provides platform independence for non-GUI operating systemfacilities. These facilities include threads, thread synchronization, normal file and network I/O, interval timing and calendar time, basic memory management (malloc and free) and shared library linking. 
Network Security Services (NSS) is a set of libraries designed to support cross-platform development of security-enabled server applications. Applications built with NSS can support SSL v2 and v3,TLS, PKCS #5, PKCS #7, PKCS #11, PKCS #12, S/MIME, X.509 v3certificates, and other security standards. 
Mozilla Web Browser - Personal Security Manager (PSM) This is the PSM (Personal Security Manager) for the Mozilla Web Browser With this package, you can access SSL sites (https) and use IMAP/S mail servers. 
Mozilla Web Browser - XML enabled This is a terminal client written for mozilla that has special capabilities. When combined with the xls, and xcat programs, you can get directory listings with thumbnails for images, and you can cat known file types and view them inline. 
Multi Processor 
pretty-printer for email messages and other text files This package consists of two programs, mp and mptool. The mp program will pretty print various files for you. It can be used in conjunction with a mail reading utility for producing a pretty print of your mail items. It can be used with a news reading tool to pretty print news articles. Digests can also be printed, and this version can pretty print ordinary ASCII files as well. Support for personal organiser printing was added into the last released version. There are numerous configuration options to allow you to adjust the way mp generates it's output. The mptool program is a graphical frontend to mp. It makes it easy to configure the printout of your documents without having to remember lots of complicated command line arguments. It also supports drag and drop of text from other Gtk+ applications. 
[PPP] Multilink Protocol (MPPP, RFC 1990) 
MPEG audio layer 3 (MPEG, audio, IIS, ISO) 
Full-screen console mp3 and ogg vorbis player mp3blaster is an interactive text-based mp3 player with a number of unique features. It supports multiple playlists allowing you to divide tracks into albums allowing great flexibility with the play order. Also included are nmixer, a simple mixer utility based on the same code as the mixer used in mp3blaster and mp3tag, an id3 tag manipulation tool. Starting with version 3.0pre8, mp3blaster supports the playback of Ogg Vorbis encoded audio as well. 
burn audio CDs directly from MP3s or Ogg Vorbis files mp3burn is a Perl script that allows you to burn audio CDs composed of MP3 or Ogg Vorbis tracks without an intermediate file conversion to .cdr or .wav. Actually, the .mp3/.ogg files *are* converted using a decoder, but are written to FIFOs so they don't consume a lot of filesystem space during the burn. 
Check mp3 files for consistency Check mp3 files for consistency and print several errors and warnings. List stream attributes (color). Layer 1,2,3, mpeg1.0+2.0 are currently supported. CRC check for layer 3. mp3check is very useful for incomplete mp3 detection as it can be used to scan through your mp3 collection and find all mp3s that aren't perfect. Good for use with Napster and other bulk downloading of mp3s. 
An MP3 technical info viewer and ID3 1.x tag editor. MP3Info has an interactive mode (using curses) and a command line mode. MP3Info can display ID3 tag information as well as various technical aspects of an MP3 file including playing time, bit-rate, sampling frequency and other attributes in a pre-defined or user-specifiable output format. If you prefer GUI you should use mp3info-gtk package. 
Organizes your MP3 collection in a MySQL database Mp3Kult is a KDE2 application that helps you organize your MP3 collections in a MySQL database. It can read MP3 tag and song informations (length, bit rate, sample rate etc.), make playlists, play songs with an external player like xmms and gqmpeg, perform basic and advanced searches for songs in the database, and make copies of playlists on your hard disk, in order to play the songs without inserting CD-ROMs. Mp3Kult can scan directories recursively, looking for MP3s and automatically mount, umount and eject CD-ROMs before and after the job. 
Rename mp3 files based on id3tags Mp3rename is a small tool to rename all those badly named mp3 files. 
Macro Processor for HTML Documents Mp4h is a macro processor specifically designed for HTML documents, with powerful programming features. It allows definition and expansion of new tags with a syntax familiar to HTML authors. Mp4h is a core component of the Website Meta Language (WML). 
pack a file in MIME format 
Tools for encoding/decoding MIME messages. Mpack and munpack are utilities for encoding and decoding (respectively) binary files in MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) format mail messages. For compatibility with older forms of transferring binary files, the munpack program can also decode messages in split-uuencoded format. 
print multiple pages per sheet on PostScript printer Mpage reads plain text files or PostScript documents and prints them on a PostScript printer with the text reduced in size so that several pages appear on one sheet of paper. This is useful for viewing large printouts on a small amount of paper. Uses ISO 8859.1 to print 8-bit characters. 
partition an MSDOS hard disk TQ 
A powerful library for debugging memory allocations The mpatrol library is a powerful debugging tool that attempts to diagnose run-time errors that are caused by the wrong use of dynamically allocated memory. Along with providing a comprehensive and configurable log of all dynamic memory operations that occurred during the lifetime of a program, the mpatrol library performs extensive checking to detect any misuse of dynamically allocated memory. All logging and tracing output from the mpatrol library is sent to a separate log file in order to keep its diagnostics separate from any that the program being tested might generate. A wide variety of library settings can also be changed at run-time via an environment variable, thus removing the need to recompile or relink in order to change the library's behaviour. All of this functionality can be integrated into existing code through the inclusion of a single header file at compile-time. 
MPOA Client (MPOA, ATM) 
Multimedia Personal Computer 
Message Preparation Directory 
MultiPlatform DiskArray 
Message Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 
Multi-Programming Executive (OS, HP, HP 3000) 
Source for MPE, for other package to build-depend This package includes the source to MPE, so that other package can build MPE Build-depending in this package. MPE is a set of tools to profile MPI programs, and other tools, useful in debugging MPI. 
a small editor with syntax highlighting Minimum Profit (mp, mped in Debian Systems) is a programmer's text editor. It features small memory and disk requirements, syntax highlighting, context-sensitive help for the source code being edited, multiple simultaneous file editing, ctags support, word wrapping, and more. 
Motion Picture Expert Group [old term] (MPEG) 
Moving Picture Expert Group (org., ISO 11172-1, JTC1) 
MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
The group that has defined the multimedia compression standard for consumer and professional digital audio and video. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
mp3 and mpeg I video/audio library for linux mpeglib is a mp3 and mpeg I video/audio library for linux mpeg I audio player (layer I,II,III (mp3)) mpeg I video player mpeg I system layer player wav player 
??? (HP), "MPE/XL" 
Mpg123 is a fast, free and portable MPEG audio player for Unix. It supports MPEG 1.0/2.0 layers 1, 2 and 3 ("mp3" files). For full CD quality playback (44 kHz, 16 bit, stereo) a fast CPU is required. Mono and/or reduced quality playback (22 kHz or11 kHz) is possible on slow CPUs (like Intel 486). For information on the MP3 License, please visit: 
A Free command-line mp3 player, compatible with mpg123 mpg321 is a clone of the popular mpg123 command-line mp3 player. It should function as a drop-in replacement for mpg123 in many cases. While some of the functionality of mpg123 is not yet implemented, mpg321 should function properly in most cases for most people, such as for frontends such as gqmpeg. mpg321 is based on the mad MPEG audio decoding library. It therefore is highly accurate, and also uses only fixed-point calculation, making it more efficient on machines without a floating-point unit. While mpg321 is not as fast as the non-free mpg123 on systems which have a floating point unit, it comes under a fully Free license, which allows greater freedom to its users. For most people who want mpg123, mpg321 is a better alternative. 
Toolbox to manipulate MPEG files (video, system, and audio) mpgtx is a tool to manipulate MPEG files. Its features include the following: * mpgtx can currently split and join MPEG 1 video files and most MPEG audio files. * mpgtx can fetch detailed information from MPEG 1 and MPEG 2. * mpgtx can demultiplex MPEG 1 and MPEG 2 files (System layer, Program layer and Transport Layer). * mpgtx can add, remove and edit ID3 tags from mp3 files and rename mp3 files according to their ID3 tags. It reads and writes ID3v1, but only reads ID3v2. 
Message Passing Interface (SMP, Cluster) 
Multiprocessor Interconnect Bus 
Parallel computing system MPICH is a robust and flexible implementation of the MPI (Message Passing Interface). MPI is often used with parallel or distributed computing projects. MPICH is a multi-platform, configurable system (development, execution, libraries, etc) for MPI. It can achieve parallelism using networked machines or using multitasking on a single machine. 
Message Passing Interface Forum (manufacturer) 
Mozilla Public License (Netscape) 
A movie and animation player that supports a wide range or codecs and file formats, including MPEG 1/2/4, DivX 3/4/5, Windows Media 7/8/9, RealAudio/Video up to 9, Quicktime 5/6, and Vivo 1/2. It has many MMX/SSE(2)/3DNow(Ex) optimized native audio and video codecs, but allows using XAnim's and RealPlayer's binary codec plugins, and Win32 codec DLLs. It has basic VCD/DVD playback functionality, including DVD subtitles, but supports many text-baased subtitle formats too. For video output, nealy every exising interface is supported. It's also able to convert raw/divx/mpeg4 AVI (pcm/mp3 audio), and even video grabbing from V4L devices. From MPlayer
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (RFC 3031) 
Metra Potential Method 
Multi-user ??? Program for Microcomputers (CP/M, OS, DR), "MP/M" 
MultiMedia Presentation Manager/2 (OS/2, IBM), "MPM/2" 
Main Profile @@ Main Level (MPEG), "MP@@ML" 
Multi-user ??? Program / NETwork (MP/M, CP/NET, OS), "MP/NET" 
Multi-user ??? Program / ??? (MP/NET, CP/NOS, OS), "MP/NOS" 
Multi-Protocol Over ATM (ATM) 
MetaPost, a system for drawing pictures 
Multiple Purpose Operator Workstation 
Massive Parallel Processor / Processing (MPP) 
Message Posting Protocol (RFC 1204) 
Message Processing Program 
Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression (MS, RFC 2118) 
Multi Purpose Peripheral Device 
Microsoft Point to Point Encryption (MS, cryptography) 
Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP, RFC 1990, MP, Ascend) 
The Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry Program MPQC computes the properties of molecules through ab-initio methods. It can compute closed shell and general restricted open shell Hartree-Fock energies and gradients, density functional theory energies and gradients, second order open shell perturbation theory (OPT2[2]) and Z-averaged perturbation theory (ZAPT2) energies, and second order closed shell Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory energies and gradients. It also includes an internal coordinate geometry optimizer. MPQC is build upon the Scientific Computing Toolkit (SC). 
[National Board for Metrology and Testing] (org., Sweden) 
Megabytes Per Second 
MPOA Server (MPOA, ATM) 
mtop and mps for the Mosix multicomputer mps and mtop are used to display processes on a Mosix multicomputer. mtop provides an ongoing look at processor activity in real time. It displays a listing of the most CPU-intensive tasks on the system, and can provide an interactive interface for manipulating processes. 
MultiPage Signal (Fax) 
MultiProzessor Spezifikation (SMP) 
Mathematical Programming System eXtended (IBM) 
Ministery of Post and Telecommunications (org., Japan) 
MultiPort Transceiver 
Multi Protocol Transport Architecture (IBM, SNA) 
Multi Protocol Transport Networking (IBM) 
extract labels in MetaPost pictures for typesetting 
Multi Protocol Transport Services (IBM, MPTN) 
Multi Protocol Transport Services / 2 (IBM, OS/2), "MPTN/2" 
MicroProcessor Unit (SIA, RL) 
MIDI Processing Unit 401 (Roland, MIDI), "MPU 401" 
Macintosh Programmers Workshop (Apple) 
MultiProgramming eXecutive (IBM, OS, IBM 1800) 
MultiProgramming eXecutive (OS) 
a mp3/ogg audio player written in Qt. mq3 is an advanced unix audio player, written in C++ using the Qt toolkit. It supports both the MP3 and Ogg Vorbis audio formats, and has an intuitive organizer to keep your music and playlists in order. 
Message Queueing Interface (IBM) 
Million QUality Improvements Per Second 
Magneto - Resistive (HDD) 
Modified Read (Fax) 
Multi Resolutions Analysis 
Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (IC, RAM) 
Method Request Broker (OMG) 
Multiple Resolution Bitmap Compiler (MS, Windows) 
Microsoft Realtime Compression Format (MS) 
Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface (MS) 
Multi-Rate Circuit Switching 
remove an MSDOS subdirectory TQ 
rename an existing MSDOS file TQ 
A tool for easy and automatic renaming of many files Mass Rename is a simple pair of shell scripts which make it easier to move, rename, or copy multiple files at once. It is intended mainly as an automatic and simple way to rename multiple files with a customizable prefix and a progressive number. It is also possible to modify the rename format simply by editing one of the scripts. It is easy, complete, and efficient, and was written only in sh code. 
Memory Repeater Hub (Intel) 
Macintosh / MacOS Runtime for Java (Java, Apple) 
Macintosh Runtime for Java Software Developer Kit (Apple, Java), "MRJ SDK" 
Multi Resolution Meshes (Intel, 3D) 
Minnesota Regional NETwork (network, USA) 
Mandatory Router Option [flag] (CATNIP) 
Multicommand Required Operational Capability 
??? Read Only Memory (ROM) 
Material / Manufacturing Resource Planning 
Material Requirement Planning (PPS, CIM) 
A Project Management Application for GNOME Mr Project is a project management program that can help build project plans, and track the progress of a project. The development of MrProject is led by CodeFactory as a free software project, and all code is licensed under the GNU General Public License. Homepage: 
MrProject is a visual project management application which allows users to manage several aspects of a project, including schedule tracking usingGantt charts. You should install MrProject if you wish to manage schedules, allocate resources, and track the progress of your projects. 
Media Recognition System (DAT) 
Message Retrieval Service Element 
Multi-threaded Routing Toolkit (BGP4+/BGP/RIPng/RIP2) MRT is a set of Routing and Network Performance measurement tools, with BGP4+/BGP/RIPng/RIP2 routing software (now includes DVMRP and PIM-DM) MRT uses novel approaches to routing architecture design, and incorporates features such as parallel lightweight processes, multiple processor support, and shared memory. The object-oriented, modular design of the software encourages the rapid addition and prototyping of experimental routing protocol and inter-domain policy algorithms. You can use MRT applications and libraries to: * Serve as the backbone routing software for your IPv6 or IPv4 network connection. * Simultaneously handle tasks such as routing policy communication, routing policy calculation, and maintenance of a RIB, and distribute these tasks over multiple processors or multiple machines * Generate and analyze route flap statistics * Generate real-time graphical maps of Internet routing * Capture a BGP peering session and monitor it in real time * Record and replay sequences of events, such as routing failures 
Multi Router Traffic Grapher 
Multi Router Traffic Grapher The Multi Router Traffic Grapher is a tool primarily used to monitor the traffic load on network links (typically by using SNMP). MRTG generates HTML pages containing PNG images which provide a LIVE visual representation of this traffic. MRTG typically produces daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly graphs. In addition to monitoring via SNMP, MRTG can also generate graphs based on the output of any application, allowing one to generate graphs of anything that needs monitoring (for example, CPU and memory usage, email volumes, web hits, etc). For faster data collection, MRTG can also interface to RRDtool. For more information, see The mrtg-contrib package contains the contributed scripts and configuration files that used to form part of the mrtg package. 
Multi Router Traffic Grapher (contributed files) A collection of sample scripts and configuration files for the Multi Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG). This package contains the contributed files that ship with MRTG. 
Utilities to generate statistics for mrtg A collection of simple utilities to generate output useful for mrtg. Many of the existing mrtg setups use shell or perl scripts to gather output. On busy systems, these scripts can generate a lot of extra load. These (small) C programs can return the given statistics more efficiently. 
Maximum Receive Unit [size] (SLIP, PPP) 
Most Recently Used 
MagnetoResistive eXtended [technology] (HDD) 
Message Store 
Meta Signaling (ATM, ???) 
MicroSoft (manufacturer, MS) 
Mobile Station (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Management Service Architecture 
Management Service Access Point (OSI, OSI/RM, SAP) 
Mini Slotted Alternating Priorities (MAC) 
Most Significant Bit 
Generates simple ASCII message sequence charts This tool generates simple ASCII message sequence charts from a textual description. Note, that this description is tool specific and not compatible with the MSC standard Z.120 by the ITU-T. 
MicroSoft C 
Mobile services Switching Center (PLMN, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
MSC.Software makes this distribution, designed for high-performance, high-availability, cluster computing. Itanium 2-based MSC.Linux V2002 is available, as is MSC.Linux IA-64 2002 (July) for the HP zx1 chipset. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
MicroSoft Compact Disk EXtensions (CD) 
MicroSoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS), "MS-CHAP" 
Multiple Slots on Continuation Mechanism (DQDB) 
Microsoft "compress.exe/expand.exe" compatible (de)compressor This package contains two programs: msexpand, which decompresses files compressed by the Microsoft compress.exe utility (e.g. Win 3.x installation files) mscompress, which compresses files using the LZ77 compression algorithm. Files can be decompressed using Microsoft expand.exe or msexpand(1). 
Mass Storage Control Protocol 
MicroSoft Cluster Server [Wolfpack] (MS, Cluster) 
Most Significant Digit 
MicroSoft Data Engine (MS, DB) 
Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine (MS, SQL) 
MicroSoft Download Library (MS) 
Macintosh Software Distribution Network (FidoNet, Apple) 
MicroSoft Developer Network (Internet, MS) 
MicroSoft Developer Network (MS) 
MicroSoft Disk Operating System (MS, OS, PC) 
MicroSoft Exchange server (MS) 
The Mandrake-Security package is designed to provide generic secure level to the Mandrake Linux users...It will permit you to choose between level 0 to 5 for a less -> more secured distribution. This packages includes several program that will be run periodically in order to test the security of your system and alert you if needed. 
Media Status Event Notification 
local centralised multiuser music server Mserv is a music server designed to do a number of things better than most systems designed to play mp3s: - Supports any type of client using standard TCP protocol - Stores information on mp3 (bitrate, duration, name, author, genre, date produced, last play date) in on-disk database. - Stores rating information supplied by the user (awful, bad, neutral, good, superb). - Has a comprehensive queuing system (track, album, random album, etc) - Random play chooses the songs that people currently on-line want to hear using their ratings of the songs. - Search facilities, status information, statistics, etc. - User management facilities, four levels of users, encrypted passwords. - Talker style communication (say, emote etc.) - Play, next, pause, stop, repeat, volume, bass, treble settings. - On-line and off-line track information editing. - Advanced filter facilities (e.g. 'john=superb', '!good', 'year>1990', 'duration<180', 'genre=pop', 'john=good|fred=unheard' etc.) - Built-in telnet client (see manual). - Library interface, no need to write TCP code. - Comes with command line shell program for interfacing and web client to this shell program for web-based control. - Uses an external player to output, and is known to support mpg321, mpg123 and freeamp - this could be used to broadcast the output or support other players. - Comes with a setuid wrapper for mpg123-compatible players that can increase the nice level for low-capability processors. For more info see 
Network Modem Server The mserver program is a network modem server which allows modems to be exported to any number of hosts on the (local) internet. Access control for each individually exported modem is performed on a per-host basis. Windows 95 shareware client available. Work on a Mac version in progress. 
MicroSoft Fax Information Service (MS) 
Management Service Focal Point (IBM) 
compare two message catalogs 
search catalogs for common messages 
compile message catalogs 
merge two message catalogs 
decompile message catalogs 
shows FAT clusters allocated to file TQ 
Medium Scale Integration 
Micro-Star International (manufacturer, Taiwan) 
MicroSoft Internet Explorer (MS, WWW, MSIE) 
Mobile Station ISDN Number (PLMN, GSM, mobile-systems), "MS-ISDN" 
Metered Services Information eXchange [protocol] (Internet, ISP) 
Maximum Segment Lifetime (TCP/IP) 
Microsoft Software Library (Internet, MS) 
Mirrored Server Link 
Media Support Module (ODI) 
Metal Semiconductor Metal (IC) 
MicroSoft Message Queue [server] (MS) 
Microsoft Support Network (Internet, MS) 
Monitoring cell Sequence Number (UNI, ATM) 
Multiple Subscriber Number (Euro-, ISDN) 
Multiple Systems Networking Facility (IBM) 
Mass storage Operating System (OS, CDC) 
Media Signal Processor (Samsung, MMX, ARM) 
Message Security Protocol 
Message Send Protocol (RFC 1159) 
Multitasking System Program (OS, Hemenway) 
Modular System Program /7 (OS, IBM), "MSP/7" 
M&T Software Partner International [gmbh] 
Machine Specific Register (IC) 
Mess-, Steuer- und Regelungssysteme 
Mobile Support Router (MHP) 
Model Specific Register (Intel, Pentium, IC) 
Mobile Station Roaming Number (MM, HLR, MS-ISDN, GSM, mobile-systems) 
MicroSoft Remote Procedure Call (MS, DCOM), "MS-RPC" 
Maximum Segment Size (TCP, ADSL) 
MIMOLA Software System (MIMOLA) 
Message Submission Service Element 
Mountain Standard Time [-0700] (TZ, MDT, USA) 
Installer for Microsoft TrueType core fonts This package allows for easy installation of the Microsoft True Type Core Fonts for the Web including: Andale Mono Arial Black Arial (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic) Comic Sans MS (Bold) Courier New (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic) Georgia (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic) Impact Times New Roman (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic) Trebuchet (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic) Verdana (Bold, Italic, Bold Italic) Webdings You will need an Internet connection to download these modules from Microsoft's Web site. 
Meta-Signaling Virtual Channel (ATM) 
MicroSoft Visual C++ (MS) 
Machine Status Word 
control magnetic tape drive operation 
Machine [assisted] Translation 
Mannesmann Tally [gmbh] (manufacturer) 
Message Transfer / Type 
Mobile Termination (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Moluccas Time [+0830] (TZ) 
control magnetic tape drive operation 
Linux SCSI tape driver aware magnetic tape control (aka. mt) Mt-st contains a version of "mt" that is aware of Linux's SCSI tape driver. Mt-st is able to set some esoteric control flags like tape partitions. Mt-st diverts (replaces) the GNU version of mt, in the cpio package. It also comes with stinit, a program to be run at boot time to set up tape defaults. 
The mt-st package contains the mt and stinit tape drive management programs. Mt (for magnetic tape drives) can control rewinding, ejecting, skipping files and blocks, and more. The stinit program isused to initialize SCSI magnetic tape drives at system startup. 
Alongside the web, mail is the top reason for the popularity of the Internet. E-mail is an inexpensive and fast method of time-shifted messaging which, much like the Web, is actually based around sending and receiving plain text files. The protocol used is called the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). The server prorgams that implement SMTP to move mail from one server to another are called Mail Transfer Agents (MTAs). Once upon a time users would have to Telnet into an SMTP server and use a command line mail program like 'mutt' or 'pine' to check their mail. Now, GUI based e-mail clients like Mozilla, Kmail and Outlook allow users to check their email off of a local SMTP sever. Additional protocols like POP3 and IMAP4 are used between the SMTP server and desktop mail client to allow clients to manipulate files on, and download from, their local mail server. The programs that implement POP3 and IMAP4 are called Mail Delivery Agents (MDAs). They are generally seperate from MTAs. From Advanced Linux Pocketbook
Mail Transport Agent (SMTP) 
Message Transfer Agent (MTS, OSI, X.400) 
Mean Time Between Failure 
MTBF (Mean time between failures)
The statistical average operating time beween the start of a component's lie and the time of its first electronic or mechinical failure. 
