Linux-Dictionary ( I - L )

Inter Integrated Circuit [bus] 
sources for drivers for the i2c bus The i2c bus is used by many modern motherboards to provide hardware health monitoring data, like temperature and fan speed. The i2c drivers are used by the lm-sensors package to access this data. Note that i2c drivers are available in recent versions of the linux kernel, but the drivers in this package may be more up to date. This package contains the source for the i2c kernel modules. The kernel sources must be installed to compile these modules. 
English-Spanish translation dictionary. English to Spanish (and viceversa) translation dictionary. It can be used both in X and text mode and has a learning function that can be used to add more information to the provided dictionary. 
Intelligent Input/Output (Intel) 
Intelligent Input/Output [bus] 
Most commonly seen as a suffix to binary packages (such as RPM packages) to be installed on a Linux system. It simply means that the package was designed to be installed on 386 based machines, ie. 386 class machines such as the 386 DX-33. A i386 package will run on any x86 class machine. From Binh
International Imaging Industry Association (org., PIMA, successorr) 
Interactive 3D Audio Level 2 (audio) 
Most commonly seen as a suffix to binary packages (such as RPM packages) to be installed on a Linux system. It simply means that the package was designed to be installed on 486 based machines, ie. 486 class machines such as the 486 DX4-100. Packages for this class of machine will run on later x86 based systems but there is no guarantee that they will run on i386 class machines if there have been too many processor based optimisations implemented by the developer. From Binh
Interface, Inheritance, Implementation, Installation Definition Language (DME, OSF) 
ISDN for Linux (Linux, ISDN) 
Most commonly seen as a suffix to binary packages (such as RPM packages) to be installed on a Linux system. It simply means that the package was designed to be installed on 586 based machines, ie. 586 class machines such as the 586 Pentium-100. Packages for this class of machine will run on later x86 based systems but there is no guarantee that they will run on i386 class machines if there have been too many processor based optimisations implemented by the developer. From Binh
Most commonly seen as a suffix to binary packages (such as RPM packages) to be installed on a Linux system. It simply means that the package was designed to be installed on the 686 based machines, ie. 686 class machines such as the Celeron 766. Packages for this class of machine will run on later x86 based systems but there is no guarantee that they will run on i386 class machines if there have been too many processor based optimisations implemented by the developer. From Binh
Dell Inspiron and Latitude laptop utilities This is a collection of utilities to control Dell Inspiron and Latitude laptops. It includes programs to turn the fan on and off, to read fan status, CPU temperature, BIOS version and to handle the volume buttons and Fn-keys. The package includes also a small Tk applet, designed to be swallowed in the gnome panel, which monitors the CPU temperature and comtrols automatically the fans accordingly to user defined thresholds. The programs require the kernel module i8k.o which can be compiled from the package sources or found in Linux kernel 2.4.14 and later versions. The kernel module has been tested only on Inspiron 8000 laptops but it should work on any Inspiron and Latitude laptops. 
Identification and Authentication, "I & A" 
Intel Architecture - 64 BIT (Intel), "IA-64" 
Initial Address Acknowledgment 
Intel Application Accelerator 
International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law (org., AI) 
Internet Activities / Architecture Board (RFC 1160/1601, Internet) 
InterApplication Communication (Apple) 
International Association for Cybernetics (org.) 
International Alliance for Compatible Technology (org.) 
ISDN AnschlussEinheit (ISDN, Telekom) 
Internet Address Finder (WWW) 
Internet Ad Hoc Committee (org., Internet) 
Institut fuer Angewandte Informatik (org.) 
Internet explorer Administrator Kit (MS, Internet) 
Internet Access Kit / 2 (IBM, OS/2), "IAK/2" 
Intel Architecture Labs (Intel) 
Initial Address Message 
An American English dictionary for ispell. This is the americanmed+ dictionary, as supplied with the source for ispell. 
Internet Assigned Names (Numbers?) Authority; part of Internet governance. 
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (Internet) 
I Am Not A Lawyer (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
International Academic Networkshops (conference) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation (org., Stuttgart, Germany) 
International ADMD Operators Group (org., ADMD, X.400) 
Internet Access Provider (Internet) 
Intel Architecture Personal Computer (PC, Intel), "IA-PC" 
International Association on Pattern Recognition (org.) 
Initial Address Reject 
International Advanced Robotic Program (org.) 
Interactive Application System (DEC) 
Information Access Technology (Provider) 
International AIX User Group (org., Unix, AIX, user group) 
In Accordance With (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Instant BASIC for Java (Java, BASIC) 
Intel Baseline AGP System Evaluation Suite (AGP, Intel) 
InterBase Components (Borland, Delphi, InterBase) 
Integrated Broadband Communication Network 
Intel Binary Compatibility Specification Module The iBCS Emulator runs binaries for other Unixes. Emulations provided: * Sparc Solaris * i386 BSD (386BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDI/386) - very alpha, very old. * SVR4 (Interactive, Unixware, USL, Dell etc.) * SVR3 generic * SCO (SVR3 with extensions for symlinks and long filenames) * SCO OpenServer 5 * Wyse V/386 (SVR3 with extensions for symlinks) * Xenix V/386 (386 small model binaries only) Subsystems emulated: * SYSV IPC * /dev/socksys socket interface as used by the Lachman STREAMS based networking implementation. * BSD and Wyse V/386 system call socket interface. * /dev/spx STREAMS device (limited server support). * XTI/TLI transports for TCP, UDP and related protocols - client only (outgoing connections). Accepting connections untested. 
International Business EXchange (network) 
Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum fuer Informatik (org., GI) 
Integriertes BreitbandFernmeldeNetz 
/I-B-M/ Inferior But Marketable; It's Better Manually; Insidious Black Magic; It's Been Malfunctioning; Incontinent Bowel Movement; and a near-infinite number of even less complimentary expansions, including `International Business Machines'. See TLA. These abbreviations illustrate the considerable antipathy most hackers long felt toward the `industry leader' (see fear and loathing). What galled hackers about most IBM machines above the PC level wasn't so much that they were underpowered and overpriced (though that does count against them), but that the designs are incredibly archaic, crufty, and elephantine ... and you can't fix them -- source code is locked up tight, and programming tools are expensive, hard to find, and bletcherous to use once you've found them. For many years, before Microsoft, IBM was the company hackers loved to hate. But everything changes. In the 1980s IBM had its own troubles with Microsoft. In the late 1990s IBM re-invented itself as a services company, began to release open-source software through its AlphaWorks group, and began shipping Linux systems and building ties to the Linux community. To the astonishment of all parties, IBM emerged as a friend of the hacker community This lexicon includes a number of entries attributed to `IBM'; these derive from some rampantly unofficial jargon lists circulated within IBM's own beleaguered hacker underground. 
International Business Machines (manufacturer, IBM) 
Integrated Business Network 
InterBase Objects (Borland, InterBase) 
ISDN MPPP bandwidth on demand daemon ibod is a ISDN MPPP bandwidth on demand daemon designed to operate in conjunction with isdn4linux. The program monitors inbound and outbound traffic on the ISDN interface. When the required bandwidth exceeds the capacity for the current number of ISDN B-channels, more (slave) channels are connected according to the MPPP protocol. When the traffic decreases, the slave channel(s) are disconnected. 
Viewer for the International Beacon Project Ibp shows which of the beacons of the International Beacon Project is transmitting now. The user is presented with a list of Beacons with the current beacon highlighted. In a separate graphical window the position and short/long path to the beacon can be seen. The list can be viewed in either single or multiband mode, a Maidenhead locator, when used as an argument, shows distance and azimuth to each beacon. You will need an accurate clock because the beacons transmit at 10 second intervals. 
The Brazilian Portuguese dictionary for ispell. This is the Brazilian Portuguese dictionary for ispell as put together by Ricardo Ueda Karpischek <>. Current status is good enough to be used for daily needs. This dictionary is being developed in a structured way. Verbs are treated apart by a specific software, a verb conjugator (conjugue). Names are partitioned into semantic classes to make vocabulary completion and revision easier. See for more information. 
A British English dictionary for ispell. This is the britishmed+ dictionary, as supplied with the source for ispell. Because of the way this dictionary is built it contains many American spellings as well as British spellings (e.g. both "analyze" and "analyse" are considered valid). 
Integrated Circuit 
Independent Computing Architecture (Cytrix, Windows NT, ASP) 
Information Connection Architecture (SGI) 
Integrated Chameleon Architecture (SGML) 
Integrated Communications Architecture 
Intelligent Communication Adapter (Banyan, VINES) 
International Communications Association (org.) 
International Committee for Accessible Document Design (org.) 
Synchronise mobile phone address books. 
International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (EATCS, conference) 
Individual Customer Access Network 
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (org., Internet, ICANN) 
Internet Calendar Access Protocol (TCP/IP, Lotus) 
"cat" a mailbox from an IMAP source 
Interactive Code Analysis Tool [debugger] (IBM, Java) 
The Catalan dictionary for ispell This is the Catalan dictionary for ispell as put together by Ignasi Labastida i Juan <> from a list of words by Joan Dolg. 
Intelligent Communications Control 
Intergrated Circuit Card (ICC) 
International Color Committee (org.) 
International Conference on Communications (conference) 
Internode Communication Channel (SMP, Scalis) 
International Conference on Computer Aided Design (IEEE, conference) 
InterClient Communication Convention (X-windows) 
International Conference on Computer Communication (conference) 
International Council on Computer Communication (org.) 
InterClient Communication Convention Manual (X-Windows) 
International Conference on Computer Design (IEEE, conference) 
International Conference on Computing and Information (conference) 
International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications (AI, conference) 
Integrated Communications Cabling System (SNI) 
Installable Client Driver (OpenGL) 
International Code Designator (ATM) 
Integrated Cached Disk-Arrays 
Integrated Communications DataBase (DB) 
International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (INRIA, IEEE-CS) 
Information and Content Exchange 
ICE authority file utility 
Break the iceberg So, uh, there's a bunch of penguins on an iceberg in Antarctica. You have been selected to catch them so they can be shipped to Finland, where they are essential to a secret plot for world domination. In order to trap the penguins, you'll need to break the iceberg into small chunks. (They're afraid of water, for no apparent reason. Ah well. "The Matrix" had more plot holes than this, and it still was a hit.) You do this by melting lines in the ice with Special High-Tech GNU Tools. Once 80% or more of the iceberg is gone, the remaining chunks are small enough for shipping. Of course, if you manage to get rid of more than that, you'll save on postage, thus earning you exponential amounts of Geek Cred (a.k.a. "score"). 
Icecast is an Internet based broadcasting system based on the Mpeg Layer III streaming technology. It was originally inspired by Nullsoft's Shoutcast and also mp3serv by Scott Manley. The icecast project was started for several reasons: a) all broadcasting systems were pretty much closed source, non-free software implementations, b) Shoutcast doesn't allow you to run your own directory servers, or support them, and c) we thought it would be a lot of fun. Icecast is almost completely Shoutcast compatible as far as we've been able to determine. WinAmp can both send encoded streams as well as stream music from icecast. Icecast can also use the directory services and adds the ability to use other directory services. 
Configuration tool for icewm A nice, graphical configuration tool for the icewm window manager. 
IceLinux is trying to build the Linux Gaming Platform of the future using Red Hat 7.1 as a base. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Editor for IceWM menus IceMC is a Qt-based application that configures your IceWM menus and toolbar. 
A graphical menu editor for IceWM IceMe is a graphical menu and shortcut editor for the IceWM window manager, written in Python and GTK+. You can edit menu entries with drag and drop as well as cut and paste. Both the default menu and the local menu in the users home directory can be edited. 
Icepack Linux
Icepack Linux is a full-featured Linux distribution built from scratch. Version 1.0 released on February 13th 2001. It's optimized for the i586 family of processors and aims to be user-friendly in both installation and configuration. Icepack 2.91 was released April 27, 2003. 
Yet another configuration tool for IceWM Another GUI-based configuration tool for the IceWM window manager, including easy selection of fonts and other config options. 
A wonderful Win95-OS/2-Motif-like window manager Window Manager for X Window System. Can emulate the look of Windows'95, OS/2 Warp 3,4, Motif. Tries to take the best features of the above systems. Features multiple workspaces, opaque move/resize, task bar, window list, mailbox status, digital clock. Fast and small. Extra themes are available from the icewm-themes package. 
International Cryptographic Framework (HP, cryptography) 
I/O Controller Hub [aka Southbridge] (Intel, I/O, GMCH) 
Intelligent Connection Handling (BIG) 
Industrial Computing Initiative (LLNL, LANL, Cray, ..., HPC, MPP) 
International Communications Industries Association (org.) 
An ICQ2000 client for GTK+ Ickle is an ICQ client which is able to communicate with ICQ servers using the new ICQ2000 protocol. This offers much better reliability than the older ICQ99 protocol. ickle has a constantly improving interface, now supporting history browsing, and much more. Ickle currently supports: * Sending/Receiving normal messages * Sending/Receiving URLs * Sending/Receiving SMS messages * Retrieving away messages This version is compiled without gnome support, for gnome support install the package `ickle-gnome'. 
International Computers Limited (manufacturer, UK, USA, Japan, Fujitsu) 
Image Color Matching (MS, Windows 95, API) 
Intelligent C-like MAKEr, or the ICce MAKE utility Icmake is a hybrid between a 'make' utility and a 'shell script' language. Originally, it was concocted to provide a useful tool for automatic program maintenance and system administrative tasks on MS-DOS platforms. 
International Computer Music Conference (fair) 
Internet Control Message Protocol [version 4] (TCP/IP, RFC 792, Internet) 
Interpret ICMP messages. Icmpinfo is a tool for looking at the ICMP messages received on the running host. It can be used to detect and record 'bombs' as well as various network problems. 
ICMP packet builder icmpush is a tool that builds ICMP packets fully customized from command line. It supports the following ICMP error types: Redirect, Source Quench, Time Exceeded, Destination Unreach and Parameter Problem. And the following ICMP information types: Address Mask Request, Timestamp, Information Request, Echo Request, Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement. 
Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6 (Internet, IPV6, RFC 1885), "ICMPv6" 
??? [transport level interface standard] 
animate an icosahedron or other polyhedron 
Software control for ICOM radios This program allows you to control many types of ICOM radio (transceivers and receivers) from the serial port on your computer. You need a CI-V interface circuit to connect the radio to the computer (to convert between RS-232 and TTL), which can be easily found on the web. 
Interactive spelling checking 
Icom PCR-1000 command line control icomlib is the PCR-1000 control suite. It consists of a library, command line programs, and a QT widget GUI application. This software controls an ICOM PCR-1000 receiver via a serial interface. 
Icom PCR-1000 control shared libraries icomlib is the PCR-1000 control suite. It consists of a library, command line programs, and a QT widget GUI application. This software controls an ICOM PCR-1000 receiver via a serial interface. 
Libraries for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon program library, a library of Icon procedures and programs contributed by Icon users. 
Compiler for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon compiler. It generates programs that generally run faster than those of the icont/iconx Icon interpreter. On the other hand, the Icon compiler takes much longer to compile programs and is more memory-hungry than the iconx/icont pair. As such, the compiler is probably only useful to speed up the execution of large Icon programs once they are fully developed and debugged. 
Interpreter for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon translator, which converts Icon source code into `ucode` that can then be executed with the help of the iconx program. 
Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another 
perform character set conversion 
Executor for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon executor, iconx, which is needed to execute interpreted Icon programs. If you are starting from Icon source code (as opposed to precompiled `ucode' files), you will also need the icont package, which converts your Icon source into a program that iconx can execute. 
Internet Company Of New Zealand (org., Usenet) 
Institute for new generation COmputer Technology (org., Japan, FGCS) 
Extract MS Windows icons and cursors Icoutils is a set of programs that deal with MS Windows icons and cursors. Resources such as icons and cursors can be extracted from MS Windows executable and library files with ``wrestool''. Conversion of these files to XPM images is done with ``icotool''. ``extresso'' automates these tasks with the help of special resource scripts. 
Independent Content Provider (MSN) 
Intelligent Computer Peripherals (manufacturer) 
Interface Change Proposal 
Internet Caching Protocol (Internet) 
[I seek you] (Internet, ICQ) 
Intelligent Character Recognition 
Internet Content Rating Association (Internet, org., IBM, MS, AOL, ...) 
IBM Cabling System 
International Classification for Standards (ISO) 
Internet Connect Sharing (MS, IE, DHCP) 
Irish Computer Society (org., Irland) 
Intelligent Channel/Storage Control, "IC/SC" 
International Computer Science Institute (org., USA) 
Internet Connection Secure Server (IBM, WWW) 
Internet Content Task Force (org., Internet) 
Instruction Cache Unit (CPU, POWER) 
Interactive Chart Utility (IBM, GDDM) 
International Components for Unicode (non locale data) ICU is a C++ and C library that provides robust and full-featured Unicode and locale support. The library provides calendar support, character set conversions, language-sensitive collation, date and time formatting, support for more than 140 locales, message catalogs and resources, message formatting, normalization, number and currency formatting, time zones support, transliteration, word, line and sentence breaking, etc.... This package contains the Unicode data, converters and aliases data, and timezone data. It also contains the tools needed to manipulate these data. 
ISA Configuration Utility (BIOS, PNP, ISA) 
I see you are too wise (slang) 
The Czech dictionary for ispell. This is the Czech dictionary for ispell. Author: Petr Kolar <> 
A UNIX command that identifies the user account under which it is executed, including UID, GID, groups, and associated names. Key point: This is often the first command a hacker will run on the system when the hacker breaks in remotely. The hacker will remotely compromise a service that is running under either root account, a special account setup for that service (e.g. the majordomo service runs under a user account called "majordomo"), or a user's account. The hacker is hoping they have achieved root access immediately. If not, the hacker will have to run a local exploit in order to elevate privileges. The other popular command hackers might execute is id. Example: Running id as root on one of my systems results in: uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),1(bin),2(daemon),3(sys),4(adm),6(disk),10(wheel),11(floppy) 
print real and effective UIDs and GIDs 
Fast, high-capacity, identifier database tool. Actually, the term `identifier' is too limiting--`mkid' stores tokens, be they program identifiers of any form, literal numbers, or words of human-readable text. Database queries can be issued from the command-line, or from within emacs, serving as an augmented tags facility. 
An ID3 Tag Editor A command-line based program that can list, modify, or delete ID3 tags from a file. ID3 tags are a way of identifying streaming music files. You can store Artist, Album, Title, Track, Year, and Genre in a tag, as well as a 28-character comment. 
Another id3 tag editor A command-line program that allows you to add/edit/remove id3 tags on mp3 files. This one will, if run with just the name of a file to edit, allow you to change the tags interactively. Like other id3 tag editors, it can still be used in scripts easily. 
id3 tagger and renamer Tool used to rename batches of mpeg3 files by reading the ID3 tag at the end of the file which contains the song name, artist, album, year, and a comment. The secondary function of id3ren is a tagger, which can create, modify, or remove ID3 tags. The id3 fields can be set on the command line, entered interactively, or "guessed" from the path and the filename. 
A command line editor for id3 tags. A simple and complete editor for id3 tags. Highly recommened for scripting and bulk operations where you need to edit id3 tags from scripts. Can also be used to read id3 tags. 
A command line id3v2 tag editor Adds/Modifies/Removes/Views id3v2 tags, converts/lists id3v1 tags 
Interchange of Data between Administrations (org., Europe) 
Infobus Data Access Component (Lotus, Java) 
The Danish dictionary for ispell. This is the Danish dictionaries, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Danish texts. 
Integrated Database API (DB, IBM, Novell, Borland, predecessor, BDE, API) 
Interchange DAta Structure 
Integrated DataBase (DB) 
Integrated DataBase Extract Format (IDB, DB) 
Integrated DataBase Transaction Format (IDB, DB) 
Inter-Device Communication (IBM, OS/2) 
International Data Corporation 
Inverse Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) 
International Direct Distance Dialing 
Integrated Development Environment 
Integrated Drive Electronics (HDD) 
See Integrated Device Electronics (IDE). 
S.M.A.R.T. status checking tool for IDE hard disk drives ide-smart performs various non-destructive tests on a SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology) capable IDE device. SMART provides near future failure prediction by monitoring different attributes (listed as IDs) of the device. Your BIOS and hardware need to support SMART to use this package. 
International Data Encryption Algorithm (cryptography) 
Internet Design, Engineering, and Analysis notes (IETF) 
IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm)
IDEA is a symmetric block cipher algorithm. It is popular because it is used in PGP, but due to commercial licensing issues, it is not popular elsewhere. Controversy: IDEA is one of the few (widely-used) ciphers protected by patents; it requires a license for commercial use. PGP is no longer using IDEA as its default cipher because of this. Notes: It was developed by Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey. It uses 128-bit keys. There is no known way to break it other than brute-force. It was published in 1990. Its patents are held by the Swiss company "Ascom-Tech AG". Misconception: The name implies that IDEA is some sort of official standard -- it isn't. However, it is is widely used, and is an option on many standards. Applications: PGP 
Integrated [CAM] DEFinition (CAM) 
identify RCS keyword strings in files 
An advanced ident daemon ident2 is an advanced, configurable ident daemon. You can set it to lie, not lie, or not return any response at all, and it is per-user configurable (e.g. if user daniel was IRCing, it'd use ~daniel/.ident for its config, if user kim was IRCing, it'd use ~kim/.ident). The admin can specify whether users can configure the type of return they want or not. 
TCP/IP IDENT protocol server 
identd / auth
The identd (also known as auth) service on UNIX can be used to identify the owner of a TCP connection. As the auth name implies, it was originally intended to be used as some sort of authentication mechanism. Nowadays, it is most commonly used simply as a way of logging who does what activity. Example: When you connect to a UNIX-based mail server, it will usually attempt a reverse connection back to you on the identd port 113. Its goal is simply to log which user was attempting access to the server. 
International Demonstration and Education System (R/3, SAP) 
Intrusion Detection Expert System (IBM, IDS, XPS) 
view properties and settings of IDE drives 
Intel Developer Forum (Intel, conference) 
International Data Group (org.) 
Initial DOMAIN Identifier (NSAP, IDP) 
Integrated Dealer and Importer System (MBAG) 
Interactive Data Language (Research Systems) 
Interface Definition Language (DCE, CORBA) 
OMG IDL font-locking for Emacs This module adds font-lock highlighting to the Emacs IDL-mode. This will be useful for people doing CORBA stuff, but it is not related to the Interactive Data Language. 
ISDN Data Link Control (ISDN) 
An IDE for Python using Tkinter IDLE is an Integrated Development Environment for Python. IDLE is written using Tkinter and therefore quite platform-independent. 
International Date Line, East [+1200] (TZ) 
make process 0 idle 
International Date Line, West [-1200] (TZ) 
Inter-DOMAIN Multicast Routing (IETF, WG, Multicast) 
IDMS Linux
IDMS Linux is NOT a home user distribution. It is intended solely as the base for high end server software. No GUI's, No X, No fancy stuff. The initial Freshmeat announcement was for version 2.0.25, dated June 22, 2002. Version 2.2.8 was released January 5, 2003. 
Integrated Digital Network 
Intermediate DOCuments (ALE, SAP) 
Information and Data on Open MEdia for NEtworks of USers (WWW, Uni Hamburg, Germany) 
Initial DOMAIN Part (NSAP) 
Internet Datagram Protocol (XNS) 
??? Redundancy Check (Datenkompression) 
Information Delivery System 
Intelligent Decision Server (IBM) 
Inter Data Systems [gmbh] (manufacturer) 
Internal Directory System 
Intrusion Detection System (IDS) 
IDS (intrusion detection system)
An IDS is a security countermeasure. It monitors things looking for signs of intruders. Contrast: A host-based IDS monitor system events, logfiles, and so forth. A network-based IDS monitors network traffic, usually promiscuously. Contrast: A firewall simply blocks openings into your network/system, but cannot distinguish between good/bad activity. Therefore, if you need to allow an opening to a system (like a web-server), then a firewall cannot protect against intrusion attempts against this opening. In contrast, intrusion detection systems can monitor for hostile activity on these openings. More: See for more info. 
Interactive Digital Software Association (org., Nintendo, Sony, MS, ...) 
Interoperability Decision Support System 
A tool for testing network intrusion detection systems. idswakeup is a Bourne shell script invoking hping2 (required) and iwu (part of this package) to generate false alarms in order to check if a network intrusion detection system works all right. idswakeup requires no configuration and includes many common attack simulations. 
Integrated Device Technology (manufacturer) 
Interrupt Descriptor Table 
Interrupt Descriptor Table Register Cache (IDT, CPU, Intel) 
Interface Data Unit 
Independent Data Unit Protection Generic Security Service API (GSS, API), "IDUP-GSS-API" 
The Dutch dictionary for ispell, in new (August 1996) spelling. A Dutch spelling dictionary for the spelling checker ispell. The dictionary contains 119996 roots, which expand to 227480 words. For a simple word list, see the wdutch package instead. 
Individuelle DatenVerarbeitung 
Integrated Data/Voice Channel 
Information Element (ATM, ISDN) 
Information Engineering 
[international conference on] Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems (conference, ISAI, ..., AI), "IEA/AIE" 
Inter-Exchange Carrier (AT&T, MCI, LEC) 
International Electrotechnical Commission (org., Switzerland) 
Informix Enterprise Command Center (Informix) 
International Electron Device Meeting 
Institute of Electrical Engineers (org., UK) 
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (org., USA) 
see Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE. 
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers - Computer Society (org., IEEE), "IEEE-CS" 
??? (org.) 
Information Engineering Facility 
??? (org.) 
Internet EMail Marketing Council (Internet, org., spam) 
Interactive Electronic Mail Standard Identification 
Internet Engineering Notes 
Internet Experiment Notebook (predecessor, RFC) 
Internet Engineering and Planning Group (Internet, RFC 1690) 
International Electronic Publishing Research Centre (org., PIRA) 
Intelligent Emulation Switching (Epson) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Experimentelles Software Engineering (org.) 
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IETF) 
The Esperanto dictionary for ispell. This is the the Esperanto dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary is based on the words from Plena Ilustrita Vortaro, with additional country/language names. It accepts Latin-3, `cx' and `^c' forms. 
Acronym for the Internet Engineering Task Force, The IETF is the protocol engineering and development arm of the Internet, the IETF Home Page provides specific information in excruciating detail. 
Internet Engineering Task Force (org., IAB, Internet, RFC 1603/2418) 
See Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). 
Internet Engineering Task Force - Working Group (RFC 1603, IETF), "IETF-WG" 
Interactive Electronic Technical Manual 
Interim European Telecommunications Standards (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Information Engineering Workbench (IBM) 
Information Flow (IN) 
International Federation for Automatic Control (org., Austria) 
Institute of Applied Computer Science (org., Denmark) 
The Faroese dictionary for ispell. This is the Faroese dictionaries, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Faroese texts. 
InterFace Clear (GPIB) 
Internet FAQ Consortium (Internet, FAQ, org.) 
Internet Foundation Classes (ONE, Netscape, Java) 
Fidonet Technology transport package Ifcico is a FidoTech mailer for connecting to other nodes via the phone or the Internet. This version includes the "tx" patches and other misc patches. 
Independent Flow Control Messages (SSP) 
configure a network interface 
Information Flow Diagram (IRM) 
take a network interface down 
Internet Forum Europe (fair) 
Attach and detach slave interfaces to a bonding device. This is a tool to attach and detach slave network interfaces to a bonding device. A bonding device will act like a normal Ethernet network device to the kernel, but will send out the packets via the slave devices using a simple round-robin scheduler. This allows for simple load-balancing, identical to "channel bonding" or "trunking" techniques used in switches. The kernel must have support for bonding devices for ifenslave to be useful. 
Internet to Fidonet gateway The program can act as a gateway between email and netmail and Usenet newsgroups and echomail. This version includes the "tx" patches and other misc patches. 
Printer filter for HP LaserJet printers ifhp is a highly versatile print filter for BSD based print spoolers. It can be configured to handle text, PostScript, PJL, PCL, and raster printers, supports conversion from one format to another, and can be used as a stand-alone print utility. It is the primary supported print filter for the LPRng print spooler. It provides access to printer features like duplex printing, paper tray selection and strong accounting using the printer's internal page counter. 
A medium-size Finnish dictionary for Ispell This is a medium-size version of the Finnish dictionary, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Finnish texts. Since Ispell is not really good at spell checking the kind of languages such as Finnish, this dictionary may not be as useful as the dictionaries for other languages. This dictionary recognizes roughly 1.9 million words and word forms. Ispell requires about 10 megabytes of memory when using this dictionary. For most uses, this version of the Finnish dictionary is recommended. 
Intelligent FDDI Input Output Module (SMC, ES/1, FDDI) 
International Federation of Information Processing societies (org.) 
Internet to Fidonet gateway The package contains common files needed by ifcico and ifgate packages. This version includes the "tx" patches and other misc patches. 
Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol (IP) 
International FidoNet Association (org., Fido) 
print identifiers that a package uses in C preprocessor conditionals 
Instruction Fetch Pipeline (Motorola, CPU) 
ifplugd is a Linux daemon which will automatically configure your ethernet device when a cable is plugged in and automatically unconfigure it if the cable is pulled. This is useful on laptops with onboard network adapters, since it will only configure the interface when a cable is really connected. 
Interleaved Frame Recording (video) 
The French dictionary for ispell (Hydro-Quebec version). This is a French dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary contains roughly 50,000 roots, which expand to about 220,000 words. This is the Martin Boyer and Hydro-Quebec version. You may prefer to use the GUTenberg version installed by the ifrench-gut package. 
one line per message summary of IMAP mailbox 
ICOT Free Software (ICOT) 
Installable File System (OS/2, DOS) 
Intelligent Fax System (Ricoh) 
Internal Field Separator (Unix, AWK) 
Internet File System (Oracle, DB, Internet) 
bring a network interface up 
High level tools to configure network interfaces This package provides the tools ifup and ifdown which may be used to configure (or, respectively, deconfigure) network interfaces, based on the file /etc/network/interfaces. 