Master Test Component (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
MIDI Time Code (MIDI) 
Memory Technology Driver (IBM, PC-DOS) 
Memory Technology Device Tools Tools for manipulating memory technology devices, such as flash memory, Disk-On-Chip, or ROM. Includes mkfs.jffs, a tool to create JFFS (journaling flash file system) filesystems. 
Mean Time Data Availability 
Magnetic Tape Operating System (OS) 
MuTating Engine (Viren), "MtE" 
Motorola Training and Education Center (org., Chicago) 
Message Text Formats 
Microsoft Tape Format (MS) 
Modulation Transfer Function 
Memory Translator Hub (Intel) 
MIPS Technologies Inc. (manufacturer, SGI) 
Unix jargon for "the time a file's data was last 'changed'". (cf. atime, ctime). 
Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MRAM) 
mtools configuration files TQ 
Tools for manipulating MSDOS files Mtools is a collection of utilities to access MS-DOS disks from Unix without mounting them. It supports Win'95 style long file names, OS/2 Xdf disks, ZIP/JAZ disks and 2m disks (store up to 1992kB on a high density 3 1/2 disk). Also included in this package are commands to eject and manipulate the write/password protection control of Zip disks. 
utilities to access DOS disks in Unix. TQ 
graphical user interface to the mtools diskette package MToolsFM (formerly known as mfm) is a gtk-based graphical user interface for the mtools package for reading and writing DOS-format diskettes on UNIX systems. 
tests and displays the configuration TQ 
Magnetic Tape Operating System (OS, Datapoint) 
Message Transfer Part (ISDN, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Full screen ncurses and X11 traceroute tool mtr combines the functionality of the 'traceroute' and 'ping' programs in a single network diagnostic tool. As mtr starts, it investigates the network connection between the host mtr runs on and a user-specified destination host. After it determines the address of each network hop between the machines, it sends a sequence ICMP ECHO requests to each one to determine the quality of the link to each machine. As it does this, it prints running statistics about each machine. 
Mtr is a network diagnostic tool that combines ping and traceroute into one program. Mtr provides two interfaces: an ncurses interface, useful for using Mtr from a telnet session; and a GTK+ interface for X (provided in the mtr-gtk package). 
Graphical satellite tracker for X11 mtrack is a satellite tracking program for X11. The current position of the satellite is shown on a world map, and pass times for the next day or more can be generated and shown in a tabular form. 
Memory Type Range Register (CPU, Pentium Pro, IC) 
Magnetic Tape System (OS, HP, HP 2100) 
Message Transfer System (MHS) 
Michigan Terminal System (OS) 
Microsoft Transaction Server (MS, DB, WSH, COM) 
MailTrusT (cryptography) 
Mean Time To Failure 
Mean Time To First Failure 
Mean Time to Recovery / Repair / React 
Mean Time Trouble Repair 
Maximum Transmission Unit (SLIP, PPP, IP, PPPoE) 
Maximum Transmission Unit - the largest packet size for a network. In RedHat the MTU is set for pppd in "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ppp". 
Message Transfer Unit 
controls tape autochangers MTX can be used to manipulate tape auto-changers, also known as "jukeboxes", such that backup software can make use of the multiple tape capabilities of the auto-changer. In particular, this is necessary glue for using a backup system like Amanda with a DDS auto-changer like the HP Surestore 12000e. 
display contents of an MSDOS file TQ 
Message Utilities for emacsen. MU stands for "Message Utilities". It consists of following modules: mu-cite: a citation utility mu-cite.el --- main module of mu-cite mu-bbdb.el --- mu-cite submodule for BBDB mu-register.el --- mu-cite submodule for registration latex-math-symbol.el --- translate mathematical symbols of LaTeX into MULE characters 
Mail User Agent 
MUltimediales BueroInformationsSystem (OA, BIS, TU Braunschweig), "MuBIS"c 
Multi-User Chat Kingdom (MUD) 
Acronym for Multi-User Dungeon, a type of text based adventure game accessed with telnet or a specialized client program, such as tintin, tinyfugue, or tinytalk. There are many types of MUD including Diku, MOO, and MUSE. On example is ChicagoMUSE. 
Multi-User Dungeon (MUD) 
MUD (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension)
A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all thatlies in between. A significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they leave and which other users can interact within their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively. 
A flexible and efficient FTP daemon MuddleFTPd has been designed from the ground up to be efficient, configurable and to be tolerant of being run in root or non-root mode. This server enables users to set up a variety of configurations, from a traditional FTP server using the password file for everything, to using the password file for nothing running entirely as a single user. 
English/Russian dictionary in dict format Electronic version of seventh edition of English/Russian dictionary by V. K. Mueller. This package contains dictionary in dict format. You'll need dictd server and dict client to use it. 
English/Russian dictionary in mova format Electronic version of seventh edition of English/Russian dictionary by V. K. Mueller. This package contains dictionary in mova format. 
English/Russian dictionary with accents in dict format Electronic version of seventh edition of English/Russian dictionary with accents by V. K. Mueller. This package contains dictionary in dict format. You'll need dictd server and dict client to use it. 
English/Russian dictionary with accents in mova format Electronic version of seventh edition of English/Russian dictionary with accents by V. K. Mueller. This package contains dictionary in mova format. 
MUMPS User Group Deutschland (MUMPS, user group), "MUG-D" 
Full-featured IRC bouncing tool. muh is a smart irc-bouncing-tool that remains on IRC all the time. You can take control over your nick by connecting to muh with an IRC client that is able to supply a password for the server connection. 
Management User Interface (OMF, UI) 
Multimedia User Interface (SGI, UI) 
MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU EMACS (EMACS, GNU) 
character code translator system on Emacs MULE-UCS is a coding system and character code translator system. This has an universal ability to translate from any character sets to any, and construct new coding systems easily. And MULE-UCS have a package to translate between MULE INTERNAL CODE and ISO-10646, So you can handle ISO-10646 based coding systems on Emacs/Mule(But can't work on 20.2, this version have no extended CCL), Mule 3.0 and Meadow. 
Mulimidix is a mini Linux distribution for building a PC-based set-top box and multimedia player system with digital TV, MP3, DivX, etc. support, using VDR, Freevo and other tools. It is currently optimized for i686. Initial version 0.1 was released April 4, 2003. Version 0.1.9pre was released May 17, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
basic MulTeX library files. MulTeX is a TeX for Multilingual langauges included Chinese, Japanese and Korean. 
Multilingual TeX MulTeX is TeX for Multilingual text based on the original Knuth's TeX. Include: multex, jmulatex, amsmultex (amsmultex depends on tetex-extra package). 
Enhanced the GNOME Terminal Multi Gnome Terminal is an enhanced version of gnome-terminal which has the following features added: - Many terminals in each window - Switch between terminals using shortcuts - Execution of user defined commands in new terminals - Notification of terminal states (changed, changing, unchanged) using different tabs colors - Reorderable tabs All this extensions are inspired by screen and konsole (the KDE2 terminal) 
A computer may have multiple adapters and multiple IP addresses. We called these multi-homed hosts. The existence of such machines makes some security processes difficult. UDP based transactions (like DNS) sometimes show anomalies because the responses come back from IP addresses different than the one the request was sent to. Sun workstations demonstrate and even more difficult problem: if multiple adapters are installed within the workstation, they are all assigned the same MAC address. Sometimes people hook both adapters to the same ethernet network. This means that every incoming packet is received by both adapters, so every request is seen multiple times, and responded to multiple times. The symptoms are that on UDP based protocols, every request sent to the multi-homed Sun computer gets multiple responses back. Key point: Misconfigured multi-homed hosts are common enough that it makes distinguishing their anomalies vs. hacker anomalies difficult. 
Multi-Point Control Unit (MCU)
Computerized switching system which allows point-to-multipoint videoconferencing. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
An Internet standard that specifies how tools, such as electronic mail programs and Web browsers, can transfer multimedia files (including sounds, graphics, and video) via the Internet. Prior to the development of MIME, all data transferred via the Internet had to be coded in ASCII texts See uuencode/uudecode. Multiscan monitor See multiscanning monitor. 
Multi-tasking describes a computer's ability to do more than one task at one particular time. An example may be word processing at the same time the computer is plotting a complex graph in the background. 
a type of communication between hosts (or computers) on a network where one computer can communicate with a select group of others. See broadcast and unicast. 
Backup your data to CD-R/CD-RW multiCD provides an easy way to backup a large number of files to multiple CDs. Give multiCD the files/directories you want backed up and it will create as many CDs as it needs to, prompting the user to put in a new disc whenever needed. It can be configured to run in a multi-threading mode, where it will burn one image to a disc while it is copying files to another image. This feature can be disabled for slower machines. 
MULTiplexed Information and Computing Service (OS) 
Offline reader for Blue Wave, QWK, OMEN and SOUP MultiMail is an offline mail packet reader for Unix and other systems. It currently supports the Blue Wave, QWK, OMEN and SOUP formats. It has a full screen, color user interface, built with the curses library. 
Any document which uses multiple forms of communication, such as text, audio, and/or video. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
automatic classification or clustering multimix fits a mixture of multivariate distributions to a set of observations by maximum likelihood using the EM algorithm. The emphasis is less on parameter estimation than on the use of the estimated component distributions to cluster the data. The program is designed to cluster multivariate data with categorical and continuous variables. 
Linux Radio Transmission Decoder The multimon software can decode a variety of digital transmission modes commonly found on UHF radio. A standard PC soundcard is used to acquire the signal from a transceiver. The decoding is done completely in software. Currently, the following modes are supported: AX.25 1200 Baud AFSK 2400 Baud AFSK (2 variants) 4800 Baud HAPN 9600 Baud FSK (G3RUH) POCSAG 512 Baud 1200 Baud 2400 Baud Miscellaneous DTMF ZVEI An arbitrary set of the above modes may run concurrently on the same input signal (provided the CPU power is sufficient), so you do not have to know in advance which mode is used. Note however that some modes might require modifications to the radio (especially the 9600 baud FSK and the POCSAG modes) to work properly. POCSAG (Post Office Code Standards Advisory Group) is a common paging transmission format. 
The ability of an operating system to run more than one program, or task, at a time. A cooperative multitasking OS, like Windows 95/98, requires one application to voluntarily free up resources upon request so another application can use it. A preemptive multitasking OS, such as UNIX/Linux, Windows NT/2000 or OS/2, frees up resources when ordered to by the operating system, on a time-slice basis, or a priority basis, so that one application is unable to hog resources when they are needed by another program. (Also, see Multithreading and Time-sharing.) 
the execution of two or more processes at the same time. 
send multiple inputs to multiple outputs multitee sends all input on file descriptor fdin to each descriptor fdout. This is an improved version written by Dan Bernstein of the multitee program for BSD systems. 
native kernel support for multiple independent threads of control within a single process memory space. 
The ability of an operating system to concurrently run programs that have been divided into subcomponents, or threads. Multithreading, when done correctly, offers better utilization of processors and other system resources. Multithreaded programming requires a multitasking/multithreading operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, Windows NT/2000 or OS/2, capable of running many programs concurrently. A word processor can make good use of multithreading, because it can spell check in the foreground while saving to disk and sending output to the system print spooler in the background. (Also, see Thread.) 
GNOME applet to provide scrolling RDF/RSS news tickers A simple GNOME applet that pulls down news items from sites in RDF/RSS format, parses, then displays them in a scrolling ticker. * Multiple sites are supported * News items are links to web pages launching your GNOME web browser * Colours can be associated with different sites * Several tickers can be displayed at once * Support for web proxies is included 
MULtimedia Office Server (OA, BIS, ESPRIT) 
Massachusetts general hospital Multi-Programming System 
Multi-User Multi-Programming System ??? (OS, DEC) 
Interactive spelling checking 
unpack messages in MIME or split-uuencode format 
Multi Processing Algebra Data [tool] (Uni Paderborn, Germany, CAS), "MuPAD" 
another HotPlug Agent Murasaki automatically loads and unloads modules for USB, Cardbus, network, etc using Linux 2.4's new "HotPlug" feature. Now kernel supports USB, Cardbus, Network and IEEE1394. 
MURIX is a distribution based on LinuxFromScratch for building bootable CD-ROMs. Since you build it from source, MURIX should function on almost any hardware. Version 20020205, the initial release, became available on February 24, 2002. Version 1.1 was released November 24, 2002. Version 2003-04-22 was released April 22, 2003. 
A Qt-based midi/audio sequencer MusE is a MIDI/audio sequencer with recording and editing capabilities. Some Highlights: - standard midifile (smf) import-/export - organizes songs in tracks and parts which you can arrange with the part editor - midi editors: pianoroll, drum, list, controller - score editor with high quality postscript printer output - realtime: editing while playing - unlimited number of open editors - unlimited undo/redo - realtime and step-recording - multiple midi devices - unlimited number of tracks - Sync to external devices: MTC/MMC, Midi Clock, Master/Slave (currently only partially implemented) - audio tracks, LADSPA host for master effects - multithreaded - uses raw midi devices (ALSA, OSS & serial ports) - XML project file - project file contains complete app state (session data) - Application spanning Cut/Paste Drag/Drop 
MUSE (Multi-User Simulated Environment)
One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence. 
Multi-User Shared Hallucination (MUD) 
A command-line shell for sound-file players A command-line shell for programs like mpg123 and ogg123, music123 plays a variety of sound files using a mpg123/ogg123-like interface. With all the Recommends installed, music123 plays wav, mp3 and ogg files. By simply changing the config file, music123 can play any sound file you have a player for. 
Masking-pattern adapted Universal Subband Integrated Coding And Multiplexing (MPEG, Digital audio) 
a MusiXTeX extension for handling lyrics musixlyr is a set of TeX macros to be used with Taupin MusiXTeX (version T.52 or later) for typesetting vocal music. Its purpose is to compensate two drawbacks of MusiXTeX's lyrics handling: * Typesetting lyrics with the "native" musixtex commands \zcharnote, \zsong etc. tends to be quite inefficient, particularly if the lyrics have to be changed or corrected. The idea underlying musixlyr is to separate lyrics coding from music coding and let TeX weave them together with as little manual interference as possible. As a result you can enter and edit lyrics (nearly) as easily as normal text. * musixtex has no built-in mechanism for centering hyphens between syllables and for handling hyphenation at long melismas. This is implemented in musixlyr following the example of engraved music. Author: Rainer Dunker <> Primary-site: 
Master Upper Tester (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
command line based Gnutella client Mutella supports all the functionality required to participate as a full-featured node in the Gnutella network. "Full-featured" implies support for file search, download and sharing. It is optimized for a high-bandwidth connection, were it sets standards for the server performance and stability, but it can also run on a modest-speed line. 
MultiUser-/multitasking Operating System (GDR, OS) 
Mutt is a text-mode mail user agent. Mutt supports color, threading, arbitrary key remapping, and a lot of customization. You should install mutt if you have used it in the past and you prefer it, or if you are new to mail programs and have not decided which one you are going to use. 
Text-based mailreader supporting MIME, GPG, PGP and threading. Mutt is a sophisticated text-based Mail User Agent. Some highlights: o MIME support (including RFC1522 encoding/decoding of 8-bit message headers). o PGP/MIME support (RFC 2015). o Advanced IMAP client supporting Kerberos authentication (and in some situations SSL encryption). o POP3 support. o Mailbox threading (both strict and non-strict). o Default keybindings are much like ELM. o Keybindings are configurable; Mush and PINE-like ones are provided as examples. o Handles MMDF, MH and Maildir in addition to regular mbox format. o Messages may be (indefinitely) postponed. o Colour support. o Highly configurable through easy but powerful rc file. 
Text-based mailreader supporting MIME, GPG, PGP and threading. This is a version of mutt linked with slang-utf8. It may be buggy. Mutt is a sophisticated text-based Mail User Agent. Some highlights: o MIME support (including RFC1522 encoding/decoding of 8-bit message headers). o PGP/MIME support (RFC 2015). o Advanced IMAP client supporting Kerberos authentication (and in some situations SSL encryption). o POP3 support. o Mailbox threading (both strict and non-strict). o Default keybindings are much like ELM. o Keybindings are configurable; Mush and PINE-like ones are provided as examples. o Handles MMDF, MH and Maildir in addition to regular mbox format. o Messages may be (indefinitely) postponed. o Colour support. o Highly configurable through easy but powerful rc file. 
Pretty printing of mails with Mutt Muttprint formats the printing of Mutt and other mail clients like XFMail or PINE to be as pretty as the printing of Netscape Messenger or Kmail. It can print a little penguin (or the Debian logo) on the first page and a headline on every page. Furthermore, it only prints the most important headers, but not the whole plethora of them. Finally, it can even print two pages on one page in landscape format. 
Lock mail spool files. 
move (rename) files 
moves or renames files or directories. 
Multi Vendor Architecture 
Multidomain Vertical Alignment [technology] (LCD, Fujitsu) 
Model View Controller (Smalltalk, GUI) 
Motion Video Instructions (DEC, CPU, Alpha) 
Multi-Vendor Interacting Forum (org., IN) 
Most Valuable Professional [bonus program] (MS) 
Magnalink Variable Resource Compression Algorithm (PPP, RFC 1975) 
Multiple Virtual Storage (IBM, OS, OS/MVS) 
Multiple Virtual System (OS) 
Multiple Virtual Storage/Extended System Architecture (IBM), "MVS/ESA" 
Multiple Virtual Storage/Extended System Architecture System Product (IBM), "MVS/ESA SP" 
Multiple Virtual Storage/System Product, "MVS/SP" 
Multiple Virtual Storage/Time Sharing Option (IBM), "MVS/TSO" 
Multiple Virtual Storage/eXtended Architecture, "MVS/XA" 
Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks (IBM, OS/MVT, OS) 
Mwave/ACP modem support The mwavem program implements a Hayes-compatible V.90 modem in the 3780i Mwave/ACP DSP chip which is built in to certain IBM ThinkPad laptop computers, including the ThinkPad 600, 600E and 770 models. A driver for the mwave device is required. Source code for the driver, built as a module called 'mwave.o', is included in the latest 2.4 kernel sources. To build the module, set "ACP/Mwave Modem support" under "Character devices" to "m" at kernel configuration time. Source code is available from IBM which can be used to build a module compatible with earlier kernels. 
Management WorkStation 
Matsushita White Skipping (Fax) 
Mail eXchange (Unix) 
Mail eXchange: a DNS record used to define the host(s) willing to accept mail for a given machine. 
Multimedia eXension Board (SNI) 
Multimedia eXtension Connector 
The Hungarian dictionary for OpenOffice. This is the Hungarian dictionary made by NEMETH Laszlo <> home: 
myspell-en_GB contains spell checking data in English (United Kingdom) to be used by or MySpell-capable applications like Mozilla. With this extension, you can compose a document in English and check for the typos easily. 
myspell-en_US contains spell checking data in English (US) to be used by or MySpell-capable applications like Mozilla. With this extension, you can compose a document in English and check for the typos easily. 
myspell-hyph-en contains hyphenation data for English to be used by or MySpell-capable applications like Mozilla. 
MySQL is a fast, stable and true multi-user, multi-threaded SQL (Structured Query Language) database server. SQL is the most popular database query language in the world. This package includes files needed by all versions of the client library. 
Mark Zbikowski (MS-DOS, MCB) 
Multicast-scope Zone Announcement Protocol (RFC 2776, Multicast) 
change protection mode and eject disk on Zip/Jaz drive TQ 
Netware Asynchronous Board (Novell, Netware) 
Network Administration Center 
Networks and Communications 
Null Attached Concentrator (FDDI) 
North American Conference on Logic Programming (USA) 
Networks And Communications Marketing 
National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors (org., USA) 
Netware Asynchronous Communication Server (Novell, Netware) 
Network Access Control System (Netware, DES, cryptography) 
National Academic Center for Science Information Systems (org., USA) 
Neural Adaptive Control Technology [project] (NN) 
Network Access Device 
National Archeological DataBase (DB, USA) 
Novell Authorized Education Center (Novell, Netware) 
National Algorithms Group [ltd] (UK, org.), "NAg" 
Network Architecture Group (org.) 
/nag'weir/ n. [Usenet] The variety of shareware that displays a large screen at the beginning or end reminding you to register, typically requiring some sort of keystroke to continue so that you can't use the software in batch mode. Compare annoyware, crippleware. 
Netzwerk Arbeitswelt Informatik (manufacturer) 
BSD mail(1) supporting MIME, SMTP and international charsets Workalike of the classical mail(1). Nail can produce and read MIME messages and has greatly improved character-set handling, including support for UTF-8. Without a mail-transport-agent you won't be able to receive mail, though sending works perfectly well (look for the 'smtp' variable in nail(1)). 
Netware Application Launcher (Novell, Netware, NAM) 
Nevada Academic Libraries Information System 
Netware Application Manager (Novell, Netware, NAL) 
Full text search engine (namazu binary and cgi) Namazu is a full text search engine with is usable via cgi. It features a simple and easy setup, and is written in C and Perl. Namazu uses the text utilities nkf and kakasi (or chasen, which is not available in Debian). This package includes binary only for search index. To create indexes, please install namazu2-index-tools package. 
These tools will provide you with the IP addresses for given host names,as well as other information about registered domains and network addresses. You should install bind-utils if you need to get information from DNS nameservers. 
name server
A system that uses domain name system (DNS) to translate an assigned name into its associated IP address, and vice versa. 
Internet domain name server 
named configuration file syntax checking tool 
zone file validity checking tool 
follow a pathname until a terminal point is found 
name network interfaces based on MAC addresses 
National Association of Multimedia Shareware (org., USA) 
GNU Nana -- improved support for assertions and logging GNU Nana is a freely available library providing improved support for assertions and logging in GNU C/C++. In particular: * Space/time efficient assertion checking * Space/time efficient program logging * Code-to-HTML converter giving only details of your interface and pre/postconditions (similar to Eiffel short form). * Statement and function-level tracing under GDB. * Logging via inline C code (as in <assert.h>) or by extraction of commands for gdb which results in no performance cost unless running in the debugger. It was written by the author because he has written too many of these systems in the past for individual projects and has finally gotten tired of it. 
free Pico clone with some new features GNU nano is a free replacement for Pico, the default Pine editor. Pine is copyrighted under a slightly restrictive license, that makes it unsuitable for Debian's main section. GNU nano is an effort to provide a Pico-like editor, but also includes some features that were missing in the original, such as 'search and replace', 'goto line' or internationalization support. As it's written from scratch, it's smaller and faster. 
Acronym for Network Access Point, the major internet providers usually have peering points at one or more NAPs. 
Napster console client Napster console client. The advantage of nap over other graphical clients like gnome-napster is that you can run it under screen(1) on a remote host and disconnect from your session while nap continues the downloads. You can later reconnect to your running client even from another host and do more commands. 
Network Access Point (IN) 
North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax (BBS) 
Non-Broadcast Multiple Access Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 1735) 
Netware Access Services (Novell, Netware) 
Network Application Services (DEC) 
Network Application Support 
Network Attached Storage 
The Network Audio System (NAS). (local server) The Network Audio System was developed by NCD for playing, recording, and manipulating audio data over a network. Like the X Window System, it uses the client/server model to separate applications from the specific drivers that control audio input and output devices. This package contains the nas daemon (au), needed for local output from nas. 
An Algol-60 interpreter Algol-60 is the ancestor to most contemporary programming languages. It has been described by one of its designers, Edsger Dijkstra, as "a great improvement on many of its successors". The main attraction of this language is its historical importance. The present package contains a simple interpreted reimplementation of the Algol 60 language, "made for fun and call-by-name". 
Netware Asynchronous Service Interface (Novell, Netware) 
General-purpose x86 assembler Netwide Assembler. NASM will currently output flat-form binary files, a.out, COFF and ELF Unix object files, and Microsoft 16-bit DOS and Win32 object files. Also included is NDISASM, a prototype x86 binary-file disassembler which uses the same instruction table as NASM. NASM is released under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). 
NASM is the Netwide Assembler, a free portable assembler for the Intel 80x86 microprocessor series, using primarily the traditional Intel instruction mnemonics and syntax. 
Tools for the operating-system independent RDOFF binary format, whichis sometimes used with the Netwide Assembler (NASM). These tools include linker, library manager, loader, and information dump. 
[IP] Network Address Translator (RFC 1631, IP) 
NAT (Network Address Translation)
NAT is a way of providing access to the Internet through a single machine that translates the IP addresses. The NAT itself has one or more IP addresses, but all the machines behind the NAT have "private" Internet addresses. Contrast: A NAT provides some firewalling capabilities because isolates the end-nodes while still providing access to the Internet. The isolation is better than packet-filter firewalls, but not as good as proxies. 
native file format
The default file format a program uses to store data on disk. The format is often a proprietary file format. Many popular programs today can retrieve and save data in several formats. See ASCII. Computer scientists are working to improve computers so that they can respond to natural language. Human languages are so complex that no single model of a natural language grammar system has gashed widespread acceptance among linguists. The complexity OF human languages, coupled with the lack of under standing about what information is needed to decode human sentences, makes it difficult to devise programs that recognize speech. Progress in solving these problems has been slow. 
National Association of Telecommunications Officers & Advisors (org., USA) 
Network Addressable Unit (IBM, SNA, OSI) 
Network Attachment Unit (GigaB, IP-router) 
Nearest Active Upstream Neighbour (MAC) 
file manager and graphical shell Nautilus is an open-source file manager and graphical shell being developed by Eazel, Inc. and others. It is part of the GNOME project, and its source code can be found in the GNOME CVS repository. Nautilus is still in the early stages of development. It will become an integral part of the GNOME desktop environment when it is finished. Nautilus has the own BTS at If you find the upstream problem (not packaging problem!!), please use it instead of Debian BTS. 
Nautilus integrates access to files, applications, media, Internet-based resources and the Web. Nautilus delivers a dynamic and rich user experience. Nautilus is a free software project developed under the GNU General Public License and is a core component of the GNOME desktop project. 
Nautilus is an excellent file manager for the GNOME desktop environment. 
NAVy NETwork (mil., USA, network) 
pattern scanning and text processing language 
Non-windowmanager with windowmanager functionality nawm is not a window manager. It has a powerful configuration language for using windowmanager-like functionality. Because it is not a windowmanager, nawm can be run along side you existing windowmanager. Great for making up for missing functionality without having to change to a whole new windowmanager. 
Nota bene (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Natural Binary Coded Decimal 
Network Block Device client This package contains the client process for the Network Block Device. The Network Block Device is a client/server protocol that emulates a block device (like a hard disk, a floppy, a CD-ROM, ...) over the network, thus giving the system the ability to swap over the network, or to use raw network diskspace for other purposes. Note, however, that it is not possible to access a single networked block device from different clients simultaneously; if you want that, you don't need the Network Block Device (which, basically, is a Disk Server protocol) but something else, like Sun's Network File System (NFS), or CODA. 
NetBIOS Datagram Distribution [server] (NETBIOS) 
New BF Compiler The New BrainF*** compiler can compile code from the BF language into C, and from there into native machine code. 
NETBIOS Frames Control Program (NETBIOS) 
[PPP] NETBIOS Frames Control Protocol (PPP, NETBIOS, RFC 2097) 
Narrow Band Frequency Modulation 
Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (UNI, ATM) 
NetBIOS Name Server (NETBIOS) 
Name Binding Protocol (AppleTalk) 
If you have an unused 100 or 250 MB ZIP-drive around, give it a new goal. Use it to run Linux. No hard disk or ramdisk required. A Zip disk-based distribution. 
Narrow Band Socket (Intel, Nokia) 
National Bureau of Standards (org., predecessor, NIST) 
A program for scanning networks for NetBIOS name information. NBTscan is a program for scanning IP networks for NetBIOS name information. It sends NetBIOS status query to each address in supplied range and lists received information in human readable form. For each responded host it lists IP address, NetBIOS computer name, logged-in user name and MAC address (such as Ethernet). 
Client program for NEdit text editor 
Network Channel / Connect / Control 
Network Co-ordinator (FidoNet) 
Network Computer [reference profile] (Apple, IBM, Netscape, Oracle, Sun, Internet) 
Norton Commander (Symantec) 
Numerical Control 
TCP/IP swiss army knife 
Network Communications Adapter 
Network Computing Architecture (Oracle) 
Network Control Analysis 
Novell Certification Alliance (Novell, Netware) 
National Center for Automated Information Research (org., USA) 
displays a calendar and the date of easter 
National Center for Accessible Media (org., USA) 
Network Control Block (LAN) 
Network Control / Coordination Center 
Network Control Computer 
Network Communications Control Facility (IBM) 
NASA Center for Computational Sciences (org., NASA) 
Network Computing Devices (manufacturer) 
Norton Change Directory (DOS) 
Display directory tree NcdT displays directory tree, much like standard tree(1), but with few improvements: - it prints summary info instead of directory special file size - it prints MP3 file info It's particularly useful for indexing CDs. 
Nomadic Computing Environment (Tadpole) 
A user-friendly and well-featured FTP client. This program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site, and offers additional features that are not found in the standard interface, ftp. This version has Readline support enabled. This is a complete re-write of version 2.4.3 (Debian package ncftp2). Some users may prefer the full-screen ncurses interface of the "older" NcFTP 2.4.3; if you are one of them, install the ncftp2 package instead. Home Page: 
Ncftp is an improved FTP client. Ncftp's improvements include support for command line editing, command histories, recursive gets, automatic anonymous logins, and more. 
National Computer Graphics Association (org., USA) 
National Consortium for High Performance Computing (org., HPC, USA) 
Network Channel Interface 
Non Coded Information 
Native Client Interface Architecture (IOS) 
Novell Certified Internet Professional (Novell, WWW, CNA) 
National Committee for Information Technology Standards (org., USA) 
Null Convention Logic (CPU) 
N-channel [Silicon Gate Reversed] CMOS 
Nixdorf Communications Network 
netCDF Operators NCO is a suite of programs known as operators. Each operator is a standalone, command line program that is executed at the UNIX shell-level. The operators take one or more netCDF files as input, perform an operation (e.g., averaging or hyperslabbing), and produce a netCDF file as output. The operators are primarily designed to aid manipulation and analysis of data. This reflects their origin, but the operators are as general as netCDF itself. 
National Coordination Office for High Performance Computing and Communications (org., USA, HPC), "NCO/HPCC" 
Network Computer Operating System (OS, Oracle, Internet) 
Non-Concurrent Operating System (OS, UNIVAC 9200, UNIVAC 9300) 
Netware Core Protocol (Novell, IPX) 
Network Control Processor 
Network Control Program (BBN, ARPANET) 
Network Control Program / Point (IBM) 
Non-Carbon Paper 
Not Copy-Protected 
Netware Core Protocol Extension (NCP, Netware, IPX) 
Utilities to use resources from NetWare servers. This package contains utilities to mount volumes from NetWare servers. Also included are some little utilities such as nprint, which enables you to print on NetWare print queues, and pserver, which provides NetWare print queues. Package ncpfs-2.0.12 and above replaces package ncpfsx. This package will work with 2.0.x, 2.1.x, 2.2.x, 2.3.x and 2.4.x kernels. Also, NetWare Directory Services are supported in ncpfs-2.0.12 and above. 
National Council on Patient Information and Education (org., USA) 
A process-killer for console ncps is a ncurses based process-lister and -killer for console inspired by gPS. It can sort processes according to various criteria and can also display them in tree view. It is much more powerful than gitps of the GNU Interactive Tools. 
National Cash Registers (manufacturer, AT&T) 
National Communications System (USA) 
Network Computing System (HP, Apollo) 
Network Control System 
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (org., USA) 
NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications)
A supercomputer research center, affiliated with the University of Illinois at Urbana-champaign that specializes in scientific visualization. NCSA most recently achieved fame as the birthplace of NCSA Mosaic, the popular Web browser. 
National Computer Security Center (org., USA) 
North Carolina Supercomputing Center (org., USA) 
Network Communications Service Interface (NMP) 
National Computer Systems Laboratory (NIST, org., USA) 
National Conference of Standards Laboratories (org., USA) 
Network Computing System Network Data Representation (HP, Apollo), "NCS NDR" 
Non Commentary Sources Statements (LOC) 
Number Crunching Statistical System 
Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library (WWW) 
Network Control and Timing 
Network Channel-Terminating Equipment 
National Computer and Telecommunications Laboratory (org., USA) 
The curses library routines are a terminal-independent method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization. The ncurses (new curses) library is a freely distributable replacement for the discontinued 4.4BSD classic curses library. 
Tiny little command line WebDAV interface nd provides a simple command line interface to the RFC 2518 (WebDAV) server. 
Network Delivery Access 
Non-Disclosure Agreement 
Norddeutsche DatenAutobahn (network) 
Network DataBase Management System (DB) 
Non-standard DataBase System (DB) 
National Destination Code (MS-ISDN, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Network Data Collection 
Node Data Controller (Zenith) 
Network Data Collection Center 
Norton Disk Doctor [software] 
Neutral Data Definition Language (DDL) 
NeWS Development Environment 
Network Distributed ISDN [for windows NT] (AVM, ISDN, Windows NT) 
Compares two nmap scans NDiff is a tool that can take the output from two nmap scans and give you the difference between them. The difference can be new or removed hosts and services. 
Network Driver Interface Specification (3COM, MS) 
Network Database Language (DB, 4GL) 
Normal Disconnected Mode (IRDA, IRLAP, NRM) 
Network Data Management Protocol 
Netware Distributed Management Services (Novell, Netware) 
Numeric Data Processor 
Network Problem Determination Application 
Network Data Representation (NCS, DCE) 
Network Data Representation service (DCE/RPC) 
Non-Destructive Read 
Non-Destructive ReadOut 
Netware Directory Services (Novell, Netware) 
Network Data System 
Net Data Throughput 
Newfoundland Daylight Time (TZ, NFT) 
Non-Destructive Testing 
server for accessing CD-ROM books with NDTP NDTPD is a server for accessing CD-ROM books with NDTP (Network Dictionary Transfer Protocol) on TCP. You can replace dserver with NDTPD. NDTPD can run on UNIX derived systems. It supports CD-ROM books of EB, EBG, EBXA, EBXA-C, S-EBXA and EPWING formats. CD-ROM books of those formats are popular in Japan. Since CD-ROM books themselves are stands on the ISO 9660 format, you can mount the discs by the same way as other ISO 9660 discs. 
Network Device Utility 
Network Element 
Nice Editor, an easy-to-use and powerful editor NE is one of the few editors being both easy to use for the beginner and powerful enough for the wizard. It uses short, intuitive and easy to remember key bindings while providing all the features an editor should have. It is fully configurable allowing the user to change the content of the various menus, to easily create small macros and to easily change the existing key bindings while being a small and fast editor. It was written by Sebastiano Vigna and Todd Lewis. 
??? [protocol stack on OSI transport layer] 
National Electronic Accounting and Reporting 
New England Academic and Research NETwork (USA, network), "NEARnet" 
New Enhanced Advanced Technology (AT) 
Novell Easy Administration Tool (Novell, Netware) 
National Electrical Code (USA) 
NEC2 Antenna Modelling System The NEC2 (Numerical Electromagnetics Code) is software for modelling antennas using the Method of Moments. It was developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, and remains widely used, despite the old fashioned punched card style input required. This version contains code which hasn't been extensively tested for errors, which was input by hand from a report -- use with care. The numerics are currently only SINGLE PRECISION. User's documentation is provided in HTML format (based on OCR text so beware of potential errors. 
Nippon Electronic Corporation (manufacturer) 
NASA Extragalactic Database (DB) 
A powerful, customizable, Motif based text editor. NEdit is a multi-purpose text editor for the X Window System, which combines a standard, easy to use, graphical user interface with the thorough functionality and stability required by users who edit text eight hours a day. It provides intensive support for development in a wide variety of languages, text processors, and other tools, but at the same time can be used productively by just about anyone who needs to edit text. Users of Macintosh and MS Windows based text editors will find NEdit a familiar and comfortable environment. 
Text Editor 
Client program for NEdit text editor 
New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization (org., Japan) 
Network Extensible File System, "NeFS" 
National Engineering Information Initiative (org., USA) 
Nothing Else Matters (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
TCP/IP Packet Injection Suite The Nemesis Project is designed to be a commandline-based, portable human IP stack for UNIX/Linux. The suite is broken down by protocol and should allow for useful scripting of injected packet streams from simple shell scripts. Key features: * support for ARP, DNS, ICMP, IGMP, OSPF, RIP, TCP, UDP protocols * layer 2 or layer 3 injection * packet payload from file 
NeoLinux - Neoware's embedded Linux for information appliances. 
Never-Ending Program 
format equations for ascii output 
NEbraska Research and Education Network (USA, network) 
News Electronic Service 
NEurocomputer fuer Spikende Neuronale Netze (TUB) 
Remote network security auditor, the client The Nessus Security Scanner is a security auditing tool. It makes possible to test security modules in an attempt to find vulnerable spots that should be fixed. It is made up of two parts: a server, and a client. The server/daemon, nessusd, is in charge of the attacks, whereas the client, nessus, provides the user a nice X11/GTK+ interface. This package contains the GTK+ 1.2 client, which exists in other forms and on other platforms, too. 
Remote network security auditor, the server The Nessus Security Scanner is a security auditing tool. It makes possible to test security modules in an attempt to find vulnerable spots that should be fixed. It is made up of two parts: a server, and a client. The server/daemon, nessusd, is in charge of the attacks, whereas the client, nessus, provides the user a nice X11/GTK+ interface. This package contains the nessusd server, which must be run as root. 
Netware Embedded Systems Technology (Novell, Netware) 
Nintendo Entertainment System emulator Nestra is a dynamic recompiler which translates 6502 code into native code to emulate a Nintendo Entertainment System. Execution of the translated code is quite fast, and the emulator can run at full speed with relatively modest CPU requirements. To use this program, you need NES ROMs which are not included. 
Network Entity Title 
Net surfer
Someone who browses the Internet with no definite destination. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Usermode IP accounting daemon This package logs network traffic. It provides a daemon (nacctd) that logs all traffic passing the machine it runs on (similar to what tcpdump does). Capability is provided to associate traffic to slip/ppp users in case you run a slip/ppp server. 
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a protocol used fornetwork management. The NET-SNMP project includes various SNMP tools: an extensible agent, an SNMP library, tools for requesting or setting information from SNMP agents, tools for generating and handling SNMP traps, a version of the netstat command which uses SNMP, and a Tk/Perlmib browser. This package contains the snmpd and snmp trapd daemons,documentation, etc. You will probably also want to install the net-snmp-utils package, which contains NET-SNMP utilities. 
The net-snmp-utils package contains various utilities for use with the NET-SNMP network management project. Install this package if you need utilities for managing your network using the SNMP protocol. You will also need to install the net-snmp package. 
The NET-3 networking toolkit This package includes the important tools for controlling the network subsystem of the Linux kernel. This includes arp, ifconfig, netstat, rarp, nameif and route. Additionally, this package contains utilities relating to particular network hardware types (plipconfig, slattach) and advanced aspects of IP configuration (iptunnel, ipmaddr). In the upstream package 'hostname' and friends are included. Those are not installed by this package, since there is a special "hostname*.deb". 
AppleTalk user binaries Netatalk is an implementation of the AppleTalk Protocol Suite for BSD-derived systems. The current release contains support for EtherTalk Phase I and II, DDP, RTMP, NBP, ZIP, AEP, ATP, PAP, ASP, and AFP. This package contains all daemon and utility programs as well as Netatalk's static libraries. 
Basic TCP/IP networking system This package provides the necessary infrastructure for basic TCP/IP based networking. 
NetBios Enhanced User Interface: an enhanced version of the NetBIOS protocol used by network operating systems such as LAN Manager, LAN Server, Windows 9x and 2000. 
NETBIOS Extended User Interface (UI) 
In Windows, NetBIOS is a way for writing network-aware applications, much like sockets is for UNIX. Misunderstanding: Like sockets, many different protocols can be used to transport applications written to the NetBIOS API. When you say "NetBIOS", some people will understand you to mean the TCP/IP transport. Other people will think of "NetBEUI", which is the transport over raw Ethernet without any intervening routable network protocol. Use the term "NBT" (NetBIOS-over-TCP) or "NetBEUI" to avoid confusion. Contrast: Microsoft's "File and Print Sharing" uses the SMB protocol over NetBIOS. Microsoft supports the NetBIOS interface over TCP/IP, NetBEUI, and Novell's IPX/SPX. Home users who share files among their own machines mistakenly enable File and Print Sharing using the TCP/IP transport, allowing hackers anywhere on the Internet access to their machine. Instead, they should configure it over the NetBEUI transport so that nobody outside their network can access their files (note: this still might open up their networks to people on the same cable-modem VLAN). History: Originally developed by SyTek for IBM. It was implemented in the ROM of IBM'ss broadband Ethernet (3-mbps, over cable TV coax rather than normal Ethernet coax, separate send/receive channels). More: If you maintain a firewall, you will see regular NetBIOS requests in your logs. Read the document for more info. 
NETwork Basic Input Output System (IBM, RFC 1001/1002), "NetBIOS" 
NETwork BLock Transfer (IP) 
Booting of a diskless computer This package allows booting of a diskless computer over a network and mounting the root filesystem via NFS. It contains the necessary boot ROM code and utility program to convert a Linux kernel or MS-DOS disk into a net bootable image. For more information: 
A popular tool for command-line manipulation of ports, especially text-based protocols. Often used as a replacement for Telnet. Key Point: Variants of netcat are a popular way of redirecting shell prompts and other protocols. In the past, this was always done in the clear. Today, there are variants such as aes-netcat or crytcat.exe that will encrypt the channel. 
TCP/IP swiss army knife A simple Unix utility which reads and writes data across network connections using TCP or UDP protocol. It is designed to be a reliable "back-end" tool that can be used directly or easily driven by other programs and scripts. At the same time it is a feature-rich network debugging and exploration tool, since it can create almost any kind of connection you would need and has several interesting built-in capabilities. 
NETwork Common Data Format, "NetCDF" 
An interface for scientific data access. NetCDF (network Common Data Form) is an interface for scientific data access and a freely-distributed software library that provides an implementation of the interface. The netCDF library also defines a machine-independent format for representing scientific data. Together, the interface, library, and format support the creation, access, and sharing of scientific data. 
A text-based tool for simple configuration of ethernet devices. 
NETwork Design and Analysis 
Net-Diagnostics (trafshow,strobe,netwatch,statnet,tcpspray,tcpblast) Netdiag contains a collection of small tools to analyze network traffic and configuration of remote hosts (strobe). It is of invaluable help if your system is showing strange network behaviour and you want to find out what your network is doing. 
NETwork DUmp data Displayer and Editor for tcpdump trace files It is a GUI-based tool that allows you to make detailed changes to packets in tcpdump trace files, in particular, it can currently do the following: * Set the value of every field in IP, TCP and UDP packet headers. ICMP support will be finished shortly. * Copy, move and delete packets in the trace file. * Fragment and reassemble IP packets. * Netdude constantly communicates with a tcpdump process to update the familiar tcpdump output that corresponds to the trace. This also means that any changes made to your local version of tcpdump are reflected in Netdude. * Plugin architecture: people can easily add plugins for specific tasks. The code comes with a plugin for checksum correction in IP, TCP and UDP, and a dummy plugin. * Through the plugin mechanism, Netdude provides a good facility for writing tcpdump trace file filters. 
Configure your system for different network environments. Netenv creates a file containing variable assignments which reflect the current environment. It is especially useful for notebook computers, since it is used (if configured) by the PCMCIA setup scheme included in the Debian pcmcia-cs package and the plip setup script included as an example in this package. You can also use netenv configure your windowmanager or your printing environment. Note that you either have to specify a kernel parameter or enter the chosen environment by hand during boot time. The boot process will stop until you entered something. 
Overhead dungeon-crawler game (dummy package) Nethack is a wonderfully silly, yet quite addicting, Dungeons and Dragons-style adventure game. You play the part of a fierce fighter, wizard, or any of many other classes, fighting your way down to retrieve the Amulet of Yendor (try saying THAT one backwards!) for your god. On the way, you might encounter a quantum mechanic or two, or perhaps a microscopic space fleet, or -- if you're REALLY lucky -- the Ravenous Bugblatter Beast of Traal. This package is merely a dummy package that depends on nethack-common and nethack-x11 to facilitate upgrades. You may safely remove it from your system. 
The etiquette of using the Internet. To avoid breaching Netiquette, make sure that you investigate any FAQs or new user sections of newsgroups and do not send irrelevent e-mail. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Internet file transfer program 
The Internet Superserver The inetd server is a network daemon program that specializes in managing incoming network connections. It's configuration file tells it what program needs to be run when an incoming connection is received. Any service port may be configured for either of the tcp or udp protcols. 
talk to another user 
The ping utility from netkit The ping command sends ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to a host in order to test if the host is reachable via the network. 
GNOME network LEDs applet NetLeds is a GNOME applet that displays LEDs from a network device. It can display RX, TX, collision and error. 
A 32-bit value, similar to a IP address, that determines how a an IP address is separated into subnet address and host address. 
helps figure out network masks This is a tiny program handy if you work with firewalls or routers or are a network admin of sorts. It can determine the smallest set of network masks to specify a range of hosts. It can also convert between common IP netmask and address formats. 
3-D Multiplayer Combat Game This is a 3-D multiplayer game for X. You can play by yourself, use computerized players ("bots"), or you can use a TCP/IP network and play against other players. Be sure to read the documentation that will be installed in /usr/share/doc/netmaze/README.Debian 
the Network Object agent daemon The Network Objects package provides a simple but powerful facility for remote method invocation in the context of Modula-3. Under Network Objects, all subtypes of the object type NetObj.T are treated specially in that they can be passed to remote address spaces by reference. This remote reference appears at the destination as a surrogate object which is a subtype of the original object type. If the original type has methods, these methods can be remotely invoked through the surrogate. 
NETwork Performing Analysis Reporting System 
Graphics conversion tools. Netpbm is a toolkit for manipulation of graphic images, including conversion of images between a variety of different formats. There are over 220 separate tools in the package including converters for more than 80 graphics formats. 