Interactive Financial eXchange (USA, banking) 
online image gallery generator iGal is a Perl-based program that can generate and publish an entire online picture show (HTML slides, thumbnails and index page included) with just one command line invocation. If you've got a directory (or several) full of image files that are waiting to be put online and shared with friends, then iGal is for you. iGal is well documented, flexible, and configurable through command line options and HTML templates, specific to each gallery. Generated slide shows include a JavaScript trick to preload the next image in the slideshow - ideal for slow links. 
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IC) 
Institute for Global Communications (USA) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Graphische Datenverarbeitung (org., Darmstadt, Germany) 
The German dictionary for ispell. This is the German dictionary for ispell as put together by This dictionary refers to the old German orthography. For the new orthography see ingerman. 
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (ANSI, USA, CIM, CAD) 
Internet Group Management / Multicast Protocol (RFC 1112/2236, IP, Multicast) 
IBM Global Network (network) 
Industry/Government Open System Specification 
Interior Gateway Protocol 
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)
A protocol for exchanging infromation between gateways (hosts with routers) within an autonomous network (for example, a system of corporate local area networks). The routing information can then be used by the Internet Protocol (IP) or other network protocols to specify how to route transmissions. There are two commonly used IGPSs: the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. From IGP
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IPX, Novell) 
IBM Global Services (IBM) 
Integrated Heat Spreader 
The Hungarian dictionary for ispell. This is the Hungarian dictionary for ispell made by NEMETH Laszlo <> home: 
Independent Hardware Vendor 
Information Industry Association (org.) 
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (org., Austria) 
Institute for Information processing and Computer supported new Media (org., Oestereich) 
Interface IDentifier (COM) 
Incoming InterFace (PIM, OIF, Multicast) 
Internet/Intranet Input Method Emacs Client Framework IIIMECF conforms IIIM Protocol Specification defined by Sun Microsystems, and consists of a library to create IIIM awarded applications and a simple input method library controlled by IIIM server(s). (This input-method is denoted by "iiimcf-sc" hereafter.) 
Integration of Internet Information Ressources (IETF) 
International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (org., USA) 
Integrated Injection Logic 
Integrated Information Network 
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (CORBA, Internet, ONE, GIOP, TCP/IP) 
Interoperability Improvement Panel 
Infinite Impulse Response (DSP) 
If I Remember/Recall Correctly (Usenet, IRC, slang) 
Intelligence Information System (mil.) 
Internet Information Server (MS) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Integrierte Schaltungen (org.) 
Interim Inter-Switch Signaling Protocol (P-NNI, ATM) 
Integrated Information Technology 
The italian dictionary for ispell. Questo dizionario, da usarsi con il programma ispell, contiene oltre 185.000 parole italiane. 
Information Infrastructure Task Force (org., USA) 
If I Understand Correctly (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Real-time software synthesizer based on the Soundfont2 specifications. IIWU Synth is made of two applications: iiwusynth and iiwuplay. iiwusynth reads and handles MIDI events from the MIDI input device, it is the software analogue of a MIDI synthesizer. iiwuplay is a MIDI file player that allows to render a MIDI file using a Soundfont. 
International Joint Committee / Conference on Artificial Intelligence (conference, org., AI) 
Initial Java Heap (Java) 
Interactive spelling checking 
IBM Kiosk for Education (IBM) 
Internet Keyed Payment [protocols] (IBM, WWW), "iKP" 
I know You Are But What Am I? (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Independent Local Exchange Carrier 
International Law Enforcment Telecom Seminars (ETSI) 
Integrierte Logische Funktionen fuer Anwendungen (IWBS, Uni Karlsruhe, Germany, Uni Duisburg, Germany) 
ILLinois Genetic Algorithm Laboratory (org., Uni Illinois, USA), "IlliGAL" 
ILlinois LIbrary NETwork (network, USA) 
Illuminator Distributed Visualization Library Demo This little library provides contour surface viewing for PETSc's 3-D distributed array objects using the Geomview viewer. This package contains a demonstration program "chts" (Cahn-Hilliard timestep). With mpich, you can run it in parallel using "mpirun -np X /usr/bin/chts" where X is the number of processes (optimally equal to the number of processors), as long as process 0 has access to your X display. 
Illuminator Distributed Visualization Library This little library provides contour surface viewing for PETSc's 3-D distributed array objects using the Geomview viewer. This package contains the shared libs. 
Interim Link / Local Management Interface (ATM) 
[european] Inductive Logic Programming scientific NETwork 
Intelligente LernSysteme 
[Linux] Instructor Led Training (Linux, Caldera) 
Information Management 
Interface Module 
Internet Message This package provides a series of user interface commands (im* commands) and backend Perl5 libraries to integrate Email and NetNews user interface. They are designed to be used both from Mew and on command line. The folder style for Mew is exactly the same as that of MH. So, you can replace MH with this package without any migration works. Moreover, you are able to operate your messages both by IM and MH with consistent manner. If you want to use RPOP protocol support, You should install perl-suid package. 
Interactive Multimedia Association (org.) 
International MIDI Association (org.) 
Isochronous Media Access Control (FDDI), "I-MAC" 
International ??? (org.) 
An archive file usually with the extension .iso, .img, or .raw that is used to create a CD-ROM, DVD, or diskette. 
Image manipulation programs. Imagemagick is a set of programs to manipulate various image formats (JPEG, TIFF, PhotoCD, PBM, XPM, etc...). All manipulations can be achieved through shell commands as well as through a X11 graphical interface (display). Possible effects: colormap manipulation, channel operations, thumbnail creation, image annotation, limited drawing, image distortion, etc... This package suggests a postscript interpreter (gs) to read postscript files. It will however function happily without it (as long as you don't want to read postscript). 
ImageMagick is a powerful image display, conversion and manipulation tool. It runs in an X session. With this tool, you can view, edit and display a varietyof image formats. 
Intelligent MAIL 
C preprocessor interface to the make utility 
Integrated Media Architecture Laboratory (Bell, org., USA) 
In My Arrogant Opinion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Internet Message Access Protocol (RFC 2060) 
see Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). 
IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) IMAP4
IMAP is a popular protocol for users to retrieve e-mail from servers. It is likely supported by the mail client that you use, such as Netscape or Outlook. Key point: IMAP is important to hackers because many implementations are vulnerable to buffer overflow exploits. In particular, a popular distribution of Linux shipped with a vulnerable IMAP service that was enabled by default. Therefore, even today, security professionals frequently detect scans directed at port 143 looking for vulnerable IMAP servers. 
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers. Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc. IMAP is defined in RFC 2060 
copy or move messages from an IMAP inbox to a local mailbox 
Internet Message Access Protocol server 
A tool for creating client-side image maps A simple (yet useful and free) tool for creating client-side image maps, supporting GIF and JPEG images. 
copy mailboxes between IMAP servers 
Intel Media Bench 
??? (org.), "IM&C" 
Information Management Concept 
In My Considered Opinion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
A console jabber client IMcom is a text based jabber client written in python. IMcom has the look and feel of micq and is a good replacement for micq users who want to use a free instant messaging system. See for more information on the jabber instant messaging system. 
Internet Movie DataBase (Internet, WWW, DB) 
Input Method Editor (MS, Windows) 
International Mobile Equipment Identity (MS, GSM, mobile-systems) 
IMplementation Guide (R/3, SAP) 
Add WIDTH and HEIGHT attributes to IMG tags in HTML files. The imgsizer script automates away the tedious task of creating and updating the extension HEIGHT and WIDTH parameters in HTML IMG tags. These parameters help many browsers (including Netscape) to multi-thread image loading, instead of having to load images in strict sequence in order to have each one's dimensions available so the next can be placed. This generally allows text on the remainder of the page to load much faster. The package needs either the imagemagick package or both the file and libjpeg-progs packages. 
A timestamping utility for webcam images imgstamp is a utility that "watermarks" a JPEG image with a line of text. It can stamp the text onto the image with a variety of styles, fonts, and orientations. It can also upload the stamped image to an FTP server, which is useful for webcam scripts. 
PalmPilot/III Image Conversion utility This program can convert, compress, and decompress 4-bit grayscale images for displaying on the PalmPilot. It can take any pbm, pnm, pgm file generated by the netpbm package and convert it into a suitable image for the Pilot. A suitable viewer for the Pilot or PalmIII that is freeware can be found at 
In My Humble Opinion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
International Medical Informatics Association 
Initial Machine Load 
Imlib is a display depth independent image loading and rendering library. Imlib is designed to simplify and speed up the process of loading images and obtaining X Window System drawables. Imlib provides many simple manipulation routines which can be used for common operations. Install imlib if you need an image loading and rendering library for X11R6, or if you are installing GNOME. You may also want to install the imlib-cfgeditor package, which will help you configure Imlib. 
Imlib is a display depth independent image loading and rendering library. Imlib is designed to simplify and speed up the process of loading images and obtaining X Window System drawables. Imlib provides many simple manipulation routines which can be used for common operations. Install imlib if you need an image loading and rendering library for X11R6. You may also want to install the imlib-cfgeditor package, which will help you configure Imlib. 
Configuration program for Imlib and GDK-Imlib This package contains imlib_config, a GTK app that will allow the user to set all of Imlib's properties. It writes to the global imrc or the users. 
Imlib is an imaging library for X and X11 Imlib is a low-level Xlib interface for X programmers. It allows easier access to many graphics formats and can write to them as well. 
Institut fuer Mathematische Maschinen und Datenverarbeitung (org., Uni Erlangen, Germany) 
WireX provides Immunix System 7 a secured Red Hat 7.0 distribution with StackGuard 2.0, FormatGuard 1.0, SubDomain 1.0 and a suite of application-level security tools. A Red Hat 6.2 version is also available. Immunix Secured Linux 7+ was released March 18, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
In My Not So Considered Opinion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
In My Not So Humble / Honest Opinion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
In My Opinion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Interface Message Processors (ARPANET, MILNET) 
Web Based IMAP Mail Program. A set of PHP3 scripts that implement an IMAP based webmail system. Assuming you have an account on a server that supports IMAP, you can theoretically use an installation of IMP to check your mail from anywhere that you have web access. IMP does not require an IMAP server to be running on the machine you install it on unless you are intending to have it use the current machine for it's IMAP connections. (If you are connecting to a remote server for your mail than you don't need IMAP) IMP requires a database to be running if you want to use the extended features such as the addressbook, and preferences. It currently uses PHPLib for the database interface so as long as PHPLib supports your database of choice your good to go. This package is designed to support PostgreSQL and MySQL directly. 
Information Market Policy ACTions (ECHO) 
WYSIWYG Publishing & Presentation for use With/without Web browser ImPress is a WYSIWYG layout program designed especially for Linux. It allows you to create presentations and Postscript documents using fully scalable graphics similar to programs like Macromedia Freehand, Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator and Visio. It is different from raster graphic packages like gimp, Adobe PhotoShop and Jasc's PaintShop Pro in that it deals with graphical objects which can be manipulated on a canvas rather than just layers of paint. For more information: 
Information Management Representitive (IM) 
Internet Monthly Report (Internet) 
Interrupt Mask Register (IC) 
Information Management System (IBM) 
Integrated Management System 
Integrated Measurement Systems [inc] (manufacturer) 
Intelligent Manufacturing System (MITI) 
International Meta Systems (manufacturer) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Mikroelektronische Schaltungen und systeme (org., Dresden, Germany) 
Information Management System/Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM), "IMS/ESA" 
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (MM, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Integrated Micro Systems Operation (Intel) 
nternet Message Support Protocol (Internet) 
Information Management System/Virtual Storage, "IMS/VS" 
International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium (org., MS, Intel, Apple, IBM, SNI, AT&T, ...) 
Program to support the "wheel" on some new mice Various new mice, including the Microsoft IntelliMouse, and the Logitech MouseMan+, Wheel Mouse, and others, now have a "wheel" button in the middle of them. This wheel button acts both as a standard button (by pressing it), and a wheel, which under MS Windows may be used for scrolling windows around. This program supports the wheel scrolling operation by one of two means: 1. Some newer X servers support mapping the wheel to buttons 4 and 5, which imwheel then captures and supports, 2. Using a patched version of gpm, the normal mouse events are passed on to the X server through /dev/gpmdata (gpm's standard "repeater" mode), and in addition wheel events are sent to another pipe, /dev/gpmwheel. imwheel picks up these events, and translates them. 
Individual Network [e.v.] (org., ISP) 
Intelligent Network (ITU-T, Q.1200) 
biff server 
remote user information server 
Internet File Transfer Protocol server 
a small daemon that can be used to test Ident servers 
remote user communication server 
- POP3 server (v4.0) 
remote user communication server 
DARPA telnet protocol server 
DARPA Trivial File Transfer Protocol server 
Intelligent Network Architecture (IN) 
Intelligent Network Application Protocol (IN) 
A single measured cyber-attack. The problem with "incidents" is that it is often hard to quantify exactly what is going on. Sometimes "incidents" are detected that are actually due to networking anamolies that have nothing to do with hacking. Therefore, an "incident" starts life when something is detected. As time goes on, the incident will be updated with more information, such as grouping together related attacks. 
incident team
A team within a company who is responsible for responding to cyber-attacks. Key point: The following are useful resources to such a team: CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) The oldest incident organization, established in response to the Morris Worm. CIAC (Computer Incident Advisory Capability) Organization similar to CERT setup by the U.S. DoE (Department of Energy). They have an INCIDENTS mailing list companion to their BUGTRAQ mailing list where people discuss incidents they've seen. 
Intelligent Network Conceptual Model (IN) 
INternet COntent Rating for Europe (org., Internet) 
[international conference on] Information Networks and Data Communication (IFIP, conference) 
C language source code formatting program The `indent' program changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting whitespace. `indent' also provides options for controlling the alignment of braces and declarations, program indenting, and other stylistic parameters, including formatting of both C and C++ comments. 
Indent is a GNU program for formatting C code, so that it is easier to read. Indent can also convert from one C writing style to adifferent one. Indent understands correct C syntax and tries to handle incorrect C syntax. 
Independence is a free distribution designed by users for the users and particularly those who are left out by present distributions. 
The indexhtml package contains the HTML page and graphics for awelcome page shown by your Web browser, which you will see after you have successfully installed Red Hat Linux. The webpage provided by indexhtml tells you how to register your RedHat software and how to get support. 
International NETworking conference (conference), "iNET" 
Berkeley daemon program that listens for connection requests or messages for certain ports and starts server programs to perform the services associated with those ports. 
internet super-server 
The subsystem in UNIX responsible for starting most of the network services. This program works from the principle that one service can listen for incoming traffic on a socket, and when such traffic appears, it can launch the appropriate service to handle it. This allows a single box to support many services without actually having them all run at the same time. The file /etc/inetd.conf configures this service. Key point: A common backdoor technique is to place a root shell program in inetd.conf. 
A replacement for the C News inews program. This package contains a feature-enhanced and faster version of inews, written in Perl. It replaces the inews provided by C News. New features include MIME encoding and header syntax checks. 
NNTP client news injector, from InterNetNews (INN). `inews' is the program that newsreaders call when the user wishes to post an article; it does a few elementary checks and passes the article on to the news server for posting. This version is the one from Rich Salz's InterNetNews news transport system (which is also available as a Debian package). 
The presence of a virus within a computer system or on a disk. The infection may not be obvious to the user; many viruses for example, reamin in the background until a specific time and date, when they display prank messages or erase data. See Trojan horse and worm. 
Standalone GNU Info documentation browser The Info file format is an easily-parsable representation for online documents. This program allows you to view Info documents, like the ones stored in /usr/share/info. Much of the software in Debian comes with its online documentation in the form of Info files, so it is most likely you will want to install it. 
The GNU project uses the texinfo file format for much of its documentation. The info package provides a standalone TTY-based browser program for viewing texinfo files. You should install info, because GNU's texinfo documentation is a valuable source of information about the software on your system. 
info page
Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than info pages). Info pages are interactive with a navigable menu system. Access an info page with the info command. 
Read info files with a WWW browser info2www lets you read info files with a WWW browser. It requires a HTTP server with CGI support. 
Infobot (or mailbot)
An email address that automatically returns information requested by the user. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
read Info documents 
compare or print out terminfo descriptions 
Emacs mode for editing Inform files This is an (X)Emacs mode for editing Inform source code. Inform source is used when writing games for the Z-Code virtual machine (aka Infocom). This package will add an editing mode to your favorite Emacsen for editing these files. 
INFOSEC (Information Security)
Contrast: The term "information security" distinguishes itself from "physical security". Key point: A common model used to describe security is the OSI/ISO/IEC 10181 standard. It breaks down infosec into the following areas: authentication Where people have to prove who they are. access control Where people are allowed to access computers or files. non-repudiation Making sure that both sides of a transaction cannot later deny the transaction took place. (antonym: repudiation/renounce/reject) confidentiality Prevent unauthorized disclosure of information. (antonym: disclosure) integrity Making sure that things cannot be corrupted. (antonym: corruption, tampering). audits and alarms Track what is happening. availability (antonym: Denial-of-Service) accountability Making sure that people can be held responsible for their actions. (antonym: anonymity). This includes finding out who violated security policies, as well as simple things as charging departments for their use of network resources. Key point: The most common threats are: disclosure Information was leaked to an unauthorized person. integrity violation Data was altered, such as an account balance that was changed. masquerading/forgery Somebody pretends to be somebody else, or generates a message pretending to be from somebody else. denial-of-service insider attacks From people you trust. backdoors/trojans Key point: The fields of infosec and hacking are not necessarily related. This is a little confusing. Infosec is the field of assuring that information is secure. Hacking is the field of breaking rules. For example, following infosec best practices, you can validate that a server is secure, data is encrypted, and that only authenticated users can gain access. However, a hacker executing a buffer overflow exploit gains access bypassing all the security measures. Contrast: The military has a number of terms related to INFOSEC. They include: COMSEC - communications security Describes the procedures designed to secure communications from the enemy. The antonym is COMINT. 
convert a terminfo description into a termcap description 
New German orthography dictionary for ispell This is a dictionary for ispell for the new German orthography. It is based on the famous hkgerman dictionary (using the old German orthography) which was put together by Heinz Knutzen and is available as the Debian package igerman. 
INteractive Graphic REtrieval System 
INternet HOtline Providers in Europe (org., ISP) 
Metafont, a language for font and logo design 
MetaPost, a system for drawing pictures 
extended unicode TeX 
'init' process is the first user level process started by the kernel. init has many important duties, such as starting getty (so that users can log in), implementing run levels, and taking care of orphaned processes. This chapter explains how init is configured and how you can make use of the different run levels. init is one of those programs that are absolutely essential to the operation of a Linux system, but that you still can mostly ignore. Usually, you only need to worry about init if you hook up serial terminals, dial-in (not dial-out) modems, or if you want to change the default run level. When the kernel has started (has been loaded into memory, has started running, and has initialized all device drivers and data structures and such), it finishes its own part of the boot process by starting a user level program, init. Thus, init is always the first process (its process number is always 1). The kernel looks for init in a few locations that have been historically used for it, but the proper location for it is /sbin/init. If the kernel can't find init, it tries to run /bin/sh, and if that also fails, the startup of the system fails. When init starts, it completes the boot process by doing a number of administrative tasks, such as checking filesystems, cleaning up /tmp, starting various services, and starting a getty for each terminal and virtual console where users should be able to log in. After the system is properly up, init restarts getty for each terminal after a user has logged out (so that the next user can log in). init also adopts orphan processes: when a process starts a child process and dies before its child, the child immediately becomes a child of init. This is important for various technical reasons, but it is good to know it, since it makes it easier to understand process lists and process tree graphs. init itself is not allowed to die. You can't kill init even with SIGKILL. There are a few variants of init available. Most Linux distributions use sysvinit (written by Miquel van Smoorenburg), which is based on the System V init design. The BSD versions of Unix have a different init. The primary difference is run levels: System V has them, BSD doesn't. From Linux Administrator's Guide
process control initialization 
The first process to run after the system boots and always has a process id of 1. It is responsible for starting the system in single user mode or spawning a shell to read the startup files. It opens ports that are designated as login ports and spawns getty processes for each on. 
The first process to run immediately after the operating system loads. It starts the system in single-user mode or spawns a shell to read the startup files, and opens ports designated as login ports. 
init script
Shorthand for initialization script, scripts that are typically run at system boot time. Most start services and set initial system parameters. Init scripts can also be controlled by administrators to start at a specified runlevel. 
text formatting and typesetting 
To prepare hardware or software to perform a task a serial port is initialised using the MODE command to set the baud, parity, data, and stop bit values, for example. In some programs, initialising can be setting a counter or variable to zero before running a procedure. 
The initscripts package contains the basic system scripts used to boot your Mandrake Linux system, change run levels, and shut the system down cleanly. Initscripts also contains the scripts that activate and deactivate most network interfaces. 
Handles the switching of various initialization files of emacsen. Initz handles the switching of various startup initialization files of emacsen provided for various environment. According to the environment (maybe emacs version, OS type or OS versions) Initz reads appropriate init files provided by the user in several directories, one for one environment. 
A type of printer which uses water-based inks that spray through tiny nozzles onto the printing surface. Inkjet printers are popular for their low cost and high image output quality. 
Inter Node Link 
Integrated Network Management System 
Inter Node Network 
News transport system `InterNetNews' by the ISC and Rich Salz This is INN version 1.X, provided for sites which are not ready to upgrade to 2.X yet. New installations of INN should use Debian's inn2 package instead. The news transport is the part of the system that stores the articles and the lists of which groups are available and so on, and provides those articles on request to users. It receives news (either posted locally or from a newsfeed site), files it, and passes it on to any downstream sites. Each article is kept for a period of time and then deleted (this is known as `expiry'). By default Debian's INN will install in a fairly simple `local-only' configuration. In order to make use of the services provided by INN you'll have to use a user-level newsreader program such as trn. The newsreader is the program that fetches articles from the server and shows them to the user, remembering which the user has seen so that they don't get shown again. It also provides the posting interface for the user. 
News transport system `InterNetNews' by the ISC and Rich Salz This package provides INN 2.X, which is Debian's preferred news transport system for new installations. The 'inn' package still exists for sites running INN 1.X who are not prepared to upgrade yet. The news transport is the part of the system that stores the articles and the lists of which groups are available and so on, and provides those articles on request to users. It receives news (either posted locally or from a newsfeed site), files it, and passes it on to any downstream sites. Each article is kept for a period of time and then deleted (this is known as `expiry'). By default Debian's INN will install in a fairly simple `local-only' configuration. In order to make use of the services provided by INN you'll have to use a user-level newsreader program such as trn. The newsreader is the program that fetches articles from the server and shows them to the user, remembering which the user has seen so that they don't get shown again. It also provides the posting interface for the user. 
International Neural Network Conference (INNS, conference, NN) 
This is the INN feeder program `innfeed.' This is a program that sends a newsfeed to one or more remote hosts through NNTP. It can handle multiple connections to multiple remote hosts. It is an alternative to `nntplink' (of which there is no Debian package) or the inn-provided `send-nntp' (which is slow). 
innominate Bootable Business Card
A bootable rescue disc on a business card sized CD. Web site in German. A CD-based distribution. 
Extensible 3d modeler Innovation3D or shorthand I3D is a 3d modeling program. Besides basic polygonal modeling and support for model animation, it also features support for NURBS curves and surfaces. Innovation3D has an extensible design with the help of plugins. These plugins allow for support of a variety of file formats or may even extend the functionality of Innovation3D. A set of plugins is already available in the innovation3d-plugins package. If you would like to develop more plugins yourself, you should install the innovation3d-dev package. 
International Neural Network Society (org., AI, NN) 
Internet Network Operations Center 
A data structure holding information about files in a Unix file system. There is an inode for each file and a file is uniquely identified by the file system on which it resides and its inode number on that system. Each inode contains the following information: the device where the inode resides, locking information, mode and type of file, the number of links to the file, the owner's user and group ids, the number of bytes in the file, access and modification times, the time the inode itself was last modified and the addresses of the file's blocks on disk. 
An inode is the address of a disk block. When you see the inode information through ls, ls prints the address of the first block in the file. You can use this information to tell if two files are really the same file with different names (links). A file has several components: a name, contents, and administrative information such as permissions and modification times. The administrative information is stored in the inode (over the years, the hyphen fell out of "i-node"), along with essential system data such as how long it is, where on the disc the contents of the file are stored, and so on. There are three times in the inode: the time that the contents of the file were last modified (written); the time that the file was last used (read or executed); and the time that the inode itself was last changed, for example to set the permissions. Altering the contents of the file does not affect its usage time and changing the permissions affects only the inode change time. It is important to understand inodes, not only to appreciate the options on ls, but because in a strong sense the inodes are the files. All the directory hierarchy does is provide convenient names for files. The system's internal name for the file is its i-number: the number of the inode holding the file's information. From UNIX Progamming Environment
Data structure that contain information about files in a UNIX or UNIX-compatible file system. 
inode number
a unique number associated with each filename. This number is used to look up an entry in the inode table which gives information on the type, size, and location of the file and the userid of the owner of the file. 
The Norwegian dictionary for ispell This is the Norwegian dictionary, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Norwegian texts. 
INformationssystem der POLizei 
Data entered into a computer system to be processed by a program. 
Input/output (I/O) redirection
In DOS and UNIX, the routing of a progam's output to a file or device, or the routing of a progam's input from a file rather than the keyboard. 
Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (org., France) 
insert mode
In vi, the mode that allows you to type new text in front of existing text in a file; terminate this mode by pressing ESC. 
Graphical debugger based on gdb Insight is a tight graphical user interface to gdb written in Tcl/Tk. It provides a comprehensive interface that enables users to harness most of gdb's power. It's also probably the only up-to-date UI for gdb version 5.0 
INternational Symposium on IT Standardization (conference, IFIP, GI) 
install loadable kernel module 0 
INformation Standards and technology Standardization 
copy files and set attributes 
This is a standard document beginning with the line `` These are generic installation instructions.'' Since all GNU packages are installed in the same way, this file should always be the same. 
create or update entry in Info directory 
expand a given keymap and install it as boot-time keymap 
install a Master Boot Record manager 
Used internally by the Debian menu system. It is a program to facilitate the generate the menu-related startup files for the various window managers etc. 
create or update entry in SGML catalog file 
[Linux community since c.1998] Common portmanteau word for "installation festival"; Linux user groups frequently run these. Computer users are invited to bring their machines to have Linux installed on their machines. The idea is to get them painlessly over the biggest hump in migrating to Linux, which is initially installing and configuring it for the user's machine. 
install a new kernel image 
Track installation of local software Installwatch is used to track the changes made during the installation of local (i.e. non-deb) software. 
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE
A worldwide professional association for electrical and electronics engineers, which sets standards for telecommunications and computing applications. 
International Trademark Association (org.) 
Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing (org.) 
Two or more commonly separate components, objects, or applications that are developed to work together. For example, a word processing application and a spreadsheet that are designed such that files and objects from one application can be used in the other application are integrated. 
Integrated Device Electronics (IDE)
Interface for connecting additional multiple storage drives to a computer system. For example, some hard drives and CD-ROM drives that have integrated device controllers attach to IDE connectors. 
A file integrity verification program like tripwire Integrit helps you determine whether an intruder has modified your system. Without the use of integrit, a sysadmin wouldn't know if the programs used for investigating the system are trojan horses or not. Integrit works by creating a database that is a snapshot of the most essential parts of the system. You put the database somewhere safe, and then later you can use it to make sure that noone has made any illicit modifications to your system. Integrit's key features are the small memory footprint, the design with unattended use in mind, intuitive cascading rulesets for the paths listed in the configuration file, the possibility of XML or human-readable output and simultaneous check and update. 
One of the major areas of infosec, integrity is the area concerned with making sure that messages/information are "correct" and haven't been subtly changed or tampered with by an adversary. Analogy: We write the dollar amount on personal checks both as numbers as well as words. This prevents somebody from altering the value, such as adding an extra digit to the number in order to extract $1000 from you rather than the authorized $100. Key point: We use cryptographic hashes as a way of fingerprinting documents and detecting when they are changed. The two most popular hashes are SHA-1 and MD5. Key point: Typical attacks against integrity include modification, insertion, deletion, and replay of information. Contrast: The terms integrity and authenticity are widely used to mean the same thing. In other situations, they have subtly different meanings (especially law). The term integrity generally describes defenses against malicious alteration of a message once it has been sent, whereas authenticity also implies some validation of the sender of the message to protect against forgeries. Contrast: Another way looking at integrity is system integrity. The concern is maintaining the integrity of the computer itself, rather than a message that goes across the wire. In this context, the goals are to prevent files from being modified or programs from being installed on the system. One of the focuses of system integrity is making sure that legitimate, authorized users do not make unauthorized modifications to the system. Programs like tripwire check the integrity of systems by maintaining a table of hashes for all files, and detecting which files change. See also: Integrity is often mentioned along with other key security concepts such as confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation. 
INtegriertes TEileLogistiksystem (MBAG) 
Daemon to use the RNG on i810 motherboards This daemon feeds data from a random number generator to the kernel's random number entropy pool, after first checking the data to ensure that it is properly random. The i810_rng kernel module is required to use this package. 
A converter from NASM assembly language to GAS Intel2GAS is a converter that will convert assembler source files written for NASM to files that can be assembled using the GNU Assembler (GAS), on the i386 platform. It provides support for basic MMX instructions as well. 
interactive logon (network logon)
Microsoft Windows has two destinctive ways of logging onto a machine. An interactive logon is where you log onto your machine locally (sitting in front of it), whereas a network logon is the process of connecting to the file server remotely across the network. Normally, both logons happen simultaneously after entering the username/password only once, so users typically don't perceive much difference between the two logons. Key point: Network logons can be disabled for administrators. This prevents people from stealing passwords and remotely administering the machine. This makes security easier because the server can be controlled via physical security. Contrast: Unix has similar concepts. A local logon is through the "console". Often, root access will be denied to remote logons. Both Windows and Unix have the concept of remotely logging on via one user account, then using that account to locally upgrade to root/administrator. 
Interactive Media
Frequency assignment that allows for a two-way interaction or exchange of information. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
interactive processing
Performance of tasks on a computer system that involves continual exchange of information between the computer and a user; the opposite of batch processing. 
ick - Compiler for the Intercal language This package is an implementation of the language INTERCAL, legendary for its perversity and horribleness, designed by Don Woods and James Lyon, who have since spent more than twenty years trying to live it down. This version adds COME FROM for extra flavor. Comes with language manual and examples including possibly the entire extant body of INTERCAL code. This implementation was created by Eric S. Raymond during a fit of lunacy from which he has since mostly recovered. 
e-commerce and general HTTP database display system Interchange is a database access and retrieval system focused on e-commerce. It allows customers to select items to buy from catalog pages. The program tracks user information in sessions and interacts with a HTTP server through sockets. 
Foundation Store, a sample Interchange catalog The Foundation store is a demo catalog which you can use to build your Interchange applications from. While the Foundation store is designed to be relatively easy to start with, it is still a full-featured demonstration of a number of Interchange capabilities. Once you understand the Foundation store and how it works you are well on your way to understanding the Interchange software. 
Interchange administration interface (UI) With the Interchange administration interface, called UI, you are able to perform several useful operations like page edit, user's administration and view reports on an Interchange catalog. 
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
A voluntary organization responsible for creating international standards for computers, telecommunications, and other technologies. 
A loose confederation of networks around the world, the networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the U.S. Government ARPAnet project, and is specifically designed to have no central governing authority or 'root', node. 
A worldwide network of networks. It si also the network of networks that connects more than three million computers (called hosts). The Internet is the virtual space in which users send and receive email, login to remote computers (telnet), browse databases of information (gopher, World Wide Web, WAIS), and send and receive programs (ftp) contained on these computers. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
n. The mother of all networks. First incarnated beginning in 1969 as the ARPANET, a U.S. Department of Defense research testbed. Though it has been widely believed that the goal was to develop a network architecture for military command-and-control that could survive disruptions up to and including nuclear war, this is a myth; in fact, ARPANET was conceived from the start as a way to get most economical use out of then-scarce large-computer resources. As originally imagined, ARPANET's major use would have been to support what is now called remote login and more sophisticated forms of distributed computing, but the infant technology of electronic mail quickly grew to dominate actual usage. Universities, research labs and defense contractors early discovered the Internet's potential as a medium of communication between humans and linked up in steadily increasing numbers, connecting together a quirky mix of academics, techies, hippies, SF fans, hackers, and anarchists. The roots of this lexicon lie in those early years. Over the next quarter-century the Internet evolved in many ways. The typical machine/OS combination moved from DEC PDP-10s and PDP-20s, running TOPS-10 and TOPS-20, to PDP-11s and VAXes and Suns running Unix, and in the 1990s to Unix on Intel microcomputers. The Internet's protocols grew more capable, most notably in the move from NCP/IP to TCP/IP in 1982 and the implementation of Domain Name Service in 1983. It was around this time that people began referring to the collection of interconnected networks with ARPANET at its core as "the Internet". The ARPANET had a fairly strict set of participation guidelines - connected institutions had to be involved with a DOD-related research project. By the mid-80s, many of the organizations clamoring to join didn't fit this profile. In 1986, the National Science Foundation built NSFnet to open up access to its five regional supercomputing centers; NSFnet became the backbone of the Internet, replacing the original ARPANET pipes (which were formally shut down in 1990). Between 1990 and late 1994 the pieces of NSFnet were sold to major telecommunications companies until the Internet backbone had gone completely commercial. That year, 1994, was also the year the mainstream culture discovered the Internet. Once again, the killer app was not the anticipated one - rather, what caught the public imagination was the hypertext and multimedia features of the World Wide Web. Subsequently the Internet has seen off its only serious challenger (the OSI protocol stack favored by European telecom monopolies) and is in the process of absorbing into itself many of the proprietary networks built during the second wave of wide-area networking after 1980. It is now (1996) a commonplace even in mainstream media to predict that a globally-extended Internet will become the key unifying communications technology of the next century. See also the network and Internet address. 
internet (Lower case i)
Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state. 
Internet (Upper case I)
The vast collection of inter-connected networks that are connected using the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. The Internet connects tens of thousands of independent networks into a vast global internet and is probably the largest Wide Area Network in the world. 
Internet account
Purchased through an Internet service provider, the account assigns a password and email address to an individual or group allowing access to the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
An industry standards body that governs and oversees Internet research and protocols. The organization is open to individuals, government representatives, and private interests. 
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
Industry standard email retrieval and storage protocol. IMAP servers store email messages that users access and read on the server, as opposed to downloading all messages using the post office protocol (POP). 
Internet Protocol (IP)
The protocol used to route a data packet from its source to its destination via the Internet. 
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
Collection of protocols overseen and approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for the secure transmission of data over the Internet. 
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Real-time internet messaging system that links disparate users internationally. IRC users connect to central servers and join channels of various subjects. 
Internet server
A computer that stores data that can be accessed via the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Internet site
A computer connected to the Internet containing information that can be accessed using an Internet navigation tool such as ftp, telnet, gopher, or a Web browser. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Inter Network Information Center (org., Internet), "InterNIC" 
The Internic provides the primary directory and registration services for the American part of the Internet. 
Interpreted language
An interpreted language depends on an interpreter program that reads the source code and translates it on the fly into computations and system calls. The source has to be re-interpreted (and the interpreter present) each time the code is executed. Interpreted languages tend to be slower than compiled languages, and often have limited access to the underlying operating system and hardware. On the other hand, they tend to be easier to program. See Compiled language and P-code language. 
Interpreted Language
Unlike a compiled program, which is converted from source code to an executable one time, by a compiler, and then run from its binary form, an interpreted program is converted to binary on the fly each time it is run, by an interpreter program. Interpreted languages (and thus their programs) tend to be slower than compiled and p-code languages/programs, and generally have limited authorization to low-level operating system functions or direct hardware access. On the other hand, they do not require compilers (which can be expensive), are often included along with operating systems, and are usually easier to program than compiled languages. Examples of interpreted languages are BASIC, Perl, Python and REXX/Object REXX. 
1. [techspeak] n. On a computer, an event that interrupts normal processing and temporarily diverts flow-of-control through an "interrupt handler" routine. See also trap. 2. interj. A request for attention from a hacker. Often explicitly spoken. "Interrupt -- have you seen Joe recently?" See priority interrupt. 3. Under MS-DOS, nearly synonymous with `system call', because the OS and BIOS routines are both called using the INT instruction (see interrupt list) and because programmers so often have to bypass the OS (going directly to a BIOS interrupt) to get reasonable performance. 
Interrupts are signals sent by devices which are received by the operating system and then processed. A device driver is responsible for handling the information that is received. 
Intimate (iPAQ)
The Intimate project is a Debian based Linux distribution for the Compaq iPAQ. It combines work being done by the Familiar Project with Debian package management. 
This tool automatically extracts translatable strings from oaf, glade, bonobo ui, nautilus theme, .desktop, and other data files and puts them in the po files for internationalization. 
utility scripts and assorted auto magic for internationalizing XML Automatically extracts translatable strings from oaf, glade, bonobo ui, nautilus theme and other XML files into the po files. Automatically merges translations from po files back into .oaf files (encoding to be 7-bit clean). I can also extend this merging mechanism to support other types of XML files. 
A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. Compare with extranet. 
descriptive term being used for the implementation of Internet technologies within a corporate organisation, rather than for external connection to the global Internet. 
TCP/IP based private network in which authorized members of an organization can access resources. 
A formal term describing the act of compromising a system. Contrast: intrusion prevention Protect the system, such as using access control. intrusion detection Second line of defense, detecting either failed attempts to compromise the system or often successful ones. intrusion recovery After a system has been compromised in a security incident, what steps need to be taken to recover the system (such as restoring from backups). Intrusion recovery is related to general disaster recovery. Contrast: physical intrusion Given enough time, somebody with physical access to a computer will be able to break in. One way would be to turn the power off and boot from a floppy or CD-ROM. Another way would be to remove the disk drive from the machine. local intrusion Users who can log on to the machine with one user account can often attack the system in order to gain root/administrator privileges. This is more often a concern for Unix systems than Windows. Note that even though it is called a "local" intrusion, the user may still be remotely connected to the computer. remote intrusion An intrusion where the attacker does not have any other access to the box except to be able to send packets at it. Most of what people think of "hacking" on the Internet is remote intrusions. 
Intrusion detection
The ability to detect people trying to compromise your system. Intrusion detection is divided into two main categories, host based, and network based. 
intrusion detection system (IDS)
Software or device that inspects and flags system and network activity for suspicious activity, such as modified files or unauthorized entry. 
Automatic IP configuration detection for laptops A utility to locate current network address via arp requests and perform heavy reconfigurations based on its findings. "intuitively" is intended for laptop users or people who use their machines in different networks all the time. It is meant to be run from the PCMCIA network initialization scripts or the command line. 
Open Inventor is an object-oriented 3D toolkit offering a comprehensive solution to interactive graphics programming problems. It presents a programming model based on a 3D scene database that simplifies graphics programming. It includes a large set of objects such as cubes, polygons, text, materials, cameras, lights, trackballs, handle boxes, 3D viewers, and editors can speed up your programming and extend your 3D program's capabilities. For more information see 
executes System-V style init script actions 
INformation eXchange 
INternet eXchange Service (ECRC) 
Input/Output, "I/O" 
Initial Operational Capability 
Input / Output Controller 
Input/Output Cluster (Cray, I/O) 
International Obfuscated C Code Contest 
Input Output Control System (OS, IBM 7090) 
I/O ConTroL (I/O) 
Integrated Object Model 
A keyboard-friendly window manager with tiled windows Ion, based on PWM, is a keyboard-friendly window manager with a very text-editorish interface and no overlapping windows. 
Internetworking Over NBMA (LIS, LAG, ATM, NBMA) 
Internal Organization of the Network Layer (OSI) 
Integrated Optics and Optical fiber Communication (conference) 
Input / Output Processor 
Input Output Privilege Level 
Internetworking Operating System (Cisco, OS) 
InterOrganizational Systems 
Initial Operational Test and Evaluation, "IOT & E" 
International Oracle Users Group (org., DB, Oracle, user group) 
In Other Words (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Information Provider 
Instruction Pointer [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
Intellectual Property 
Intelligent Peripheral (IN) 
Intelligent Peripheral 
Internet Protocol [version 4] (RFC 791) 
See Internet Protocol (IP). 
IP (Internet Protocol)
see also TCP. This is an international standard for providing unique addresses (of computers) on the Internet. An IP address is four bytes long and is usually of the form a.b.c.d where each of these letters represents a number between 0 and 255. 
IP (Internet Protocol)
The underlying packet standard used to connect networks over the Internet. IP is half of a protocol suite that works and must work with TCP. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
IP address
A numeric address used by computer hosts to transmit and receive information over the Internet. 
IP aliasing
provides the possibility of setting multiple network addresses on the same low-level network device driver (e.g two IP addresses in one Ethernet card). 
IP Filtering Firewalls
works at the packet level. It is designed to control the flow of packets based the source, destination, port and packet type information contained in each packet. 
IP Masquerade
A networking function in Linux similar to one-to-many NAT (Network Address Translation) found in many commercial firewalls and network routers. IP Masquerade allows other "internal" computers connected to this Linux box (via PPP, Ethernet, etc.) to also reach the Internet as well. Linux IP Masquerading allows for this functionality even though these internal machines don't have an officially assigned IP addresses. 
IP Number (Internet Protocol Number)
Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember. 
IP spoofing
IP Spoofing is a complex technical attack that is made up of several components. It is a security exploit that works by tricking computers in a trust-relationship that you are someone that you really aren't. There is an extensive paper written by daemon9, route, and infinity in the Volume Seven, Issue fourty-Eight issue of Phrack Magazine. 
keeps track of IP network traffic, packet logging and produces some statistics. 
IP Masquerade is a networking function in Linux similar to the one-to-many (1:Many) NAT (Network Address Translation) servers found in many commercial firewalls and network routers. For example, if a Linux host is connected to the Internet via PPP, Ethernet, etc., the IP Masquerade feature allows other "internal" computers connected to this Linux box (via PPP, Ethernet, etc.) to also reach the Internet as well. Linux IP Masquerading allows for this functionality even though these internal machines don't have an officially assigned IP address. MASQ allows a set of machines to invisibly access the Internet via the MASQ gateway. To other machines on the Internet, the outgoing traffic will appear to be from the IP MASQ Linux server itself. In addition to the added functionality, IP Masquerade provides the foundation to create a HEAVILY secured networking environment. With a well built firewall, breaking the security of a well configured masquerading system and internal LAN should be considerably difficult to accomplish. If you would like to know more on how MASQ (1:Many) differs from 1:1 (true) NAT and Proxy solutions, please see the Section 7.6 FAQ entry. From IP-Masquerade-HOWTO
Resolve IPs to hostnames in web server logs This script is a drop-in replacement for the script distributed with the Apache web server. ip2host has the same basic design of forking children to handle the DNS resolution in parallel, but multiplexes the communication to minimize the impact of slow responses. This results in a significant speed improvement (approximately 10x faster), and the performance degrades more gracefully as the DNS timeout value is increased. 
IPv6 packet filter administration 
Restore IPv6 Tables 
Save IPv6 Tables 
Information Processing promotion Agency (org., MITI, Japan) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Produktionstechnik und Automation (org., Stuttgart, Germany) 
IP accounting configuration and statistics tool Allows easy configuration of the Linux kernel's IP accounting features. It can also read this information from the kernel, store it and summarise it. If you use linux 2.3 or 2.4, you need ipchains compatibility in your kernel as ipac does not support the new kernel natively yet. 
Dictionaries for ChaSen Dictionaries for ChaSen. 
Utility to automatically add masquerade entries This program allows linux masquerading available in 2.0 series kernels to work with programs such as RealAudio which don't send out a packet on all ports they wish to receive on. For 2.2 series kernels see ipmasqadm instead. 
Internet Privacy Coalition (Internet) 
InterProcess Communications [protocol] 
InterProcess Communication Environment 
inserts and deletes rules from the kernel's packet filtering section. 
IP firewall administration 
Network firewalling for Linux 2.2.x This package allows you to control how programs on your system may access the network, and how programs on other systems may access yours via the network. This package fully replaces ipfwadm by wrapping it for old fashioned users and for old scripts. Firewalling HOWTO can be found in doc-linux-* package. Linux ipchains is a rewrite of the Linux IPv4 firewalling code (which was mainly stolen from BSD) and a rewrite of ipfwadm, which was a rewrite of BSD's ipfw, I believe. It is required to administer the IP packet filters in Linux kernel versions 2.1.102 and above. 
The name of the program and associated technology used to create rules controlling network access to and from a particular machine or network. Used to configure firewall rules in the Linux kernel. Ipchains has been superceded by iptables in the 2.4 kernel. 
restore IP firewall chains from stdin 
save IP firewall chains to stdout 
ipcheck client to register your dynamic IP address The Dynamic DNS service allows you to alias a dynamic IP address to a static hostname, allowing your computer to be more easily accessed from various locations on the Internet. This is a simple Python script to register your dynamic IP address using the NIC V2.0 protocol. The script is very easy to use and supports multiple methods for determining the external IP (parsing interfaces on the local machine, web based IP detection, direct support for devices from Linksys, Netgear, Draytek, Netopia, HawkingTech, Watchgard, Cayman, Nexland, ZyXEL, SMC, Compex, UgatePlus, DLink and Cisco). It also supports the dyndns offline mode. Starting with version 1.4.1 ipcheck uses https by default and will fall back to http if a timeout occurs. 
IPCop Firewall
IPCop Firewall is a Linux firewall distro. It will be geared towards home and SOHO users. The difference with existing firewalls is that the IPCop interface will be very user-friendly and task-based. IPCop v0.1.1 was released January 17, 2002. Version 1.3.0 was released April 22, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
[PPP] Internet Protocol Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1332) 
International Conference on Pattern Recognition (conference, IAPR) 
provide information on ipc facilities 
Informatique et Calcul Parallele de Strasbourg (org., France, HPC) 
Interactive Problem Control System 
provide information on ipc facilities 
Intelligent Printer Data 
IBM Personal Dictation System (IBM, voice processing) 
Intelligent Printer Data Stream (IBM, CCS) 
Internet Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 
IP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (RFC 1075, IP, Multicast), "IP-DVMRP" 
Integrated Programming Environment 
Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IDEA, PES, cryptography) 
Information Presentation Facility Compiler (IBM, OS/2) 
A bandwidth analysis tool IPFM counts how much data was sent and received by specified hosts through an Internet link. 
IP firewall and accounting administration 
Linux 2.0.x firewalling tools Ipfwadm is a utility to administer the IP accounting and IP firewall services offered by the Linux kernel. 
IP firewall administration 
International Programmers Guild (org.) 
InterPacket Gap (IPX, IP (???)) 
Tcpdump-like utility that prints detailed header information. Ipgrab is a network debugging utility not unlike tcpdump except that it prints out detailed header field information for data link, network and transport layers. 
Intelligent Peripheral Interface [protocol] 
IP over IP Encapsulation Daemon This daemon provides an alternative to the kernel-resident support for IP encapsulation links. It is better suited for situations where there are many encapsulation connections to be managed, such as is the case for amateur radio interconnection of network 44. Also, because the daemon is outside the kernel, it provides an excellent environment for experimenting with alternate mechanisms for distributing encapsulation routing updates. If you need one encapsulation link, use the kernel's built-in support. If you need a lot of encapsulation links, give this daemon a try. 
Initial Program Load 
Impulses Per Minute 
InterPersonal Messaging 
Interruptions Per Minute 
Securely initializes IP Masquerade forwarding/firewalling This package contains scripts to initialize IP Masquerade for use as a firewall. IP Masquerade is a feature of Linux that allows an entire network of computers to be connected to another network (usually the Internet) with only one network address on the other network. IP Masquerade is often referred to as NAT (Network Address Translation) on other platforms. By default, this package configures the system as a basic forwarding firewall, with IP spoofing and stuffed routing protection. The firewall will allow hosts behind the firewall to get to the Internet, but not allow connections from the Internet to reach the hosts behind the firewall. However, ipmasq now features a very flexible framework where you can override any of the predefined rules if you so choose. It also allows you to control if the rules are reinterpreted when pppd brings a link up or down. This package should be installed on the firewall host and not on the hosts behind the firewall. IP Masquerade requires the kernel to be compiled with masquerading support (please see documentation for specific kernel options required). 
IP Masquerading additional modules administration 
Utility for configuring extra masquerading functionality Ipmasqadm is used to configure extra masquerading funcionality, usually provided by additional kernel modules. 
A cursel iptables/iproute2 GUI ipmenu is an iptables/iproute2 GUI in cursel (an ncurses library), for all those of you who still prefer the console. It's very easy to use, yet powerful and flexible. You can configure both iptables (packet filtering, mangling, NAT) and iproute2 (routing, etc) with a single GUI! 
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (Intel, HP, DELL) 
IPMI control tools This package contains ipmi_ctl, a commandline tool to query and manipulate the IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) functionality of an Intel-based machine. 
InterPersonal Messaging System 
Info Pool Network (ISP) 
Internet Protocol Next Generation (IP, RFC 1550/1752), "IPng" 
IP Next Generation: a new version of IP which is designed to be an evolutionary step from IPv4. It is a natural increment to IPv4. IPng is a new version of IP which is designed to be an evolutionary step from IPv4. It is a natural increment to IPv4. It can be installed as a normal software upgrade in internet devices and is interoperable with the current IPv4. Its deployment strategy was designed to not have any "flag" days. IPng is designed to run well on high performance networks (e.g., ATM) and at the same time is still efficient for low bandwidth networks (e.g., wireless). In addition, it provides a platform for new internet functionality that will be required in the near future. 
Interim Policy Oversight Committee (Internet, TLD) 
The polish dictionary for ispell. This is the polish dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary contains roughly 140,000 roots, which expand to about 1,400,000 words. 
POP2 and POP3 servers from UW This package contains the POP2 and POP3 servers which were formerly part of the University of Washington IMAP package. 
POP2 and POP3 servers from UW This package contains the POP2 and POP3 servers which were formerly part of the University of Washington IMAP package. 
The portuguese dictionary for ispell. This is the portuguese dictionary for ispell as put together by Jose Joao Almeida, <> and Ulisses Pinto. See for more information. 
Internet Presence Provider (Internet) 
Internet Printing Protocol (IBM, OS/400) 
Internet Printing Protocol. A new HTTP-like protocol for sending files to a network printer. 
IP protocols logger ippl is a configurable IP protocols logger. It currently logs incoming ICMP messages, TCP connections and UDP datagrams. It is configured with Apache-like rules and has a built-in DNS cache. It has been developed to replace iplogger. 
PPP daemon for syncPPP over ISDN If you want to connect to the internet over ISDN with an internal ISDN card, you will need this. Also needed for allowing dialins from Windows PCs over ISDN. 
Trivial command-line integer print utility iprint is a simple utility to print out the octal, hexadecimal, and or ascii values of the characters fed to it on the command line. 
Professional tools to control the networking in Linux kernels This is `iproute', the professional set of tools to control the networking behavior in kernels 2.2.x and later. At least, the options CONFIG_NETLINK and CONFIG_RTNETLINK must be compiled in the running kernel 
The iproute package contains networking utilities (ip, tc and rtmon, for example) which are designed to use the advanced networking capabilities of the Linux 2.2.x kernels and later, such as policy routing, fast NAT and packet scheduling. 
Information Processing Standards 
InPlane Switching [technology] (LCD) 
IP Subnet Calculator for console. The IP Subnet Calculator is a tool that allows network administrators to make calculations that will assist in subnetting a network. You give the network class and subnet bits and you get back the maximum number of subnets, maximum number of hosts per subnet, a bimap showing the breakdown of network bits, subnet bits, and host bits, the decimal and hexadecimal class netmask, the decimal and hexadecimal subnet mask and lists subnets and host information. CIDR support and reverse engineer the network information for a particular interface (e.g. eth0, ppp0). 
Integrated Programming Support Environment (CASE) 
Internet Protocol SECurity (org., Internet, IETF, DES) 
Security extensions to IP. Traditionally, encryption takes place at the application layer or above. IPsec provides generic encryption for IP packets in such a way that applications are not necessarily aware of the process. IPsec source code is freely available. Key point: IPsec's main use today is when tunneling traffic for VPNs. It can also work for generic encryption of data between two hosts. Algorithms: Diffie-Hellman 
Information Processing Society of Japan (org., Japan) 
Internet Protocol Security Protocol 
IP packet filter administration 
IP packet filter administration tools for 2.4.4+ kernels netfilter and iptables are the framework inside the Linux 2.4.x kernel which enable packet filtering, network address translation (NAT) and other packet mangling. netfilter is a set of hooks inside the linux 2.4.x kernel's network stack which allows kernel modules to register callback functions called every time a network packet traverses one of those hooks. iptables is a generic table structure for the definition of rulesets. Each rule within an IP table consists out of a number of classifiers (matches) and one connected action (target). netfilter, iptables and the connection tracking as well as the NAT subsystems together build the whole framework. IMPORTANT NOTES: System security is a discipline that cannot be achieved by simply installing the iptables package -- the iptables package is NOT a firewall package. Also, misused rulesets can easily disallow you access to remote and local (yes, even localhost) network services. 
Kernel-level Internet packet filter subsystem for the 2.4 and higher version of the Linux kernel; Rules can be enabled to allow or deny network connections to the system. 
The iptables utility controls the network packet filtering code in the Linux kernel. If you need to set up firewalls and/or IP masquerading, you should install this package. 
Restore IP Tables 
Save IP Tables 
International Press Telecommunications Council (org.) 
[microsoft] Internet Platform and Tools Division (MS) 
Interactive Colorful IP LAN Monitor IPTraf is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitor that generates various network statistics including TCP info, UDP counts, ICMP and OSPF information, Ethernet load info, node stats, IP checksum errors, and others. Note that since 2.0.0 IPTraf requires a kernel >= 2.2 
Intelligent Processing Unit 
The iputils package contains basic utilities for monitoring a network, including ping. The ping command sends a series of ICMP protocol ECHO_REQUEST packets to a specified network host to discover whetherthe target machine is alive and receiving network traffic. 
The iputils package contains ping, a basic networking tool. The ping command sends a series of ICMP protocol ECHO_REQUEST packets to as pecified network host and can tell you if that machine is alive and receiving network traffic.ipv6calc is a small utility which formats and calculates IPv6 addresses in different ways. It extends the existing address detection on IPv6 initscript setup or make life easier in adding reverse IPv6 zones to DNSor using in DNS queries like nslookup -q=ANY `ipv6calc -r 3ffe:400:100:f101::1/48` See also here for more details: 
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IP, RFC 1883/1884), IPv6 
a small utility for manipulating IPv6 addresses. ipv6calc is a small utility which formats and calculates IPv6 addresses in different ways. host -t any `ipv6calc -r 3ffe:400:100:f101::1/48` See also here for more details: 
Institut fuer Parallele und Verteilte Rechensysteme (org., Uni Stuttgart, Germany) 
Linux Virtual Server support programs The Linux Virtual Server is a highly scalable and highly available server built on a cluster of real servers. The architecture of the cluster is transparent to end users, and the users see only a single virtual server. This package provides some support programs necessary to implement a virtual server under Linux. With the addition of the mon and heartbeat packages it is possible to implement a complete high-availability solution for Linux. 
Incremental Packet Writing (CD-R) 
Internet Packet eXchange (Novell, Netware) 
Utilities to configure the kernel ipx interface. Utilities to configure the kernel IPX interface. The kernel has to be compiled with IPX support. 
Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange - a proprietary protocol stack developed by Novell and based on Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocol. 
[PPP] Internetwork Packet eXchange Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1552) 
IPX Open Datalink Interface (Novell, Netware) 
IPX RIP/SAP daemon ipxripd is a RIP/SAP daemon program for Linux. It makes your Linux computer act as an IPX router. 
IPX / Sequenced Packet eXchange (Novell, Netware), "IPX/SPX" 
Internet Packet eXchange over various WAN media (Novell, IPX, WAN, RFC 1634) 
Information Retrieval 
Interface Repository (ORB) 
Internet Registry 
Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (astronomy/imaging) IRAF is the "Image Reduction and Analysis Facility". The main IRAF distribution includes a good selection of programs for general image processing and graphics, plus a large number of programs for the reduction and analysis of optical and IR astronomy data (the "noao" packages). Other external or layered packages are available for applications such as data acquisition or handling data from other observatories and wavelength regimes such as the Hubble Space Telescope (optical), EUVE (extreme ultra-violet), or ROSAT and AXAF (X-ray). These external packages are distributed separately from the main IRAF distribution but can be easily installed. The IRAF system also includes a complete programming environment for scientific applications, which includes a programmable Command Language scripting facility, the IMFORT Fortran/C programming interface, and the full SPP/VOS programming environment in which the portable IRAF system and all applications are written. 
The Interactive Ruby. The irb is acronym for Interactive RuBy. It evaluates Ruby expression from the terminal. 
InformationsRessourcen Controlling (IM) 
Internet Relay Chat [protocol] (RFC 1459, Internet) 
See Internet Relay Chat (IRC). 
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Interactive, real-time discussions between Internauts using text messages. Users log into designated Net computers and join discussions already in progress. More information about IRC can be obtained via FTP. FTP to: From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Undernet IRC Server daemon This is ircu, the Undernet Internet Relay Chat daemon, which allows interactive character based communication between people connected to this server with IRC clients. It is based on the latest stable version which can be downloaded from This version is compiled for network usage but it can also run standalone. You can modify it's behaviour with reconfiguring/rebuilding. 
Internet Relay Chat client The ircII program is a full screen, termcap based interface to Internet Relay Chat. It gives full access to all of the normal IRC functions, plus a variety of additional options. This Version is able to display mIRC colors. It supports "/encrypt -cast" 
Institute for Research in Cognitive Science (org., Uni Pennsylvania, USA) 
InfraRed Data Association (org., manufacturer, IRDA), "IrDA" 
IrDA(TM) (Infrared Data Association) is an industry standard for wireless, infrared communication between devices. IrDA speeds range from 9600 bps to 4 Mbps. IrDA can be used by many modern devices including laptops, LAN adapters, PDAs, printers, and mobile phones. The Linux-IrDA project is a GPL'd implementation, written from scratch, of the IrDA protocols. Supported IrDA protocols includeIrLAP, IrLMP, IrIAP, IrTTP, IrLPT, IrLAN, IrCOMM, and IrOBEX. The irda-utils package contains a collection of programs that enable the use of IrDA protocols. Most IrDA features are implemented in the kernel, so IrDA support must be enabled in the kernel before any IrDA tools or programs can be used. Some configuration outside the kernelis required, however, and some IrDA features, like IrOBEX, areactually implemented outside the kernel. 