The netpbm package contains a library of functions that support programs for handling various graphics file formats, including .pbm (portable bitmaps), .pgm (portable graymaps), .pnm (portable anymaps),.ppm (portable pixmaps), and others. 
A network performance tool using LAM MPI NetPIPE is a protocol independent performance tool that encapsulates the best of ttcp and netperf and visually represents the network performance under a variety of conditions. By taking the end-to-end application view of a network, NetPIPE clearly shows the overhead associated with different protocol layers. NetPIPE answers such questions as: how soon will a given data block of size k arrive at its destination? Which network and protocol will transmit size k blocks the fastest? What is a given network's effective maximum throughput and saturation level? Does there exist a block size k for which the throughput is maximized? How much communication overhead is due to the network communication protocol layer(s)? How quickly will a small (< 1 kbyte) control message arrive, and which network and protocol are best for this purpose? This package measures network performance using the MPI protocol, a Message Passing Interface frequently used in parallel processing, and which uses in turn TCP as its underlying transport. The implementation of the MPI standard used by this package is that provided by the lam set of packages. 
A network performance tool using MPICH MPI NetPIPE is a protocol independent performance tool that encapsulates the best of ttcp and netperf and visually represents the network performance under a variety of conditions. By taking the end-to-end application view of a network, NetPIPE clearly shows the overhead associated with different protocol layers. NetPIPE answers such questions as: how soon will a given data block of size k arrive at its destination? Which network and protocol will transmit size k blocks the fastest? What is a given network's effective maximum throughput and saturation level? Does there exist a block size k for which the throughput is maximized? How much communication overhead is due to the network communication protocol layer(s)? How quickly will a small (< 1 kbyte) control message arrive, and which network and protocol are best for this purpose? This package measures network performance using the MPI protocol, a Message Passing Interface frequently used in parallel processing, and which uses in turn TCP as its underlying transport. The implementation of the MPI standard used by this package is that provided by the mpich package. 
A network performance tool using PVM NetPIPE is a protocol independent performance tool that encapsulates the best of ttcp and netperf and visually represents the network performance under a variety of conditions. By taking the end-to-end application view of a network, NetPIPE clearly shows the overhead associated with different protocol layers. NetPIPE answers such questions as: how soon will a given data block of size k arrive at its destination? Which network and protocol will transmit size k blocks the fastest? What is a given network's effective maximum throughput and saturation level? Does there exist a block size k for which the throughput is maximized? How much communication overhead is due to the network communication protocol layer(s)? How quickly will a small (< 1 kbyte) control message arrive, and which network and protocol are best for this purpose? This package measures network performance using the PVM protocol, a Parallel Virtual Machine interface frequently used in parallel processing, and which uses in turn TCP as its underlying transport. PVM support is provided in its own separate pvm package on Debian systems. 
A network performance tool using the TCP protocol NetPIPE is a protocol independent performance tool that encapsulates the best of ttcp and netperf and visually represents the network performance under a variety of conditions. By taking the end-to-end application view of a network, NetPIPE clearly shows the overhead associated with different protocol layers. NetPIPE answers such questions as: how soon will a given data block of size k arrive at its destination? Which network and protocol will transmit size k blocks the fastest? What is a given network's effective maximum throughput and saturation level? Does there exist a block size k for which the throughput is maximized? How much communication overhead is due to the network communication protocol layer(s)? How quickly will a small (< 1 kbyte) control message arrive, and which network and protocol are best for this purpose? This package uses a raw TCP protocol to measure network performance. 
Network server for `plan' Plan is a schedule planner based on X/Motif. Netplan adds to plan multiuser capability using an IP server. WARNING: the best level of authentication offered by netplan in this version is identd. That's quite weak, so watch the manpage and tune the config carefully. 
A free, networked version of T*tris Netris is a free, networked variant of Tetris. One-player mode is a tad boring at the moment, because it never gets any faster, and there's no scoring. This will be rectified at some point. Two players can play against each other. If you fill two or three lines with one piece, your opponent gets respectively one or two unfilled lines at the bottom of his screen. If you fill four lines with one piece, your opponent will get four unfilled lines. This version at least partially supports robots. You can find the protocol description in the documentation, and a sample robot in the examples. 
A host/service/network monitoring and management system. NetSaint is a host/service/network monitoring and management system. It has the following features: o Monitoring of network services (via TCP port, SMTP, POP3, HTTP, NNTP, PING, etc.) o Plugin interface to allow for user-developed service checks o Contact notifications when problems occur and get resolved (via email, pager, or user-defined method) o Ability to define event handlers to be run during service or host events (for proactive problem resolution) o Web output (current status, notifications, problem history, log file, etc.) NetSaint was written in C and is designed to be easy to understand and modify to fit your own needs. 
A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). 
Popular World-Wide-Web browser software (base support) Netscape (pronounced "Mozilla") is a graphical World-Wide-Web browser with many features. It supports advanced features of HTML and new technologies such as "Java" from Sun Microsystems. You will need the "ImageMagick" package installed if you wish to get in-line support of image types not directly supported by netscape. 
A commercial GUI World-Wide-Web browser for X-Windows, MS-Windows and Macintosh, available from Netscape Communications. 
The network packet altering stream editor NetSED is small and handful utility designed to alter the contents of packets forwarded thru your network in real time. It is really useful for network hackers in following applications: * black-box protocol auditing - whenever there are two or more proprietary boxes communicating over undocumented protocol (by enforcing changes in ongoing transmissions, you will be able to test if tested application is secure), * fuzz-alike experiments, integrity tests - whenever you want to test stability of the application and see how it ensures data integrity, * other common applications - fooling other people, content filtering, etc etc - choose whatever you want to. It perfectly fits ngrep, netcat and tcpdump tools suite. 
Choose the fastest server automatically. This is netselect, an ultrafast intelligent parallelizing binary-search implementation of "ping." You give it a (possibly very long) list of servers, and it chooses the fastest/closest one automatically. It's good for finding the fastest mirror, the least laggy IRC server, or the best Squid neighbour. This version also includes netselect-apt, which creates an apt sources.list file automatically from the huge list of Debian mirrors. 
Netserva Dlite
Netserva Dlite is a small 20mb downloadable Debian based distribution that comes with a basic set of pre-configured ISP-related services such as virtual web hosting, email and RADIUS. All client authentication is via MySQL so normal user shell accounts are not required. The system, in theory, could scale to supporting millions of users. The latest update was on February 2, 2002. 
Slang console based client for the NetSpades spades game. This is a console/slang based client for Netspades, you will require a client To be able to play netspades. 
National Electronic Telecommunication Surveillance System (USA) 
Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships 
Netstation Linux
NetStation is a Linux distribution for diskless thin client terminals using standard x86 hardware. It can boot from network using Etherboot and connect to an application server using VNC, RDP, X11 or SSH. The initial release, NetStation 0.1 (alpha), is dated August 28, 2001. Development version 0.8.2 was released June 6, 2002. 
Networked version of Tic Tac Toe for the console NetToe is a console-based version of the classic game "Tic Tac Toe". It's playable against computer AI, a player on the same machine or with another player over the network. 
Netule has created three new Linux distributions, which are now available for download. The EM-I or Email Module I is a full featured Email Server based on Sendmail; the WM-I or Web Module I is a vastly simplified Web Server based on Apache; and the FM-I or Firewall Module I is released in partnership with Astaro Security Linux. Netule products are a combination of open and closed source and are available bundled with hardware. 
A group of computers that are connected in some fashion. Most school networks are known as LANs, or Local Area Networks, because they are networks linking computers in one small area. The Internet could be referred to as a WAN, or a Wide Area Network, because it connects computers in more than one local area. It is also a series of points connected by physical or virtual connects. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
A group of interconnected computers and their connecting cables and hardware. 
Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet. 
network address translation (NAT)
Networking method in which internal network hosts, which use private IP addresses access public (Internet) hosts through a gateway that tags packets for routing. 
network card
See network interface card (NIC). 
network file system (NFS)
A protocol used to access files over a network regardless of machine, operating system, or architecture. 
network information service (NIS)
Client-server protocol that tracks, manages, and authenticates users and host names on a network. 
network interface card
An adapter that lets you connect a network cable to a microcomputer. The card includes encoding and decoding circuitry and a receptacle for a network cable connection. Because data is transmitted more rapidly within the computer's internal bus, a network interface card allows the network to operate at higher speeds than it would if delayed by the serial port. Networks such as Ethernet and ARCnet that use interface cards can transmit information much faster than networks such as AppleTalk which uses serial ports. 
network interface card (NIC)
A hardware component that initiates and manages network connections. 
network operations centre (NOC)
An administrative and technical coordination office that is responsible for the day-to-day operation of a local, regional, or national Internet backbone see service. 
network protocol
The method used to regulate a workstation's access to a computer network to prevent data collision. Examples include carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) and token passing. 
Add new CORBA object 
update /etc/aliases database 
/n[y]oo'bee/ n. [very common; orig. from British public-school and military slang variant of `new boy'] A Usenet neophyte. This term surfaced in the newsgroup talk.bizarre but is now in wide use (the combination "clueless newbie" is especially common). Criteria for being considered a newbie vary wildly; a person can be called a newbie in one newsgroup while remaining a respected regular in another. The label `newbie' is sometimes applied as a serious insult to a person who has been around Usenet for a long time but who carefully hides all evidence of having a clue. See B1FF; see also gnubie. 
Documentation by and for newbies This is a snapshot of the documentation currently being developed by The Newbiedoc Project. See for the most recent version, or if you want to join the team. Current release includes: - Introduction to 'apt-get' - DocBook guides and documentation for writing doc for Newbiedoc - Using 'grep' - Installing and configuring hardware - Finding help on a Debian system - Text editors: JOE and vi - Compiling kernels the Debian way - Managing processes - Using runlevels - Configuring exim The documentation will be installed in /usr/share/doc/newbiedoc, and newbiedoc(1) is a script that starts a browser on the newbiedoc collection. 
compare file modification times 
Change group ID 
/n[y]oo'li:n/ n. 1. [techspeak, primarily Unix] The ASCII LF character (0001010), used under Unix as a text line terminator. Though the term `newline' appears in ASCII standards, it never caught on in the general computing world before Unix. 2. More generally, any magic character, character sequence, or operation (like Pascal's writeln procedure) required to terminate a text record or separate lines. See crlf, terpri. 
Netware Early Warning System (Novell, Netware) 
Networked Extensible Windowing System (Sun), "NeWS" 
NEWS file
Contains information about new features and changes for the layman about this package. 
Create HTML with dynamic information from the net NewsClipper is an information integrator. It creates a custom web page from a template HTML file with special tags, replacing those tags with dynamic information acquired from the internet. It was previously known as DailyUpdate. 
Get news with the newnews command from a server The Newsflash program retrieves news articles via NNTP from one server and delivers them to another. It requires at least read-only permissions on the remote server, and needs to have peer permissions on the local server. It works well with INN, but should also work with any other RFC977 compliant news software. Newsflash's highly parallel design is optimized for throughput, which makes quite a difference to INN's nntpget and the like. 
A newsgroup is a notice board that everyone in the world can see. There are tens of thousands of newsgroups and each group is unique in the world. The client software you use to read a newsgroup is called a news reader (or news client). rtin is a popular text mode reader, while netscape is graphical. pan is an excellent graphical news reader that I use. Newsgroups are named like Internet hosts. One you might be interested in is comp.os.linux.announce. The comp is the broadest subject description for computers; os stands for operating systems; and so on. Many other linux newsgroups are devoted to various LINUX issues. Newsgroups servers are big hungry beasts. They form a tree-like structure on the Internet. When you send mail to a newsgroup it takes about a day or so for the mail you sent to propagate to every other server in the world. Likewise, you can see a list of all the messages posted to each newsgroup by anyone anywhere. What's the difference between a newsgroup and a mailing list? The advantage of a newsgroup is that you don't have to download the messages you are not interested in. If you are on a mailing list, you get all the mail sent to the list. With a newsgroup you can look at the message list and retrieve only the messages you are interested in. Why not just put the mailing list on a web page? If you did, then everyone in the world would have to go over international links to get to the web page. It would load the server in proportion to the number of subscribers. This is exactly what SlashDot is. However, your newsgroup server is local, so you retrieve mail over a faster link and save Internet traffic. 
These are the bulletin boards of the Internet. There are around 20,000 groups covering every subject under the sun. Most IAPs have a newsgroup server which periodically takes all new messages from a newsgroup feed and adds the messages which have been posted by its own users. To access the newsgroups stored on your IAPs newsgroup server you need a newsreader program. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Usenet binary autoposter Using newspost, it is a one command job to uuencode and post as many binary files as you like to your favorite newsgroup. It supports all the features you'd expect from a binary autoposter, including authentication, posting to multiple newsgroups (crossposting), and all the rest. And of course you can save your settings as default so you don't have to type in your news server every time. In addition, I added a couple cool things, like posting text prefixes, and autocreating and posting sfv files. 
A program for reading, downloading, and replying to the newsgroup messages you want. See also USENET. 
An NNTP client for posting and fetching news NewsX is an NNTP client for Unix. It will connect to a remote NNTP server and post outgoing articles batched by the news system, as well as fetch incoming articles. It provides the NNTP capabilities required for small local news spools on installations with NNTP access only through limited ISP accounts. It works well via a dialup SLIP/PPP connection. It seems to be faster than using suck over a modem link. 
NeWS Terminal, "NeWT" 
Newt is a programming library for color text mode, widget-based user interfaces. Newt can be used to add stacked windows, entry widgets, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels, plain text fields, scrollbars, etc., to text mode user interfaces. This package also contains the shared library needed by programs built with newt, as well as a/usr/bin/dialog replacement called whiptail. Newt is based on the slang library. 
update and create new users in batch 
text editors 
NEw eXtended Technology, "NeXT" 
Name Field Address (Forth) 
Non-determistic Finite-state Automation 
National Federation of Abstracting and Information Services (org., USA) 
Non Facilities-Associated Signaling (ISDN, PRI) 
Near Field Recording [technology] 
Network Facilities Services 
Network File System (Sun, Unix, RFC 1813) 
NFS is the UNIX equivalent of SMB. It is a way through which different machines can import and export local files between each other. Like SMB though, NFS sends information including user passwords unencrypted, so it's best to limit its usage to within your local network. The Network File System (NFS) was developed to allow machines to mount a disk partition on a remote machine as if it were on a local hard drive. This allows for fast, seamless sharing of files across a network. It also gives the potential for unwanted people to access your hard drive over the network (and thereby possibly read your email and delete all your files as well as break into your system) if you set it up incorrectly. So please read the Security section of this document carefully if you intend to implement an NFS setup. There are other systems that provide similar functionality to NFS. Samba ( provides file services to Windows clients. The Andrew File System from IBM (, recently open-sourced, provides a file sharing mechanism with some additional security and performance features. The Coda File System ( is still in development as of this writing but is designed to work well with disconnected clients. Many of the features of the Andrew and Coda file systems are slated for inclusion in the next version of NFS (Version 4) ( The advantage of NFS today is that it is mature, standard, well understood, and supported robustly across a variety of platforms. From NFS-HOWTO
see network file system (NFS). 
NFS support files common to client and server Use this package on any machine that does NFS either as client or server. Programs included: lockd, statd, showmount, and nfsstat. Upstream: SourceForge project "nfs", CVS module nfs-utils. 
Kernel NFS server support Use this package if you have a fairly recent kernel (2.2.13 or better) and you want to use the kernel-mode NFS server. The user-mode NFS server in the "nfs-server" package is slower but more featureful and easier to debug than the kernel-mode server. Upstream: SourceForge project "nfs", CVS module nfs-utils. 
User space NFS server. This package contains all necessary programs to make your Linux machine act as an NFS server, being an NFS daemon (rpc.nfsd), a mount daemon (rpc.mountd). Unlike other NFS daemons, this NFS server runs entirely in user space. This makes it a tad slower than other NFS implementations, and also introduces some awkwardnesses in the semantics (for instance, moving a file to a different directory will render its file handle invalid). 
The nfs-utils package provides a daemon for the kernel NFS server and related tools, which provides a much higher level of performance than the traditional Linux NFS server used by most users.This package also contains the showmount program. Showmount queries the mount daemon on a remote host for information about the NFS (Network File System) server on the remote host. For example, showmount can display the clients which are mounted on that host. 
The nfs-utils package provides a daemon for the kernel NFS server andrelated tools, which provides a much higher level of performance than thetraditional Linux NFS server used by most users.This package also contains the showmount program. Showmount queries themount daemon on a remote host for information about the NFS (Network FileSystem) server on the remote host. For example, showmount can display theclients which are mounted on that host. 
Allow clients to boot over the network. This package help you to set up your host to allow clients to boot over nfs. This package should be installed on the server so that the clients can connect to it. The package contains no server itself, but recommends all packages that you will need in order to make nfsrooted clients to work. 
Prepares your image for nfs boot. This package sets up your debian image to be booted from a nfs server. There are a couple of things that are needed to do this so that the different hosts do not conflict with each other. 
Netware File Service Protocol (Novell, Netware) 
print NFS statistics 
Network File Transfer (DNA, DEC) 
NewFoundland Time [-0330] (TZ, NDT) 
Ng is Nihongo Mg, MicroGnuEmacs. It is a small lightweight Emacs-like editor. It can handle both Latin and CJK. This package contains documents and a wrapper script. 
New Generation Desktop Design (Mitsubishi) 
auto-resuming command line nntp file grabber nget is a command line NNTP file grabber. It automatically pieces together multipart postings for easy retrieval, even substituting parts from multiple servers. It handles disconnects gracefully, resuming after the last part successfully downloaded. nget also caches header data for quick access. Home Page: 
print out string using translation with singular/plural 
translate message and choose plural form 
Nederlands Genootschap for Informatica (org., Netherlands) 
Next Generation Input / Output (I/O) 
grep for network traffic ngrep strives to provide most of GNU grep's common features, applying them to the network layer. ngrep is a pcap-aware tool that will allow you to specify extended regular expressions to match against data payloads of packets. It currently recognizes TCP, UDP and ICMP across Ethernet, PPP, SLIP and null interfaces, and understands bpf filter logic in the same fashion as more common packet sniffing tools, such as tcpdump and snoop. 
Non-Government Standard (USA) 
The NGS JavaScript interpreter js is an LGPL implementation of JavaScript/ECMAScript for use as a standalone scripting language. It is written from scratch instead of being a child of the Mozilla offering. It is currently under development, and has had nowhere near as much testing as other scripting languages (Perl comes to mind...). Please be forewarned. More information is available at js' homepage, 
Non-Government Standards Body 
NFS benchmark program. Upstream: SourceForge project "nfs", CVS module nfs-utils. 
[NBMA] Next Hop Resolution Protocol (X.25, ATM, NBMA, IETF) 
National HPCC Software Exchange (USA) 
Network Interconnect / Interface 
Normenausschuss Informationsverarbeitungssysteme (org., DIN) 
Network Information Access 
Netware Internet Access Server (Novell, Netware) 
An acronym for Network Interface Card or for Network Information Center, such as the Internic. 
Network Information Center (Internet, org.) 
Network Interface Card / Controller 
Numeric Intensive Computing 
see network interface card (NIC). 
NIC (Network Information Center)
Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet was the InterNIC, which was where most new domain names were registered until that process was decentralized to a number of private companies. Also means "Network Interface card", which is the card in a computer that you plug a network cable into. 
NIC (Network Infromation Center)
A system that contains a repository of Internet-related information, including File Transfer Protocol (FTP) archives of Requests for Comments (RFCs), Internet Drafts, For Your Information (FYI) papers, and other documents, including handbooks on the use of the Internet. There are numerous Network Information Centers, but the official repository of network information is the Defense Data Network NIC (DDN NIC). See InterNIC 
NIC Linux
The New Internet Computer (NIC) project provides an inexpensive computer, starting at $199.99, for homes, schools and other places where cost is an issue. It supports popular plug-ins like Real Player, Java and Macromedia Flash Player, so it's just as Internet-capable. reports that the New Internet Computer Co. is shutting down, June 2, 2003. 
Near-Instantaneously Companded Audio Multiplex (audio) 
NIckel CaDmium [batterie], "NiCd" 
Network Information and Control Exchange (DECNET) 
Unix processes have an associated system nice value which is used by the kernel to determine when it should be scheduled to run. This value can be increased to facilitate processes executing quickly or decreased so that the processes execute slowly and thus do not interfere with other system activities. 
Network Information Center On-Line 
Network Information Center On-Line Aid System 
Diagnostic tools for many non-PCI ethernet cards These are tools to diagnostic problems with your non-PCI ethernet cards. Some card can be set up or EEPROM can be updated. 3c515-diag : Diagnostic program for 3Com 3c515 Ethernet cards 3c5x9setup : Setup program for 3Com EtherLink III Ethernet cards at1700-diag : Diagnostic program for the Allied Telesis AT1700 atlantic-setup: Setup program for AT/LANTIC DP83905 Ethernet cards atp-diag : Diagnostic for Realtek RTL8002/RTL8012 pocket Ethernet adapter eexpress : Diagnostic program for Intel EtherExpress 16 cards el3diag : Diagnostic program for 3c509 and 3c579 Ethernet cards e21-diag : Diagnostic program for Cabletron E2100 Ethernet cards hp+-diag : Diagnostic program for HP PC LAN+ (27247B & 27252A) cards ne2k-diag : Diagnostics and EEPROM setup for NE2000 clones wdsetup : Configuration utility for Western Digital and SMC Ethernet cards This package replaces the old 3c5x9utils and wdsetup packages. 
Diagnostic tools for many PCI ethernet cards These tools can help you to diagnostic problems with your ethernet cards or - in some cases - give those cards the final hint, to work in your network. alta-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the Sundance "Alta" NIC eepro100-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the Intel EEPro100 Ethercards epic-diag : Diagnostics and EEPROM setup for the SMC EPIC-100 myson-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the Myson mtd803 Ethernet chip natsemi-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the NatSemi DP83815 Ethernet chip ne2k-pci-diag : Diagnostics and EEPROM setup for PCI NE2000 clones ns820-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the NatSemi DP83820 Ethernet chip pcnet-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the AMD PCnet/PCI Ethernet chip rtl8139-diag : Diagnostics and EEPROM setup for RealTek RTL8129/8139 chips starfire-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the Adaptec Starfire DuraLAN tulip-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the Digital DC21x4* Ethercards chips via-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the VIA Rhine vt86c100 and vt3043 Ethernet chips vortex-diag : Diagnostics and EEPROM setup for the 3Com Vortex series winbond-diag : Diagnostic and setup for the Winbond w89c840 ethercards yellowfin-diag: Diagnostic and setup for the Packet Engines Yellowfin chips 
Namespace IDentifier (URN) 
NIxdorf Disk Operating System (OS, SNI) 
Network Information Discover and Retrieval 
Network Intrusion Detection eXpert system (BELLCORE, XPS) 
Newton Internet Enabler (Apple, PDA) 
Network Independent File Transfer Program (FTP) 
An improved version of Paradroid - a strategic shoot-em up. You are a droid out to save the universe. To do this, you must do more than simply blasting everything in sight - you have to transfer to better droids in order to conquer more advanced droids, and go through walls to reach parts other droids cannot reach. 
National Institute of Health [c++] Class Library (PD) 
National Information Infrastructure [program] (USA, org.) 