Information Resource Dictionary System (ANSI, ISO, IM) 
Integer Register File (DEC, Alpha, CPU) 
Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Systems (org., Canada) 
In Real Life (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
InfraRed Local Area Network (IRDA, LAN, TTP), "IrLAN" 
InfraRed Link Access Protocol (IRDA, IRLAP), "IrLAP" 
InfraRed Link Management Protocol (IRDA, IRLAP), "IrLMP" 
InfraRed ??? (IRDA), "IrMLP/TP" 
InfraRed Line PrinTer (IRDA, LPT, TTP), "IrLPT" 
Information Resources Management 
Web-based asset tracking system for IT departments and help desks IRM is a powerful web-based asset tracking system built for IT departments and help desks. It keeps detailed information about each computer, as well as a complete history and TODO repair list tracking. 
A Multimedia Audio Jukebox application. With irmp3 you can control mpg321 (currently, other players are planned) to play songs, lists, and lists of play lists.. irmp3 features 'environments' that you can set to play a certain type of music, alarms, can be controlled over the network, via remote control (requires LIRC) and a number of other useful features, including LCD display and keypad input support via LCDProc. It is most useful for those building MP3 jukeboxes with remote or keypad controls. 
Intel Real time Multitasking eXecutive (OS, Intel), "iRMX" 
A protocol allowing to carry TCP/IP traffic between two IrDA peers in an efficient fashion. It is a thin layer, passing PPP packets to IrTTP and vice versa. It uses PPP in synchronous mode, because IrTTP offer a reliable sequenced packet service (as opposed to a byte stream). In fact, you could see IrNET as carrying TCP/IP in a IrDA socket, using PPP to provide the glue. 
InfraRed OBject EXchange protocol (IRDA, TTP), "IrOBEX" 
IRC file distribution bot iroffer is a fileserver for irc (commonly referred to as a DCC bot). It uses the DCC feature or irc to send files to other users. iroffer will connect to an irc server and let people request files from it. iroffer is not a script, it is a standalone executable written in c++. 
I/O Request Packet (I/O) 
Interrupt ReQuest 
Interrupt Request Register (IC) 
Inter-DOMAIN Routing Protocol (ISO 10747) 
Internet Research Steering Group (org., Internet) 
An IRC client from the author of yagirc, Timo Sirainen. It has a text, GTK and GNOME interface (with integration to the GNOME panel). Irssi's features include configurability, smart nick completion, DCC resuming, support for plugins and perl scripting. This package includes plugins, documentation, config files, help files and themes for the irssi IRC client. At this moment, for compatibility reasons, these files are usable only by irssi-gtk and irssi-gnome. Plugins, documentation etc. for the text-mode version are included in irssi-text. The GTK and GNOME versions of irssi haven't been developed since early 2000, and currently lack much of irssi-text's functionality. Other irssi packages are: irssi-text: text-mode version of the irssi IRC client irssi-gnome: GNOME version of the irssi IRC client irssi-gtk: GTK version of the irssi IRC client irssi-scripts: Perl scripts for irssi-text 
Interrupt Response Time 
Internet Research Task Force (IAB, Internet) 
Internet Reliable Transaction Protocol (RFC 938) 
InfraRed TRANsfer Picture (IRDA) 
Russian dictionary for ispell This package contains a list of Russian words and an affix file to be used with a well-known ispell spelling checker. Dictionaries contain now over 90,100 basic words and produce over 892,000 related words 
International Reference Version [character set] (ISO, IS 646) 
Intermediate System (ATM) 
International Standard (ISO) 
International Supplement (ODT) 
Industry Standard Architecture (PC) 
Instruction Set Architecture (CPU) 
Integrated Systems Architecture (ESPRIT, ANSA) 
Interactive Services Association (org., USA) 
International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems (IEEE-CS, conference) 
Interactive System Activity Grapher for sysstat. This package includes the isag command, which graphically displays the system activity data stored in a binary data produced by a sar command from a sysstat package. 
Industry Standard Architecture - Guaranteed Access Time (ISA, DMA, PCI) 
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol 
Index-Sequential Access Mode (DB, SAM) 
Internet Server Application Programmer's Interface (MS, C/S, WWW, API) 
ISA Plug-And-Play configuration utilities. This program is suitable for all systems, whether or not they include a PnP BIOS. In fact, a PnP BIOS adds some complications because it may already activate some cards so that the drivers can find them, and these tools can unconfigure them, or change their settings causing all sorts of nasty effects. 
International Standard Book Number 
Intelligent Screen Cognition 
Internet Service Center (ISP) 
Internet Software Consortium (org., Internet) 
International Society for Computers and their Applications (org., AI) 
Integrated Sensor Device (Wacom, LCD) 
Interface Summary Design 
Integrated Services Digital Network (ITU) 
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
A digital telecommunications standard allowing communication channels to carry voice, video, and data simultaneously, see module three. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Basically a way to move more dataover existing regular phone lines. ISDN is available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000or 64,000 bits-per-second. Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different locations, one at a time, just like a regular telephone call, as long the other location also has ISDN. 
The isdn4k-utils package contains a collection of utilities needed for configuring an ISDN subsystem. 
support for active ISDN cards and CAPI If you have an active ISDN card, you will need things like firmware and the means to load that firmware into that card. This is contained in this package. Also CAPI stuff is contained in this package (currently only certain active cards support CAPI). See /usr/share/doc/isdnactivecards/* for more information. 
Start and Stop ISDN connections and display status. This is a small X based program that allows for easy activation and deactivation of the demand-dialing feature of the Linux-ISDN subsystem. It can also be used to initiate connections without using the demand-dialing feature. It displays a symbolized traffic light. When the light is red, no demand-dialing is possible; when it is yellow, demand-dialing has been enabled but there is currently no connection using any of the ISDN network devices; when it is green, there is at least one active connection using an ISDN network device. You can interactively switch between red and yellow/green by clicking with the left mouse button into the window; the right mouse button pops up a menu to select between different actions --- this can be used if you want to connect to different providers. 
ISDN eurofile transfer tool If you want to send / receive files over an ISDN line with the eurofile system, you need this package. Not used much outside of Germany I believe (and not much there either). 
ISDN connection logger isdnlog logs all ISDN connections, and can calculate the cost of calls. If sufficient data is available, it can even recommend which alternate carrier would have been cheaper for a given call. For countries where calls are charged per discrete unit, it can disconnect the line just before the next unit starts. 
ISDN User Part (ISDN, GSM, mobile-systems), "ISDN-UP" 
Most important ISDN-related packages and utilities. Note that for an external ISDN adapter, you do NOT need this package or any of the related ones. This is only for use with an internal ISDN adapter. Choosing this package will select the most frequently used components. The current version of isdnutils is split up into component packages, to make it easier to fine-tune what is installed; hardly anyone needs everything. However, it's not possible to automatically select what is needed This is a transitional package to ease upgrading, and choosing this selects the most important new packages. After upgrading, this package can be safely removed. The component packages selected by this are: isdnutils-base basic set of ISDN utilities. ipppd for networking over ISDN with syncPPP. isdnlog for logging ISDN calls (and much more). isdnutils-xtools for X ISDN apps (currently only xisdnload and xmonisdn) isdnvboxserver ISDN answering machine, things needed on the server system. isdnvboxclient ISDN answering machine, client side (vbox). Not selected (although dselect will suggest some) are: isdnutils-doc for extensive documentation (basic docs are of course included with each package). isdneurofile file transfer over ISDN with the special eurofile protocol. pppdcapiplugin a plugin for the normal ppp daemon that uses CAPI to communicate over ISDN. isdnactivecards firmware for mostly active ISDN cards, and other related tools. libcapi20 library package needed by CAPI applications (will be selected automatically when needed). 
ISDN utilities, the basic (minimal) set These utilities are the basic set of ISDN utilities that you need when you have an ISDN card installed. For complete functionality comparable to the old isdnutils package, you also need the following packages: ipppd for networking over ISDN with syncPPP isdnlog for logging ISDN calls (and much more) isdnutils-xtools for X ISDN apps (currently only xisdnload and xmonisdn) isdnutils-doc for extensive documentation (basic docs are of course included with each package) isdnvboxserver ISDN answering machine, things needed on a server system isdnvboxclient ISDN answering machine, client side (vbox) 
ISDN utilities that use X These are the graphical utilities for ISDN, xmonisdn and xisdnload. They provide, each in their own way, a visual indication of the status of the ISDN lines, so that it is directly obvious when there is a connection, for example. This has been separated out of the main isdnutils package so that if you don't run X but do need ISDN, you don't have to include the X libraries unnecessarily. 
ISDN answering machine, client and server Let your debian system be your answering machine! Messages can be accessed remotely, automatically emailed, etc. This package is a helper to install both the client (with which you listen to the messages) and the server (with which the messages are recorded) parts of the software. 
ISDN answering machine, client Let your debian system be your answering machine! Messages can be accessed remotely, automatically emailed, etc. This is the client part of the software, with which you can listen to the messages. Those messages are recorded on a system with the server part of the software (isdnvboxserver); that system may be elsewhere, as long as it can be connected to via a network. 
ISDN answering machine, server Let your debian system be your answering machine! Messages can be accessed remotely, automatically emailed, etc. This is the server part of the software. This is what needs to be installed on the system with the ISDN card. To actually listen to the recorded messages you need the client package (isdnvboxclient) somewhere, not necessarily on the same system. 
Integrated Software Development and Verification 
Information System Engineering Environment (Westmount, CASE) 
Integrated Software Engineering Environment [reference model] (NIST, ECMA, CASE) 
An interactive line selection tool for ASCII files iSelect is an interactive line selection tool for ASCII files, operating via a full-screen Curses-based terminal session. It can be used either as an user interface frontend controlled by a Bourne-Shell/Perl/Tcl backend as its control script or in batch mode as a pipeline filter (usually between grep and the final executing command). For more information, please visit 
Integrated Software Federal User Group (org., user group) 
Information SuperHighway 
Information Sciences Institute (org., USA) 
Information Society Initiative (UK) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (org.) 
Test the integrity of an IP Stack with semi-random packets ISIC (and components) is intended to test the integrity of an IP Stack and its component stacks (TCP, UDP, ICMP et. al.) It does this by generating controlled random packets. You can use ISIC for testing if a firewall leaks packets, or how well an IDS functions. 
Internet Search Interface Language (Internet, Sherlock, Apple) 
??? (OS, Intel) 
Industrial Signature Interopeability Specification (cryptography) 
Intermediate System to Intermediate System [protocol / routing] (OSI, RFC 1195), "IS-IS" 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer SiliziumTechnologie (org., Itzehoe, Germany), "ISiT" 
International Society for Knowledge Organisation (org.) 
Integrated Services Line Module 
Integrated Services Local Network 
Integrated Services Line Unit 
Industrial, Science, Medical [ = 2,4 GHz ] (WLAN) 
Information Systems Network 
Initial Segment / Sequence Number (TCP/IP) 
Integrated Systems Network 
Internet Shopping Network (network, WWW) 
International Standards Organisation [International Organization for Standardization] (org.) 
See International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 
ISO (International Standardization Organization)
An international standards body. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Standard governed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the file structure of compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM). 
Internet SOCiety (org., Internet) 
ISO Development Environment (OSI) 
ISO information NETwork (ISO, network) 
Image Synthesis Processor (IC, Graphik, TSP) 
Integrated System Peripheral control (Wyse) 
Interactive String Processor (BS2000) 
International Standardized Profiles (ISO) 
Internet Service Provider (Internet) 
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Any organization that provides access to the Internet. Many ISPs also offer technical assistance to schools looking to become Internet information providers by placing their school's information online. They also help schools get connected to the Net. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Internet Service Provider Austria (org., ISP) 
ISDN PAcket [driver] (ISDN) 
The Spanish dictionary for ispell. This is the Spanish dictionary for ispell as put together by Santiago Rodriguez <> and Jesus Carretero <>. 
Internet Service Providers' Consortium (ISP, IPP, org.), "ISP/C" 
format of ispell dictionaries and affix files 
International Ispell (an interactive spelling corrector) Ispell corrects spelling in plain text, LaTeX, sgml/html/xml, and nroff files. [x]Emacs and jed have nice interfaces to ispell, and ispell works from many other tools and from the command line as well. No dictionaries are included in this package. Ispell looks in /usr/lib/ispell/default.{aff,hash} and in /usr/share/dict/words by default. Those files may be provided, respectively, by an ispell-dictionary package and a wordlist package. (You must have an ispell dictionary before you can use ispell; a wordlist is only required for ispell's (L)ookup command.) This ispell package supports either the "new-style" idict-<language> dictionaries or the "old-style" i<language> dictionaries. As of February 2001, only old-style dictionaries are available, because the dictionaries-common standards and package have not been finalized. When dictionaries-common and the idict-<language> dictionaries become available, this version of ispell will be able to use them. (For more information, please see the dictionaries-common package and ispell's Debian changelog). 
Bash script to select a new ispell default dictionary. 
Interactive System Productivity Facility (IBM) 
International Standard Program Number 
Information Society Project Office [of the european commission] (org., Europe, ECHO) 
??? [hardware description language] (HDL) 
Interactive Structured Query Language 
Interrupt Service Register (IC) 
Interrupt Service Request 
Interrupt Service Routine 
International Standard Recording Code 
International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation (ACM, conference) 
International Solid State Circuits Conference (conference) 
Internet Streaming SIMD Extension (Intel, Pentium, Katmai, SIMD) 
Integrated Special Services Network 
International Standard Serial Number 
International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (IEEE-CS, conference) 
[fraunhofer] Institut fuer Software- und SystemTechnik (org., Dortmund, Germany) 
Immerse System Technology (VR) 
Indian Standard Time [+0530] (TZ) 
Initial System Test 
It Seems To Me (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Information Science and Technology Office (org., DARPA) 
I Seem To Recall / Remember (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Integrated Services User Part (ISDN) 
Independent Software Vendor 
Independent Solution Vendor (DEC) 
Information Service Vendor 
The Swedish dictionary for ispell. This is the Swedish dictionary, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Swedish texts. The dictionary contains approximately 120,000 words. 
Synchronize a local maildir with a remote IMAP4 mailbox A command line application which synchronizes a local maildir-style mailbox with a remote IMAP4 mailbox, suitable for use in IMAP-disconnected mode. Multiple copies of the remote IMAP4 mailbox can be maintained, and all flags are synchronized. Features: * Fast mode for fetching new mail only * Supports imaps: (port 993) TLS/SSL connections * Supports STARTTLS (RFC2595) for confidentiality * Supports NAMESPACE (RFC2342) * Supports CRAM-MD5 (RFC2095) for authentication 
Information Technology 
Iran Time [+0300] (TZ) 
Interim Type Approval 
Information Technology Association of America (org., USA) 
Information Technology Association of Canada (org., Canada) 
[Incr Tcl] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Package. [incr Tcl] is an object-oriented extension of the Tcl language. It was created to support more structured programming in Tcl. 
Simple shell for [incr Tcl] 
Simple shell for [incr Tcl] 
InformationsTechnische Einrichtungen 
ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service)
A band of low-power microwave frequencies set aside by the Federal Communications Commisson (FCC) exclusively for the transmission of educational programming and licensed to public institutions. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service)
Microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
InformationsTechnische Gesellschaft (org., VDE) 
[Incr Tk] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Package. [incr Tk] is a set of [Incr Tcl] base classes for creating mega-widgets. Onc such set of mega-widgets is provided in the [Incr Widgets] package. 
[Incr Tk] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Files. [incr Tk] is a set of [Incr Tcl] base classes for creating mega-widgets. Onc such set of mega-widgets is provided in the [Incr Widgets] package. 
Simple windowing shell for [incr Tcl] / [incr Tk] 
Simple windowing shell for [incr Tcl] / [incr Tk] 
Instruction Translation Look-aside Buffer (CPU) 
Information Technology Management 
Information Technology Management Association (org., USA) 
Immediate check Truth Maintenance System (AI) 
ISO Transport service on TCP/IP (ISO, TCP/IP, RFC 2126) 
Intent to Package (Linux, Debian) 
Internet Talk Radio (Internet) 
Information Technology Research Centre (org., Canada) 
Industrial TRON (TRON, OS) 
Incompatible Time-sharing System (DEC) 
International Telecommunications Society (org.) 
Integrated Tactical/Strategic Data Network (mil., USA, network) 
[european] Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (Europe) 
Information Technology Security Evaluation Manual / Methodology (ITSEC) 
Internet Telephony Service Provider (Internet, CAT) 
Information Technology Standards Program Office (org., USA) 
International Telegraph and Telephone (org.) 
Information Technology Training Initiative (org., UK) 
??? [institute of telecommunications and information technology] (org., Malaysia) 
Information Transport Utility 
International Telecommunications Union (org.) 
International Telecommunications Union - Radio sector (ITU, org.), "ITU-R" 
Information Technology Users Standards Association (org., USA) 
ITU Telecommunications [standards group] (org., successorr, CCITT), "ITU-T" 
International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Standards Sector (ITU) 
I Think You Meant (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Integer Unit (CPU) 
Inter-User Communications Vehicle (IBM, TCP/IP, API, VM/ESA, CP) 
Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik, "IuK" 
Informations- Und KommunikationsDiensteGesetz DFUe, Germany 
Internet Underground Music Archive (WWW) 
Interim Update Package (3COM) 
Implementation Under Test 
Implementation Under Test - System Under Test, "IUT-SUT" 
Initialisation Vector (cryptography) 
International Voice Association (org.) 
Integrated Visual Computing [architecture] (SGI) 
InteressenVerbund DEutsches Network Information Center (org., Internet), "IV-DENIC" 
Integrated Voice and Data Local Area Network 
Interactive Voice Response (CTI) 
Hebrew Package for the babel system and LaTeX2e A support package for the Hebrew language. Based on the old LaTeX 2.09 hebrew.sty and is backward compatible with it. A babel-based language switching interface is also supported. Includes Hebrew support for babel/LaTeX 2e (heblatex), Hebrew fonts, (hebfonts), examples of hebrew documents (hebexmpl) and documentation. 
Ivrix is a project aimed at creating a free Linux distribution with complete Hebrew support. 
Interactive Visualization Systems 
International Video Teleconferencing Service 
International Webmasters Association (org., WWW) 
Inside Wire Cable 
InterWorking Function (IN, GSM, ...) 
[Incr Widgets] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Files. [incr Widgets] is a set of high-level mega-widgets built using [incr Tk]. It has more than 50 widget classes, and can be used right out of the box to create various user interface components. 
Intelligent Work-Station 
International Workshop on Telematics (conference, IEEE-CS, SEE) 
InterWorking Unit (IN) 
ImpulsWahlVerfahren (MODEM) 
notify user when mail arrives by blinking keyboard leds Ixbiff blinks the keyboard LEDs when new mail arrives. The keyboard LEDs used depend upon the daemon's configuration. For obvious reasons only three mailboxes can be checked. Currently, ixbiff is Linux specific and requires root access. Ixbiff supports the standard UNIX mbox format as well as qmail's Maildir format. 
IntereXchange Carrier (FCC, LATA) 
An Italian distribution based on Mandrake. Full support of the Italian language both at the operating system and at a documentation and installation level, with an English language version of the web site. This site was last updated May 30, 2001 and appears to have disappeared [July 22, 2002]. 
Java 2 Enterprise Edition (Java, Sun) 
Java 2 Micro Edition (Java, Sun) 
Java 2 Standard Edition (Java, Sun) 
Japanese gettext message files Japanese message files from and This package includes: - net-tools 1.51: incomplete - textutils 2.0: Bug#43846 Done: man-db, wget, gettext (Bug#43844), fileutils(Bug#43843), tar, grep, sh-utils, glibc 2.1.94, texinfo Sponsored by Fumitoshi UKAI <> 
Java Authentication and Authorization Service (Java, API) 
Daemon for the Open Source Instant Messenger Jabber is a Free Instant Messaging System In this Package you will find jabberd, a message transport server based on a XML Message Routing Infrastructure. All this high-tech is simply used to provide you with your own IM Server. See for more details. Jabber supports connecting to AIM, ICQ, IRC, MSM and a lot of others, so you can use all available IM systems from one client. 
Share a set of package choices Allows others to easily replicate your package choices via Debian's apt-get utility. Generating an apt-gettable, custom debian package, with the appropriate dependencies. 
Rip and encode CDs with one command Jack has been developed with one main goal: making MP3s or OGGs without having to worry. There is nearly no way that an incomplete rip goes unnoticed, e.g. jack compares WAV and OGG file sizes when continuing from a previous run. Jack also checks your HD space before doing anything (even keeps some MB free). Jack is different from other such tools in a number of ways: - it supports different rippers and encoders - it is very configurable - it doesn't need X - it can "rip" virtual CD images like the ones created by cdrdao - when using cdparanoia, cdparanoia's status information is displayed for all tracks, so you can see if something went wrong - it uses sophisticated disk space management, i.e. it schedules it's ripping/encoding processes depending on available space. - freedb query, file renaming and id3 tagging - it can resume work after it has been interrupted. If all tracks have been ripped, it doesn't even need the CD anymore, even if you want to do a freedb query. - it can do a freedb query based on OGGs alone, like if you don't remember from which CD those OGGs came from. - freedb submissions 
Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) 
Joint Application Development 
James Clark's DSSSL Engine Jade is an implementation of the DSSSL style language. The jade engine is a useful tool (in conjunction with a DSSSL style sheet) for translating SGML documents into other formats. Jade can currently generate SGML, RTF, and TeX. In conjunction with the "jadetex" TeX style, it can generate quite nice output. Author: James Clark <> Homepage: 
Jasmine Application Development Environment (Jasmine, DB, CA) 
JadeTeX contains the additional LaTeX macros necessary for taking JadeTeX output files and processing them as TeX files (to obtain DVI,PostScript, or PDF files, for example). 
LaTeX macros for SGML to DVI/PS/PDF conversion with Jade JadeTeX provides a set of LaTeX macros to process the TeX files generated by Jade or OpenJade. Using Jade and JadeTeX you can print every SGML document for which you have or make a DSSSL description. Homepage: 
processing tex files produced by the backend of Jade. 
Just Another GTK+ Samba Client Jags is a Gtk+ based "windows network neighbourhood browser". The program parses the output from smbclient (part of the samba-package) and use this to display a graphic view of the network. This program does the parsing with help from shell- scripts. 
Just Another ICMP Logger Jail (Just Another ICMP Logger) is a small program which runs in the background, and can be configured to log at different syslog levels the reception of various ICMP packets. 
JAILBAIT's Another Interesting Linux But Also Intimidating Too: A fully-functional Linux distribution that fits into 16 MB. Many modern net-appliance-type products such as the Netpliance iOpener have an internal SanDisk device that is 16 MB in size. 
A replacement for make This is the Jam/MR program as published by Perforce. For a version with additionnal features see the `ftjam' package. A powerful and highly customizable utility to build programs and other things, that can run on Un*x, Nt, VMS, OS/2 and Macintosh MPW, using portable Jamfiles. It can build large projects spread across many directories in one pass. It takes some time to fully apprehend, as there's no tutorial available yet, especially when one's already accustomed to make(1), but there's no comparison in power when comparing these 2 tools. Standard rules: - can automatically extract header dependencies for C/C++ (you can customize for you own language) - provide for automatic "clean", "install", "uninstall" rules, so that an automake-like tool is not needed 
Joint Academic NETwork (network, UK) 
Java Anon Proxy (Java) 
Java Archive (Java) 
The definitive compendium of hacker slang. This is the Jargon File, a comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor. The file is in info format, but includes an HTML page with links to the home site. Note that this package is now out-of-date, because the upstream author is no longer maintaining an info version of the file. 
Javascript-Accessable Style Sheets (HTML, WWW, JavaScript) 
A Computer language developed by SUN which allows you to write software which works on a wide range of computers . JAVA is currently the programming language of choice on the Internet and it allows tiny programs to be created and sent over the network. More information is available at From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
A programming language based on C developed in 1996 by Sun Microsystems. It was developed for network computing because it allows for mini-applications, called "applets" to be distributed to different computer clients connected to the network. An applet will run identically on any existing computer environment. Browsers like Netscape & Internet Explorer make use of Java. 
An object-oriented language originally developed at Sun by James Gosling (and known by the name "Oak") with the intention of being the successor to C++ (the project was however originally sold to Sun as an embedded language for use in set-top boxes). After the great Internet explosion of 1993-1994, Java was hacked into a byte-interpreted language and became the focus of a relentless hype campaign by Sun, which touted it as the new language of choice for distributed applications. Java is indeed a stronger and cleaner design than C++ and has been embraced by many in the hacker community - but it has been a considerable source of frustration to many others, for reasons ranging from uneven support on different Web browser platforms, performance issues, and some notorious deficiencies of some of the standard toolkits (AWT in particular). Microsoft's determined attempts to corrupt the language (which it rightly sees as a threat to its OS monopoly) have not helped. As of 1999, these issues are still in the process of being resolved. Despite many attractive features and a good design, it is difficult to find people willing to praise Java who have tried to implement a complex, real-world system with it (but to be fair it is early days yet, and no other language has ever been forced to spend its childhood under the limelight the way Java has). On the other hand, Java has already been a big win in academic circles, where it has taken the place of Pascal as the preferred tool for teaching the basics of good programming to the next generation of hackers. 
An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. to be operating system independent. Java is often used on Web servers. Java applications and applets are sometimes offered as downloads to run on users' systems. Java programming can produce applications, or smaller Java applets. Java is a somewhat simplified version of the C++ language, and is normally interpreted rather than compiled. (Also, see JIT Compiler.) 
Java is a network-friendly programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java is often used to build large, complex systems that involve several different computers interacting across networks, for example transaction processing systems. Java is also becoming popular for creating programs that run in small electronic devicws, such as mobile telephones. A very common use of Java is to create programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations,calculators, and other fancy tricks. 
Java Applets
Small Java programs that are embedded in a Web page and run within a browser, not as a stand-alone application. Applets cannot access some resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and generally cannot communicate with other computers across a network. 
Base of all Java packages This package must be installed in the system if a Java environment is desired. It covers useful information for Java users in Debian GNU/Linux, including: - The Java policy document which describes the layout of Java support in Debian and how Java packages should behave. - The Debian-Java-FAQ which provides information on the status of Java support in Debian, available compilers, virtual machines, Java programs and libraries as well as on legal issues. 
Highlight Java and C++ sources for WWW presentation java2html can highlight your source for presentation in the WWW. It can also be used as a CGI script and can detect whether the client browser supports compressed data to save bandwidth. 
A component architecture for the Java programming language, developed initially by Sun, but now available from several other vendors. JavaBeans components are called "beans". 
Java Operating System (Java), "JavaOS" 
JavaScript is a programming language that is mostly used in web pages, usually to add features that make the web page more interactive. When JavaScript is included in an HTML file it relies upon the browser to interpret the JavaScript. When JavaScript is combined with Cascading Style Sheets(CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and later) the result is often called DHTML. 
Misconception: JavaScript is completely different than Java. Netscape renamed their "LiveScript" in order to take advantage of all the marketing hype surrounding Java. Both Java and JavaScript inherit similar syntax from their C/C++ parents, but they were designed completely independently. 
Netscape's simple, cross-platform, World-Wide Web scripting language, only very vaguely related to Java. JavaScript is intimately tied to the World-Wide Web, and currently runs in only three environments - as a server-side scripting language, as an embedded language in server-parsed HTML, and as an embedded language run in browsers. 
Python module for generating XML documents jaxml is a python module that defines a class XML_document, which allows easy and trouble-free generation of XML documents. 
Java API for XML Processing (Java, API, XML) 
make a bibliography for ASCII p(La)TeX / NTT j(La)TeX This is JBibTeX, a Japanized BibTeX based on the original BibTeX 0.99c. JBibTeX can handle Kanji characters (EUC-JP). This package contains library files for JBibTeX. You need to install jbibtex-bin to use JBibTeX. This is a part of ASCII pTeX distribution, but you can use this program not only with ASCII p(La)TeX but also with NTT j(La)TeX. 
Joint Bi-level Image expert Group (org., JTC1) 
A distribution for workstations and servers. JBLinux was at version 2.2 as of August 10, 2001. 
A parser for the lojban language jbofihe is a command-line driven program with the following functions: * Checking grammatical correctness of Lojban text * Displaying successfully analysed text with nesting of grammatical constructs shown (either inline or as a tree) * Displaying approximate word-for-word English translations of the Lojban words, with some limited 'part-of-speech' adjustment of the English forms. * Showing which sumti fill each of the places of each selbri 
Joint Computer-Aided Logistics System (CAL) 
Job Control Block (BS2000) 
Java Callable Data Wrapper (Java) 
Java Cryptographic Extension (Java, API) 
JESSI Common Framework 
/J-C-L/ n. 1. IBM's supremely rude Job Control Language. JCL is the script language used to control the execution of programs in IBM's batch systems. JCL has a very fascist syntax, and some versions will, for example, barf if two spaces appear where it expects one. Most programmers confronted with JCL simply copy a working file (or card deck), changing the file names. Someone who actually understands and generates unique JCL is regarded with the mixed respect one gives to someone who memorizes the phone book. It is reported that hackers at IBM itself sometimes sing "Who's the breeder of the crud that mangles you and me? I-B-M, J-C-L, M-o-u-s-e" to the tune of the "Mickey Mouse Club" theme to express their opinion of the beast. 2. A comparative for any very rude software that a hacker is expected to use. "That's as bad as JCL." As with COBOL, JCL is often used as an archetype of ugliness even by those who haven't experienced it. See also IBM, fear and loathing. A (poorly documented, naturally) shell simulating JCL syntax is available at the Retrocomputing Museum 
Job Control Language (IBM, OS/360) 
JCL (Job Control Language)
In mainframe computing, a progamming language that allows progammer to spcify batch processing instructions, which the computer then carries out. The abbreviation JCL refers to the job control language used in IBM mainframes. 
??? (org.) 