NII (National Information Infrastructure)
The official U.S. government name for the Internet and other computer networks. Commonly known as the Information Superhighway, please see at From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
National Information Infrastructure Testbed (ISH, USA) 
NIckel Metal Hybrid [batterie], "NiMH" 
National Institute for Management Technology (org., Irland) 
Paths Survey reporting program This package installs Olaf Titz's version of inpaths. When configured ninpaths will send montly email reports about articles you received. This program is only useful to news administrators of medium-big sites and should NOT be installed by dialup users. 
[international symposium on] New Information Processing Technologies (conference, MITI) 
Network Information Registry / Retrieval 
Clients and daemons for the Network Information Services (NIS). The nis package allows you to use the NIS services from a NIS server or to set up your own NIS server. NIS is mostly used to let several machines in a network share the same account information (eg the password file). NIS was formerly called Yellow Pages (YP). 
Network Information Service (NSF) 
Network Information Service, a service that provides information, that has to be known throughout the network, to all machines on the network. There is support for NIS in Linux's standard libc library, which in the following text is referred to as "traditional NIS". 
Network Information System (Unix) 
see network information service (NIS). 
NIS+ (Network Information Service Plus)
essentially NIS on steroids. NIS+ is designed by Sun Microsystems Inc. as a replacement for NIS with better security and better handling of large installations. From NIS HOWTO
Network Information and Support Center 
Narrowband Integrated-Services Digital Network (ISDN), "N-ISDN" 
Network Information Services Infrastructure 
National Information Standards Organization (org., USA) 
National Information on Software and Services (USA) 
NISS Public Access Collections (NISS) 
National Institute of Standards and Technology (org., USA) 
Network Information System / Yellow Pages, "NIS/yp" 
National Imagery Transmission Format 
Norway-net with IT for Open Learning (network) 
Simulator for the Microchip PIC16C84 microcontroller Nitpic is a X-based simulator for the Microchip PIC family of microcontrollers. It currently supports only the PIC16C84. This is beta software. 
Network Independent Transport Service 
Network Interface Unit 
North american ISDN Users (USA, ISDN) 
North american ISDN Users Forum (USA, user group, ISDN) 
Not Just Another Malloc Debugger NJAMD protects against all common dynamic memory bugs, including overflow, underflow, writes to freed memory, and memory leaks, all without recompiling or even relinking your executable. 
Nordic Journal of Computing (Finland) 
Network Job Entry (BITNET, RSCS) 
Network Job Entry 
[Biology] A tree drawing program NJplot is able to draw any binary tree expressed in the standard phylogenetic tree format (e.g., the format used by the Phylip package). NJplot is especially convenient for rooting the unrooted trees obtained from parsimony, distance or maximum likelihood tree-building methods. 
Neumann Janos SZamitogep-tudomanyi Tarsasag (org., Ungarn) 
Network Kanji code conversion Filter Nkf is a yet another kanji code converter among networks, hosts and terminals. It converts input kanji code to designated kanji code such as 7-bit JIS, MS-kanji (shifted-JIS) or EUC. 
Network Knowledge Server 
Non-Kernel Security Related (Unix) 
Network Layer (ISO, OSI) 
New Line (ASCII) 
Number Lines (Unix) 
number lines of files 
Network Load Balancing (MS, Windows) 
Network Logical Data Manager (IBM) 
Netware Loadable Module (Novell, Netware) 
A realtime network usage monitor. Nload is a console application which monitors network traffic and bandwidth usage in real time. It displays the total amount of data that has been transfered over a network device since the last reboot, the current bandwidth usage, and the minimum, maximum, and average bandwidth usage measured since it started. If the user wants, it is also able to display two bars, similar to progress bars, presenting the current load graphically. Support for displaying several devices simultaneously is included. 
Natural Language Processing 
Non-Linear Programming 
Normal Link Pulse (ethernet, LAN) 
Network Layer Protocol IDentifier (ATM, OSI) 
Near Letter Quality 
Network Layer Reachability Information 
Native Language Support (HP) 
Native Language System (OSF) 
Network License Server 
Netware Link Services Protocol (Novell, Netware, IPX) 
Network Layer Security Protocol (ISO, IEC, ISO/IEC 11557) 
National Language Version (IBM, OS/2, ...) 
list symbols from object files 
Native Mode (PARISC, CM) 
Network Management 
Network Management Architecture (SNA) 
National Multimedia Association of America (org., USA) 
Nmap is a utility for network exploration or security auditing. It supports ping scanning (determine which hosts are up), many portscanning techniques (determine what services the hosts are offering), and TCP/IP fingerprinting (remote host operating system identification). Nmap also offers flexible target and port specification, decoy scanning, determination of TCP sequence predictability characteristics, reverse-identd scanning, and more. 
The Network Mapper nmap is a utility for port scanning large networks, although it works fine for single hosts. The guiding philosophy for the creation of nmap was TMTOWTDI (There's More Than One Way To Do It). This is the Perl slogan, but it is equally applicable to scanners. Sometimes you need speed, other times you may need stealth. In some cases, bypassing firewalls may be required. Not to mention the fact that you may want to scan different protocols (UDP, TCP, ICMP, etc.). You just can't do all this with one scanning mode. And you don't want to have 10 different scanners around, all with different interfaces. Thus I incorporated virtually every scanning technique I know into nmap. Specifically, nmap supports: Vanilla TCP connect() scanning, TCP SYN (half open) scanning, TCP FIN (stealth) scanning, TCP ftp proxy (bounce attack) scanning SYN/FIN scanning using IP fragments (bypasses packet filters), UDP recvfrom() scanning, UDP raw ICMP port unreachable scanning, ICMP scanning (ping-sweep), and Reverse-ident scanning. nmap also supports a number of performance and reliability features such as dynamic delay time calculations, packet timeout and retransmission, parallel port scanning, detection of down hosts via parallel pings, and flexible target and port specification. 
The Network Mapper Front End nmapfe provides an X Window System (GTK+) front end for nmap. Written by Zach Smith, nmapfe is now maintained by Fyodor. 
NetBIOS name server to provide NetBIOS over IP naming services to clients 
NetBIOS over TCP/IP client used to lookup NetBIOS names 
Network Management Center 
Network Management Communication Protocol 
National Military Command System (mil., USA) 
National Marine Electronics Association [protocol] (org., USA, GPS) 
Network Management Forum 
A set of electronic mail handling programs. This is the nmh mail user agent (reader/sender), a command line based mail reader that is powerful and extensible. nmh is an excellent choice for people who receive and process a lot of mail. Unlike most mail user agents, nmh is not a single program, rather it is a set of programs that are run from the shell. This allows the user to utilize the full power of the Unix shell in coordination with nmh. Various front-ends are available, such as mh-e (an emacs mode), xmh, and exmh (X11 clients). nmh was originally based on MH version 6.8.3, and is intended to be a (mostly) compatible drop-in replacement for MH. 
/N-M-I/ n. Non-Maskable Interrupt. An IRQ 7 on the PDP-11 or 680[01234]0; the NMI line on an 80[1234]86. In contrast with a priority interrupt (which might be ignored, although that is unlikely), an NMI is never ignored. Except, that is, on clone boxes, where NMI is often ignored on the motherboard because flaky hardware can generate many spurious ones. 
Non-Maskable Interrupt 
National Media Laboratory (org., USA) 
Natural Mapping Language (XPP, MPP) 
Network Management Layer (TMN) 
Negative-channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Network MODEM Program 
Network Management Productivity Facility (IBM) 
Netscape/Mozilla Public License (Netscape), "N/MPL" 
Network Management Station / System (Novell, Netware) 
Network Monitoring Station 
New Mexico State University (org.) 
Nordic Mobile Telephone (mobile-systems) 
Non-Maintainer Upload (Linux, Debian) 
Network Management Vector Transport 
Heavy-duty USENET news reader (curses-based client) The motto of nn is its expanded name, which is "No News is good news, but nn is better", and the nn newsreader is designed to let you minimize the amount of time you spend reading news (or, more realistically, to allow you to follow even more newsgroups :-). Nn allows you to quickly select articles of interest and skip the rest. It also supports efficient article killing and selection of articles by author and subject. This version of nn reads news from a news server via NNTP (the Network News Transfer Protocol), and can make use of your NNTP server's NOV database, if configured. You must have a news server available - large sites usually provide a site-wide server. (For those familiar with 'nn', this is a client-only version.) 
Neural Network (NN) 
Network Node Interface (ATM) 
Network to Network Interface 
Netware Named Services (Novel, Netware) 
NSF Network Service Center (org., NSF) 
A NNTP server for use with C News. This package enables the a C News server to exchange News over the Internet using the NNTP protocol. It allows remote reading over NNTP. The nntpd server is run from inetd saving resources. Included are nntpd and the programs needed to transmit news using nntp (nntpxmit, nntpsend). 
Acronym for Network News Transfor Protocol, a system for reading and writing Usenet News articles across a network, this service is defined by RFC number 977. 
Network News Transfer Protocol (Internet, RFC 977, Usenet) 
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
In Usenet, the standard that governs the distribution of UseNet newsgroups via the Internet. See NNTP server. 
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
The protocol used by clientand server software to carry USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network. If you are using any of the more common software such as Netscape, Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection. 
Network News Transfer Protocol - Secured ??? (NNTP, Internet, Usenet) 
Network Numbering eXchange 
Net On Air (Internet) 
Most commonly seen as a suffix to binary packages (such as RPM packages) to be installed on a Linux system. It simply means that the package can be installed on any architecture, whether that may be x86, Sparc or Alpha based systems. From Binh
Media player (for video and audio) Media player (for video and audio) for KDE 
plugins for Noatun, the KDE media player This package contains a variety of useful plugins for Noatun, the audio and video media player for KDE. The plugins can be loaded through the plugin manager in Noatun settings. Highlights include an alarm clock, guessing tags from filenames and a number of scopes ranging from visually entrancing to "weird and annoying". This package is part of the KDE addons module. 
Network Operations Center 
If set, bash does not overwrite an existing file with the >, >&, and <> redirection operators. This variable may be overridden when creating output files by using the redirection operator >| instead of > (see also the -C option to the set builtin command). 
Network Operations Center System 
Amateur Packet Radio Node program The node program accepts TCP/IP and packet radio network connections and presents users with an interface that allows them to make gateway connections to remote hosts using a variety of amateur radio protocols. 
Any single computer connected to a network. 
find definitions in noweb file 
NSSDC Online Data and Information Service (NSSDC) 
offline news server NOFFLE is a news server optimized for low speed dialup connection to the Internet and few users. It allows reading news offline with many news reader programs, even if they do not support offline reading by themselves. It does for NNTP what wwwoffle does for HTTP. 
allow idle hard disks to spin down Noflushd is a daemon that spins down disks that have not been read from after a certain amount of time, and then prevents disk writes from spinning them back up. It's targeted for laptops but can be used on any computer with IDE disks. The effect is that the hard disk actually spins down, saving you battery power, and shutting off the loudest component of most computers. 
run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty 
Node Operator Interface 
build external index for noweb document 
If set, the shell does not follow symbolic links when executing commands that change the current working directory. It uses the physical directory structure instead. By default, bash follows the logical chain of directories when performing commands which change the current directory, such as cd. See also the description of the -P option to the set builtin ( SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below). 
National Online Media Association (org., USA) 
NoMad Linux
The web site says NoMad Linux 2.0 is on the way. There are no dates, though, so this could be historical. NoMad is based on the encap package managing system for ease of installation and upgrades. NoMad's main purpose is to keep it's creators happy and give them something to do in their free time. More and more, they see NoMad as a distribution for the scientists/engineers/geeks that know what they want and don't want anything else. 
In communications, a nonce is a specific value inserted into the message in order to defend against replay attacks. A nonce is usually random. 
Thai (and other) Keyboard swithcher using XKB nonlock is a keyboard switcher using xkb, for Thai or other language user. It is designed for WindowMaker but can be used with other window manager. Under WindowMaker, it is a dockable application. 
Network Operations Report GENerator 
NO Remote Memory Access (OSF/1, Multi-Server) 
adjust the volume of WAV files to a standard volume level normalize is a tool for adjusting the volume of WAV files to a standard volume level. This is useful for things like creating mix CDs and mp3 databases, where different recording levels on different albums can cause the volume to vary greatly from song to song. 
format woven troff documentation 
print roots of a noweb file 
Network Operating System 
NOS (Network operating system)
The system software of a local area network (LAN) that integrates the network's hardware components, usually adequate for connecting up to 50 workstions. Included, typically, are such features as a menu-driven administration interface, tape backup of file-server software, security restrictions, facilities for sharing printers, central storage of application programs and databases, remote log-in via modem, and support for discuss workstations. A network operating system establishes and maintains the connetion between the workstations and the file server; the physical connections alone aren't sufficient to support networking. The operating system consists of two parts: the file server software and workstation software. See LAN memory management program, and NetWare. 
Netlabs Open Source Archive 
Netlabs Open Source Archive Client (NOSA) 
a Relational Database Management System for Unix. NoSQL is a fast, portable, relational database management system without arbitrary limits, (other than memory and processor speed) that runs under, and interacts with, the UNIX Operating System. It uses the Operator/Stream DBMS paradigm described in "Unix Review", March, 1991, page 24, entitled "A 4GL Language". There are a number of "operators" that each perform a unique function on the data. The "stream" is supplied by the UNIX Input/Output redirection mechanism. Therefore each operator processes some data and then passes it along to the next operator via the UNIX pipe function. This is very efficient as UNIX pipes are implemented in memory. NoSQL is compliant with the "Relational Model". *NOTE*: This is a new, re-designed, more performant upstream release which is no longer command-line compatible with NoSQL V2. The commands are now in /usr/lib/nosql3 in order to not clutter up /usr/bin. 
noweb, a literate-programming tool 
small program managing notes from commandline This is a small console program similar to knotes, which allows you to manage notes from commandline. 
If set, bash reports terminated background jobs immediately, rather than waiting until before printing the next primary prompt (see also the -b option to the set builtin command). 
A program to notify the user when other one logs in Notifyme is a GPL'ed Unix (tested under Linux, FreeBSD and OpenBSD) console utility that stays in a background (it isn't a daemon but it doesn't block terminal) and prints a message if a specified login and/or logout occurs. In a resource file ($HOME/notify.rc by default) you can specify (extended regular expressions are allowed) usernames, hostnames and terminals that should be monitored, optional messages that will be displayed and other options (beep, report logouts etc.) See notifyrc.sample for examples. It should be self explanatory. 
Network Operator Trouble Information System 
noweb, a literate-programming tool 
NO Virtual Memory. A version of the caching server Squid. 
Network Of Workstations (Cluster) 
noweb, a literate-programming tool 
a simple literate-programming tool 
A WEB-like literate-programming tool. noweb is designed to meet the needs of literate programmers while remaining as simple as possible. Its primary advantages are simplicity, extensibility, and language-independence. The noweb manual is only 3 pages; an additional page explains how to customize its LaTeX output. noweb works ``out of the box'' with any programming language, and supports TeX, latex, and HTML back ends. The primary sacrifice relative to WEB is that code is not prettyprinted. 
If this variable exists, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it cannot execute the file specified in the exec builtin command. An interactive shell does not exit if exec fails. 
Network Performance 
No Problem (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Network Performance Analyzer 
Network Printer Alliance (IEEE 1284, IBM, Lexmark, Xerox) 
Network Professional Association (org., USA) 
Numbering Plan Area 
Northeast Parallel Architectures Center (org., USA, HPC) 
NPACI Rocks Cluster Distribution
The folks at NPACI have built a cluster distribution that emphasizes ease of management, configurability and security. Red Hat Linux 7.3 forms the base of this special purpose distribution, which is being used by a number of educational and commercial organizations. The distribution is not OSCAR-based, and it has some significant advantages over the OSCAR methodology/implementation. Version 2.3.2 was released April 1, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Query information from SNMP featured printer This is a quite small utility to query information from a network printer which has to understand SNMP. You can use this tool to query the features of a printer, get the pagecount or inquire the printer status e.g. how much paper is left in the printer. This might sound uninteresting but it is very nice for writing scripts to illustrate printer usage and stuff. 
Newt and GNU Parted based disk partition table manipulator nParted is a newt-based front end to the GNU parted library that permits the user to resize, copy, and move disk partitions in the style of PowerQuest's well-known Partition Magic partition table editor. 
Network Parameter Control 
Network Products Division (Toshiba) 
Network Problem Determination Application (IBM) 
Non Parse Headers (HTTPD, CGI) 
Network Printer Interface 
Netscape Public License (Netscape) 
Non-Procedural Language 
Network Performance Monitor 
Named Pipes / Mail Slots (MS) 
NCP Packet Switching Interface (IBM, NCP) 
Network Protocol Service Interface 
NASA Packet Switch System (NASA) 
National Public Telecomputing Network (network, USA) 
Net Present Value 
Not Quite C compiler for LEGO Mindstorms RCX The LEGO Mindstorms RCX is a Hitachi microcontroller embedded into a LEGO brick. This package lets you write programs in a C-like language and download them to your RCX using the serial infrared tower included with the RCX. 
Network Queuing System 
pure Ruby implementation of a non-validating XML processor NQXML is a pure Ruby implementation of a non-validating XML processor. It includes an XML tokenizer, a SAX-style streaming XML parser, a DOM-style tree parser, and an XML writer. ``NQ'' stands for ``Not Quite''. There is some limitations. 
National Research Council (org., USA) 
National Resource for Computers in Life Science Education (USA) 
National Research and Education Network (USA, network) 
Not Ready for Data 
Network Resource Management 
Normal Response Mode (IRDA, IRLAP, NDM) 
National Research Network (USA, network) 
No Reply Necessary (slang, Usenet) 
/N'rof/ n. [Unix, from "new roff" (see troff)] A companion program to the Unix typesetter troff, accepting identical input but preparing output for terminals and line printers. 
emulate nroff command with groff 
New Run-OFF (Unix) 
Name Registration System 
Novell Replication Services (Novell, Netware) 
Non-Requesting Terminal 
Non-RealTime Variable Bit Rate (VBR, ATM), "nrt-VBR" 
Non-Return-to-Zero [recording] 
Non-Return-to-Zero, Invert to ones [encoding] 
Name Server (DNS, Unix) 
National Standard 
National Security Agency (org., USA) 
NSA Security Enhanced Linux
Is also sometimes referred to as simply SELinux. The results of several previous research projects by the National Security Agency have been incorporated in a security-enhanced Linux system. This version of Linux has a strong, flexible mandatory access control architecture incorporated into the major subsystems of the kernel. The system provides a mechanism to enforce the separation of information based on confidentiality and integrity requirements. This allows threats of tampering and bypassing of application security mechanisms to be addressed and enables the confinement of damage that can be caused by malicious or flawed applications. Version 2003040708 was released April 7, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
National Standards Authority of Ireland (org., Irland) 
Network Service Access Point (OSI, OSI/RM, SAP) 
Network Service Access Point Address (OSI, NSAP) 
Netscape Server Application Programmer's Interface (Netscape, WWW, C/S, API) 
National Science Board (USA, org.) 
Not-So-Bad Distribution (Bell) 
National Security Council (org., USA) 
National SemiConductor (manufacturer) 
Network Service Center 
National institute for Supercomputing Applications 
Netscape browser's cache directory browser and manager NScache views and manages the cache directory of the Netscape browser. NB: currently only Netscape 4.x is supported - i.e not Mozilla. 
GNU C Library: Name Service Cache Daemon A daemon which handles passwd, group and host lookups for running programs and caches the results for the next query. You should install this package only if you use slow Services like LDAP, NIS or NIS+ 
Nscd caches name service lookups. It can dramatically improve performance with NIS+ and may help with DNS as well. 
National Security Directive (USA) 
Network Support Encyclopedia (Novell) 
Network Switching Engineering Center 
Natural Sciences and Research Council (org., USA) 
An acronym for National Science Foundation, the NSFNet became officially disconnected from the primary Internet on April 30, 1995. 
National Science Foundation (org., USA) 
Norges StandardiseringsForbund (org., Norway) 
NSF (National Science Foundation)
An independent agency of the U.S. government that seeks to promote the public good throughout the development of science and engineering. Until 1995, NSF subsidized and coordinated NSFnet, which at one time was the backbone network of the Internet native application A software program designed to work with a particular type of microprocessor in other words, a program that is binary compatible with a particular microprocessor. Non-native applications may run on a given microprocessor with the help of an emulation program, but native applications are almost always significantly faster than non-native applications. 
NextStep Fuer IntelProzessoren, "NSfIP" 
National Science Foundation NETwork (network, USA, Internet), "NSFnet" 
Network Services Group 
a validating SGML parser 
Name Service Independent (DCE/RPC, CDS) 
NASA Science Internet (NASA, network) 
National Schengen Information System (SIS, Europe) 
Lint for DNS files, checks integrity Nslint reads the nameserver configuration files and performs a number of consistency checks on the DNS records. Nslint understands both old style named.boot and BIND 8's new named.conf files. 
query Internet name servers interactively 
intranet/internet server checker. A program which can check your servers which are connected to the internet/intranet via TCP/IP. There is ping and port check. Ping is an ICMP echo port check is a simple connect() to the specified port. 
NASA Science Network (USA, network) 
An acronym for Network Service Provider, these are the companies that provide connectivity to the internet for ISPs and others requiring high speed connections between their LANs and the Internet. 
Name Service Protocol (DNS) 
Native Signal Processing (Intel, CPU) 
Network Service Point 
Network Service Provider 
Network Services Protocol (DNA) 
Network Switching Performance Measurement Plan 
NetScape Portable Runtime (Netscape, API) 
Non-Source Routed 
National Software Reuse Directory (USA) 
Name Service Switch. The /etc/nsswitch.conf file determines the order of lookups performed when a certain piece of information is requested. 
Namespace Specific String (URN) 
Nodal Switching Subsystem (NSFNET) 
Novell Storage System (Novell, Netware) 
Not So Stubby Area (OSPF, RFC 1587) 
National Space Science Data Center (org., USA) 
This package includes two LDAP access clients: nss_ldap and pam_ldap. Nss_ldap is a set of C library extensions that allow X.500 and LDAP directory servers to be used as a primary source of aliases, ethers, groups, hosts, networks, protocol, users, RPCs, services, and shadow passwords (instead of or in addition to using flat files or NIS). Pam_ldap is a module for Linux-PAM that supports password changes, V2clients, Netscape's SSL, ypldapd, Netscape Directory Server password policies, access authorization, and crypted hashes. 
Newfoundland Standard Time (TZ) 
North Sumatra Time [+0630] (TZ) 
NebenSTellenANlagen (Telekom, CBX), "NStAn" 
National Science and Technology Council (org., USA) 
National Software Testing Lab (org., USA) 
network streams - a tcpdump output analyzer Nstreams is a utility designed to identify the IP streams that are occuring on a network from a non-user friendly tcpdump output of several megabytes. This is especially useful when you plan to install a firewall but if you do not know the nstreams that the network users are generating (http, real audio, and more...). Nstreams can read the tcpdump output directly from stdin, or from a file. It can even generate the configuration file of your firewall. 
National Secure Telephone System 
??? [protocol] 
Dynamic DNS update utility 
National Software Works (OS) 
Netzwerk Terminator, Network Terminator (ISDN) 
New Technology (MS, OS) 
Nome Time [-1100] (TZ) 
Network Termination [unit] 1 (ISDN) 
curses-based AIM client nTAIM is a curses-based AOL Instant Messenger client which is quite featureful. It supports tab completion, custom color schemes, logging, buddy aliases, buddy pounce, and a number of other things. 
NT Advanced Server (MS, Windows NT) 
Network Termination for Basic Access (ISDN) 
National Telecommunications Conference (conference, USA) 
[Windows] NT Directory Services (MS, Windows NT, DS) 
Network Terminal Equipment 
shared text editor designed for use on the Mbone. NTE is a shared text editor designed for use on the Mbone. It is not a word processor (it is not clear that word processing is a useful task to share) and it is not a whiteboard - if you want a whiteboard, wb from LBL is a much better whiteboard. Using NTE can be very interactive - unless you lock a block of text, anyone else in your session can edit that text or delete it. This is intentional. Many people can (if they wish) edit the same document simultaneously. Many people can even edit the same block of text simultaneously, but if more than one person tries to edit the same line at one time, a conflict will occur, which results in only one of the changes being preserved. 
NT File System. An optional way of formatting disks under WinNT that contains many enhancements (performance, reliability, and security) over the older FAT file-system found in DOS. Key point: Hardened WinNT computers should use NTFS exclusively. After installation, some file and directory permissions need to be adjusted. Key point: NTFS supports a feature called "alternate data-streams" (similar to Macintosh data and resource forks) that can be used to attach data to files in a hidden way. The additional information does not appear to change the size of the file in directory listings. 
[windows] New Technology File System 
Documentation about NTFS partitions format. This work is derived from the Linux-NTFS project (, that aims to bring full support for the NTFS filesystem to the Linux operating system. This is a set of documents about all the NTFS internals (all the publicly known internals) and the NTFS journal file format. 
Tools for doing neat things in NTFS partitions from Linux. The Linux-NTFS project ( aims to bring full support for the NTFS filesystem to the Linux operating system. This is a set of tools targeted for people interested in working with the NTFS support in the Linux kernel and using it. The following utilities are included: ntfsfix - Attempt to fix an NTFS partition that has been damaged by the Linux NTFS driver. You should run it every time after you have used the Linux NTFS driver to write to an NTFS partition to prevent massive data corruption from happening when Windows mounts the partition. mkntfs - Format a partition with the NTFS filesystem. 
National Telecommunications and Information Administration / Agency (org., USA) 
Need-To-Know (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Newton ToolKit (Apple) 
[Windows] NT LAN Manager (MS, Windows NT, LAN) 
National Telecommunications Network 
Network Terminal Option 
display network usage in top-like format ntop is a Network Top program. It displays a summary of network usage by machines on your network in a format reminiscent of the unix top utility. It can also be run in web mode, which allows the display to be browsed with a web browser. 
Daemon and utilities for full NTP v4 timekeeping participation. The Network Time Protocol allows for the synchronization of clocks on networked computers. The ntpd daemon implements NTP, allowing Unix systems to participate in this synchronization. To minimize resource consumption in the general case, this package no longer includes the actual daemon. You will need either ntp-simple or ntp-refclock, depending on whether you want the drivers for radio clocks included in the refclock version of the daemon. NTP was designed with attention to details which might introduce systematic bias into the computations, and the protocol is capable of synchronizing with even the most precise external time sources. For more information on how NTP works, and how to configure a campus of ntpd daemons, load the optional Debian package 'ntp-doc'. 
Network Time Protocol (Internet, RFC 1119/1305) 
Network Time Protocol - protocol built on top of TCP/IP that assures accurate local timekeeping with reference to radio, atomic or other clocks located on the Internet. This protocol is capable of synchronizing distributed clocks within milliseconds over long time periods. 
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize a computer'stime with another reference time source. The ntp package contains utilities and daemons that will synchronize your computer's time to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) via the NTP protocol and NTP servers. The ntp package includes ntpdate (a program for retrieving the date and time from remote machines via a network) and ntpd (a daemon which continuously adjusts system time). Install the ntp package if you need tools for keeping your system's time synchronized via the NTP protocol. 
NTP v4 daemon for reference clocks. This version of the ntp daemon includes drivers to interface to various radio clocks and other devices used for creating reference clocks. If you do not have a radio clock, use the ntp-simple package instead, as it consumes far less memory! If you're serious about building a high-quality stratum 1 timekeeper, please take a look at Ulrich Windl's PPSkit patchset for the Linux kernel, available from the mirror network in pub/linux/daemons/ntp. 
NTP v4 daemon for simple systems. This version of the ntp daemon is sufficient for most systems. If you wish to configure a reference clock, particularly if you have a radio clock, use the ntp-refclock package instead. 
The ntpdate client for setting system time from NTP servers. The ntpdate client allows a system's clock to be set to match the time obtained by communicating with one or more servers running the NTP protocol. The use of ntpdate is optional if you're running the ntp package, it can help a system obtain lock if it starts with a time that's pretty close by using ntpdate before starting the daemon. The ntpdate client by itself is useful for occasionally setting the time on machines that are not on the net full-time, such as laptops. 
Network Technical Support 
Network Test System 
New Typesetting System (TeX, DANTE) 
Network Transport Services /2 (IBM), "NTS/2" 
Netware Telephony Services Architecture 
National Television Standards Committee (org., USA) 
Never The Same Color (slang) 
[Windows] NT Server / Enterprise edition (MS, Windows NT), "NTS/E" 
Ntsysv provides a simple interface for setting which system services are started or stopped in various runlevels (instead of directly manipulating the numerous symbolic links in /etc/rc.d). Unless you specify a runlevel or runlevels on the command line (see the manpage), ntsysv configures the current runlevel (5 if you're using X). 
Nippon Telephone & Telegraph (org., Japan) 
Network User Address 
Nuclinux is a single floppy Linux distribution. One 3.5 in. floppy contains enough of a system to connect to the Internet from a networked machine (e.g. school lab, Internet cafe, etc.) It's also available as a DOS/Windows install. A floppy-based distribution. 
Network User Identification (Datex-P) 
Natur- und UmweltInformationsSystem Schleswig-Holstein (UIS), "NUIS-SH" 
small, fast identd daemon nullidentd is a small, fast and secure identd daemon. It returns a static string for every query. 
Simple relay-only mail transport agent This is nullmailer, a sendmail/qmail/etc replacement MTA for hosts which relay to a fixed set of smart relays. It is designed to be simple to configure, secure, and easily extendable. 
Non Uniform Memory Access (SMP) 
Non-Uniform Memory Architecture. For example, a multiprocessor where access to different classes of memory takes significantly different amounts of time. (Memory accesses over a network of some sort, basically.) 
NumLock enable to lock the numlock key. Only enable it at boot-time withntsysv or with any other SVSR like rc.d config scripts editor such as tksysv or the ones from GNOME and KDE. NumLock is safe for portable as it is disabled by default. 
Non Uniform Rational B-spline 
Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (CAD, Animation) 
National University of Singapore (org.) 
Network UPS Tools This daemon can monitor a large assortment of UPS hardware and can provide notification to other computers via it's client/server architecture. One computer is configured to act as a master and the others are configured as slaves. This package provides the best features of the other Debian UPS packages but is not based on any of them. Specifically, it is better because: 1) it has the ability to talk to a wide variety of hardware in both dumb and smart modes, similar to genpower; and 2) it has network capability in that it can act as a UPS server (master) for other UPS client boxes (slaves), similar to apcd. Finally, the companion package, nut-cgi, provides cgi scripts that can display the status of UPS on a web page. (potato debs can be found at 
Network UPS Tools - web interface This package contains CGI scripts that provide a nice web interface to a Network UPS Tools daemon. The scripts are packaged separately because there are situations where one may want to use Network UPS Tools but may not want a web interface to the daemon. 
[National Board for Industrial and Technical Development] (org., Sweden) 
convert nuweb files to noweb form 
allows you to overclock your nvidia card under linux This program allows you to overclock your nvidia chip based video card. You need to have the official nvidia drivers installed. 
NetView Distribution Manager /2 (OS/2, IBM), "NVDM/2" 
4.4BSD re-implementation of vi. Vi is the original screen based text editor for Unix systems. It is considered the standard text editor, and is available on almost all Unix systems. Nvi is intended as a "bug-for-bug compatible" clone of the original BSD vi editor. As such, it doesn't have a lot of snazzy features as do some of the other vi clones such as elvis and vim. However, if all you want is vi, this is the one to get. 
NVIDIA binary XFree86 4.x driver These XFree86 4.0 binary drivers are the result of a collaborative partnership between NVIDIA, SGI and VA Linux. In this initial beta release, they provide optimized hardware acceleration of OpenGL applications via a direct-rendering X Server and support the TNT, TNT2, TNT Ultra, GeForce, nForce and Quadro chipsets. AGP and flat panel displays are also supported. This package builds the NVIDIA binary XFree86 4.x driver. For more information on this source package visit NVIDIA's homepage at . 
NVIDIA binary kernel module These XFree86 4.0 binary drivers are the result of a collaborative partnership between NVIDIA, SGI and VA Linux. In this initial beta release, they provide optimized hardware acceleration of OpenGL applications via a direct-rendering X Server and support the TNT, TNT2, TNT Ultra, GeForce, nForce, and Quadro chipsets. AGP and flat panel displays are also supported. This package builds the NVIDIA binary kernel module needed by nvidia-glx. For more information on this source package visit NVIDIA's homepage at . 
text editors 
National Videotex Network (USA, network) 
Network Voice Protocol 
Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
NachrichtenVermittlungsSystem (INPOL) 
Network Virtual Terminal (Telnet, Internet) 
tool to control the TV chips on NVidia cards under Linux This is a program to control the TV chips on NVidia cards under Linux, in order to get tv-out with a wide range of resolutions and sizes, including "overscan" modes. It does even work with the free nv drivers. 
A version of wall that uses GNU readline nwall is a system-local chat program based on BSD wall. It logs chat, as well as providing opt-out lockfiles for users who want to be alerted to system walls, but don't want to be distracted by the nwall chatter. 
Network service detector. NWatch is a sniffer but can be conceptualized as a "passive port scanner", in that it is only interested in IP traffic and it organizes results as a port scanner would. The advantage of this tool is that services that is open for a short period of time can be detected with NWatch while successive nmap scans will miss them. The disadvantage is that the service have to be actively used to be detected. 
Netware Workstation Compatible Service (Netware, Windows NT) 
NetWare Internet Protocol (Novell, Netware) 
NorthWestern states NETwork (network, USA), "NWNet" 
NetWork Operator (ETSI, ETSI 201 671) 
Enhanced replacement for the write command. Nwrite is a replacement for the standard write program that lets you write directly to the terminal of another logged-in user without the overhead of talk taking over the full screen or the other user having to respond first. Nwrite's advantages over traditional write include the ability to send the same message simultaneously to multiple users, and a receiver-configurable message format, including a tag at the start of each line that identifies the sender. 
Nextview EPG decoder and browser In this software package you find a decoder for Nextview - an Electronic TV Programme Guide for the analog domain (as opposed to the various digital EPGs that come with most digital broadcasts). It allows you to decode and browse TV programme listings for most of the major networks in Germany, Austria, France and Switzerland. Currently Nextview EPG is transmitted by: - in Germany and Austria: Pro7, 3Sat, RTL-II. - in Switzerland: EuroNews, SF1, TSR1. - in France: Canal+, M6, TV5. - in Turkey: TRT (as of June/2001 still a test transmission) The EPG information is read from /dev/vbi, i.e. you need some TV card which provides a VBI data stream. bttv cards work. zoran might work too, but I haven't tested that due to lack of hardware... 
This is the name of a project and stands for NIS+, YP and Switch and is managed by Peter Eriksson <>. It contains among other things a complete reimplementation of the NIS (= YP) code that uses the Name Services Switch functionality of the NYS library. 
O'Reilly, Tim
the founder of O'Reilly & Associates, which has the reputation of publishing the best Linux/UNIX books. 
Object Adapter (ORB, IDL) 
Open Access (SPI, DB) 
Open Arcade Architecture (Intel) 
Open Architecture Driver (Iomega) 
Open Architecture Development Group (org.) 
OAF (Object Activation Framework) provides the activation mechanism for GNOME components. It is a replacement for GOAD in the GNOME 2 platform. 
OAF is an object activation framework for GNOME. It uses ORBit. 
The GNOME Object Activation Framework. OAF is the new Object Activation Framework for GNOME. OAF has a similar purpose to gnorba, the GNOME 1.x CORBA activation library, and will replace it for GNOME 2.0. It allows you to do much more powerful activation queries than gnorba. Each server is described by an XML file that defines its attributes. When querying or activating, one may specify complex requirements using the OAF query language. 
Open Application Group (org., USA) 
Open Applications Interface 
Object Application Kernel (Java, predecessor, Sun) 
Operations, Administration and Management [cell] (ATM) 
Online Application System Interactive Software 
Open And Secure Information Systems (Eureka) 
Online Bugs Database (Sun, DB) 
OBject EXchange (WordPerfect) 
Objective-C compiler Portable Object Compiler (objc-poc) is an Objective-C compiler. Includes: - a modern, portable, "all C" Objective C runtime There's absolutely no assembly language needed, nor is there a dependency on stack layout, register allocation conventions etc. Most other runtimes, were derived from pre-"all C"-Stepstone runtimes, so this is an important point of difference. - "objpak", the "Object Pak" Objective C Collection Classes Simple, powerful set of classes. Very portable. Can be used to develop with different compilers, then port with 'objc'. Compatible with ICpak101, the collection class library described in Brad Cox' book, and used by existing Objective-C packages that were developed with Stepstone objc. - "cakit", the "Computer Algebra Kit" Objective C classes Small, concise, interface to a large set of classes for polynomial computing and arbitrary precision integer arithmetic. Web page: 
copy and translate object files 
display information from object files. 
A method of software development that groups related functions and data into reusable chunks. 
A software development methodology that offers the programmer standard reusable software modules (components), rather than requiring the developer to write custom programming code each time. Using standard components reduces development time (because the writing and testing of those components has already been done by other programmers), and ensures a standard look and feel for programs using the same components. 
Objective C
An object-oriented superset of ANSI C by Brad Cox, Productivity Products. Its additions to C are few and are mostly based on Smalltalk. Objective C is implemented as a preprocessor for C. Objective C syntax is a superset of standard C syntax, and its compiler accepts both C and Objective C source code (filename extension ".m"). 
An interactive interpreter for the Obliq language. Obliq is a small, statically scoped, untyped language. It is object-oriented, higher-order, and distributed. State is local to an address space, while computation can migrate over the network. The distributed computation mechanism is based on Modula-3 Network Objects. This package includes several versions of Obliq: obliq: Obliq interpreter obliq-3D: Obliq interpreter with full 3D animation support obliq-anim: Obliq interpreter with full animation support obliq-min: Obliq interpreter with minimal runtime hooks obliq-std: Obliq interpreter with the standard runtime hooks obliq-ui: Obliq interpreter with ui support obliqsrv: Obliq server obliqsrv-std: Obliq server with the standard runtime hooks obliqsrv-ui: Obliq server with ui support visobliq: Prototype of an easy-to-use distributed programming environment using Obliq 
Online Book Store (Internet, WWW) 
The philosophical debate of Security through obscurity, where people hope to hide rather than defend themselves from hackers. Controversy: This is a controversial topic. Non-security people will often claim that well-known security precautions are not necessary because it is unlikley that a hacker will find the obscure hole. Security professionals find this distressing because they have experience with the hacker community that regularly makes the obscure obvious. For example, buffer-overflow bugs are really obscure and hard to exploit, but once a hacker writes an automated exploit script or worm a once obscure vulnerability becomes widely known. 
OBject management system of STONE (STONE) 
OBligatory The World Is A Very Big Place (DFUe, Usenet, IRC), "ObTWIAVBP" 
Object Class (OOP) 
Optical Carrier level 1 [51,48 Mbps] (SONET), "OC-1" 
Optical Carrier level 12 [622,08 Mbps] (SONET), "OC-12" 
Optical Carrier level 24 [1244,16 Mbps] (SONET), "OC-24" 
Optical Carrier level 3 [155,52 Mbps] (SONET), "OC-3" 
Optical Carrier level 48 [2488,32 Mbps] (SONET), "OC-48" 
ML language implementation with a class-based object system Objective Caml is an implementation of the ML language, based on the Caml Light dialect extended with a complete class-based object system and a powerful module system in the style of Standard ML. Objective Caml comprises two compilers. One generates bytecode which is then interpreted by a C program. This compiler runs quickly, generates compact code with moderate memory requirements, and is portable to essentially any 32 or 64 bit Unix platform. Performance of generated programs is quite good for a bytecoded implementation: almost twice as fast as Caml Light 0.7. This compiler can be used either as a standalone, batch-oriented compiler that produces standalone programs, or as an interactive, toplevel-based system. The other compiler generates high-performance native code for a number of processors. Compilation takes longer and generates bigger code, but the generated programs deliver excellent performance, while retaining the moderate memory requirements of the bytecode compiler. It is not available on all arches though. 
a library for interfacing Objective Caml with the tcl/tk CamlTk417 is a library for interfacing Objective Caml with the scripting language Tcl/Tk. In addition to the basic interface with Tcl/Tk, this package contains * the "frx" library, written by Francois Rouaix; it contains some facilities for usual idioms * the "jpf" library, written by Jun P. Furuse; it contains a "file selector" and "balloon help" support * the "jtk" library, written by Jun P. Furuse; it contains extensions for Japanese Tcl/Tk * the "tkanim" extension, written by Jun P. Furuse; it adds support for animated GIF files. 
literate programming tool for Objective Caml Literate programming, as defined by Knuth, means to combine program code and documentation into one source document from which program code and documentation can be extracted. The approach of ocamlweb is that documentation is to be included in the program code as special comments. The ocamlweb tool extracts from this the documented program code as LaTeX document, while no special preprocessing is required to compile the source files. See also 
Operations Control Center 
Other Common Carrier 
Open Cooperative Computing Architecture 
Out-of-Cell Delineation (UNI) 
Open Collaborative Environment (Apple) 
Open Computing Facility 
Oestereichische Computer Gesellschaft (org., Austria) 
Open Content License (OPL) 
Operation Control Language 
OS/2 inside Class Library (OS/2) 
Online Computer Library Center (org., Internet, USA) 
round X clock 
Object Code Only (OOP) 
Open Content Platform Association (org., Amiga, Sharp, JVC, Kyocera, ...) 
Optical Character Recognition 
Object Compatibility Standard (Motorola) 
Open Cabling System 
Online Certificate Status Protocol 
The GNU Octave language for numerical computations Octave is a (mostly Matlab (R) compatible) high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically. Octave uses some of the best and most respected numerical libraries as balgen, dassl, eisspack, fftpack, lapack, linpack, minpack, odepack, ranlib, slatec-fn and villad. Octave can be dynamically extended with user-supplied C++ files. 
The GNU Octave language for numerical computations Octave is a (mostly Matlab (R) compatible) high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically. This package is an emoty 'transition' package. It is needed in order to transfer smoothly from the octave packages (up to and including version octave*2.0.16-1) to the new octave2.0* packages. The new octave2.0* can coexist with the upcoming octave2.1* packages of the new development version of GNU Octave. Once you have all the octave2.0 package you want installed, you can delete this package. 
Contributed functions for the GNU Octave language The octave-ci package provides almost two hundred functions for GNU Octave, a (mostly Matlab (R) compatible) high-level language primarily intended for numerical computations. The files in this package are grouped by the following directories: filefun, neural-nets, listfun, timefun, general, and misc. Other parts of this package have been integrated into GNU Octave itself as of version 
GNU Octave encapsulated postscript toolkit The octave-epstk package provides, via a set of .m functions, a toolkit to create powerful encapsulated postscript (.eps) graphs. Most 2D scientific graphics functions are written. The generated .eps-files are very small and can be imported into other documents without loss of quality. 
Contributed functions for GNU Octave from The octave-forge project contains over 300 contributed functions for GNU Octave which are not in the main distribution. These functions are grouped according to the following subdirectories: audio, comm, control, general, geometry, ident, image, linear-algebra, optim, path, plot, set, signal, sparse, specfun, special-matrix, splines, statistics, strings, struct, time. While the main Octave distribution is conservative about accepting new functions and changes, octave-forge is very open. As a result, be prepared for some lower quality code and more rapidly changing interfaces to the functions in octave-forge. The octave-forge project is housed at The Debian octave-forge package replaces (and extends) the earlier octave-matcompat package. 
Empty transition package for octave-forge The octave-forge package replaces the octave-matcompat package. This empty octave-matcompat forces installation of the (new) octave-forge package via an explicit dependency. Once both packages are installed, this package can be safely removed or purged. 
Semidefinite Programming functions for GNU Octave The octave-sp package provides functions for semidefinite programming. It can be used to solve nonlinear, convex optimization problems. For an overview of the functionality, use 'demosp' from within Octave. 
OLE Control eXtensions (MS) 
dump files in octal and other formats 
Optical Disk 
Office Document Architecture [protocol] (RFC 1197, ISO 8613, JTC1, ECMA) 
Open Document Architecture (CCITT T.410) 
Open Database Application Programming Interface (Borland, DB, API), "Odapi" 
Open DataBase Connectivity (WOSA, DB, API) 
ODBC support for PostgreSQL Provides support for ODBC access to the PostgreSQL backend. 
Support library and helper program for accessing odbc ini files This package contains the library from unixodbc, a library used by ODBC drivers for reading their configuration settings from /etc/odbc.ini and ~/.odbc.ini. It is useful to provide this in a stand-alone package, so that all ODBC drivers in Debian can use a consistent ini library, regardless of whether applications are built with iodbc or unixodbc. Also contained in this package is the odbcinst helper tool, which allows ODBC driver packages to install their own driver settings, and the driver setup plugins, which describe the features supported by individual ODBC drivers. COMPONENTS: (ODBC Installer/Setup) odbcinst (cmd line UI for (GUI config for server based sources... basic) (GUI config for file based sources... basic) (GUI config for OpenLink's opl driver) (GUI config for MiniSQL driver) (GUI config for MySQL driver) (GUI config for MS SQL/Sybase driver) (GUI config for Oracle driver) (GUI config for PostgreSQL driver) 
Object orientated Database Management System (DBMS, DB) 
Optical Disc Corporation (manufacturer) 
Operator Distance-Dialing 
Object Database and Environment (AT&T, DB) 
Online Data Entry 
Organization for Data Exchange by Tele-Transmission in Europe (org., Europe) 
Opendoc Development Framework (Apple, OpenDoc) 
Opendoc Part Framework (OpenDoc) 
Open Data link Interface (Novell) 
Open Device Interconnect 
Object ??? (Apple, ALOE) 
Office Document Interchange Format (ISO 8613, ASN.1, ODA) 
Optimale Datenmodelle und algorithmen fuer Ingenieur- und Naturwissenschaften [auf hochleistungsrechnern] (Uni Karlsruhe, Germany, SNI) 
Open Data link Interface - Network driver interface specification SUPport (ODI, NDIS) 
Optical Digital Image Storage System 
Office Develoment Kit 
Object Description Language 
Open Document Language (ODA, SGML) 
Open Data Link Interface 
Object Database Manager (AIX, IBM) 
Original Design Manufacturer 
Open Document Management API (API) 
Object Database Management Group (org., DB) 
Dental office management software (PHP4 + PostgreSQL) Odontolinux! is a dental office management software. It is written in PHP4. It uses PostgreSQL as DBMS. You can install this software on a server and access it from any client provided that you are connected to the server's network and you have a browser. Odontolinux! features patient's data, multiple treatment plans, ledger, payments, invoices and much more. The user can choose between english and italian language. 