Java Callable Wrapper (MS, Java, VM, COM) 
Java standard DataBase Connectivity (DB, Java, Sun, Borland, ODBC, API) 
Java Development Environment for Emacs or XEmacs. The Java Development Environment (JDE) is an Emacs Lisp package that interfaces Emacs to third-party Java application development tools, such as those provided by JavaSoft's Java Development Kit (JDK). The result is an integrated development environment (IDE) comparable in power to many commercial Java IDEs. Features include: - source code editing with syntax highlighting and auto indentation - compilation with automatic jump from error messages to responsible line in the source code. - run Java application in an interactive (comint) Emacs buffer - integrated debugging with interactive debug command buffer and automatic display of current source file/line when stepping through code - browse JDK doc, using the browser of your choice - browse your source code, using the Emacs etags facility or a tree-structured speedbar. - easily and infinitely customizable 
Java Development Kit (Sun, Java) 
JDK (Java Development Kit)
A free software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debug Java applications and applets. From Matisse Versions are also available from IBM and open source groups for a variety of platforms including Linux. From Binh
fast alternative to apache logresolve The jdresolve application resolves IP addresses into hostnames. To reduce the time necessary to resolve large batches of addresses, jdresolve opens many concurrent connections to the DNS servers, and keeps a large number of text lines in memory. These lines can have any content, as long as the IP addresses are the first field to the left. This is usually the case with most formats of HTTP and FTP log files. 
Editor for programmers. (textmode version) Jed offers: Extensible in a language resembling C. Completely customizable. Capable of read GNU info files from within JED's info browser. A variety of programming modes (with syntax highlighting) are available including Pascal, Java, Perl, C, C++, FORTRAN, TeX, HTML, SH, IDL, DCL, NROFF, PostScript, Basic. Folding support. Edit TeX files with AUC-TeX style editing (BiBTeX support too). Rectangular cut/paste; regular expressions; incremental searches; search replace across multiple files; multiple windows; multiple buffers; shell modes; directory editor (dired); mail; rmail; ispell; and much more. 
Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council (org.) 
Extended mind for John E. Davis' text editor jed Jedstate is some sort of an extended mind for John E. Davis' splendid text editor jed. Using jedstate and jed's startup and exit hooks as a glue jed "remembers" the position of the cursor for all visited files and will automagically jump to that position whenever the file is revisited. The database is purgeable based on a time-since-last-view criterion. 
Japan Electronics Industry Development Association (org., Japan) 
Simple full screen text editor with colored C/C++ syntax JERED is a full page text editor for Unix. It is based on the text editor E from IBM. The old name was JE, which meant Jerome's Editor. Now it is called JERED, which means JErome's Renamed EDitor. This editor features: automatic color enhancement of C and C++ syntax, recording & playback of macros, multi-file sessions, automatic screen size recognition, block movements, shell escapes, custom user configuration, small run size (about 45K with a shared ncurses library, and about 170K with a static ncurses lib, very fast loading, and straightforward design. Lightweight & cool. 
Job Entry Subsystem (IBM) 
A redirector for Squid Jesred is a very fast and highly configurable redirector for the Squid Internet Object Cache. It was derived from Chris Foote's and Wayne Piekarski's Squirm 1.0 betaB and some code from Squid itself, but is about 2-3x faster than the original version and has some additional features. Jesred has the following features: * uses only a very small amount of memory (a little bit more than squirm 1.0 betaB, but still less than perl ;-)) * able to rewrite GET and optionally ICP_QUERY requests as well * one global configuration file * one IP access control file which supports CIDR notation only (i.e. subnet/mask). Thus only URL requests from the specified * subnets/clients are rewritten, if necessary. * one rewrite rules configuration file (regular expression matching and replacement) * optionally logging of common and error messages to a file * optionally logging of URL rewrites to a separate log file, incl. the number of the rule, which has been used to rewrite the URL * able to re-read all its configuration files on the fly by sending a HUP signal to the process. That's why there is no need to restart Squid, if you want to: 1.change the used log file name[s] (useful for log file rotation) 2.enable/disable logging 3.enable/disable debug mode if compiled with DEBUG option 4.enable/disable URL rewriting of ICP_QUERY (sibling) requests 5.change the IP access patterns 6.change the redirect rules * If you mess up configuration file[s], Jesred runs in Echo Mode (always echos back a newline - i.e. no URL replacement) and squid keeps working. 
Java Expert System Shell (Java, Shell) 
X-based board game similar to Othello It can be played head-to-head on the console or by a single player against the computer. Jester allows you to waste valuable time that could otherwise be spent playing Solitaire. 
Japanized framebuffer terminal with Multilingual Enhancement. Jfbterm/me is a Japanized framebuffer terminal with Multilingual Enhancement. It can display ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2, ISO-2022-JP, EUC-JP, ISO-2022-CN, CN-GB, ISO-2022-KR, EUC-KR and Wansung. BIG5 is planned to support. It supprts 8 bpp PACKED-PIXELS PSEUDOCOLOR and (15|16|24|32) bpp PACKED-PIXELS TRUECOLOR framebuffers (vga16fb is supported). 
Java Foundation Classes (Java, API) 
Junction Field Effect Transistor (IC, FET) 
JPEG File Interchange Format (JPEG) 
lexical analyzer generator for Java JFlex is a lexical analyzer generator for Java written in Java. It is also a rewrite of the very useful tool JLex which was developed by Elliot Berk at Princeton University. As Vern Paxon states for his C/C++ tool flex : They do not share any code though. 
Journaled File System (LVM) 
JFS (Journaled/Journaling File System)
A file system that includes built-in backup/recovery capabilities. Changes to the index are written to a log file before the changes take effect so that if the index is corrupted (by a power failure during the index write, for example), the index can be rebuilt from the log, including the changes. 
The jfsutils package contains a number of utilities for creating, checking, modifying, and correcting any inconsistencies in JFS filesystems. The following utilities are available: fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the JFS transaction log, and check and repair a JFS formatted device; logdump - dump a JFS formatted device's journal log; logredo -"replay" a JFS formatted device's journal log; mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition; xchkdmp - dump the contents of a JFS fsck log file created with xchklog; xchklog - extract a log from the JFS fsck workspace into a file; xpeek - shell-type JFS file system editor. 
Utilities for managing the JFS filesystem Utilities for managing IBM's Journaled File System (JFS) under Linux. IBM's journaled file system technology, currently used in IBM enterprise servers, is designed for high-throughput server environments, key to running intranet and other high-performance e-business file servers. The following utilities are available: fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the JFS transaction log, and check and repair a JFS formatted device. logdump - dump a JFS formatted device's journal log. logredo - "replay" a JFS formatted device's journal log. mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition. xchkdmp - dump the contents of a JFS fsck log file created with xchklog. xchklog - extract a log from the JFS fsck workspace into a file. xpeek - shell-type JFS file system editor. 
Joe's FTP Proxy/Gateway. FTP proxy program with the following features: * Active as well as passive FTP transfers. * Logging of connection attempts. * Access control features * If run as root, it drops the privileges as often as possible. * You can pretend to run a real ftp server. * User specific forward features. * Specify how many users are allowed to log in from which IP ranges. * The throughput rate can be throttled. * Various login strings are possible. * Regular users can run the proxy server on unprivileged ports as well. 
Jim Plank's program for producing PostScript graphs Jgraph takes a description of a graph or graphs and produces a postscript file on the standard output. Jgraph is ideal for plotting any mixture of scatter point graphs, line graphs, and/or bar graphs, and embedding the output into LaTeX, or any other text processing system which can read postscript. The graph description language is simple enough to get nice looking graphs with a minimum of effort, yet powerful enough to give the user the flexibility to tailor the appearance of the graph to his or her individual preferences. This includes plotting multiple graphs and laying them out separately on the page (or pages). 
Jay's House Core, an enhanced core database for lambdamoo Jay's House Core, a lambdacore based db with significant enhancements. It features: * Hypertext help system * Administration groups * Enhanced english presentation tools * Added objects (furniture, doors, windows, etc) * A tutorial 
Manipulate the non-image part of EXIF compliant JPEG files Jhead is a command line driven utility for extracting digital camera settings from the Exif format files used by many digital cameras. It handles the various confusing ways these can be expressed, and displays them as F-stop, shutter speed, etc. It is also able to reduce the size of digital camera JPEGs without loss of information, by deleting integral thumbnails that digital cameras put into the Exif header. Upstream is: 
Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (org., Japan) 
Joint Interoperability Engineering Organization (org., DISA, mil., USA) 
JPEG Interchange Format (JPEG) 
Visualization for nec-based antenna designs It is never been easier to design antennas! Most hams enjoy ``fiddling'' with antennas, but comparatively few of us are really interested in doing one-handed chin-ups at fifty feet above the cold frozen earth on a snowy and windy night in January. Jiffy will make life a lot easier for you. It can make a drawing from the antenna design that you made and it can display elevation and azimuth patterns from the nec output. 
Visualization for nec-based antenna designs using perl-tk Another version of jiffy, which uses perl-tk. Compared to the original jiffy, a program called necview is added, which can view your antenna design from different angles. A major advantage of this version of jiffy as compared to the tcl/tk/blt based version: it's a lot faster. 
Download Debian CD images from any Debian mirror Using the jigdo-lite script contained in this package, you can use your nearest "regular" Debian mirror to download Debian CD images, instead of having to use one of the few, slow, overloaded mirrors that offer the images as direct HTTP or FTP downloads. See <> for details. Jigsaw Download, or short jigdo, is a scheme developed primarily to make it easy to distribute huge filesystem images (e.g. CD (ISO9660) or DVD (UDF) images) over the internet, but it could also be used for other data which is awkward to handle due to its size, like audio/video files or large software packages. jigdo tries to ensure that the large file is downloaded in small parts which can be stored on different servers. People who want to download the image do so by telling the jigdo download tool to process one ".jigdo" file; using it, jigdo downloads the parts and reassembles the image. jigdo-file is used to prepare the files for download. 
Fast Java compiler adhering to language and VM specifications Jikes is a Java compiler that translates Java source files as defined in The Java Language Specification (Addison-Wesley, 1996) into the bytecoded instruction set and binary format defined in The Java Virtual Machine Specification (Addison-Wesley, 1996). Unlike other compilers, Jikes accepts the Java language only as specified: not as a subset, variant, or superset. In addition to strictly adhering to specifications, Jikes is faster than most compilers and can compute the complete dependency relations in program files. This allows for the generation of dependency makefiles suitable for use with make. Jikes can also be run in incremental mode: after the initial compilation, Jikes waits until prompted, determines which files have been changed, and then does the minimal amount of work needed to bring the class files into a complete and consistent state. This cycle can be repeated until the q command is entered to end the compilation. 
Jikes Parser Generator Jikes Parser Generator is a parser generator that accepts as input an annotated description for a language grammar and produces text files suitable for inclusion in a parser for that language. It is similar in function and use to the widely-available parser generators Yacc and Bison. It also provides support for automatic diagnosis and recovery from syntactic errors. It is the parser generator used by the Jikes Compiler. Jikes Parser Generator can generate parsers for LALR(k) grammars and produce output suitable for use with parsers written in Java, C, or C++. 
Pronounced "Genie". Software from Sun that works somewhat like "plug-and-play", in that it allows a hardware device to announce itself to the operating system (and provide details about the device) when the hardware is attached, without requiring a system reboot. It also announces itself to the network the system is connected to, providing easy network sharing of the device. 
Japan Information Processing DEvelopment Center (org., Japan) 
JANET Internet Protocol Service (JANET) 
Japanese Institute of Standards (org., Japan) 
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (org., Japan) 
Just In Time [compiler] 
JIT (Just-In-Time) Compiler
A compiler for the Java language that allows interpreted Java programs to be automatically compiled into native machine language on the fly, for faster performance of the program. Some JVMs include a JIT compiler. 
Joint Interoperability Technology Center (org., DISA, mil.) 
A cgi-bin tool for problem reporting and tracking JitterBug is a cgi-bin tool for problem reporting and tracking developed by Andrew Tridgell for the Samba Team. It is highly customizable to your own project's needs. It has both a web interface and an e-mail based one for submitting bug reports. 
Just Kidding (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
A file pager program, similar to more(1) supporting ISO2022 Jless is a program similar to more (1), but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. Also, jless does not have to read the entire input file before starting, so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi (1). Jless uses terminfo, so it can run on a variety of terminals. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. Jless supporting ISO 2022 code extension techniques and Japanese codes. 
A Lex-style lexical analyser generator for Java The JLex utility is a lexical analyser generator, modelled after the popular UNIX "lex" utility. JLex takes a specification file similar to that accepted by Lex, then creates a Java source file for the corresponding lexical analyzer. 
Java Metadata Interface (Java) 
A cross-platform make tool written in Java jmk is an application which is used to ensure that a set of files is in a consistent state. If jmk detects an inconsistency, it executes commands that correct the inconsistency. The rules used to detect and correct inconsistencies are given in a makefile. jmk is designed to support the task of writing platform independent makefiles. File names and path lists are written in a canonical form, and translated by jmk into native form. The rules given in a jmk makefile can invoke programs as separate processes. To produce a machine independent makefile, a makefile should only invoke programs that use the same command line argument syntax across platforms. Examples of such programs include Sun's Java compiler (javac) and their Java Archive Tool (jar). 
distributed resource monitor Resource monitoring for large networks. The jMon system allows for the real time monitoring of CPU, memory and swap usage. The system makes use of a small daemon running on each of the machines that are to be monitored. The client makes a TCP/IP connection with each of the servers specified in the configuration file. The statistics of all the host machines are displayed in an ncurses window on the console. 
Japanized MetaPost, a system for drawing pictures This is jMetaPost, a Japanized MetaPost based on the original MetaPost 0.641. jMetaPost can handle Kanji characters (EUC-JP). MetaPost interprets the MetaPost language and produces PostScript pictures. The MetaPost language is similar to Knuth's Metafont with additional features for including tex(1) or troff(1) commands and accessing features of PostScript not found in Metafont. 
Japanese MIDI Standard Committee (org., Japan) 
Joint Multi-TADIL Standards Working Group (org., mil., TADIL) 
Java Naming and Directory Interface (JavaSoft, API, Java) 
The dungeon exploration game JNetHack (nethack with Japanese l10n) JNetHack is Japanese localized version of NetHack. NetHack is D&D (Dungeons and Dragons) style adventure game. Special features of JNetHack version are following: * Japanese message * New character 'Fighter' (She wears 'sailor blouse') * High score server * GTK+ mode * And so on... 
Java Native method Interface (Java, API) 
??? (org.) 
Java Network Technology (Java, Informatec) 
A task for a computer. The word derives from the days when people had to take their programs to a computing department to be run on a mainframe, and thereby assign a job to the copmuting department. 
Job control
Refers to the ability to selectively stop (suspend) the execution of processes and continue (resume) their execution at a later point. A user typically employs this facility via an interactive interface supplied jointly by the system's terminal driver and bash. 
Job queue
A series of tasks automatically executed, one after the other, by the computer. In mainframe data processing during the 1950s and 1960s, the job queue was literallly a queue, or line of people waiting to have their programs run. With interactive, multi-user computing and personal computing, you usually don't need to line up to get your work done (although jobs can still back up at a busy printer). The term is still used in WordPerfect, for example, where you can assign a job number to several files you want to print, and the program prints the files in the order you assign. 
Jasmine Object Database Server (Jasmine, DB, CA) 
user friendly full screen text editor Joe, the Joe's Own Editor, has the feel of most PC text editors: the key sequences are reminiscent of WordStar and Turbo C editors, but the feature set is much larger than of those. Joe has all of the features a Unix user should expect: full use of termcap/terminfo, complete VI-style Unix integration, a powerful configuration file, and regular expression search system. It also has six help reference cards which are always available, and an intuitive, simple, and well thought-out user interface. Joe has a great screen update optimization algorithm, multiple windows (through/between which you can scroll) and lacks the confusing notion of named buffers. It has command history, TAB expansion in file selection menus, undo and redo functions, (un)indenting and paragraph formatting, filtering highlighted blocks through any external Unix command, editing a pipe into or out of a command, and block move, copy, delete or filter. Through simple QEdit-style configuration files, Joe can be set up to emulate editors such as Pico and Emacs, along with a complete immitation of WordStar, and a restricted mode version (lets you edit only the files specified on the command line). Joe also has a deferred screen update to handle typeahead, and it ensures that deferral is not bypassed by tty buffering. It's usable even at 2400 baud, and it will work on any kind of sane terminal. 
An active password cracking tool john, normally called john the ripper, is a tool to find weak passwords of your users, and even mail them automatically if you want. 
JOHN von Neumann Integrator and Automatic Computer 
join lines of two files on a common field 
Journal of Online Law (WWW) 
Java OnLine Transactions (Java, Bea, OLTP) 
Journal of Object Orientated Programming (OOP) 
Joint Object Services Submission 
Joint Operational Tactical System (mil.) 
Same as "logging". Writing information to a journal (log) file as a method of tracking changes. 
Jonathan's Own Version of EMACS (EMACS) 
Jonathan's Own Version of Emacs - a compact, powerful editor. Jove is a compact, powerful Emacs-style text-editor. It provides the common emacs keyboard bindings, together with a reasonable assortment of the most popular advanced features (e.g. interactive shell windows, compile-it, language specific modes) while weighing in with CPU, memory, and disk requirements comparable to vi(1). 
Testing and calibration tools jstest (1) - joystick test program jscal (1) - joystick calibration program inputattach (1) - attach a serial line to a joystick device joystick-device-check(8) - fixes the major numbers depending on the running kernel 
The Linux Joystick Driver provides support for a variety of joysticks and similar devices. This package includes several utilities for setting up, calibrating, and testing your joystick. 
Joint Photographics Expert Group (org., JTC1, RFC 1521, JPEG) 
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art. 
Prints information and tests integrity of JPEG/JFIF files. jpeginfo can be used to generate informative listings of jpeg files, and also to check jpeg files for errors. It can also detect broken jpeg and delete them automatically. 
A GTK app to modify the contents of your Palm Pilots DB's This is an impressive near-full-featured Palm Pilot desktop similar to the one that comes with the Pilot for Windows platforms. You have access to the following applications: o Datebook o Address book o ToDo list o Memos Plug-ins are available in the jpilot-plugins package. 
Plugins for jpilot (Palm Pilot desktop) This package includes two plugins for jpilot: o Expenses o SyncTime o KeyRing 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Display Information System 
Java Package Manager (MS, Java, VM) 
Java Print Service (Java) 
Java Runtime Environment (Java) 
Java Remote Method Protocol (Java) 
Japanese Standards Association (org., Japan) 
GTK Joystick Calibrator With jscalibrator you can calibrate your joystick for Linux games. More information can be found at the jscalibrator web site . 
Jackson System Development (JSP) 
Java Servlet Development Kit (Java, Sun) 
Java Servlet 2.0 engine with an optional Apache module Apache JServ is a 100% pure Java servlet engine fully compliant with the JavaSoft Java Servlet APIs 2.0 specification. It works on any 1.1-compliant JVM, and contains a dynamically-loadable module (mod_jserv) to activate support in Apache 1.3. Servlet 2.0 classes (servlet-2.0.jar) are included from a free (LGPL) implementation found at For more information, see the servlet engine project homepage at 
Joystick button shell command execution/shutdown tool jslaunch is a very small daemon/program that will start a specified shell command when a combination of joystick buttons is pressed. One of its uses is as a backup way to make a clean shutdown if your console has been messed up by X11 or SVGAlib and you don't have a terminal sitting on your desk to log in and shut down from, but you can use it for example as a remote control to do just about anything (including starting a measurement on an experimental setup connected to your computer). You will not need any joystick drivers. 
??? (org.) 
Jackson Structured Programming (JSD) 
Java Server Pages (Java, Sun, JSP) 
??? (org.) 
Japan Society for System Audits (org., JIPDEC, Japan) 
Java Secure Socket Extension (Java, API) 
Japan Standard Time [+0900] (TZ) 
JPDA java debugger JSwat is an extensible, standalone, graphical Java debugger front-end, written to use the Java Platform Debugger Architecture (JPDA) package provided by JavaSoft. 
Java Time [+0730] (TZ) 
Joint Technical Architecture (JIEO, mil.) 
Joint Test Action Group (org., Philips, IC) 
Jump Trace Buffer (CPU) 
Job To Be Processed [block] (BS2000) 
Job To Be Processed [block] eXtension (BS2000) 
Joint Technical Committee 1 (ISO, IEC, IT) 
basic jTeX library files. jTeX is a TeX for Japanese language. 
Japanese TeX (NTT version) and other japanese tex staffs. JTeX is TeX for Japanese text based on the original Knuth's TeX. Include: jtex, jlatex, amsjtex (amsjtex depends on tetex-extra package) 
Job Transfer and Manipulation (ISO 8831/32) 
Justification based Truth Maintenance System (AI) 
Joint Telecommunications Standards Steering Group (mil.) 
Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display 
playlist editor / player frontend Juice is a frontend for mpg123 and other players. It provides a nifty dialog-based playlist editor. It basically allows you to browse through your files in a "Midnight Commander"-like fashion. The MP3's you select are treated as a playlist which can be shuffled, rearranged, saved, etc. In order to play audio files, two player interfaces are provided. The mpg123-specific interface uses the remote protocol of mpg123 (This feature was introduced in version 0.59r in order to accommodate generic frontends.) The other player frontend is generic and allows for any player to be used. This is useful if you do not want to limit the functionality of juice to MP3's. Please note that this generic frontend is still in early beta phase and is pretty buggy. Of course juice comes with all the bells & whistles you'd expect from a quality application and has (among others) full integrated help functionality as well as full dialog based configuration file editor. 
A curse based jukebox program. Juke is a simple curses/ ncurses based juke box program for Unix computers. It uses command line based players to play all kinds of music format. 
Java Universal Molecular Browser for Objects (XML) 
Japan Unix NETwork (network, Unix) 
Automated testing framework for Java JUnit is a simple framework for writing and running automated tests. As a political gesture, it celebrates programmers testing their own software. 
basic reimplementation of the JUnit unit testing framework This is a basic reimplementation of the JUnit unit testing framework, it was just an afternoons hack, so for real testing you may still wish to use JUnit, but developing against this should avoid any questions regarding licensing. This code is written without the authorization or knowledge of the original JUnit authors, and bears no relation to their code short of containing the same class, method, and field names. 
The Internet Junkbuster! Junkbuster is an instrumentable proxy that filters the HTTP stream between web servers and browsers. It can prevent ads and other unwanted junk from appearing in your web browser. 
A junk-email filtering program for procmail This package uses procmail filtering algorithms to detect junk email. This results in internal procmail variables being assigned to indicate the reason why the email has been classified as junk. The user can then use those variables within their .procmailrc file to deal with the junk in any way they see fit. There are a number of filters available in the package, and can be selected from a simple config file on a per-user basis. 
The positioning of text along the document margins in a word processing application. 
J++ Visual Compiler (MS, Java) 
Joint Visually Integrated Display System (mil.) 
Japanized VIM (Canna version) JVIM 3.0 is Japanized VIM (VI clone editor) by K.Tsuchida <> on May 5, 2001 (patch version 2.1a). This editor can utilize the canna-server in "canna" package directly without other extra libraries (i.e. libonew) in order to enter "Kanji" from kon (Kanji linux cONsole) in kon2 package. 
Java Virtual Machine (Java) 
JVM (Java Virtual Machine)
A Java runtime environment, required for the running of Java programs, which includes a Java interpreter. A different JVM is required for each unique operating system (Linux, OS/2, Windows 98, etc.), but any JVM can run the same version of a Java program. 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
Improved Caching Whois client GNU jwhois is an Internet Whois client that queries hosts for information according to RFC 954 - NICNAME/WHOIS. JWHOIS is configured via a configuration file that contains information about all known Whois servers. Upon execution, the host to query is selected based on the information in the configuration file. The configuration file is highly customizable and makes heavy use of regular expressions. 
Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System (mil.) 
Python seamlessly integrated with Java Jython is an implementation of the high-level, dynamic, object-oriented language Python seamlessly integrated with the Java platform. The predecessor to Jython, JPython, is certified as 100% Pure Java. Jython is complementary to Java and allows the two languages to be freely mixed. It is especially suited for embedded scripting, interactive experimentation and rapid application development, and it can interact with Java packages or with running Java applications. 
Text mode interpreter for Z-Code adventures, etc. This package provides the jzip Z-Code interpreter required to run Infocom or Inform-generated text adventures, although the format can be used for more than games. It is based on the zip interpreter sources and adapted by John D. Holder <>. 
K Desktop Environment (KDE)
Graphical desktop interface designed with free software tools and libraries for the free software community. 
K12LTSP is a terminal server appliance distribution of Red Hat Linux. It's easy to install and configure. 
K3b is CD-writing software which intends to be feature-rich and provide an easily usable interface. Features include burning audio CDs from .WAV and .MP3 audio files, configuring external programs and configuring devices. 
Library for computing Fast Fourier Transforms on AMD K6-2 This library computes Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) in one or more dimensions. It is extremely fast. This package contains the documentation and the shared version of the libraries. To get the static library and the header files you need to install k6fftwgel-dev. This library uses the same interface as fftw so should be a drop-in replacement, but is currently limited to single precision only. The code is tuned for AMD k6-2 processors and can be as much as three times as fast as vanilla fftw. 
Library for computing Fast Fourier Transforms on AMD K7 This library computes Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) in one or more dimensions. It is extremely fast. This package contains the documentation and the shared version of the libraries. To get the static library and the header files you need to install k7fftwgel-dev. This library uses the same interface as fftw so should be a drop-in replacement, but is currently limited to single precision only. The code is tuned for AMD k7 processors and can be as much as three times as fast as vanilla fftw. 
An addressbook for KDE This is the KDE Addressbook 
Abalone board game for KDE Abalone is a simple board strategy game that is played by two players. There are red and yellow pieces for each player. Beginning from a start position where each player has 14 pieces, moves are drawn until one player has pushed 6 pieces of his opponent out of the board 
A JVM to run Java bytecode This is Kaffe, a virtual machine designed to execute Java bytecode. It performs "just-in-time" code conversion from the abstract code to the host machine's native code. This will ultimately allow execution of Java code at the same speed as standard compiled code but while maintaining the advantages and flexibility of code independence. 
KAnji KAna Simple Inverter KAKASI is the language processing filter to convert Kanji characters to Hiragana, Katakana or Romaji(1) and may be helpful to read Japanese documents. The name "KAKASI" is the abbreviation of "kanji kana simple inverter" and the inverse of SKK "simple kana kanji converter" which is developed by Masahiko Sato at Tohoku University. The most entries of the kakasi dictionary is derived form the SKK dictionaries. If you have some interests in the naming of "KAKASI", please consult to Japanese-English dictionary. :-) (1) "Romaji" is alphabetical description of Japanese pronunciation. 
KAKASI dictionary files This package provides KAKASI dictionary files. You have to install this package if you use KAKASI. KAKASI is the language processing filter to convert Kanji characters to Hiragana, Katakana or Romaji(1) and may be helpful to read Japanese documents. (1) "Romaji" is alphabetical description of Japanese pronunciation. 
Kaladix Linux
The aim of Kaladix Linux is to become a ultra-secure Linux distribution that satisfied all your needs as a Linux for your server environment. Current release is pre-0.4. A 'secured' distribution. 
Extract all kernel symbols for debugging 
digital camera io_slave for Konqueror This is a digital camera io_slave for KDE which uses gphoto2 and libgpio to allow access to your camera's pictures with the URL kamera:/ 
Kamera adds support for digital cameras to KDE. After installing kamera, you can access your digital camera just like a filesystem from KDE applications. 
KriminalAktenNachweis (INPOL) 
Katakana and hiragana drill files for KDrill Those files let you pratice your basics katakana and hiragana with kdrill. It includes both the basic version and the extended versions. 
Mobile phone utility for KDE At the moment Kandy is more or less a terminal program with some special features to store commands and their parameters, but is also has a simple GUI to access the phone book of a mobile phone and it is able to save this phone book to the KDE address book. Kandy is aimed at mobile phones with integrated (GSM) modems. 
WAP and SMS gateway Kannel is a gateway for connecting WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) phones to the Internet. It also works as an SMS gateway, for providing SMS based services for GSM phones. 
creates a framework to develop a KDE application KAppTemplate is a shell script that will create the necessary framework to develop various KDE applications. It takes care of the autoconf/automake code as well as providing a skeleton and example of what the code typically looks like. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
Graphical front-end for command line programs (KDE version) Kaptain is a universal graphical front-end (KDE) based on context-free grammars. The program kaptain reads a file containing grammatical rules for generating text. It builds a dialog from the grammar and generates the text according to the user's settings. There's also Qt version of this package (captain) if you don't want to install KDE libraries. 
??? [hardware description language] (HDL) 
A time tracker for KDE KArm is a time tracker for busy people who need to keep track of the amount of time they spend on various tasks. 
ethernet analyzer and sniffer This is a GTK based packet analyzer. Its abilities as a sniffer or scanner are limited, but this sniffer is much easier to use than other popular sniffers such as tcpdump. In addition, there is a protocol definition file in which other protocols can be added. Karpski may also be used to launch programs against addresses on your local network and as a local network intrusion tool. For more information: 
Client for Kascade, a distributed Open directory search-engine Kascade is a novel type of search-engine, based on the Open directory principle. This means that anyone can structure a small part of the information on the internet, corresponding to their personal interests or expertise. The resulting parts are placed in a large categorical structure that others can browse to search for information. Examples of Open Directory initiatives are Dmoz and Infomarker. In contrast with other Open Directory initiatives, though, the parts that people maintain now reside on their own server. What results is a distributed Open Directory! As with Gnutella, though, there are no fixed central servers. This implies that anyone can start a new structure. Actually any piece can be easily replaced, hopefully leading to competitive improvement. The distributed nature and lack of central control facilities make for a system immune to company or government control, much like Gnutella and the Internet itself. 
Asteroids for KDE You know this game. It is based on Warwick Allison's QwSpriteField widget. The objective of kasteroids is to destroy all the asteroids on the screen to advance to the next level. Your ship is destroyed if it makes contact with an asteroid. 
text editor for KDE Kate is a fast text editor for the KDE desktop with an Emacs-style document interface. 
plugins for Kate, the KDE text editor This package contains a variety of useful plugins for Kate, the Emacs-styled text editor for KDE. The plugins can be loaded through the plugin manager in Kate settings. Highlights include HTML tag insertion, insertion of shell command output, opening of include files, a project manager and a text filter. This package is part of the KDE addons module. 
The Atomic Entertainment Handbook This is a puzzle game, in which the object is to assemble a molecule from its atoms on a Sokoban-like board. On each move, an atom goes as far as it can in a specified direction before being stopped by a wall or another atom. 
See kilobit (Kb). 
See kilobyte (KB). 
a PO-file editor for KDE KBabel is a gettext message (PO file) editor for KDE. It is designed to make editing and managing PO files easy. It includes full navigational and editing capabilities, syntax checking and statistics. A catalog manager is also included, which allows you to keep track of many PO files at once. KBabel is designed to help you to translate fast and consistently. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
A Backgammon game for KDE KBackgammon is a backgammon program for KDE2. It is based on the code, ideas and concepts of KFibs (which is a FIBS client for KDE1). For a short time, KBackgammon was called bacKgammon (if you know somebody who is still using bacKgammon, please force them to upgrade :-)). 
A console single host backup solution for various media From the Documentation: It is one of the most powerful backup packages around, supporting a wide range of devices and options. For reasons of portability and reliability it uses the well-established afio and tar programs for writing archives. It greatly extends the capabilities of these archive handlers, providing all the features you might expect from a full-fledged backup system. It can be easily and extensively configured and operated with a user friendly menu interface and can also run automatically for doing scheduled backups without user interaction. Among the features are: compressed archives, encrypted archives, double buffering, automatic handling of multi-volume archives, tape archives, floppy archives, hard disk archives, file archives, incremental backups, scheduled backups, extensive manual. 
Multibuf extends kbackup for multiple volumes multibuf is a tape archive manager which provides the capability of extending a single logical archive over multiple physical media volumes. 
Battleship game for KDE This is an implementation of the Battleship game. Each player tries to be the first to sink all the opponent's ships by firing "blindly" at them. The game has options to play over a network connection or against the computer. 
Linux console font and keytable utilities. This package allows you to set up the Linux console, change the font, resize text mode virtual consoles and remap the keyboard. It now contains the `openvt' program, formerly known as `open'. It now contains the `kbdrate' program, formerly part of the `util-linux' package. 
The kbd package contains tools for managing a Linux system's console's behavior, including the keyboard, the screenfonts, the virtual terminals and font files. 
Wrappers around console-tools for backward compatibility with `kbd'. This package provides the following wrapper scripts, for compatibility with old `kbd' package, for programs which depends on the former's command-line interfaces: setfont, loadunimap, saveunimap, mapscrn. 
The kbdconfig utility is a terminal mode program which provides a simple interface for setting the keyboard map for your system. You need keyboard maps to use any keyboard other than the US default keyboard. Kbdconfig will load the selected keymap before exiting and configure your machine to use that keymap automatically after rebooting. 
reset the keyboard repeat rate and delay time 
report or set the keyboard mode 
Graphical ftp client for KDE KBear is a graphical ftp client with ability to connect to multiple hosts simultaneously. You can copy/move files or directories between the hosts by drag and drop or cut and paste. It also has a dynamic site database. 
K Bulgarian/English Dictionary KBE Dictionary is an electronic dictionary with graphical user interface. It can translate words from English to Bulgarian and from Bulgarian to English. You can use it to learn English too -- it can examine you. The dictionary databases are not included in this package. You have to download bedic-data.tar.gz from Install the files buleng.dat and engbul.dat in /usr/local/share/bedic. 
A simple logical game for the KDE project KBlackBox is a game of hide and seek played on an grid of boxes. Your opponent (Random number generator, in this case) has hidden several balls within this box. By shooting rays into the box and observing where they emerge it is possible to deduce the positions of the hidden balls. The fewer rays you use to find the balls, the lower your score. 
KiloBits Per Second 
One Thousand bps, actual number is 1024 bps. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Knowledge-Based System 
A KDE pocket calculator. 
Kanji code filter kcc can converts various Japanese encodings such as EUC-JP, 7bitJIS, 8bitJIS and ShiftJIS with Half-width Kana supports. kcc can detect these encoding automatically as much as possible. Sponsored by Fumitoshi UKAI <> 
Knowledge Consistency Checker (AD) 
a CD player applet for KDE Kicker Kcd provides a docklet for the KDE Kicker which has some controls (previous, play, pause, stop, next, eject) and displays elapsed/remaining play-time. It also features CDDB support. This is an early development version for testing purposes. 
Kyocera ??? (Kyocera) 
KyoCera Graphic Language (Kyocera) 
KDE Character Selector - allows you to enter characters not found on your keyboard. 
KDE character selector. 
a chart drawing program for the KDE Office Suite 
a chart drawing program for the KDE Office Suite KChart is a chart drawing application. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
KDE Frontend for the Linux kernel configuration kcmlinuz is a KDE based frontend to Linux kernel configuration. It runs out of the KDE Control Center. 
Colour chooser for KDE. 
An editor for palette files This is a color palette editor for KDE. 
Colour editor for KDE. 
a CPU meter for Kicker A simple CPU meter for the KDE Kicker which displays percent usage, with support for SMP and separate user/system loads. It will show the CPU usage in form of one or two configurable diagrams. There are settings for colors and some different styles. Note that it isn't the real system load that's shown, but the percent used of the total CPU power, which is calculated from the number of CPU ticks. 
Crontab editor for KDE Crontab editor for KDE 
Views and sets cron daemon configuration. 
Graphical debugger interface KDbg is a graphical user interface to gdb, the GNU debugger. It provides an intuitive interface for setting breakpoints, inspecting variables, and stepping through code. KDbg requires KDE but you can of course debug any program. Features: * Inspection of variable values in a tree structure. * Direct member: For certain compound data types the most important member values are displayed next to the variable name, so that it is not necessary to expand the subtree of that variable in order to see the member value. KDbg can also display Qt 2's QString values, which are Unicode strings. * Debugger at your finger tips: The basic debugger functions (step, next, run, finish, until, set/clear/enable/disable breakpoint) are bound to function keys F5 through F10. Quick and easy. * View source code, search text, set program arguments and environment variables, display arbitrary expressions. * Debugging of core dumps, attaching to running processes is possible. * Conditional breakpoints. 
KDbg is a graphical user interface to gdb, the GNU debugger. It provides an intuitive interface for setting breakpoints, inspecting variables, and stepping through code. 
Key Distribution Center, Verschluesselung 
see key distribution center (KDC). 
Kokusai Denshin Denwa (org., Japan) 
K Destop Environment (Linux, KDE) 
The K Desktop Environment A metapackage containing dependencies for the core suite of KDE including kdelibs, kdebase, kdeadmin, kdegraphics, kdemultimedia, kdenetwork, kdepim, koffice, and kdeutils. Provides Suggests and Recommends for all other KDE based packages. Does not contain depends for Toys, Games, or Development packages. 
KDE (K Desktop Environment)
One of several user interfaces (window managers) for Linux, built with Qt. For more on KDE, go to (Also, see AfterStep, Enlightenment, GNOME and X Window System.) 
KDE Desktop Environment
a completely new desktop, incorporating a large suite of applications for Unix workstations. While KDE includes a window manager, file manager, panel, control center and many other components that one would expect to be part of a contemporary desktop environment, the true strength of this exceptional environment lies in the interoperability of its components. 
Qt GUI Designer (With KDE Widget support) This package contains Qt Designer. Qt Designer is a tool that makes designing and implementing user interfaces a lot easier. With Qt Designer, you will learn how to create your own dialogs and how to arrange the user interface elements in the dialogs so that the dialogs look both nice and natural and can accommodate various environments, like different languages and user settings. This package contains KDE widget support 
The K Desktop Environment (development files) A metapackage containing dependencies for the core development suite of KDE including libqt-dev, kdelibs-dev and all other core KDE development packages. 
The K Desktop Environment (extras) A metapackage containing dependencies for the non-core KDE packages including those packages which may not be suitable for all users. This may also include packages which could potentially open up security risks or depend on packages which may. This would include packages such as klisa, kwuftpd, ktalkd, and lilo-config. 
Plugins and additional applets for Kicker (the KDE panel) 
Scripts extending the functionality of KNewsTicker 
Plugins extending the functionality of Konqueror. kdeaddons-konqueror contains, among other things, plugins for translating webpages, checking web pages for valid HTML code, and viewing the DOM tree of web pages. 
The kdeadmin package contains packages that usually only a system administrator might need:
Additional artwork (themes, sound themes, ...) for KDE 
Core applications for the K Desktop Environment. Included are: kdm(replacement for xdm), kwin (window manager), konqueror (filemanager, web browser, ftp client, ...), konsole (xterm replacement), kpanel (application starter and desktop pager), kaudio (audio server), kdehelp (viewer for kde help files, info and man pages), kthememgr (system for managing alternate theme packages) plus other KDEcomponents (kcheckpass, kikbd, kscreensaver, kcontrol, kfind, kfontmanager, kmenuedit). 
Core applications for the K Desktop Environment. Here is an overview of the directories:
KDE crypto control module This package contains the crypto control module for KDE which allows for configuration of SSL settings. 
KDE libraries and modules for kdebase This package contains the different interface modules and libraries provided by the kdebase package. These includes interfaces to pop3, nntp and others. This package also contains kdesu. 
Card decks for KDE games Several different collections of card images for use by KDE games. 
Games and gaming libraries for the K Desktop Environment. Included with this package are: kenolaba, kasteroids, kblackbox, kmahjongg, kmines, konquest, kpat, kpoker, kreversi, ksame, kshisen, ksokoban, ksmiletris, ksnake, ksirtet, katomic, kjumpingcube, ktuberling. 
Graphical tools for the K Desktop Environment. kdegraphics is a collection of graphic oriented applications:
Libraries for the K Desktop Environment. KDE Libraries include: kdecore (KDE core library), kdeui (userinterface), kfm (file manager), khtmlw (HTML widget), kio (Input/Output, networking), kspell (spelling checker), jscript (javascript), kab (addressbook), kimgio (image manipulation). 
Multimedia tools for the K Desktop Environment.
Networking applications for the K Desktop Environment. - kdict: graphical client for the DICT protocol. - kit: AOL instant messenger client, using the TOC protocol - kmail: universal mail client - kmailcvt: converst addressbooks to kmail format - knewsticker: RDF newsticker applet - knode: online newsreader - korn: new mail notification tool - kpf: public fileserver applet - ksirc: IRC client - ktalkd: talk daemon - kxmlrpc: KDE XmlRpc Daemon - lanbrowsing: lan browsing kio slave - krfb: Desktop Sharing server, allow others to access your desktop via VNC - krdc: a client for Desktop Sharing and other VNC servers 
palettes that match the KDE standard colour palette KDEPalettes provides palettes for both the Gimp and Xpaint that match the KDE standard color palette. They may be useful for designing themes and icons. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
A Password changer frontend for KDE This is a simple app for users to change their system passwords with. 
KDE frontend to changing your password and other user data. 
A PIM (Personal Information Manager) for KDE. 
Information Management applications for the K Desktop Environment.
KDE Software Development Kit This is a collection of applications and tools used by KDE developers. It also has example code for use in learning KDE programming or starting a new KDE application. 
Frontend to ssh for KDE This is a frontend to ssh designed for use with KDE. This program is designed for the purpose of executing commands on a remote system using ssh. 
a powerful development environment for KDE KDE Studio is an integrated development environment for the KDE. It delivers a full-fledged IDE for the development of sophisticated C++ KDE applications - including the high utility features you expect from a modern development environment, such as code completion, dynamic syntax highlighting and popup function parameter lookup. Debugging is simplified by tight integration with kdbg in the IDE. KDE Studio supports complex projects, composed of multiple executables, static or shared libraries, all in one centralized workspace, including support for multiple targets from a single project. You can explore the structure of your classes with an intuitive tree view. Functions and data members are exposed for a quick understanding of library structures. The class tree is updated on the fly while you type your code. 
Toys for the K Desktop Environment. Software included in this package are:
Utilities for the K Desktop Environment.
An IDE for Unix/X11 KDevelop is an easy to use Integrated Development Environment for developing C/C++ applications under X11. It features project management, an advanced editor, a class browser and an integrated debugger. The application wizard can generate fully functional projects for terminal programs and GUI programs using Qt, KDE or GNOME. 
The KDevelop Integrated Development Environment provides many features that developers need as well as providing a unified interface to programs like gdb,the C/C++ compiler, and make. KDevelop manages or provides: * All development tools needed for C++ programming like Compiler, Linker, automake and autoconf * KAppWizard, which generates complete, ready-to-go sample applications * Classgenerator, for creating new classes and integrating them into the current project * File management for sources, headers, documentation etc. to be included in the project * The creation of User-Handbooks written with SGML and the automatic generation of HTML-output with the KDE look and feel * Automatic HTML-based API-documentation for your project's classes with cross-references to the used libraries; Internationalization support for your application, allowing translators to easily add their target language to a project * WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) creation of user interfaces with a built-in dialog editor * Debugging your application by integrating KDbg * Editing of project-specific pixmaps with KIconEdit * The inclusion of any other program you need for development by adding it to the "Tools" menu according to your individual needs. 
Some wallpapers for KDE The wallpapers that come with KDE, but can be used everywhere else as well 
Disk space GUI for KDE This program shows the disk usage of the mounted devices. 
kdeutils-kdf contains the kdf, kwikdisk and kcmdf tools for monitoring available diskspace. 
dict client based on KDE/Qt kdict is an advanced kde graphical client for the DICT Protocol, with full unicode support. 
K Display Manager (KDE) 
The K Desktop Manager The K Desktop Manager kdm manages a collection of X servers, which may be on the local host or remote machines. It provides services similar to those provided by init, getty, and login on character-based terminals: prompting for login name and password, authenticating the user, and running a session. kdm supports XDMCP (X Display Manager Control Protocol) and can also be used to run a chooser process which presents the user with a menu of possible hosts that offer XDMCP display management. 
C++ and IDL Source Documentation System KDOC creates cross-referenced documentation for C++ and CORBA IDL libraries directly from the source. Documentation can be embedded in special documents in the source. 
A Kanji drill and dictionary program Offers lot of options like guessing kanji, guessing meaning, by grade or even from a selected kanji list. You can even practice your kana. A kanjidic is essential to run this program although you can specify your own dictionary on the command line. 
Keyboard Display Terminal 
A DVI (TeX output) file viewer for KDE. 
A simple text editor for KDE A simple text editor for KDE 
An easy to use text editor 
Keeper Linux
Keeper Linux fits on two floppy disks. It is designed for use in specific application areas, such as dedicated network gateways, firewalls and the administration of remote systems. Release 1.1a came out March 14, 2002. Version KLX-2.01, released April 23, 2002, boots directly from CDROM with its root filing system in ramdisk (no hard disk required). A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
An authentication standard. History: Developed at MIT in the 1980s as part of its project Athena (the netpc product that also spawned X Windows and other technologies). Kerberos has long been available as an add-on to virtually all UNIX systems. Version 4 was discovered to be insecure, and was followed by version 5. Microsoft implemented a variant of version 5 in Win2k. Key point: Microsoft's implementation in Win2k is not quite standard in much the same way that its implementations of PPP, PPTP, IPsec, etc. all make use of proprietary extensions. Kerberos: DES 
Network authentication system developed by the Massachusets Institute of Technology to control access to services and applications. 
The authentication system of MIT's Project Athena. It is based on symmetric key cryptography. Adopted by OSF as the basis of security for DME. 
A terminal program and file transfer protocol, kermit can be used to download files from a remote system to your home computer. Kermit is distinguished by it's ability to transfer files over telnet and other connections that would corrupt a binary transfer. It is often available as a Unix command. 
An asynchronous communications protocol that makes the error-free transmission of program files via the telephone system easier. Developed by Columbia University and placed in the public domain, Kermit is used by academic institutions because, unlike XMODEM, Kermit can be implemented on mainframe systems that transmit 7 bits per byte. See communications protocol. 
Kl-10 Error-free Reciprocal Micro Interconnect over Tty lines 
In an operating system, the core portions of the program that reside in memory and perform the most essential operating ystem tasks, such as handling disk input output operations and managing the internal memory. 
Part of an operating system that implements the interaction with hardware and the sharing of resources.
The core of the operating system, upon which all other components rely. The kernel manages such tasks as low-level hardware interaction and the sharing of resources, including memory allocation, input/output, security, and user access. 
The core of the operating system. The kernel has complete control over everything that happens. When your computer crashes, it means the kernel has crashed. If only a single program crashes but the rest of the system remains running, then the kernel itself hasn't crashed. The kernel is designed to coordinate among the different components of the operating system, such as disk drive, networking, keyboard, and running programs. Key point: The kernel is responsible for security, preventing one program from one user from breaking into other programs running on the same system. All systems except the older Mac and Windows do not provide this level of security. Key point: The kernel itself does not interact with the user. For example, the word "Linux" really means just the kernel. What we see in Linux distributions is actually the kernel plus a whole bunch of UNIX-like applications built on top of it. Contrast: There are two modes your software might be running in. Kernel mode is running within the context of the kernel itself, and describes not only the kernel but also device drivers. User mode is the context the rest of the software runs in. The key point is that when you are running in kernel mode, you've got access to the entire system and nobody can stop you. However, when you are running in user mode (especially when not logged in as root), then the kernel imposes security on your activity. This means that if you break into a normal HTTP server, you may not actually be able to break into the entire machine. However, newer versions of the Linux kernel are putting things like HTTP servers into the kernel itself (for performance reasons). An exploitable flaw in such services will allow the entire machine to be compromised. 
The critical piece of an operating system; performs the basic functions that more advanced functions depend on. Linux is based on the kernel developed by Linus Torvalds and a group of core developers. 
the fundamental part of the operating system that handles resource management, process control, and Input/Output (I/O) support. 
The kernel package contains the Linux kernel (vmlinuz), the core of the Red Hat Linux operating system. The kernel handles the basic functions of the operating system: memory allocation, processallocation, device input and output, etc. 
Kernel headers
The header files define structures and constants that are needed for building most standard programs. The header files are also needed for rebuilding the kernel. 
The kernel-source package contains the source code files for the Linux kernel. These source files are needed to build most C programs, since they depend on the constants defined in the source code. The source files can also be used to build a custom kernel that is better tuned to your particular hardware. 
Manage kernel configs for many machines easily Kernellab allows you to manage kernel configurations for a large number of heterogenous machines relatively easily. 
program to report major version of kernel 
Key Escrow System (cryptography) 
An old-school 2d-scrolling shooter A hicolor/hiresolution classical game that has similarities with Raptor, Tyrian and Galaga. You are a spacepilot controlling your secret prototype ship. At regular interval's you get attacked by the bad guys. You have a mission to clean this sector from them (ie. Kill Everything That Moves). Be sure to pick up some weapon and ship upgrades on the way. 
a simple KDE demo application for programmers This package provides KLess, a simple KDE demo application with heavily documented source code. KLess is a basic text viewer. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
In cryptography, the value needed to encrypt and/or decrypt something. It is usually a number or a short string less than 20 characters long. Contrast: People are confused as to the difference between a key and a password. A key is a large number whereas a password is simply a series of letters (and possibly digits and punctuation). Since cryptography only uses keys, the password is generally converted to a number through the use of an appropriate mathematical function, like a hash. Public/private keys present a special difficulty in that they contain extremely large, unwieldy numbers that are protected by a separate password. Contrast: There are two types of keys: symmetric keys use the same key for both encryption and decryption asymmetric (aka. public/private key) are produced in pairs, where one key encrypts, but a mirror key must be used to decrypt the message, and somebody with one key cannot figure out the other key. Contrast: A common question deals with the difference between 40-bit and 128-bit encryption in web browsers like Netscape. The answer is that the most obvious way to break the encryption and read the plain text is to simply try all possible keys. A 40-bit key has roughly one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) combinations. It could take your computer several weeks to try all these combinations. The implication: the average person only needs a few weeks to decrypt any message you send across the wire with a 40-bit browser, should they manage to sniff it from the wire. Every extra bit of key length means the key will take twice as long to crack. Therefore, if a system takes one week to crack a 40-bit key, it will take two weeks to crack a 41-bit key. Therefore, a 128-bit key will take 2^(128-40) times longer to crack than a 40-bit key (i.e. 309,485,009,821,345,068,724,781,056 times longer). Example: The following table shows the relative difficulty in cracking keys (circa year 2000). Bits Difficulty 8 paper and pencil (puzzle appears in Sunday paper) 16 tiny computer 32 your desktop computer 40 a few computers and a fair amount of time 56 custom hardware 64 (a hundred thousand machine cranking away for a couple of years) 80 government agencies (NSA, CIA) 128 not crackable at the current time 256 quantum computers Key point: Moore's Law breaks all cryptosystems, eventually. This, and only this, is why DES has become obsolete. Note: 40-bit and 128-bit keys mean the RC4 algorithm used within web-browsers to talk to web servers via SSL. The U.S. restricts export of all software whose keys are greater than 40-bits in order to be able to spy on foreigners (ostensibly only in a military engagement). Key point: You can classify keys according to their lifetimes: In PKI, "session keys" are randomly generated and last only the lifetime of the connection. The public/private keys are used to exchange them so that people eavesdropping on the wire cannot figure out what they are. Longer term keys are often based upon a hash of a password and are explicitly generated by the user. An example would be a user who encrypts a file with a key. Key point: The Kerckhoff principle states that cryptography should be based upon the assumption that the enemy will discover all the details of your system. Therefore, all the security of the system should be held within the key. Not only that, the idea is that the details of the system should be actively published and publicized in the hopes that people will analyze the system, discover them, and publish the weaknesses before the enemy gets a chance to. All the best cryptosystems have been well published and analyzed in public forums. 
Unique identifier used to encrypt or decrypt secure data. Encrypted data must have a key to be decrypted. 
key distribution center (KDC)
System that distributes and manages shared and private keys for authentication of network sessions and access to applications. 
KDE keyboard LED applet KeybLED is a Panel applet which displays a keyboard's LED status. It is particulary useful for keyboards which lack their own LED status indicators (e.g. cordless keyboards), or just for the fun! It utilizes the XTest X-server extension of keyboard indicator state changes. Features: * Configurable LED size, shape, look, colour, LED orientation (vertical/ horizontal), label size and label location (left/right, top/bottom, hidden); * Ability to select which LEDs are displayed; * Ability to turn on or off LEDs on startup; * An LED's status can be toggled with the mouse; * Clicking on the applet pops up an indicator showing which LEDs are activated. 
Computer system peripheral that users operate by tapping buttons to display characters on a monitor or other output. 
allows you to configure your keyboard. 
An OpenSSH key manager Keychain is an OpenSSH key manager, typically run from ~/.bash_profile. When run, it will make sure ssh-agent is running; if not, it will start ssh-agent. It will redirect ssh-agent's output to ~/.ssh-agent, so that cron jobs that need to use ssh-agent keys can simply source this file and make the necessary passwordless ssh connections. In addition, when keychain runs, it will check with ssh-agent and make sure that the ssh RSA/DSA keys that you specified on the keychain command line have actually been added to ssh-agent. If not, you are prompted for the appropriate passphrases so that they can be added by keychain. 
A small utility for binding commands to a hot key. KeyLaunch is a small utility for binding commands to a hot key. It reads a configuration file in .keylaunchrc. KeyLaunch uses Ctrl, Alt and Shift as modifier keys, the hotkey is up to the user. 
A tool to fetch keys from keyservers A nice console tool written in perl to fetch public keys from keyservers. You give it a keyserver and something to search for and it allows you to select one or several or the resulting keys. It has two user interfaces, plain and dialog. The dialog (which is nicer) it the default one. 
Decentralized Trust-Management system The KeyNote architecture and language are useful as building blocks for the trust management aspects of a variety of Internet protocols and services. This package contains the keynote binary used to generate and verify KeyNote assertions. 
Equivalent to one tap of a keyboard or keypad. 
keystroke logger (keylogger)
A program that runs in the background that records all the keystrokes. Key point: Once keystrokes are logged, they are shipped raw to the hacker. The hacker then peruses them carefully in the hopes of either finding passwords, or possibly other useful information that could be used to compromise the system or be used in a social engineering attack. For example, a key logger will reveal the contents of all e-mail composed by the user. Key point: Keylog programs are commonly included in rootkits and remote administration trojans. Key point: You can also purchase hardware devices that plug-in between the keyboard and the main system (for PCs). These are OS independent, they simply start recording, then the hacker can retrieve the device and instruct it to simply spit out all the characters back again on the hackers system. History: In November of 2001, the FBI revealed it has developed a keylogger Trojan as part of its Carnivore surveillance technologies. 
compile keytables files for use with LILO 
Views faxes within the KDE environment. 
The PNG KFile plugin allows all applications using KFile (for example, Konqueror) to view information on PNG files. 
A KDE based file finder A KDE based file finder 
A floppy disk formatter frontend KFloppy formats disks and puts a DOS or ext2fs filesystem on them 
K File Manager (KDE) 
Lightweight project management program for KDE Personal project management program with support for task lists and log books Supports: - Categorizing tasks into projects - Viewing how much time you have left to complete a task - Creating logs of completed tasks - Scheduling followup tasks when a task is completed - Scheduling tasks to start in the future 
a formula editor for the KDE Office Suite 
a formula editor for the KDE Office Suite KFormula is a formula editor that provides the basic input facilities and the support functionality expected of a KOffice application. Features include easy Greek letter insertion, intelligent cursor movement, advanced syntax highlighting, multi-level undo support and LaTeX export. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
Small Forth Interpreter Written in C++ Implements a subset of ANS Forth, plus some extensions. kForth can serve as a standalone computing environment, or its object code may be interfaced to another program to serve as a customizable programming language for that application. See for more information. 
fractal generator for KDE Kfract is a generator for fractals. Well, at this early stage it's only capable of Mandelbrot sets and Julia sets. Nothing fancy like Xfractint. And it's way far from being as fast as Xfractint. But it's much easier to use. 
Generates fractal images. 
ticket forwarder for Kerberos 4 The client half of a client/server pair that allows Kerberos 4 tickets to be forwarded to another network host and used to authenticate further services on the network. This package includes kftgt, for forwarding tickets, and klogin, a script to forward a ticket with kftgt and invoke krlogin in one step. For the corresponding ticket forwarding server for Kerberos 4, see the kftgtd package. kftgt and kftgtd do not provide ticket forwarding for Kerberos 5, which has built-in ticket forwarding. For now, this package depends on kerberos4kth-clients, because the Debian packages for Kerberos 5 do not properly authenticate to MIT Kerberos 4 servers. There is hope that this problem will be fixed soon. When it is, krb5-user will be allowed as an alternative to kerberos4kth-clients. 
ticket forwarder for Kerberos 4 The server half of a client/server pair that allows Kerberos 4 tickets to be forwarded from another network host and used to authenticate further services on the network. This package contains kftgtd, to receive forwarded tickets. For the corresponding ticket forward client for Kerberos 4, see the kftgt package. kftgt and kftgtd do not provide ticket forwarding for Kerberos 5, which has built-in ticket forwarding. 
an interactive geometry program for KDE With this program you can do geometry on a computer just like you would on a blackboard in a classroom. However, the computer allows you to go beyond that, since KGeo is designed to do interactive geometry. For example, the program allows you to move and change geometrical drawings, so that you can see all the changes. Imagine a triangle that can be altered into any shape you want, just by moving its corners around. At the same time you can see that the angles change, but that they always add up to 180 degrees. KGeo was formerly called KEuklid. 
PostScript viewer for KDE. KGhostview is the PostScript viewer for the K Desktop Environment. It is a port of Tim Theisen's Ghostview program which is used to view documents prepared in Adobe's PostScript page description language. PostScript is the major page description language for printing on UNIX systems and this application is used to preview material intended for printing or for reading documents online. 
Viewer for PostScript and PDF files. 
Kommunales GebietsRechenzentrum Giessen (org.) 
A KDE hex editor. It allows you to edit binary files. 
Kernel Hacking Guide (Linux) 
Kuenstliche Intelligenz 
applets for Kicker, the KDE panel This package contains a variety of applets for Kicker, the KDE panel. The applets will appear in the panel's Add--Applet menu. Included are a system monitor and a colour picker. This package is part of the KDE addons module. 
A method for automatic Red Hat Linux installations based on settings pre-configured in a special kickstart file. 
An icon editor for creating KDE icons KIconedit is an icon editor for creating KDE and other icons 
Konferenz der Informatik Fachschaften (conference) 
report process status 
send signal to a process 
To stop an onging process. In the better UseNet newsreaders, to delete an article containig a certain word, name, or origin site so that articles containing this information do not appear subsequently in the article selector. See article selector, global kill file, and kill file. 
kill processes by name 
send a signal to all processes. 
kilobit (Kb)
1024 bits of data. 
A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (210) bytes. 
kilobyte (KB)
1024 characters (or bytes) of data. 