Open Directory Project (WWW, Netscape) 
Open Distributed Processing (ISO) 
OverDrive Processor (Intel) 
OverDrive Processor Replacement (Intel) 
Ontrack Data Recovery (Ontrack, Software, Netware) 
Optimized Dynamic Routing (SNI) 
Offenes Deutsches Schulnetz (network) 
Office Dialog System (OA) 
Open Data Services 
Optical Data Systems [inc.] (manufacturer) 
Output Delivery Database 
Overhead Data Stream 
Open Directory Service Interfaces (MS, Windows NT) 
Online Debugging Technique 
Open DeskTop (SCO, GUI) 
produce modified copy of DVI file 
convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript 
translate a dvi file for humans 
Outlook Express (MS, Internet) 
Open eBook [standard] (MS, NuvoMedia, ...) 
Organizational Engineering for Communications and Organizational Systems (SNI, OA) 
Original Equipment Manufacturer 
OEone HomeBase
OEone provides complete Internet computer systems, with hardware and Linux based software. OEone HomeBase Software 1.2 provides powerful computing, entertainment, television, personal productivity, backup services, automatic updates, software upgrades, and more for an Internet computer. 
Operand Execution Pipelines (Motorola, CPU) 
Olivetti EntsorgungsService (Olivetti) 
Overflow Flag (assembler) 
Optimal Flexible Architecture (Oracle) 
Open Financial Connectivity (MS, banking) 
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) 
Oldenburg Forschungsinstitut Fuer Informatikwerkzeuge und -Systeme (org., Uni Oldenburg) 
convert Omega and TeX font-metric files to property-list files 
Object File System 
Output Field Separator (AWK) 
OFfice of the Telecommunications Authority (org., Hongkong) 
ODETTE File Transfer Protocol (ODETTE) 
A secure anonymous FTP server Designed from the ground up to be as secure as an anonymous FTP server can be. It runs as non-root and uses chroot() to hide the rest of the system from the ftp daemon. It is designed to work efficiently with threads. 
Open Financial eXchange (banking, Intuit, MS, Checkfree, USA) 
/og/ v. [CMU] 1. In the multi-player space combat game Netrek, to execute kamikaze attacks against enemy ships which are carrying armies or occupying strategic positions. Named during a game in which one of the players repeatedly used the tactic while playing Orion ship G, showing up in the player list as "Og". This trick has been roundly denounced by those who would return to the good old days when the tactic of dogfighting was dominant, but as Sun Tzu wrote, "What is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy, not his tactics." However, the traditional answer to the newbie question "What does ogg mean?" is just "Pick up some armies and I'll show you." 2. In other games, to forcefully attack an opponent with the expectation that the resources expended will be renewed faster than the opponent will be able to regain his previous advantage. Taken more seriously as a tactic since it has gained a simple name. 3. To do anything forcefully, possibly without consideration of the drain on future resources. "I guess I'd better go ogg the problem set that's due tomorrow." "Whoops! I looked down at the map for a sec and almost ogged that oncoming car." 
plays Ogg Vorbis files 
encode audio into the Ogg Vorbis format 
gives information about Ogg files. 
DVD player with support for DVD menus Ogle is a DVD player with DVD menu support. This is the vanilla version, with no special CPU support. If you have a recent i386, powerpc, you will want to install the optimized package, ogle-mmx or ogle-altivec respectively. 
OpenGate - Router Access Node ??? (RND), "OG-RAN" 
Off-Hook (MODEM) 
? Host Controller Interface (USB, Compaq, OPTI, Apple, UHCI) 
Command line H.323 client with X, SVGA and SDL support Supports both voice and video phone calls using H.323 Voice over IP (VoIP) conferencing. Allows you to initiate and receive H.323 calls from the command line, can interoperate with any other H.323 client like GnomeMeeting or NetMeeting. It can be used interactively via a menu interface or simply via command line arguments. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at 
Operator Information Area (IBM) 
Oh, I See (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Object IDentifier (OSI) 
Replacement ident daemon An ident (rfc1413) daemon for IPv4 and IPv6. oidentd allows users, given the proper permission, to specify the identd response that the server will output when a successful lookup is completed. Oidentd also allows for pseudo-random strings (either a prefix, such as "user," followed by a number between 0 and 99999, or 10 pseudo-random characters of the set 0-9A-Za-z) to be returned upon the completion of a successful lookup instead of a username or a UID. Oidentd supports IPv4 masqueraded connections, including netfilter. 
Object Interface Definition Language 
Oracle Internet Development Pack (Oracle, Internet) 
Outgoing InterFace (PIM, IIF, Multicast) 
Operations-Intelligence Interface (mil.) 
Optically Interconnected Integrated Circuits [project] (ESPRIT) 
Operator Identification Language (ELI) 
Open Information Model 
Open Internet Platform (Caldera, Linux, SCO) 
Open Information Warehouse (SAP, R/3) 
OSI Implementors Workshop (OSI) 
Modified jclasses.dtx of ASCII pLaTeX. Provides jsarticle.cls, jsbook.cls and jspf.cls but jspf.cls are yet in experimental state. Also provides morisawa.sty with which one can use Morisawa Basic-5 type faces in TeX files. Morisawa Basic-5 type faces should be installed in your PS printer. 
On-Line Analytical Processing. 
OnLine Analytical Processing (DB) 
report process status 
Object Linking and Embedding 
Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED) 
Object Linking and Embedding Directory Services (ODSI, MS), "OLE DS" 
GNU spreadsheet program Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheet). It is an X client and also runs on character-based terminals. It can generate embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable by users. 
Open Linking and Embedding of Objects (OLE, OpenDoc) 
Organic Light-Emitting Polymer [display] 
Originating Line Information 
Oxford Library Information System 
OpenLook Interface Toolkit (OpenLook) 
OnLine Interactive Virtual Reality, "OLiVR" 
OnLine Library Information 
OnLine Monitor 
Output Logic Macro Cell (GAL) 
OnLine Programming System 
OnLine Real-Time 
Online Library System 
OnLine Test Executive Program 
Optical Line Terminating Multiplexer, "O-LTM" 
OnLine Transaction Processing 
OpenLook virtual window manager This package contains an extended version of olwm, the original OpenLook window manager, enhanced for handling of virtual desktops. 
Open Look Window Manager This package contains the traditional Open Look Window Manager. For an extended version that offers virtual desktops, have a look at the package `olvwm'. 
OpenLook Window Manager (OpenLook) 
Open MPEG consortium 1 (org., MPEG), "OM-1" 
Object Management Architecture (OMG) 
Operation and Maintenance Center (PLMN, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Open Messaging Environment (Novell) 
extended unicode TeX 
A text-based roguelike game Omega is a complex rogue-style game of dungeon exploration. Unlike other such games, there are a number of ways to "win", depending on various actions taken during play. The ways you can get your name on the high score board include becoming the highest ranked head of a guild, sect, college, etc., as well as gaining the most points figured from possessions and experience. The game (via the oracle) may impose some structure on your exploration, but you need not follow all of the oracle's advice. There *is* a "total winner" status, by the way. 
Object Management Framework (DME) 
Object Module Format (IBM, MS) 
Open Media Framework (org.) 
Open Media Framework Interchange (OMF) 
Object Management Group (IBM, HP, DEC, Tandem, Sun, org.) 
Open Messaging Interface 
Optical Mode Interface SuperTwisted Nematic (LCD), "OMI-STN" 
Markup language converter to html. OpaL Markup Language Content System is a extended html-like language defined in xml. It makes writing of content lot easier because it can fetch data from other files in a automated way. 
Open Network Management 
The Omni printer driver provides support for over 300 printers using the Ghostscript framework. In addition, it provides a model for dynamically loading printer drivers, creating new devices by editing device description files, and simplifies new printer driver development by allowing for the subclassing of previous device features. 
omniORB - idl compiler omniORB is a freely available Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) 2.3 compliant object request broker (ORB) implementation. It is based on the IIOP communications protocol and should be interoperable with any other CORBA 2.3 compliant ORB. This includes the core idl compiler. 
Omoikane GNU/Linux
This appears to be a Debian based distribution translated to Japanese. 
Optical Mark Reader (Fax) 
Optical Mark Recognition 
Object Management System 
Open Music System (MIDI, Opcode Systems) 
A tool for mirroring web pages. OpaL Mirror Tool is a program written in perl to mirror web pages or download files from the web. It has the powerful ability to rewrite the content of the pages to make a fully functional mirror and the user can specify additional rewrite rules at the command line. 
Object Management Technique (Westmount, CASE) 
Object Modelling Technique (CASE) 
Open Network Architecture 
Operations Network Administration Center 
Off Network Access Line 
Open Network Computing (Sun) 
OnCore OS
OnCore Systems, Inc. provides the OnCore OS, a highly optimized embedded OS that dynamically allocates Memory Management Unit (MMU) protected memory, which enables fully independent address spaces. 
Open Network Computing eXternal Data Representation (Sun), "ONC XDR" 
Open Network Environment (Netscape) 
one-time pad (Vernam Cipher)
In cryptography, the one-time pad encrypts data by XORing the plaintext against a stream of truely random bits. In theory, the one-time pad is the only unbreakable encryption algorithm, even with infinite resources or quantum computers. This is because if the key (aka. pad) is totally random, then the ciphertext will be random as well. Problem: While the one-time pad is perfectly secure in theory, it has problems in practice, and is rarely used. The major problem is how one distributes the one-time pads to all the receivers. This can be done in some cases, such as sending out CD-ROMs full of random bits with soldiers on the battle-fields, but it becomes unwieldy for normal uses of cryptography. Key point: The pad (secret key) can be used only once. If it is ever used twice, then much of the plaintext can be easily recovered. This means that the pad must be as long as the data being encrypted. History: The one-time pad was invented by G. S. Vernam in 1926, and saw heavy use during WWII. It is still used today in diplomatic corps, spies, the Washington-Moscow "hot-line". Rumor: There are many short-wave radio stations throughout the world broadcasting a human voice reading off long lists of numbers. These are thought to be messages sent to spies throughout the word who decode them with one-time pads. Key point: Today's encryption algorithm are based upon the theoretical underpinnings of the one-time pad. 
one-time password (S/Key) . . . .
A password authentication enhancement, the one-time password allows you to log on only once with a password, after which that password is no longer valid. The way this works is that instead of having a normal password you would memorize, you are given a list of passwords. You use each password sequentially. You might use a hardware device that maintains the list for you. Each time you login, you ask the hardware device for the next password. Key point: The true secret (such as the password used to encrypt the passwords) is never sent across the wire. A hacker could certainly sniff the password from the wire, but it is now useless. Example: The original OTP system was named "S/Key"; a term trademarked by Bellcore. The idea was to create a password authentication system that integrated seamlessly to existing UNIX systems. Other approaches require replacing existing protocols/software with secure password exchanges (like challenge-responses or public-key crypto). However, it should be noted that the S/Key protocol is still vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. 
a cat chases the cursor (now a mouse) around the screen A cat (neko) chases the cursor (now a mouse) around the screen while you work. Alternatively, a dog chases a bone. 
The program oneko creates a cute cat chasing around your mouse cursor. 
Command line for X OneLiner creates a single-line command prompt at the bottom of the screen, displaying your current directory and keeping track of all the directories you've been in and commands you've run during the current session. This is a complete re-write; OneLiner has progressed from a quick Tcl/Tk hack, to an ever-so-slightly more advanced C/Tk hack, and now to C/GTK+! The interface is practically the same, but items won't get duplicated on the history menus now. 
Operator Number Identification 
ONline Information eXchange [guidelines] 
When you are logged onto a computer through your modem, you are said to be online. When you are using your computer but are not connected to a computer through your modem, youOre said to be working offline. On-line is also a Buzz word that indicates access to a computer network. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Open-Network Management System 
A complete, Open Source, Web-based Time-Billing solution A commercially supported, GPL'd web application to allow for the collection and approval of hours via the Web. Clients, jobs, personnel, and hours are modeled and managed by the system. Nightly reports give managers a list of their jobs and unapproved hours. A flexible backend is provided for integration with billing systems. See for more information and inquiries about commercial support, integration, or development. 
Object Orientated 
Object Oriented, any programming language or other system which is based on the concept of grouping related routines and data structures together in 'objects'. 
(Emacs) Object Oriented Class Browser The oo-browser is a multi-windowed, interactive object-oriented class browser similar in use to the well-known Smalltalk browsers. It is unique in a number of respects foremost of which is that it works well with a multiplicity of object-oriented languages. It provides both textual views within an editor and graphical views under the X window system and Windows. oo-browser provides support for Java, C++/C, Object-C, Python, Smalltalk, Eiffel and last but not least Lisp. More information can be found at the oo-browser web site . 
Optimizing Oberon-2 to ANSI-C Compiler Oberon-2 is an object-oriented programming language, a successor of Pascal, designed by the renowned Niklaus Wirth. It combines the popular and proven design of Pascal (strict type system, easy to read code, easy to follow program flow, possibility to naturally structure your source code) with the modularity of Modula-2 and enhances both of them with clean, simple but powerful object-oriented concepts, including inheritance, dynamic type information, virtual methods, various access rules on class and module basis and a built-in garbage collector. OO2C is the first compiler of the Optimizing Oberon-2 Compiler (OOC) project. OOC's goal is to provide optimizing native code Oberon-2 compilers for a number of popular computer architectures. 
Object Orientated [system] Analysis (OOP) 
Object Orientated Analysis and Design (OOP) 
Object Orientated COBOL Task Group (CODASYL, org., OOP) 
Object-Oriented Design 
Object Oriented Data Base (OOP, DB) 
Object Orientated Database Management System (DBMS, DB) 
Object Orientated Dynamic Language (OOP) 
Office of The Future (OA) 
Out of Frame (DS3/E3) 
Object-Oriented Language (OOP) 
Open Objects Library (OS/2) 
Object-Oriented Methodology (OOP) 
Out of memory 
Solitaire card game for x11. Oonsoo is a solitaire card game for x11. The goal of the game is to arrange the twelve suits of cards, in order, onto the twelve playing decks. 
Object Orientated Programming 
Object-Oriented Programming Language (OOP) 
HTTP caching proxy server written for performance OOPS is lightweight but powerful proxy cache. It's main features are: * HTTP/1.1 (without persistent connections yet) and FTP * Fast start. It is ready to serve requests immediately after start. * On-disk storages are checked in background, while serving requests directly from network * Clean reconfiguration on SIGHUP - no broken sessions, new settings applied to new connections * Easy-to-read/understand config file and acl's * Bandwidth control * Modular structure. Several module types exist: logging, access, output, error reporting, URL filtering, ... * Objects are stored in large files: no file per object scheme. * These large files can be raw devices (like /dev/hda) 
Object Oriented Program Support (OOP) 
Object-Oriented Programming System (OOP) 
[conference on] Object Orientated Programming Systems, Languages and Applications (ACM, OOP, conference) 
Object Orientated Programming for SmallTalk Application Development association (org., OOP) 
Object-Oriented Systems 
Object Orientated System Analysis (OOP) 
Object-Oriented SHell (OOP, Shell) 
Object-Oriented Technology (OOP) 
Original Poster (slang, Usenet) 
Open Publishing Architecture 
Online Public Access Catalogue (Internet) 
A set of modules for the opal packages. OpaL Perl Modules is a set of perl modules used for various tasks. 
OLE for Process Control (OLE) 
OpenGL Performance Characterization [project group] (OpenGL, org.) 
Optical Proximity Correction 
Organic Photo Conductor 
Overall Performance Category 
Original Program Clock Reference 
Operation Protocol Data Units 
available for modifications. not controlled by a single manufacturer. 
open and possibly create a file or device 
Open Protocol Enhanced Networks 
start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT). 
The open command starts a specified command with the first available virtual console, or on a virtual console that you specify. Install the open package if you regularly use virtual consoles to run programs. 
open architecture
A system in which all the system specifications are made public so that other companies will develop add-on products such as adapters for the system. See open bus system. 
Open Sound System
a device driver for accessing sound cards and other sound devices under various UNIX operating systems. OSS has been derived from the Linux Sound Driver. The current version supports almost all popular sound cards and sound devices integrated on computer motherboards. 
Open Source
A somewhat ambiguous term that refers to software that is released with its source code. The fact that the source code is provided does not necessarily mean that users can modify and redistribute the source code. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with "free software", although they are not always the same. (Also, see Public Domain and Shareware.) 
open source
n. [common; also adj. `open-source'] Term coined in March 1998 following the Mozilla release to describe software distributed in source under licenses guaranteeing anybody rights to freely use, modify, and redistribute, the code. The intent was to be able to sell the hackers' ways of doing software to industry and the mainstream by avoid the negative connotations (to suits) of the term "free software". For discussion of the followon tactics and their consequences, see the Open Source Initiative site. 
open source
Term coined in March 1998 following the Mozilla release to describe software distributed in source under licenses guaranteeing anybody rights to freely use, modify, and redistribute, the code. The intent was to be able to sell the hackers' ways of doing software to industry and the mainstream by avoid the negative connotations (to suits) of the term "free software". 
Open Source Software
Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed. 
open source software (OSS)
Non-proprietary software in which the software source code is available and can be adapted by users to suit their needs. 
open standard
A set of rules and specifications, which collectively describe the design or operating characteristics of a program or device, that is published and made freely available to the technical community. Open standards may contribute to rapid market growth if they encourage interoperability (the ability of a device made by one manufacturer to work with a device made by a different manufacturer). The opposite of an open standard is a proprietary standard which a company pushes in the hope that its standard, and no others, will come to dominate the market. 
Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model
An international standard for the organization of local area networks (LANs) established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) that improves network flexibility. Synonymous with ISO/OSI reference model. The OSI reference model separates the communication process into distinct layers insulated from each other, such as the physical, data and transport. 
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Standard developed by ISO to allow computer systems running network operating systems to communicate using a seven-layer model. 
image files for OpenAmulet, a GUI toolkit This package contains the image files needed by certain OpenAmulet programs. The OpenAmulet Toolkit is a portable toolkit designed for the creation of 2D direct manipulation graphical user interfaces. It is written in C++ and can be used with Unix systems running the X Window System (Motif look), PC's running Microsoft Windows NT or `95 (native look), or Macintosh systems running MacOS (native look). The Amulet research project in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University is creating a comprehensive set of tools which make it significantly easier to create graphical, highly-interactive user interfaces. The lower levels of Amulet are called the `Amulet Toolkit,' and these provide mechanisms that allow programmers to code user interfaces much more easily. Support is provided for: object selection, save/load, undo, and constraints. As the group at Carnegie Mellon University is no longer funded for its work on Amulet, some Amulet users have founded the OpenAmulet project which has continued its development. For more information, see and 
"Open-source" describes a set of political values espoused by many on the Internet. When creating software, a programmer will write code. Code is the "source" from which the software is built. This source code is then compiled into object binaries. It is not feasable to reconstruct the source code from the binaries, which means that somebody using software cannot see the source code from which it was built. The political view is that people should be able to view the source, that is should be "open" for reading by anybody. The primary reason is that open-source increases "freedom". People are free to make changes as they like to the source-code, thereby fixing bugs or adding features to their software. There is also a level of paranoia involved: people fear that closed-source they can't read may be doing something subversive, such as secretly monitoring people for the government. Controversey: Open-source advocates believe that it is beneficial for the following reasons: security Security is founded upon the principle of peer review. This is especially true in the world of crypto, where nothing is accepted without years of vetting by members of the crypto community. In the same fashion, many paranoids will trust only peer-reviewed, open-source software. However, as of 2001, both open-source and closed-source have been the source of massive security problems (such as the many popular Linux worms). cost Open-source software licenses are usually free. However, since software licenses for many products are much smaller than operational costs, it price is not as important as other things. For example, BIND and Sendmail are popular not so much for their free licenses, but more for the fact that they have been the standard for more than 15 years. These products are well understood, and therefore cheap for companies to operate. stability and bugs The peer-review model suggests that bugs can be easily found and fixed. However, both open-source and closed-source suffer from the fact that source-code is a constantly moving target. In both cases, new code is being written faster than existing code is being fixed. There are some open-source projects (e.g. OpenBSD) where developers concentrate on stabilizing code rather than moving forward to the latest and greatest features. However, some people think that projects like Linux are too fast a moving target to ever quite stabilize. Since the source-code is open, developers can easily change it to add features. However, few people are developers, and the code is often so poorly documented, adding changes to it can often be more of a burden than starting over from scratch. Example: The following are well known open-source projects: Linux, Apache, sendmail, BIND, Samba, Perl, Mozilla, MySQL 
The AFS distributed filesystem- database server AFS is a distributed filesystem allowing cross-platform sharing of files among multiple computers. Facilities are provided for access control, authentication, backup and administrative management. It should be installed on the servers that will act as volume location and protection servers. 
H.323 answering machine This program does the job of a real answering machine but for H.323 Voice over IP (VoIP) based phones, this is, answers calls and plays previously recorded messages and then records new ones for you to hear afterwards. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at 
Convert and manipulate chemical data files Openbabel is a GPL and C++ rewrite of the 'babel' program to convert the various file formats used in chemical software. The command-line interface is mostly identical to the old 'babel' executable and recognizes these file formats among many others: Alchemy, ChemDraw, GAMESS, Gaussian, HyperChem, MDL Isis and Molfile, MOPAC, MPQC, PDB, SMILES and XYZ. Right now, openbabel is not a 100% replacement for babel as some file formats and bond order prediction are not yet supported. 
extensible C++ compiler OpenC++ is a tool for source-code translation for C++. Programmers can easily implement various kinds of translation so that they can define new syntax, new annotation, and new object behavior. Web Page: 
The OpenClassroom Project is an initiative to develop a complete administrative system for the school. It includes tools for teachers, students and administrators. 
H.323 voice over IP gatekeeper OpenGatekeeper supports all the basic features of an H.323 Gatekeeper such as registration, admissions and access control, address translation and bandwidth monitoring and control. To utilise the gatekeeper you require a H.323 client, such as simph323, ohphone or even MS Netmeeting. It also supports many advanced features such as: - Gatekeeper routed calls - Support of H.323v2 alias types (party number, URL, transport id and email address) - Support for gateway prefixes - Registration and call activity logs - Neighbour gatekeeper database - Registration time to live 
OPEN Graphics Language (OpenGL), "OpenGL" 
OpenGL is an immediate mode graphics programming API originally developed by SGI based on their previous proprietary Iris GL, and became in industry standard several years ago. It is defined and maintained by the Architectural Revision Board (ARB), an organization that includes members as SGI, IBM, and DEC, and Microsoft. OpenGL provides a complete feature set for 2D and 3D graphics operations in a pipelined hardware accelerated architecture for triangle and polygon rendering. In a broader sense, OpenGL is a powerful and generic toolset for hardware assisted computer graphics. From 3DFX-HOWTO
H.323 gatekeeper H.323 gatekeeper controls all H.323 clients (endpoints like MS Netmeeting) in your zone. Its most important function is address translation between symbolic alias addresses and IP addresses. This allows you to call "jan" instead of knowing which IP address he currently works on. To utilise the gatekeeper you require a H.323 client, such as simph323, ohphone or even MS Netmeeting. - can send LRQ to neighbour GK based on prefix - authentication mechanism - Alternate gatekeeper option - rewriting of E.164 numbers - "ping" endpoints (heartbeat) - TCP interface for monitoring and controlling the GK 
Open Host Controller Interface (USB), "OpenHCI" 
Jade (James' DSSSL Engine) is an implementation of the DSSSL style language -- Document Style Semantics and Specification Language --an ISO standard for formatting SGML (and XML) documents. 