High Availability Clustering Package Kimberlite is a complete framework providing high availability for application services on Linux. The key features of the architecture include the following: - A complete high-availability service infrastructure prevents you from having to assemble an infrastructure from disparate components. - An extensible service-configuration framework enables you to easily integrate a wide variety of applications. - An exceptional data integrity guarantee differentiates the software from other contemporary offerings from the Linux community. Because of this guarantee, a Kimberlite cluster provides a solid foundation for highly-available data services, such as network-exported databases and NFS file systems, and is ideal as the data tier for dynamic web content. - Services fail over automatically when problems occur, without requiring manual intervention by system administrators. - A command line user interface and a web-based graphical user interface enable you to monitor and manage the cluster. - A cluster utilizes commodity hardware and storage options, such as SCSI and FibreChannel. 
Compiler development tool, complementary to lex and yacc. Kimwitu (pronounced kee'mweetoo) is a system that supports the construction of programs that use trees or terms as their main data structure. It is a `meta-tool' in the development process of tools. It can easily be interfaced with Yacc and Lex - the idea is that yacc and lex are used to do the parsing, and Kimwitu routines are used to built and manipulate the parse tree. There is also Kimwitu++ (also packaged for Debian) which interfaces with C++ instead of C. 
A (syntax-)tree-handling tool (term processor) Kimwitu++ is a system that supports the construction of programs that use trees or terms as their main data structure. It allows you to define, store and operate on trees with typed nodes. Each type of node has a specific number of sons, and expects these sons to have specific types. The most popular example of such trees are syntax trees. The nodes are defined in a Yacc-like fashion. The tree can be unparsed (ie. treewalk) and rewritten (ie. term substitution). Kimwitu++ gives you powerful pattern matching for specifying unparse and rewrite rules. Kimwitu++ is an extension to C++. It introduces Yacc-like node definitions, the unparse and rewrite rules, and extensions for pattern matching within functions. It will translate its input files into pure C++. To build the tree you might use a parser generated with Bison, but you are free to use other tools. There also exists Kimwitu (also packaged for Debian) which interfaces with C instead of C++ which can also be used in C++ projects, but Kimwitu++ has some extensions one might consider useful. 
AOL Instant Messenger client for KDE Kinkatta is an instant messenger for AOL. 
Non-linear editor for Digital Video data Kino allows you to record, create, edit, and play movies recorded with DV camcorders. Unlike other editors, this program uses many keyboard commands for fast navigating and editing inside the movie. 
ssh kioslave for konqueror kio_fish is a kioslave for KDE 2.0 that lets you view and manipulate your remote files using just a simple shell account and some standard unix commands on the remote machine. 
Kilo Instructions Per Second 
Kyocera Image Refinement (Kyocera) 
Kirch, Olaf
author of the Linux Network Administrator's Guide. Olaf also moderates the Linux Security Mailing Lists, developing the Linux NFS daemon and a kernel-based nfsd. NFS file locking is also being worked on. 
Wireless 802.11b monitoring tool Kismet is a 802.11b wireless network sniffer. It is capable of sniffing using almost any wireless card supported in Linux, which currently divide into cards handled by libpcap and the Linux-Wireless extensions (such as Cisco Aironet), and cards supported by the Wlan-NG project which use the Prism/2 chipset (such as Linksys, Dlink, and Zoom). 
Karel's Interactive Simple Shell Kiss is basically a simple shell interpreter, like Bash or Tcsh, except that it lacks a good deal of the sophistication of a good shell. On the other hand it is small and well suited for rescue disks. It comes with the following BUILTINS: !, alias, cat, cd, chgrp, chmod, chown, cp, exec, exit, grep, help, history kill, ln, ls, mkdir, mknod, more, mv, printenv, pwd, read, rm, rmdir, setenv, sleep, source, touch, umount, unsetenv, ver, wc, where kiss comes with a bare version, a getline version and a full featured readline version. bkiss, gkiss and rkiss are dynamically linked. 
Keep It Simple, Stupid (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
A free Java Virtual Machine kissme is a free Java Virtual Machine for Linux. It uses the GNU Classpath java class library. Currently it can only run console applications (there is no working AWT support in Classpath). 
AOL Instant Messenger frontend for KDE AOL Instant Messenger frontend for KDE 
Kernel software for Intelligent Terminals (T-Online, Telekom, BTX) 
a flowcharting program for the KDE Office Suite Kivio is a flowcharting program that offers basic flowcharting abilities, but with a twist. Objects are scriptable, and a backend plugin system offers the ability to make objects do just about anything. Feed it a directory of C++ header files, or even Java files, and let it generate a graphical class map for you. Give it a network and let it explore and map out the network for you. All this is possible through the scripting/plugin architecture Kivio possesses. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
Jezzball clone for the K Desktop Environment. This is a clone of the popular Jezzball game originally created by Microsoft. Jezzball is one of the rare and simple games requiring skill, timing, and patience in order to be successful. A ball begins to bounce off of an area enclosed by four borders (like a square). You must move your pointer to certain areas within the square. Upon clicking, a new border is constructed at a relatively quick pace. You can change the direction of the borders by 90 degrees as well. Ultimately, you must force the ball to bounce around in a smaller, and smaller area as time goes by without the ball ever touching the borders as they are being constructed. If a ball touches a certain part of the border as it is being built, the game is over. After 75% of the original space has been blocked off from the moving ball, you advance one level, and one more ball is added to the mix in the following level. 
A small note taker program for KDE kjots is a small note taker program. Name and idea are taken from the jots program included in the tkgoodstuff package. 
KJots is a virtual notepad - you can put notes on your desktop. 
Tactical one or two player game KJumpingCube is a simple tactical game. You can play it against the computer or against a friend. The playing field consists of squares that contains points. By clicking on the squares you can increase the points and if the points reach a maximum the points will jump to the squares neighbours and take them over. Winner is the one, who owns all squares. 
Konnectivity Koordination (DE-NIC, DOMAIN) 
battery monitoring and management for laptops battery monitoring and management for laptops. 
a file cleanup and backup tool for KDE Kleandisk searches your system and gives a list of files which can be deleted, backed up or archived. Kleandisk itself can also be used as a backup and archiving tool. Files are selected for cleaning, backup and archiving according to user-defined file groups, making Kleandisk easy to extend and automate. Automatic scheduled operations are supported. Kleandisk can wrap /usr/bin/install to provide easy uninstallation of files installed using "make install". To use this feature, python will need to be present on your system. 
KL1 to C compiler system The KLIC implementation compiles KL1 programs into C programs, then compiles them using C compilers of the host system, and then links the objects with runtime libraries (including libraries provided by UNIX). KLIC is an implementation of a concurrent logic programming language KL1. KL1 is based on a flat version of the Guarded Horn Clauses (GHC) language. GHC is a member of so-called commited-choice logic programming language family and has sibblings such as Concurrent Prolog, Parlog, Janus and Fleng. 
Karlsruher LIChtleiter-Kommunikationsnetz (Uni Karlsruhe, Germany) 
Color lines for KDE KLines is a simple game. It is played by one player, so there is only one winner :-). You play for fun and against the high score. It was inspired by a well known game - "Color lines", written for DOS by Olga Demina, Igor Demina, Igor Ivkin and Gennady Denisov back in 1992. The main rules of the game are as simple as possible: you move (using the mouse) marbles from cell to cell and build lines (horizontal, vertical or diagonal). When a line contains 5 or more marbles, they are removed and your score grows. After each turn the computer drops three more marbles. 
Kilo Logical Inferences Per Second (AI, KI, XPS) 
LAN information service similar to "Network Neighbourhood" LISa is intended to provide a kind of "Network Neighborhood" but using only the TCP/IP protocol stack, without the SMB protocol. 
A KDE Configuration tool for HP LaserJet and compatible printers. 
Laser Jet tools for KDE Laser Jet tools for KDE 
Kernel Log Daemon 
Kernel Logging Daemon The klogd daemon listens to kernel message sources and is responsible for prioritizing and processing operating system messages. The klogd daemon can run as a client of syslogd or optionally as a standalone program. Klogd can now be used to decode EIP addresses if it can determine a file. 
A KDE tool for managing your print spooler. 
KDE port of a program called xlpq Klpq is a frontend to lpq, lprm and lpc. It allows for viewing, deleting, or adjusting print jobs. 
A LPD fax frontend using efax With this program you can fax by printing to an lpd device. It requires efax of Ed Casas, 
Fax sending support for KDE.kdeutils-klprfax allows any KDE application to treat a fax modem just like a printer. Any KDE application that can print will be able to send faxes. 
Karhunen Loeve Transformation 
Kernel Latency Time 
Knowledge Management 
KDE download manager KMAGO stands for MAnager for Get Operations. It is a download manager with a nice GUI interface. KMAGO is built as a frontend for GNU wget currently. Features: * drag and drop operations with applications (konqueror, netscape) and between kmago widgets * system tray icon with drag and drop capabilities * transfer grouping * multiple downloads control with priority and selectable priority policy * resume capability check * full configurable * enabled to manage many retriever commands * stable and reliable downloading process based on GNU wget 
the classic mahjongg game for KDE project Your mission in this game is to remove all tiles from the game board. A matching pair of tiles can be removed, if they are 'free', which means that no other tiles block them on the left or right side. 
A mail client for KDE. KMail supports local mail spools as well as all commonly used Internet mail protocols (POP3, IMAP, SMTP, ...) 
Mail Client based on Qt and KDE Mail Client based on Qt and KDE Supports pop3, pop3s, GPG/PGP 
Converts mailboxes to KMail format. 
Instant messaging (IM) client for the MSN messenger network KMerlin (f/k/a KMsn) is an IM (instant messaging) client for the MSN messenger network. Features include: A buddy list on which you can block users, multiple chat windows, and multiple users per chat (simply invite those you want in your chat session). Keep in touch with all your Windows friends! 
midi/karaoke player for KDE midi/karaoke player for KDE 
midi-to-wav player/converter for KDE midi-to-wav player/converter for KDE 
Minesweeper for KDE KMines is the classic Minesweeper game. You must uncover all the empty cases without blowing on a mine. When you uncover a case, a number appears : it indicates how many mines surround this case. If there is no number the neighbour cases are automatically uncovered. In your process of uncovering secure cases, it is very useful to put a flag on the cases which contain a mine. 
A sound mixer applet for KDE. kmix allows you to control the volumes of your sound card from a KDE panel applet. 
kmLinux is developed by the [German] national education server Schleswig-Holstein in co-operation with the association free software and education. It's a complete Linux system for the personal computer, which can be installed easily. Web site in German. 
moon phase indicator for KDE Displays the current phase of the moon in the KDE system tray. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
Kernel of a Multiprocess Operating System (OS) 
Knowledge Management Systeme 
a KDE memory leak tracer KMtrace is a KDE tool to assist with malloc debugging using glibc's "mtrace" functionality. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
KDE2 Napster client Napster is a popular MP3 sound file download program. This is a Napster client for KDE 2. It supports searching with criteria, hotlists, transfer management, chat, and a music library with an integral mp3 player. It should work fine with "regular" Napster and Opennap servers. 
A GUI for configuring the 2.4 kernel IP Tables Knetfilter is a GUI to configure your 2.4 kernel IP firewalling, masquerading and NAT rules. You must have a kernel compiled with iptables (netfilter) support. 
a network throughput meter for Kicker A small Network throughput meter for the KDE Kicker which works with just about any network device. It will show the speeds of a network device with two diagrams, one for outgoing and one for incoming data. KNETLoad can read almost any device that is listed in the /proc/net/dev file, which includes eth0, ppp0, ippp0 and many others, even non predefined devices can be typed into the program. The colors, style and speed of the diagrams can be configured. 
Graphical threaded news reader Knews is an X11 based thread-oriented news reader. It is capable of representing threads as a graphical tree, represents quotations with different colors and much more. 
A News ticker for KDE This is a News ticker for the KDE panel. It can scroll news from your favorite news sites like /. and freshmeat. 
KNewsticker is a KDE applet that will display current news from Internet sites of your choice. 
scripts for KNewsTicker, the KDE news ticker This package contains a variety of scripts that provide additional news sources for KNewsTicker, the news ticker applet for the KDE panel. See /usr/share/doc/knewsticker-scripts/README.Debian for usage details. Highlights include newsgroup handling and stock data retrieval. This package is part of the KDE addons module. 
A stub for the KDE panel news ticker. 
Katmai New Instructions (Intel, ISSE, predecessor) 
Query/set kernel image parameters. Set the default root device, root filesystem flags, swap device, ram disk parameters, and video mode. Replaces the rdev, swapdev, rootflags, ramsize and vidmode programs. 
Kuenstliche Neuronale Netze (neural nets) 
a simple and easy to use TCP security port scanner Knocker is a new, simple, and easy to use TCP security port scanner written in C, using threads. It is able to analyze hosts and the network services which are running on them. 
News reader for KDE News reader for KDE 
KNowledge Orientated Office Model 
A German distribution. Take your KNOPPIX CD with you when you're on the road and run Linux anywhere. KNOPPIX is a complete GNU/Linux installation which runs from CD, with automatic hardware detection and configuration for many graphics and sound cards, SCSI devices, and peripherals. Version 1.5 (the initial Freshmeat announcement) was released May 29, 2002. Version 3.2-2003-06-06 was released June 9, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
KnoppiXMAME is a bootable arcade machine emulator with hardware detection and autoconfiguration. It works automatically on all modern and not-so-modern hardware, including gameports and joysticks. It is powered by Knoppix Debian GNU/Linux, X-MAME, and gxmame. Stable version 1.0 was released June 18, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Sticky notes for KDE Sticky notes for KDE 
a distributed MUD server. The Koala mud server is designed to be a highly scalable, distributed multiuser roleplaying game. The game world can be distributed across multiple machines in multiple different locations. For the purposes of stability, multiple machines can be setup to run the same part of the world. Players can wander around the entirety of the world from any of the client servers that are attached to the network. 
mouse odometer for KDE KOdometer measures your desktop mileage. It tracks the movement of your mouse pointer across your desktop and renders it in inches/feet/miles! It can do cm/metres/km too. Its most exciting feature is the tripometer, and its utter uselessness. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
KDE Office Suite KOffice is an integrated office suite for KDE, the K Desktop Environment. It offers a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation program, graphics tools and more. This package provides all the components of KOffice. 
Office applications for the K Desktop Environment.KOffice contains: * KWord: word processor * KSpread: spreadsheet * KPresenter: presentations * KChart: diagram generator * KOntour * Krayon * Kugar * Kivio * Some filters (Excel 97, Winword 97/2000, etc.) 
KDE Samba browser Komba2 is a GUI machine and share browser for the SMB protocol. Komba2 allows you to scan any number of subnets for machines with SMB. The workgroups, machines and share are shown in a tree-view. For each machine you can then view the list of shares, and mount, unmount or browse them. You can also search a machine by name or ip. 
Kanji ON Console. KON2 display KANJI on console. (KON Version2) 
KOnCD is a graphical frontend for mastering and burning CD-ROMs. 
Public domain japanese fonts for KON2. This package is public domain japanese fonts. And customized for kon2 package. 
plugins for Konqueror, the KDE file/web/doc browser This package contains a variety of useful plugins for Konqueror, the file manager, web browser and document viewer for KDE. The plugins will appear in Konqueror's Tools menu. Highlights for web browsing include web page translation, web page archiving, HTML structural analysis and fast access to common options. Highlights for directory browsing include directory filters and image gallery creation. This package is part of the KDE addons module. 
text-to-speech plugins for Konqueror and Kate This package contains text-to-speech plugins for Konqueror (the KDE file manager and web browser) and Kate (a KDE text editor). Text-to-speech is provided by the festival speech system. These plugins can be accessed through Konqueror's Tools menu and the plugin manager in Kate settings. 
KDE's advanced File Manager, Web Browser and Document Viewer KDE's advanced File Manager, Web Browser and Document Viewer 
KDE based GNU-Lactic Konquest game This the KDE version of Gnu-Lactic Konquest, a multi-player strategy game. The goal of the game is to expand your interstellar empire across the galaxy and, of course, crush your rivals in the process. 
X terminal emulation for KDE Konsole is an X terminal emulation which provides a command-line interface (CLI) while using the graphical K Desktop Environment. Konsole helps to better organize user's desktop by containing multiple sessions in a single window (a less cluttered desktop). It's advanced features include a simple configuration and the ability to use multiple terminal shells in a single window Using Konsole, a user can open: Linux console sessions Midnight Commander file manager sessions Shell sessions Root consoles sessions 
a vector graphics tool for the KDE Office Suite Kontour is a vector graphics application. This application was formerly known as KIllustrator. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
a Jabber client for KDE Konverse is a Jabber client for the K Desktop Environment. It offers instant messaging and can converse with other clients such as Jabber, AOL Instant Messenger, ICQ, MSN Instant Messenger or Yahoo! Messenger. Jabber is an XML-based, open-source system and protocol for real-time messaging and presence notification. The first application of Jabber is an instant messaging (IM) system similar to AOL Instant Messenger, ICQ, MSN Instant Messenger, or Yahoo! Messenger. However, Jabber is also being applied in the realms of wireless communications, embedded systems, and Internet infrastructure. See for further details. 
Charset conversion for files or terminal I/O `konwert' is yet another charset converter. Some particular features are: * one-to-many conversions * context-dependent conversions * approximations of some unavailable characters * (as a result) ability to transcript eg. russian cyrillic into polish phonetic equivalent * etc. `filterm' applies filter conversion to a terminal's I/O, to get on-the-fly charset conversion, and customized input methods. 
Scanner program for KDE2 Kooka is a scanner program based on SANE and KScan library. ***WARNING*** Please read the WARNING file first in /usr/share/doc/kooka 
A full Personal Information Manage (PIM). 
Personal organizer based on Qt and KDE A complete calendar and scheduling program. KOrganizer supports information interchange with other calendar applications through the industry standard vCalendar file format. KOrganizer aims to be a complete program for organizing your appointments, contacts, projects, etc. It is in the same spirit as similar programs like the now ubiquitous Microsoft Outlook, Starfish Internet Sidekick, Time & Chaos, etc. (all for the Microsoft Windows platform, of course.) Best of all, It reads and writes the vCalendar file format NATIVELY (please see for more information), which is now an industry-wide personal data interchange format. Because of this, you should be able to move from other modern PIMs to KOrganizer with relative ease. Current users of the popular program ical should definitely take a look at KOrganizer and compare features. KOrganizer also offers full synchronization with your Palm Pilot, if you have kpilot installed. 
Clone the "Client Manager" from Lucent Technologies, Inc. The KOrinoco application tries to clone the "Client Manager" from Lucent Technologies, Inc. It provides information about your access point, connection quality and other stuff. In theory, not only the original Orinoco card but as well other 802.11 compliant cards _should_ be supported. However, this is untested. 
Mail notifier for KDE Mail notifier for KDE 
Korn Shell
An enhanced version of the Bourne Shell, including extensive scripting support and command line editing. It supports many scripts written for the Bourne Shell. (Also, see Bash.) 
korn shell
An enhanced version of the Bourne shell. 
Kent On-Line System (OS) 
a script interpreter for the KDE Office Suite 
the KDE Office Suite workspace 
the KDE Office Suite workspace The KOffice workspace is a desktop with easy one-click launchers for KOffice applications. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
King of the Hill King of the Hill, KOTH, is an artillery game in the grand old tradition of little tanks with ridiculously powerful weapons trying to blow each other up while trying to avoid getting blown up themselves. KOTH is based on a client-server networking model. Players can join and leave at any time, and because bandwidth use is quite modest you can even easily play over a modem - KOTH really is a strategy game, ping time is irrelevant. 
Space action game for X11. A somewhat abstract space action game for X11 with sound. Supports multiplayer deathmatch and cooperative play. Koules is a fast action arcade-style game for UNIX and OS/2. This version supports X window system, SVGAlib for Linux and OS/2. It works in fine (up to 900x620) resolution with cool 256 color graphics, multiplayer mode up to 5 players, full sound and, of course, network support. Koules is an original idea. First version of Koules was developed from scratch by Jan Hubicka in July 1995. 
Installs, removes, and queries packages. 
Software package tool for KDE This is a frontend to both .rpm and .deb package formats. It allows you to view currently installed packages, browse available packages, and install/remove them. 
A simple bitmap paint program for KDE. 
A Simple Paint Program for KDE KPaint is a very simple paint program for KDE. 
Painting tool for KDE. 
KDE solitaire patience game. KPatience is a collection of 14 card games. All the games are single player games. 
Kodak Precision Color Management System (Kodak, DTP) 
Kyocera Page Description Language (Kyocera) 
KPF is an easy to use public file server controlled from the KDE panel. Simply drag a file or directory to the KPF button to share it. 
Kernel Programming Interface (Unix, API) 
Palm Pilot sync tool for KDE Palm Pilot sync tool for KDE 
KDE process manager. 
Kyocera PrintMonitor (Kyocera) 
Process manager for KDE This is a process manager (top + ps and all) for KDE 
KDE process manager. 
KDE based Poker clone KPoker is a KDE compliant clone of those highly addictive pocket video poker games which are sometimes called "Videopoker" as well. 
Kerberized Post Office Protocol (POP3) 
PPP dialer for KDE This is a PPP GUI based on Qt and KDE 
PPP Networking applications for the K Desktop Environment. Install kppp if you intend to use KDE on a machine using PPP networking. 
KPPPLoad is a PPP connection load monitor which works with KDE'ssession management. KPPPLoad resembles xload.
converts a KPresenter document from old to new format 
a presentation program for the KDE Office Suite 
a presentation program for the KDE Office Suite KPresenter is a fully-featured presentation program. It is sufficiently developed that it is already being successfully used for giving talks and presentations. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
a KDE visual tool to help analyze profiling results KProf is a visual tool for developers that displays the execution profiling output generated by code profiling tools. The output of gprof being usually difficult to read (beyond the flat profile information), KProf presents the information in list- or tree-views that make the execution profiling information very easy to understand. Currently supported profilers include GNU gprof, Function Check and Palm OS Emulator with profile option. 
script to make teTeX-style kpsetool, kpsexpand, and kpsepath available 
compute octal mode from mode of existing file 
script to make teTeX-style kpsetool, kpsexpand, and kpsepath available 
standalone path lookup and and expansion for kpathsea 
script to make teTeX-style kpsetool, kpsexpand, and kpsepath available 
Kai's PowerTools (DTP) 
Knowledge Query Manipulation Language (AI) 
Knowledge Representation (AI) 
[brian] Kernighan & [dennis] Ritchie [c standard], "K&R" 
Key Recovery Alliance (org., cryptography) 
This package contains the krbafs shared library, which allows programs to obtain AFS network filesystem tokens using Kerberos IV credentials, without having to link with official AFS libraries which may not beavailable for a given platform. 
A KDE CD burner with an easy interface The description is a rip-off from KreateCD is a graphical user interface for the K Desktop Environment to copy and master own audio CDs (CDDA) or data CDs (CD-ROM). The idea to create such an application came to mind because there are only a few such applications for Linux and many people are not able to use the command line tools. Xcdroast is not bad at all but there are some features which are missing. I don't like TCL/TK very much so I decided to create a similar but more extended application for my favorite desktop environment : KDE. KreateCD itself uses some command line applications as base applications and provides a comfortable and very intuitive user interface which should be usable by people who don't have any experiences with Linux at all. The main features of KreateCD are: o Intuitive user interface o Supports mastering of ISO-9660 CD-ROM tracks o Is able to read .WAV audio files o Easy to use CD copy function o Some useful features to edit audio tracks before you write it to CD. (volume boosting, balance and range selection) o Audio playback 
KDE sound recorder This is a sound recorder for KDE. It can just record and playback wav-files, that's all. 
A Regular Expressions Editor. 
Reversi for KDE Reversi is a simple strategy game that is played by two players. There is only one type of piece - one side of it is black, the other white. If a player captures a piece on the board, that piece is turned and belongs to that player. The winner is the person that has more pieces of his own color on the board and if there are no more moves possible. 
This package contains a warning box displayed when you are using KDE with system administrator permissions. 
This package contains the default Mandrake Linux screensaver for KDE. 
Kevin's Red Hat Uber Distribution. See LWN review. 
a screen ruler and color measurement tool for KDE Kruler is a screen ruler and color measurement tool for KDE. 
Screen ruler for KDE. 
File Manager for KDE Krusader is an "old-school" file manager. Its twin-panel look follows in the footsteps of the great file managers of old such as GNU's Midnight Commander(c) and the Norton Commander(c) for DOS. Krusader features an intuitive GUI, complete drag n' drop capability, transparent handling of archives, MIME type support, and more. 
Kalman Saffran Associates (manufacturer) 
KommunikationsStrukturAnalyse (OA, TUB) 
SameGame for KDE KSame is a simple game. It's played by one player, so there is only one winner :-) You play for fun and against the high score. It has been inspired by SameGame, that is only famous on the Macintosh platform. 
KDE based cd player This is a KDE based cd player 
sports ticker for KDE A sports ticker applet for the KDE panel. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
Screen savers for KDE This package contains all of the Screen Savers that are included in the kdebase distribution. 
Key Sequenced Data Set (VSAM) 
Explore planar Euclidean geometry. KSEG allows you to interactively create a geometrical construction, similar to what you can do with a straight edge and compass. Points may be inserted on the page with right mouse-button clicks, and then used to form segments, lines, circles, or other geometrical objects. At any time you can drag existing points around, and watch how the constructed objects respond. See for more info. 
lm-sensors frontend for KDE This is a lm-sensors frontend for KDE for monitoring a motherboard. It allows you to access information from temperature and fan speed sensors. You will need lm-sensors kernel modules to use this package. 
Key Strokes per Hour 
Korn SHell (Unix, Shell) 
Public domain Korn shell 
Shisen-Sho for KDE KShisen-Sho is a single-player-game similar to Mahjongg and uses the same set of tiles as Mahjongg. The object of the game is to remove all tiles from the field. 
The web site is in Russian and does not appear to have been updated since 1999. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Khronos Special Interest Group 
KDE tool for simulating electrical circuits KSimus is an application for simulating networks with boolean and floating point data type. Some more data types are planned. Currently there exists only a few components, but because of the modular character of KSimus extensions are easy to develop. 
IRC Client based on Qt and KDE IRC Client based on Qt and KDE 
Tetris and Puyo-Puyo games for KDE This program is a clone of the well known game Tetris. You must fit the falling pieces to form full lines. You can rotate and translate the falling piece. The game ends when no more piece can fall ie when your incomplete lines reach the top of the board. Every time you have destroyed 10 lines, you gain a level and the pieces fall quicker (exactly the piece falls from a line each 1/(1+level) second). 
Knowledge Systems Laboratory of the National Research Council (org., Canada, AI) 
Tetris like game for KDE This is a game with falling blocks composed of different types of smilies. The object of the game is to "crack a smile" by guiding blocks so there are two or more of the same symbol vertically. 
Curses-based MP3 player. ksmp3play is a curses-based MP3 player with features such as song rating and volume settings for each song. 
Snake Race for KDE Snake Race is a game of speed and agility. You are a hungry snake and are trying to eat all the apples in the room before getting out! 
A KDE applet for taking screenshots. ksnapshot allows both capturing the whole desktop and capturing justthe active window. 
Screenshot application for KDE KSnapshot is a simple applet for taking screenshots. It is capable of capturing images of either the whole desktop or just a single window. The images can then be saved in a variety of formats. 
Sokoban game for KDE The first sokoban game was created in 1982 by Hiroyuki Imabayashi at the Japanese company Thinking Rabbit, Inc. "Sokoban" is japanese for "warehouse keeper". The idea is that you are a warehouse keeper trying to push crates to their proper locations in a warehouse. The problem is that you cannot pull the crates or step over them. If you are not careful, some of the crates can get stuck in wrong places and/or block your way. It can be rather difficult just to solve a level. But if you want to make it even harder, you can try to minimise the number of moves and/or pushes you use to solve the level. To make the game more fun for small kids (below 10 years or so), some collections with easier levels are also included in KSokoban. These are marked (easy) in the level collection menu. Of course, these levels can be fun for adults too, for example if you don't want to expose yourself to too much mental strain. 
Kernelized Secure Operating System (OS) 
Arcade two-player space game for KDE KSpaceduel is an space arcade game for two players. Each player controls a ship that flies around the sun and tries to shoot at the other ship. You can play KSpaceduel with another person, against the computer, or you can have the computer control both ships and play each other 
KeyStrokes Per Minute 
a spreadsheet for the KDE Office Suite KSpread is a powerful spreadsheet application. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
examines the internal state of a Qt/KDE app KSpy is a tiny library which can be used to graphically display the QObjects in use by a Qt/KDE app. In addition to the object tree, you can also view the properties, signals and slots of any QObject. Basically it provides much the same info as QObject::dumpObjectTree() and QObject::dumpObjectInfo(), but in a much more convenient form. KSpy has minimal overhead for the application, because the kspy library is loaded dynamically using KLibLoader. See /usr/share/doc/kspy/README for usage instructions. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
Keyboard Send Receive 
Kilo-Samples per Second 
Desktop planetarium for KDE2 KStars displays an accurate representation of the night sky for any time and date, from any location on Earth. The display can be panned in altitude and azimuth, and can be zoomed in and out. 
startup time measurement for KDE apps KStartPerf measures startup time for KDE applications. This package is part of the KDE Software Development Kit. 
A KDE-based scrolling stock ticker. 
Linux kernel oops and error message decoder The Linux kernel produces error messages that contain machine specific numbers which are meaningless for debugging. ksymoops reads machine specific files and the error log and converts the addresses to meaningful symbols and offsets. This is a complete replacement for the version of ksymoops in the kernel. Older versions of ksymoops were in scripts/, more recently there was a version in the scripts/ksymoops directory. 
The Linux kernel produces error messages that contain machine specific numbers that are meaningless for debugging. The ksymoops utility reads machine specific files and the error log and converts the addresses to meaningful symbols and offsets. 