Implementation of the DSSSL language OpenJade is an implementation of the ISO/IEC 10179:1996 standard DSSSL language. It is based on James Clark's Jade software. This is the latest stable release of OpenJade. For the latest-and-greatest/bleeding-edge, install the `openjade' package. The OpenJade processor, in conjunction with a DSSSL style sheet, is capable of translating SGML documents into other formats. Output formats currently supported are RTF, HTML, MIF, JadeTeX, or an XML representation of the flow object tree. Using it's own non-standard system, it is also capable of transforming one SGML or XML DTD to another. Author: The OpenJade Team <> Homepage: 
An open-source version of lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). 
OpenLDAP is an open source suite of LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) applications and development tools. LDAP is a set of protocols for accessing directory services (usually phone book style information, but other information is possible) over the Internet, similar to the way DNS (Domain Name System) information is propagated over the Internet. The openldap package contains configuration files, libraries, and documentation for OpenLDAP. 
H.323 conferencing server OpenH323 console interactive conferencing server that allows two or more people using a H.323 client to talk to each other in chat rooms. The server mixes the sound coming from all participants and splits the image so that up to 4 of them can be seen. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at 
Utilities to administer an openmosix cluster node Openmosix is an extension to the linux kernel to support scalable and transparent cluster computing. The enhanced kernel allows a cluster of workstations and servers based on the Intel x86 architecture to work cooperatively as if part of a single system. This package provides the utilities to run a openmosix cluster. 
This is the Open Motif 2.2.1 runtime environment. It includes the Motif shared libraries, needed to run applications which are dynamically linked against Motif, and the Motif Window Manager "mwm". 
OpenNA Linux
The OpenNA Linux Operating System provides a highly secure and fast Linux server. Dedicated for mission critical tasks in the servers domain, the OpenNA Linux operating system provides a secure, strong, reliable and fast solution. A beta4 development version was released July 22, 2002. Release Candidate 2 was released March 24, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
Open source Napster server. Napster is a protocol for sharing files between clients. The server acts as a broker and search engine for client transfers. It also features group and private chat, similar to IRC. 
openoffice is an Open Source, community-developed, multi-platformoffice productivity suite. It includes the key desktop applications, such as a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, formulaeditor and drawing program, with a user interface and feature set similar to other office suites. Sophisticated and flexible, also works transparently with a variety of file formats, including Microsoft Office. Usage: Simply type "ooffice" to run or select the requested component (Writer, Calc, Draw, Impress, etc.) from your desktop menu. The ooffice wrapper script will install a few files in the user's home, if necessary. is an Open Source, community-developed, multi-platform office productivity suite. It includes the key desktop applications, such as a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, forumula editing and drawing program, with a user interface and feature set similar to other office suites. Sophisticated and flexible, also works transparently with a variety of file formats, including Microsoft Office. Languages available in* packages include: Enligh,French, German, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Sweddish, Finnish, Polish,Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Danish, Greek, Turkish, Czech,Catalan, Arab, Slovak.Localized help files available in* packagesinclude: English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Sweddish, Russian,Finnish, Czech, Japanese, Korean, Chinese. Spell-checking and hyphenation dictionaries are available in myspell-*and myspell-hyph-* packages, respectively. Please install the onesthat better suit your language needs.Usage: Simply type "ooffice" to run or select the requested component (Writer, Calc, Draw, Impress, etc.) from your desktop menu. The ooffice wrapper script will install a few files inthe user's home, if necessary. 
OpenJade group's SGML parsing tools This package is a collection of SGML/XML tools called OpenSP. It is a fork from James Clark's SP suite. These tools are used to parse, validate, and normalize SGML and XML files. The central programs included in this package are 'onsgmls', which replaces sgmls, 'ospam', 'ospent', 'osgmlnorm', and 'osgml2xml'. 
SSH (Secure Shell) a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands in a remote machine. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh, and provide secure encrypted communications betweentwo untrusted hosts over an insecure network. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. OpenSSH is OpenBSD's rework of the last free version of SSH, bringing it up to date in terms of security and features, as well as removing all patented algorithms to separate libraries (OpenSSL). This package includes the core files necessary for both the OpenSSH client and server. To make this package useful, you should also install openssh-clients, openssh-server, or both. 
The open source implementation of the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. 
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) binary and related cryptographic tools. This package contains the openssl binary and related tools. It is part of the OpenSSL implementation of SSL. You need it to perform certain cryptographic actions like: o Creation of RSA, DH and DSA key parameters o Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs o Calculation of Message Digests o Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers o SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests o Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail . 
The openssl certificate management tool and the shared libraries that provide various encryption and decription algorithms and protocols, including DES, RC4,RSA and SSL. This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in theOpenSSL Toolkit ( This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young( This product includes software written by Tim Hudson ( 
3D Universe Simulator OpenUniverse (OU for short) is a fun, fast and free OpenGL space simulator. It currently focusses on the Solar System and lets you visit all of its planets, most major moons and a vast collection of smaller bodies in colorful, glorious and realtime 3D. If you've ever had a chance to visit Mercury or asteroid Geographos, here you'll find them looking exactly the same way, following exactly the same path as when you've left them. 
A graphical chat written in tcl/tk. OpenVerse is a graphical visual chat client/server written in tcl/tk. Anyone who has seen Virtual Places, The Palace, or any other visual chat can quickly relate to what OpenVerse is. This package includes both the client program and server code. 
VRML X11 viewer This package contains lookat, a X11 VRML viewer using openvrml 
start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT). 
Openwall GNU/Linux
"Owl" (or "Openwall GNU/*/Linux") is a security-enhanced operating system with Linux and GNU software as its core, compatible with other major distributions of GNU/*/Linux. It is intended as a server platform. The Owl 0.1-prerelease was released on May 11, 2001. Version 1.0 was released October 14, 2002. A 'secured' distribution. 
The OpenZaurus project was aimed at building a kernel and filesystem for the Sharp SL-5000d and SL-5500. Version was released August 8, 2002. After that the project became a Debian based embedded distribution built from source. It is quite similar to other embedded debian-based distributions, such as Familiar for the Ipaq. This is still an open source Linux for the Sharp Zaurus, using the latest available Opie. Ports of OpenZaurus to other PDAs and/or other embedded systems are imminent (as of January 28, 2003). OpenZaurus 3.1 release candidate 2 was announced January 24, 2003. Handhelds/PDA based distribution. 
Operating system
A master control program that manages the computer's internal functions and provides a means to control the computer's operations. The most popular operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows and MacOS. 
operating system
n. [techspeak] (Often abbreviated `OS') The foundation software of a machine; that which schedules tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the user between applications. The facilities an operating system provides and its general design philosophy exert an extremely strong influence on programming style and on the technical cultures that grow up around its host machines. Hacker folklore has been shaped primarily by the Unix, ITS, TOPS-10, TOPS-20/TWENEX, WAITS, CP/M, MS-DOS, and Multics operating systems (most importantly by ITS and Unix). 
operating system
Software that shares a computer system's resources (processor, memory, disk space, network bandwidth, and so on) between users and the application programs they run. Controls access to the system to provide security.
operating system
The foundation software of a machine; that which schedules tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the user between applications. 
operating system (OS)
The main control software of a computer system; handles task scheduling, storage, and communication with peripherals. All applications installed on a computer system must communicate with the operating system. Linux is one example of an operating system. 
Open Prepress Interface (DTP) 
OPIE programs for generating OTPs on client machines This package contains the necessary generators to produce one-time passwords (OTPs) which allow you to log into systems running OPIE aware daemons. 
OPIE programs for maintaining an OTP key file Creates an OTP key file. Probably not useful without libpam-opie 
OEM Pre-installation Kit (MS, Windows, OEM) 
Open Publication License (OCL) 
Organizer Programming Language (Psion, PDA) 
convert Omega and TeX property-list files to font-metric files 
Operations Per Second (CPU) 
Oracle Parallel Server (Oracle) 
Open Platform for Secure Enterprise Connectivity (org., manufacturer, IDS) 
Open Protocol Technology 
Options Parsing Tool shared library opt is a subroutine library which facilitates the convenient input of parameters to a C program. Parameters are parsed from a command line, with further facilities for reading options from files, from environment strings, or from an interactive environment. The aim of the opt package is to permit programs to be both user- and programmer- friendly. The package attempts to on the one hand provide a direct and relatively full-featured input interface to the ultimate user of the program, and at the same time impose a minimal amount of work on the programmer to "attach" the package to his or her software. It is similar to GNU's (and AT&T's old) getopts package, but with a different interface that might be easier to use. 
The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts builtin command. 
If set to the value 1, bash displays error messages generated by the getopts builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below). OPTERR is initialized to 1 each time the shell is invoked or a shell script is executed. 
The index of the next argument to be processed by the getopts builtin command. 
An argument on a command line, usually preceded by a minus sign, that modifies the functioning of the command-also known as a flag or a switch. For example, the -x option on the command line vi -x allows the vi editor to read an encrypted file. 
Object Query Language (ODMG) 
Originator / Recipient (X.400, MOTIS), "O/R" 
Opportunities and Risks of Artificial Intelligent Systems (conference, GI) 
Orange Book
n. The U.S. Government's standards document "Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, DOD standard 5200.28-STD, December, 1985" which characterize secure computing architectures and defines levels A1 (most secure) through D (least). Modern Unixes are roughly C2. See also crayola books, book titles. 
Orange Linux
Orange Linux is a floppy-based Linux distribution that includes a set of tools for making your own distribution, a VGA graphics library, and a small Pong game. Initial version 1.0 was released March 11, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
Object Request Broker (OMA, OMG, CORBA, ORB) 
A CORBA ORB (used with Gnome) ORBit is a lightweight CORBA ORB designed for use with the Gnome project. (Nothing about it requires Gnome, though.) This package contains command-line utilities for various ORBit services: orbit-ird, name-client, orbit-name-server, orbit-event-server, ior-decode. 
ORBit is a high-performance CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) ORB (object request broker). It allows programs to send requests and receive replies from other programs, regardless of the locations of the two programs. CORBA is an architecture that enables communication between program objects, regardless of the programming language they are written in or the operating system they run on. 
A CORBA ORB (used with Gnome) ORBit2 is a high-performance CORBA ORB originally designed for use with the GNOME project. (Nothing about it requires GNOME, though.) This package contains command-line utilities, such as name-client-2, orbit-name-server-2 and ior-decode-2. 
Online Resource Control Aid 
Object Relational Database Management System (DBMS, DB) 
GNOME application for schematic capture of electrical circuits Oregano is an application for schematic capture and printing of electrical circuits. It can also be used for simulations if you have Berkeley Spice. 
The original awk described in "The AWK Programming Language" This is the version of awk described in "The AWK Programming Language", by Al Aho, Brian Kernighan, and Peter Weinberger (Addison-Wesley, 1988, ISBN 0-201-07981-X). 
Office Resource Kit (MS, Windows) 
Optical Remote Module 
A lightweight themeable window manager for X. Oroborus is a small and simple window manager which does exactly what it says it does, manage windows. There is no fancy doc, clip, wharf, or a root menu for that matter. These utilities can be provided by other programs such as "deskmenu". Oroborus has support for Gnome and session management, or can be run as a stand-alone window manager. This package has also been compiled with Xinerama support. Oroborus is small, about 40Kb at the time of this package. It has full keyboard control and is very themeable. 
Optical Read Only Memory (ROM), "O-ROM" 
Java VM and JIT from Intel Research Lab. ORP stands for Open Runtime Platform, which is an Intel(TM) Open Source research platform for investigating dynamic compilation and memory management technologies. The basic ORP system incorporates a fast code generating JIT (Just-In-Time) as well as an optimizing JIT. It also includes several GC (Garbage Collection) algorithms, ranging from a simple mark-sweep algorithm to an advanced train algorithm. 
Free java class libraries (specific to ORP JVM) GNU Classpath is a set of essential libraries for supporting the Java language. Our goal is to provide a free replacement for Sun's proprietary class libraries so that the GNU system can run programs written in the Java language. This specific package has additional files that are specific to the ORP JVM. It is only suitable for use with the ORP JVM. 
n. [Unix] A process whose parent has died; one inherited by init(1). Compare zombie. 
orphaned i-node
/or'f*nd i:'nohd/ n. [Unix] 1. [techspeak] A file that retains storage but no longer appears in the directories of a filesystem. 2. By extension, a pejorative for any person no longer serving a useful function within some organization, esp. lion food without subordinates. 
Output Record Separator (AWK) 
Ongoing Reliability Test 
An alternative to the standard write program Orville Write is an alternative to the default write program. It has many features which are not present in the default write including helper flags, telegrams, access control, and more. The Orville Write home page is at: 
/O-S/ 1. [Operating System] n. An abbreviation heavily used in email, occasionally in speech. 2. n. obs. On ITS, an output spy. See "OS and JEDGAR" in Appendix A. 
Operating System 
see operating system (OS). 
OS (operating system)
An operating system is software that sits between "user" programs (applications, services). 
/O S too/ n. The anointed successor to MS-DOS for Intel 286- and 386-based micros; proof that IBM/Microsoft couldn't get it right the second time, either. Often called `Half-an-OS'. Mentioning it is usually good for a cheap laugh among hackers -- the design was so baroque, and the implementation of 1.x so bad, that 3 years after introduction you could still count the major apps shipping for it on the fingers of two hands -- in unary. The 2.x versions are said to have improved somewhat, and informed hackers now rate them superior to Microsoft Windows (an endorsement which, however, could easily be construed as damning with faint praise). See monstrosity, cretinous, second-system effect. 
Operating System /2 (IBM, OS), "OS/2" 
Operating System 200 (Honeywell), "OS/200" 
Operating System 2000 (Honeywell), "OS/2000" 
Oregon State Open Shop Opearating System (OS, CDC 3300), "OS-3" 
Operating System /32 - Multitasking Time (OS, Interdata), "OS/32-MT" 
Operating System /32 - Serial Time (OS, Interdata), "OS/32-ST" 
Operating System /360 (IBM, OS), "OS/360" 
Operating System /4 (OS, UNIVAC 9700), "OS/4" 
Operating System /400 (IBM, OS), "OS/400" 
Operating System /7 (OS, UNIVAC 9700), "OS/7" 
Operating System /700 (OS, Honeywell), "OS/700" 
Operating System /8 (OS, DEC, PDP 8), "OS/8" 
Operating System - 9 (Microware, OS), "OS-9" 
Object System Adaptor (SOM) 
Office Systems Administrator (OA) 
Open Scripting Architecture (Apple, OS/2) 
Operator Services Assistance Center 
Open Systems Application Kernel 
Overflow Sequential Access Method (SAM) 
Optical Storage and Retrieval 
Ohio Supercomputer Center (org., USA) 
OnScreen Configuration & Activity Reporting (Apex) 
Operating System Command Response Language 
OnScreen Display 
Open Software Description [manifest / standard] (MS, Marimba, XML, DU, DUP, MSIE) 
Clock using the XOSD library A clock which uses the X On-Screen Display library to display itself. It supports a strftime(3)-style format parameter and has can be configured to show up only at specific intervals. 
Open Source Development Lab (org.) 
Open Source Development Network (Open-Source, Network) 
Operating System for Distributed Switching 
Open Software / System Environment 
Open System Environment profile for Imminent Acquisitions (OSE), "OSE/IA" 
Open Software Foundation (HP, DEC, IBM, org.) 
Open Software Foundation, backers of MACH and other projects. 
Operations System Function (IN) 
Oppose Sun Forever [ aka Open Software Foundation] (slang, org.) 
OSF (Open Software Foundation)
A consortium of computer companies that promotes standards and publishes specifications for programs operating on computers that run UNIX OSF is perhaps best known for designing OSF Motif, a graphical user interface (GU1) for UNIX that provided much of the design inspiration for Microsoft Windows 95. OSF also developed the OSF Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) (a set of programs that supplement a vendor's operating system and enable cross platform network intqroperability and the OSF/I operating system, a publicly available variant of UNIX. See proprietary. 
Open Software Foundation [system] /1 (OSF, OS, DEC), "OSF/1" 
Open Systems Group (org.) 
Operator's Shell The Operator Shell (Osh) is a setuid root, security enhanced, restricted shell. It allows the administrator to carefully limit the access of special commands and files to the users whose duties require their use, while at the same time automatically maintaining audit records. The configuration file for Osh contains an administrator defined access profile for each authorized user or group. 
Open Systems Interconnection (ISO 9646-1) 
Open Systems Interconnection - a network model including protocols developed by an ISO standards committee with the intent to standardize network communications. 
OSI Communication Systems (OSI) 
Origination Signaling IDentifier 
[PPP] OSI Network Layer Control Protocol (OSI, PPP, RFC 1377) 
Open Systems Interconnection/Reference Model (ISO), "OSI/RM" 
ObjektSchluesselKAtalog (ATKIS) 
The Flux Operating System Toolkit, a framework for OS design This package is a collection of libraries designed to ease kernel development. Provided with libraries of commonly used functions, operating system developers can spend more time focusing on design and "interesting" code, and less time wrestling with extremely-low-level issues. 
Operating system Service Module (I2O) 
Optical Storage Manager (ARMS) 
Open Systems Message Exchange 
Operating System / Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks (OS, IBM S/360), "OS/MFT" 
Operating System / Multiple Virtual Space (OS, IBM, S/370, OS/MVT, successorr, OS/VS-2), "OS/MVS" 
Operating System / Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks (OS, IBM, S/360, S/370), "OS/MVT" 
Office System Node (IBM, DIA, OA) 
Open Systems Network 
OverScan Operation (VXA, Streamer) 
Optical Storage Processor 
Operating System / Primary Control Program (IBM, OS, OS/360, predecessor), "OS/PCP" 
An internet routing protocol, this stands for Open Shortest Path First. This is a relatively new protocol with many enhancements over RIP and other older systems. 
Open Shortest Path First [protocol / routing] (Internet, IGP, RFC 1583) 
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
OSPF is a "routing" protocol. It is used by routers (inside an ISP or corporation) to figure out which paths packets should take when forwarded through the network. Key point: OSPF can easily be subverted by "local" hackers. This means that hacker generally has to be within network area he/she wishes to subvert. The hacker will either pretend to be a router, or spoof packets from nearby routers. The most common technique is to "advertise" false information (spoof Link State Advertisements (LSA)). 
Operating System directed [configuration and] Power Management 
Object-Structured Query Language (DB, SQL, OODBMS) 
Optical Scanning Recognition 
Operating System / Real Time (OS, Destek Group), "OS/RT" 
Open Source Software 
Operator Service System 
See open source software (OSS). 
Written-only acronym for "Open Source Software" (see open source. This is a rather ugly TLA, and the principals in the open-source movement don't use it, but it has (perhaps inevitably) spread through the trade press like kudzu. 
OSS (Open Sound System)
A device driver for accessing sound cards and other audio devices under UNIX/Linux. It evolved from the Linux Sound Driver, and supports most popular audio chips and adapters. 
Program to save/restore OSS mixer settings This package saves the Open Sound System (OSS) mixer settings into a file when the machine is shut down, and restores them from the file when it is restarted. It can optionally restore from a file of fixed settings. 
Operating System / Single Virtual Space (OS, IBM, S/370, OS/VS2), "OS/SVS" 
Optical Storage Technology Association (org.) 
Open System Test Consortium (org., OSTC) 
Office of Science and Technology Policy (org., USA) 
Operating System / Virtual System - 1 (OS, IBM, S/370), "OS/VS-1" 
(IBM, MVS), "OS/VS2" 
Operating System / Virtual System - 2 (OS, IBM, S/370), "OS/VS-2" 
OS-9 Windows / Level 2, "OSW/L2" 
Operating System Work Station 
Object Technology 
Off Topic (slang, Usenet) 
Open Transport (Apple) 
Office of Technology Assessment (org., IBM, HP, AEG, AT&T, SNI, ...) 
translate WEB to Pascal 
Optical Time DOMAIN Reflectometer (cable) 
Object Transaction Monitor (COM, MTS) 
On The Other Hand (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Generator for One Time Passwords otp creates key and password lists for verification and security purposes in a variety of formats. Keys can be of any length, consist of digits or letters (capital or lower case), and alphabetic passwords can either be entirely random (most secure) or obey the digraph statistics of English text (easier to remember when transcribing, but less secure). For computer applications, for example one-time login passwords, otp can create a file containing the MD5 signature of each of the generated keys. This permits the computer to verify keys without the need to store the keys in plaintext. 
One Time Password 
One Time Programmable [chip] (IC) 
convert Omega Translation Process files to Omega Compiled Process files 
Open Transport/Point-to-Point Protocol (Apple, OT, PPP), "OT/PPP" 
One Time Programmable Read Only Memory (ROM, IC) 
Office TeleSystem (OA) 
Organizational Unit (MS, Windows NT, AD) 
Oxford University Computing Laboratory 
Occam User Group (org., user group) 
Organization Unique Identifier (IEEE) 
Organizational Unit Identifier 
Ovonic Unified Memory (ECD) 
A universal steganographic tool OutGuess is a universal steganographic tool that allows the insertion of hidden information into the redundant bits of data sources. The nature of the data source is irrelevant to the core of OutGuess. The program relies on data specific handlers that will extract redundant bits and write them back after modification. In this version the PNM and JPEG image formats are supported. 
debug an OCP file 
OUTward Wide Area Telephone Service 
Driver source for the OV511, a USB-only chip used in many webcams. This package contains the device driver source for the OV511, a USB-only chip used in many "webcam" devices. Any camera using the OV511/OV511+ and the OV6620 or OV7610/20/20AE image sensor should work. TV-capture devices with the SAA7111A decoder are supported as well. It supports streaming and capture of color or monochrome video via the Video4Linux API. Most V4L apps are compatible with it, and it supports most image widths and heights that are multiples of 8. 
bloody 2D action deathmatch-like game in ascii-art Throw away Doom, Quake and Duke Nukem - 0verkill comes. Now you don't even need graphic mode if you wanna take a bloody deathmatch with your friends. 
convert a virtual font file and its associated font metric file into property-list format 
Object, View, and Interaction Design 
convert a virtual property-list file into a virtual font file and its associated font metric file 
Object Windows Library (Borland, API) 
Open Windows Library (API) 
The user who creates a file and therefore has privileged access to it. 
The user who has privileged access to a file; typically the user who created the file. 
Optical Write Once Read Many, "O-WORM" 
DVI Previewer for the X Window System 
DVI Previewer for the X Window System 
DVI Previewer for the X Window System 

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