SysV-style init configuration editor This program allows you to edit your start and stop scripts using a drag and drop GUI. 
Views and sets SysV init configuration. 
Talk daemon for KDE Talk daemon for KDE 
tea cooker timer for KDE A tea cooker timer that sits in the KDE system tray. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
Multi-lingual terminal emulator for X. Kterm is an X11 terminal emulator that can handle multi-lingual text. This release is based on xterm of X11R6.1. 
LaTeX source editor, TeX shell and Gnuplot front end for KDE Ktexmaker2 is a LaTeX source editor, TeX shell and Gnuplot front end for KDE. The source editor is a multi-document version of KWrite for .tex and .bib files. Menus and wizards are provided to assist with tag insertion and code generation. A structure view of the document assists with navigation within source files. The TeX shell assists with LaTeX and bibtex compilation as well as DVI and postscript document viewing. It supports documents divided into several files. The Gnuplot front end is an adaptation of the Xgfe program. 
a timer for KDE This is a timer application for KDE. It allows you to execute commands after a certain amount of time. It allows for looping commands as well as delaying the execution of a command. 
Graphical tool to measure and graph data KTimeTrace is a graphical tool based on Qt that measures and displays data from data acquisition hardware. It captures samples from a data acquisition device, saving it to disk while providing a real-time graphing display. KTimeTrace requires having a data acquisition device that is supported by Comedi in order to capture data. See the libcomedi0 package or for more information about Comedi. 
A program for learning touch typing. KTouch is a program for learning touch typing. KTouch is a way to learn to type on a keyboard quickly and correctly. Every finger has its place on the keyboard with associated keys to press. KTouch helps you learn to touch typing by providing you with something to write. KTouch can also help you to remember what fingers to use. 
tron-clone for the K Desktop Environment KTron is a simple tron-clone for the K Desktop Environment. Object of the game is to avoid running into walls, your own tail, and that of your opponent. 
Potato Guy for KDE KTuberling is a game intended for small children. Of course, it may be suitable for adults who have remained young at heart. It is a potato editor. That means that you can drag and drop eyes, mouths, moustache, and other parts of face and goodies onto a potato-like guy. There is no winner for the game. The only purpose is to make the funniest faces you can. There is a museum (like a "Madame Tusseau" gallery) where you can find many funny examples of decorated potatoes. Of course, you can send your own creations to the programmer, Eric Bischoff, who will include them in the museum if he gets some spare time. 
Tux screensaver for KDE A neat Tux-in-a-spaceship screensaver for the K Desktop Environment (KDE). This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
The Red Hat Linux hardware probing tool. This is a hardware probing tool run at system boot time to determine what hardware has been added or removed from the system. 
a business report maker for the KDE Office Suite Kugar is a tool for generating business quality reports which can be viewed and printed. It includes a standalone report viewer and a KPart report viewer. The latter means that any KDE application can embed the report viewing functionality and that reports can be viewed using the Konqueror browser. This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
Kuickshow is a picture viewer for KDE. It displays the directorystructure, displaying images as thumbnails. Clicking on an image shows the image in its normal size. 
A user/group administration tool for KDE A user/group administration tool for KDE 
Keep Up The Good Work (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
A wrapper that encrypts or signs outgoing mail. kuvert automatically signs and/or encrypts outgoing mail using the PGP/MIME standard (rfc2015), based on the availability of the recipient's key in your keyring. Other than similar wrappers, kuvert does not store the passphrases on disk but keeps them just in memory; if available, kuvert prefers to store the key passphrases with quintuple-agent. kuvert works as a wrapper around your MTA. 
Karnaugh Veitch diagram 
A simple image viewer/converter for KDE. KView is a simple image viewer/converter application. This package contains kview, kdvi and kfax. 
KView is a KDE image viewer, supporting a wide range of graphics fileformats. 
KViewShell allows the kview image viewer to be embedded into other KDE applications. 
Fully scriptable graphical IRC client with plugin support A highly configurable graphical IRC client with an MDI interface, built-in scripting language, support for DCC, drag & drop, and much more. KVIrc uses the Qt widget set, has support for KDE, has more features than you can think of, can be extended using its own scripting language, supports custom plugins and is nearly a desktop environment on its own. If you are interested in extending the client and writing your own scripts, you probably want to also install the kvirc-doc package. If you're a developer and you want to write a custom plugin for KVIrc, you need to install the kvirc-dev package. 
Kilobyte Virtual Machine (Java, Sun, MIDP) 
A sound editor for KDE2. "Kwave" is a simple sound editor for KDE2. Its features include: * simple cut, copy and paste functions * undo/redo * simple filter design tools * a small editor for additive synthesis * labeling of signals * some analysis functions such as Sonagram or Fourier Transformation * internally uses 24 bit integer sample data * free selectable sample rates * support for editing of multi-channel files * playback of multi-channel audio files (audio output will be mixed down to mono or stereo) * extendible through an easy-to-use plugin interface Documentation for this package is available in either English, French or German. Please choose your appropriate scribus-doc-XX documentation package. 
a weather display applet for KDE Kicker KWeather is an applet for the KDE Kicker that will display your area's current weather. Information shown includes the temperature, wind speed and air pressure. By pressing a button a full weather report can be obtained. 
KDE free disk space utility. 
Connect Four clone for KDE Four wins is a game for two players. Each player is represented by a colour (yellow and red). The goal of the game is to get four connected pieces of your colour into a row, column or any diagonal. This is done by placing one of your pieces into any of the seven columns. A piece will begin to fill a column from the bottom, i.e. it will fall down until it reaches the ground level or another stone. After a move is done it is the turn of the other player. This is repeated until the game is over, i.e. one of the players has four pieces in a row, column or diagonal or no more moves are possible because the board is filled. 
K Window Manager (KDE) 
a word processor for the KDE Office Suite KWord is a frame-based word processor comparable to FrameMaker. It can be used for desktop publishing, but also for "normal" word processing (like writing letters, reports and so on). This package is part of the KDE Office Suite. 
earth watcher for KDE Displays where in the world it is light and dark depending on time, as well as offering the time in all of the major cities of the world. This can be run standalone or as an applet in the KDE panel. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
wu-ftpd configuration tool This program allows you to manipulate the configuration files for wu-ftpd. 
XML Editor for KDE KXML Editor is simple program, that display and edit contents of XML file. Left side contain tree with XML document structure, right side contain list of attributes for selected XML element and its contents. 
Level 1 [cache] 
Level 2 [cache] 
Layer 2 Forwarding [protocol] (Shiva, Cisco, IP, IPX, LLC) 
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (PPP, VPN, IP) 
A layer 2 tunneling client/server program. l2tpd is the open source implementation of the l2tp tunneling protocol (rfc2661). It does implement both LAC and LNS role in a l2tp networking architecture. The main goal of this protocol is to tunnel PPP frame trough an ip network. 
Limited Availability (IBM, OS/2) 
Location Area (MSC, GSM, mobile-systems) 
A command-line label-printing program Label Nation is a Perl program that provides a command-line interface for printing onto peel-off label sheets. It comes with built-in support for the most common label standards (Avery Dennison 5160, Maco LL-5805, etc.), plus the ability to define your own label parameters. 
Lotus Authorized Consultants (Lotus) 
A simple syntax checker for LaTeX. LaCheck is a simple syntax checker for LaTex that is based on a single-pass lexical scanner. This makes clear that there are a lot of LaTeX problems this program cannot find, although it will find most simple mistakes. Complex macro packages may, however, make it completely unusable. This program was bundled with AUC TeX up until recently and is best known from there. 
sample tools for linux-audio-dev plugin architecture LADSPA is a free standard specification for audio effect plugins. Contains sample plugins, and analyseplugin, listplugin, applyplugin programs, and the ladspa.h, the LADSPA specification. Please build-depend on this package if you need ladspa.h 
Local Access Data Transport 
Lotus Authorized Education Center (Lotus) 
Logical Address Group (ION) 
The delay in information coming across the network through telnet or other types of connections, usually caused by a slow or error-prone connection somewhere between the two communicating machines. Technically there are two causes of lag, the second being chew. 
Local Area Multicomputer (Parallel Computing) 
Documentation for the Message Passing Interface standard. This package contains man pages describing the Message Passing Interface standard. These pages are newly provided by the LAM package, and are also found in the mpi-doc package build from the mpich source package. 
LAM runtime environment for executing parallel programs. LAM is an implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocol commonly used in parallel processing applications. Some enhancements in LAM 6.3 are: o Added the MPI-2 C++ bindings package (chapter 10 from the MPI-2 standard) from the Laboratory for Scientific Computing at the University of Notre Dame. o Added ROMIO MPI I/O package (chapter 9 from the MPI-2 standard) from the Argonne National Laboratory. o Pseudo-tty support for remote IO (e.g., line buffered output). o Ability to pass environment variables through mpirun. o Ability to mpirun shell scripts/debuggers/etc. (that eventually run LAM/MPI programs). o Ability to execute non-MPI programs across the multicomputer. o Added configurable ability to zero-fill internal LAM buffers before they are used (for development tools such as Purify). o Greatly expanded error messages; provided for customizable local help files. o Expanded and updated documentation. o Various bug fixes and minor enhancements. 
Shared libraries used by LAM parallel programs. LAM is an implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocol commonly used in parallel processing applications. This package provides the shared library. 
extended unicode TeX 
core database for lambdamoo Lambdacore is a lambdamoo database, a set of objects and programs that are run by the lambdamoo server to add functionality to lambdamoo. Lambdacore includes: * Integrated help system * Internal mail and news * Object editors * Additional object classes Lambdacore provides a base that you can build on to create your own lambdamoo system. 
a server for an online multiuser virtual world Lambdamoo is a server for a virtual world, a computer program which users can log into and explore. Each user takes control of a computerized persona/avatar/incarnation/character. You can walk around, chat with other people, solve puzzles, and even create your very own rooms, descriptions and items. Advanced users can program Lambdamoo, via its built in object-oriented programming language. Lambdamoo only provides the bare framework for your virtual world. A lambdamoo guru could theoretically start with lambdamoo and the included minimal core database and work their way up to a full-fledged system. The rest of us will want to install the lambdacore or jhcore packages which add objects and functionality to lambdamoo. 
Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (Linux, Apache, PHP) 
Local Area Network (LAN) 
Local Area Network - a computer network which operates over short distances, usually at high speed. Typically, LANs are isolated in single buildings but in the case of some universities can connect a number of buildings. WANs (or Wide Area Networks) typically connect an enterprise or institution which might be separated by larger distances. 
see local area network (LAN). 
LAN (Local Area Network)
A private transmission that interconnects computers within a building or among buildings for the purpose of sharing voice, data, facsimile, and/or video. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
LAN Manager
LAN Manager is the older file server product from Microsoft and IBM. The details of this aren't all that important except that backwards compatibility has introduced security holes in products 10 years later. LAN Manager authentication splits a password into two case-insensitive parts that are 7 letters each. Therefore, if your password was "", under LAN Manager it would be the same as "ROBERTG RAHAM.C". Whereas new products like Win98, WinNT, and SAMBA support newer/stronger authentication methods, the need for backwards compatibility often exposes the LAN Manager password, which can easily be cracked. 
LAN Controller for Ethernet (LAN) 
Local Area Network Emulation [over ATM specification] (ATM) 
Language Drills langdrill is a helper for testing your foreign language vocabulary. It uses GTK+ toolkit and VDK (a C++ wrapper arround VDK). langrill looks similar with JavaDrill (JavaDrill helped me cristalize the ideas on how langdrill should look like). Limited support for Japanese characters displaying is included. For this, Japanese fonts must be installed on your system. 
simple configuration tool for native language environment This tool adds basic settings for natural language environment such as LANG variable, font specifications, input methods, and so on into user's several dot-files such as .bashrc and .emacs. This version of language-env supports Belarusian, Bulgarian, Danish, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Macedonian, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Thai, and Ukrainian. Japanese support comes from precursor package 'user-ja'. Thai support is written by Chanop Silpa-Anan. German support comes from 'user-de' package version 0.8. Spanish support comes from 'user-es' 0.5. Russian support is written by Peter Novodvorsky <>. Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian and Ukrainian supports are written by Anton Zinoviev <>, the Belarusian translation is by Alexander Mikhailian <>, and the Serbian translation is by Milos Rancic <>. Korean support is written by Ho-seok Lee <>. French support is written by Nicolas Sabouret <>. Polish support is written by Robert Luberda <>. Danish support is written by Claus Hindsgaul <>. 
Los Alamos National Laboratory (org., USA) 
creates laptop or notebook hardware report in HTML lanoche should fit on smaller systems, for instance a "One Floppy Linux". Therefore no Perl or other sophisticated programming methods are used. 
Lanthan Linux
A German Linux distribution for Windows-PCs with revolutionary concept of installation. 
Laonux is a relatively small Linux distribution that contains most of the basics that you would expect in a Linux system, but nothing more. It features gcc-2.95.2, glibc 2.1.2, and kernel 2.2.14. It is not easy to install, but it provides a complete system. It is great for hobbyists who wish build up their own personalized Linux distribution from a basic core. 
Link Access Procedure / Protocol (CCITT, X.25) 
a library of linear algebra routines - shared version LAPACK version 3.0 is a comprehensive FORTRAN library that does linear algebra operations including matrix inversions, least squared solutions to linear sets of equations, eigenvector analysis, singular value decomposition, etc. It is a very comprehensive and reputable package that has found extensive use in the scientific community. 
a library of linear algebra routines - static PIC version LAPACK version 3.0 is a comprehensive FORTRAN library that does linear algebra operations including matrix inversions, least squared solutions to linear sets of equations, eigenvector analysis, singular value decomposition, etc. It is a very comprehensive and reputable package that has found extensive use in the scientific community. Normally one would want to use non-PIC code for static linking. In this case, install lapack-dev. This package is provided for other packages, such as atlas, needing access to PIC versions of the lapack objects in their own build process. 
a library of linear algebra routines - testing programs LAPACK version 3.0 is a comprehensive FORTRAN library that does linear algebra operations including matrix inversions, least squared solutions to linear sets of equations, eigenvector analysis, singular value decomposition, etc. It is a very comprehensive and reputable package that has found extensive use in the scientific community. These testing and timing programs have been run against the shared library in the lapack package. The results have been collected in the files test_results and timing_results. These programs are provided separately here so that the user can test and compare alternate versions of the lapack libraries, such as those provided by the atlas packages, and the lapack99 package. 
linear algebra library - shared version, rev. 10/99 LAPACK version 3.0 is a comprehensive FORTRAN library that does linear algebra operations including matrix inversions, least squared solutions to linear sets of equations, eigen analysis, SVD, etc. It is a very comprehensive and reputable package that has found extensive use in the scientific community. 
Link Access Procedure - Balanced (CCITT, LAP, X.25) 
Link Access Procedure on the D channel (X.21, ISDN, TA) 
Local Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) 
Link Access Procedure for Modem 
LAN Adapter and Protocol Support 
Automatically adapt laptop ethernet This package supports the built-in ethernet of laptops by providing several integrated features that automatically adapt the laptop to the network environment. The package is easily configured to support a wide variety of network environments, and supports manual as well as automatic management of the network interface. The package can automatically: start and stop the network interface at appropriate times; disable the network interface when the network cable is removed, and enable it when the cable is inserted; select the network interface's IP address, either by probing the network for known hosts or by use of the DHCP protocol; customize the laptop's software configuration to match the network interface's IP address. 
network detection and configuration program for laptops laptop-netconf can automatically determine the network to which your laptop is connected, from a set of preconfigured alternatives. Once the network has been detected, you can run arbitrary scripts to configure the services on your laptop for correct local operation. This package requires some basic networking knowledge at present. A sample configuration is enclosed. 
Lars Window Manager with tiled windows larswm is a hack for 9wm, adding automatic window tiling, virtual desktops and many other features designed to make it a very efficient user environment. It uses very little CPU time and virtual memory. 
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation 
laser printer
Printer technology using laser-based imaging and heating element that bonds toner (powder ink) to the printing medium. 
Japanese distribution originally based on Red Hat Linux. 
Local Area Signaling Service 
show listing of last logged in users 
show listing of last logged in users 
examine lastlog file 
Local Area Transport (DEC) 
Local Access Transport Area 
LAT (Local Area Transport) Daemon This is a server for DEC LAT. It allows users to log in to the Linux system from a LAT terminal server and also the creation of "reverse" LAT ports on the system that connect to other LAT services on the network. There is also an llogin utility that allows users to login to remote LAT services. 
Latency refers to a time lag between the access and transmission of data. In the case of multimedia distributed over networks, it is crucial that this be rectified, or at least synchronised -- a simple example of this is keeping compressed video in synchronisation with audio. 
structured text formatting and typesetting 
LaTeX to HTML translator. LaTeX2HTML is a conversion tool that that converts documents written in LaTeX to HTML format. In addition, it offers an easy migration path towards authoring complex hypermedia documents using familiar word-processing concepts. LaTeX2HTML replicates the basic structure of a LaTeX document as a set of interconnected HTML files which can be explored using automatically generated navigation panels. The cross-references, citations, footnotes, the table of contents and the lists of figures and tables, are also translated into hypertext links. Formatting information which has equivalent ``tags'' in HTML (lists, quotes, paragraph breaks, type styles, etc.) is also converted appropriately. The remaining heavily formatted items such as mathematical equations, pictures or tables are converted to images which are placed automatically at the correct positions in the final HTML document. LaTeX2HTML extends LaTeX by supporting arbitrary hypertext links and symbolic cross-references between evolving remote documents. It also allows the specification of conditional text and the inclusion of raw HTML commands. These hypermedia extensions to LaTeX are available as new commands and environments from within a LaTeX document. Pstoimg, the part of latex2html that produces bitmap images from the LaTeX source, can support both GIF and PNG format. Because of certain legal limitations on the use of the GIF image format, GIF support is disabled in this package. 
convert from LaTeX to RTF format Attempts to convert as much formatting information as possible from LaTeX to Microsoft's Rich Text Format (RTF). While RTF has limited support for mathematical markup, it is widely supported as a "least common denominator" word processing format. Home Page: 
Local Asynchronous Transfer Mode 
The Language for Transforming Text (currently to html) Latte is a simple and powerful language for including markup in text documents. Documents written in Latte can be converted to high-quality HTML, making it a good language for writing World Wide Web documents. A Latte mode for Emacs is included as well as an Emacs autoloader. 
Selects which program to launch according to extension. Launcher maps files to MIME types via filename extension or output from the Unix "file" command. If there are more than one handler defined for a given MIME type it presents you with a GUI giving you a choice of which one to use. 
a lava lamp of currently running processes 
a lava lamp of currently running processes Lavaps is an interactive process-tracking program like ``top'', but with a much different attitude. Rather than presenting lots of specific info in digital form, it tries to present certain important information in a graphical analog form. The idea is that you can run it in the background and get a rough idea of what's happening to your system without devoting much concentration to the task. 
LAger- und VersandAbwicklungsSystem (MBAG) 
Local Area VAX Cluster (VAX, DEC) 
Local Authority Workstation 
Local Area Wireless Network 
Logical Block Addressing (EIDE) 
LBA (Logical Bloack Addressing)
Part of the Enhanced IDE standard, permits hard disks to store up to 8.4GB of data. Without LBA, hard disks could store only 528MB of data. 
The little brother's database for the mutt mail reader This package consists of a set of small tools, which collect mail addresses from several sources and offer these addresses to the mutt external query feature. At the moment the following modules are supported: - m_finger (uses the finger(1) command) - m_inmail (scans incoming mail for addresses) - m_passwd (searches /etc/passwd) - m_yppasswd (searches the YP password database) - m_nispasswd (searches the YP password database) - m_getent (searches the configured password database) - m_pgp2, m_pgp5, m_gpg (searches your PGP or GnuPG keyrings) - m_fido (searches the Fidonet nodelist) - m_abook (uses the address book application abook(1)) - m_addr_email (uses addr-email from the addressbook Tk program) - m_muttalias (searches your Mutt mail aliases) - m_pine (searches your Pine addressbook files) - m_wanderlust (search the WanderLust alias database) - m_palm (uses your Palm database; needs libpalm-perl package) - m_gnomecard (uses GnomeCard database files) - m_bbdb (search your BBDB (big brother database)) - m_ldap (query some LDAP server) 
Local Bus Master 
Logical Block Number (LBA) 
A ball-and-paddle game with nice graphics lbreakout2 is a game similar to the classics breakout and xboing, featuring a number of added graphical enhancements and effects. You control a paddle at the bottom of the playing-field, and must destroy bricks at the top by bouncing balls against them. lbreakout2 is a complete rewrite of the game "lbreakout". Users of lbreakout probably want to install this. 
Location Based Service 
Local Bus Targets 
Low-Band with X 
Low Bandwidth X (LBX) proxy server Applications that would like to take advantage of the Low Bandwidth extension to X (LBX) must make their connections to an lbxproxy. These applications need know nothing about LBX, they simply connect to the lbxproxy as if were a regular X server. The lbxproxy accepts client connections, multiplexes them over a single connection to the X server, and performs various optimizations on the X protocol to make it faster over low bandwidth and/or high latency connections. 
Low BandWidth X proxy 
Linux Computer (Corel) 
Loopback Capability (UNI, ATM, OAM) 
Logic Cell Array 
[Sair] Linux [and GNU] Certified Administrator (Linux, GNU, Unix) 
Removes 'capabilities' in the kernel, making the system more secure Capabilities are a form of kernel-based access control. This program provides a user-friendlier way than setting proc/sys/kernel/cap-bound by hand to remove capabilities from your Linux kernel. For example, you can remove the capability to load kernel modules by executing 'lcap CAP_SYS_MODULE' as root. Then no one, not even root, can load modules into your kernel. This can be useful for tightening the security of your Linux machines. 
Local Control Center 
LAN Client Control Manager (IBM, LAN) 
Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) 
LISP Code Directory (EMACS) 
Loss of Cell Delineation (UNI, ATM) 
LCD display driver daemon This is a client/server suite inclduding drivers for all kinds of nifty LCD displays. The server supports several serial devices: Matrix Orbital, Crystal Fontz, Bayrad, LB216, LCDM001 (, Wirz-SLI and PIC-an-LCD; and some devices connected to the LPT port: HD44780, STV5730, T6963, SED1520 and SED1330. Various clients are available that display things like CPU load, system load, memory usage, uptime, and a lot more. 
Local Common Graphics Interface (CGI, WWW) 
LEAF Creation Method (EES, cryptography) 
Logical Channel Numbers 
Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCD) 
[PPP] Link Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1570) 
[Sair] Linux [and GNU] Certified Professional (Linux, GNU, Unix) 
Least Cost Routing 
Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT) 
Linux Compatibility Standard (Linux) 
Liquid Crystal Shutter 
Lotus Communication Server 
Liquid Crystal Stereoscopic Shutter [display] 
Last Compliance Time (GCRA) 
LAN CID Utility (LAN, CID, IBM) 
Line Coding Violation [error event] (DS1/E1, DS3/E3) 
LAN Destination (ATM) 
Using LD, the GNU linker
The dynamic library loader. Each binary using shared libraries used to have about 3K of start-up code to find and load the shared libraries. Now that code has been put in a special shared library, /lib/, where all binaries can look for it, so that it wastes less disk space, and can be upgraded more easily.
A utility to manage the libraries in /etc/ This script is written to be used with the installation of libsafe, but perhaps it could prove itself useful for more things ;) 
Linker for as86(1) 
Local Delivery Agent 
A directory service, LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is used by e-mail programs (Microsoft, Netscape, Eudora, etc.) to allow you to lookup a person's name in a corporate database and find their e-mail address, phone number, and other information that the corporate administrators decided to put in there. Key point: Most corporate LDAP servers have little or no authentication. Finding LDAP servers and downloading their contents is an important step in the reconnaissance phase of a hacking attack. Key point: While LDAP is in theory lightweight, in practice it is still fairly complicated. There are many implementation and deployment bugs that can be exploited in order to break into servers. 
LDAP stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. As the name suggests, it is a lightweight client-server protocol for accessing directory services, specifically X.500-based directory services. LDAP runs over TCP/IP or other connection oriented transfer services. LDAP is defined in RFC2251 "The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3). A directory is similar to a database, but tends to contain more descriptive, attribute-based information. The information in a directory is generally read much more often than it is written. Directories are tuned to give quick-response to high-volume lookup or search operations. They may have the ability to replicate information widely in order to increase availability and reliability, while reducing response time. When directory information is replicated, temporary inconsistencies between the replicas may be OK, as long as they get in sync eventually. There are many different ways to provide a directory service. Different methods allow different kinds of information to be stored in the directory, place different requirements on how that information can be referenced, queried and updated, how it is protected from unauthorized access, etc. Some directory services are local, providing service to a restricted context (e.g., the finger service on a single machine). Other services are global, providing service to a much broader context. From LDAP-Linux-HOWTO
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (RFC 1777, X.500, DS, AD) 
Lightwight Directory Access Protocol. Allows network nodes to get info on other nodes. 
see lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). 
OpenLDAP Gateways These programs provide directory interaction (gateways) with your existing servers. They include fax, finger, gopher and mail gateways, aswell as some useful utilities. 
OpenLDAP utilities. Utilities from the OpenLDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) package. These utilities can access a local or remote LDAP server and contain all the client programs required to access LDAP servers. 
LDAP based DNS management system. ldap2dns is a program to create DNS (Domain Name Service) records directly from a LDAP directory. It can and should be be used to replace the secondary name-server by a second primary one. ldap2dns reduces all kind of administration overhead: No more flat file editing, no more zone file editing. After having installed ldap2dns, the administrator only has to access the LDAP directory. ldap2dns is designed to write ASCII data files used by tinydns from the djbdns package, but also may be used to write .db-files used by named as found in the BIND package. 
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Application Program Interface (LDAP, RFC 1823, API), "LDAP API" 
A set of PHP-scripts to administrate LDAP over the WWW. LDAP Explorer is a handy LDAP Client tool designed to work as a generic web based, running on server side. You can use it to browse tree hierarchical LDAP server, add, modify or delete entries; and add, modify, delete attributes in an entry. 
LANDesk Client Manager 
determine run-time link bindings 
Ldconfig is a basic system program which determines run-time linkbindings between and shared libraries. Ldconfig scans a running system and sets up the symbolic links that are used to load shared libraries properly. It also creates a cache (/etc/ which speeds the loading of programs which use shared libraries. 
Lightly Doped Drain (IC, MOSFET) 
print shared library dependencies 
Linux Disk Editor This allows you to view some Linux fs's (a la Norton disk edit), hex block and inode editing are now supported and you can use it to dump an erased file to another partition with a little bit of work. Supports ext2, minix, and msdos. 
The hardware device lists provided by this package are used as lookup table to get hardware autodetection 
The hardware device lists provided by this package are used as lookup table to get hardware autodetection 
Logical Disk IDentifier (MS) 
Monitors virtual services provided by LVS. ldirectord is a stand-alone daemon to monitor services of real for virtual services provided by The Linux Virtual Server ( It is simple to install and works with the heartbeat code ( 
Label Distribution Protocol (IETF, RFC 3036, MPLS) 
Linux Document Projects (Linux) 
Loader Debugger Protocol (RFC 909) 
The Linux Documentation Project's DSSSL stylesheets This is a customized stylesheet authored by contributors to the Linux Documentation Project. It imports standard DocBook stylesheets and overrides certain components. This package provides the DSSSL stylesheet; XSL versions can be found in ldp-docbook-xsl. 
The Linux Documentation Project's XSL stylesheets These are customized stylesheets authored by contributors to the Linux Documentation Project. They import standard DocBook stylesheets and override certain components. This package provides the XSL stylesheets; a DSSSL version can be found in ldp-docbook-dsssl. 
HTML, PS version of Linux System Administrator's Guide This is the Linux System Administrator's Guide, one of the documents of the Linux Documentation Project. The Linux Documentation Project (LDP) is working on developing good, reliable documentation for the Linux operating system. 
Light Detect Resistor 
The Linux dynamic linker and library for libc4 and libc5. This dynamic linker provides the user-level support for loading and linking DLL and ELF shared libraries. You do not need this package unless you have very old programs which use libc4 or libc5. The libc6 package has its own dynamic linker that is used for all current programs. 
Lightning Data Transfer [bus] (AMD) 
Local Descriptor Table (CPU, Intel) 
Load Descriptor Table Register (CPU, Intel, assembler, IC) 
Local Descriptor Table Register Cache (LDT, Intel, CPU) 
LAN Emulation (LANE, ATM) 
Text Editor with block and binary operations LE has many block operations with stream and rectangular blocks, can edit both unix and dos style files (LF/CRLF), is binary clean, has hex mode, can edit large files and mmap'able devices in MAP_SHARED mode, has tunable syntax highlighting, tunable color scheme (can use default colors), tunable key map. 
Law Enforcement Agency (ETSI, ETSI 201 671) 
Law Enforcement Access Field (EES, cryptography) 
LEAF (Linux Embedded Appliance Firewall)
LEAF (Linux Embedded Appliance Firewall) is an easy-to-use embedded Linux system that is meant for creating network appliances for use in small office, home office, and home automation environments. There are several branches of LEAF, including Bering, Dachstein, Oxygen, PacketFilter, and WRP. The initial release of Bering (Beta 4), was released March 7, 2002. Bering 1.2 was released May 11, 2003. Shorewall 1.3.9b was released October 23, 2002. Mosquito 3.4 was announced July 7, 2002. The WISP-Dist branch released version 2397 on December 26, 2002. 
NNTP server for small leaf sites Leafnode is a news server suitable for small, limited-bandwidth sites with only a few users. Leafnode keeps track of which groups are being read, and downloads only articles in those groups. Leafnode has been designed to require no maintenance and to be easy to set up. Perl and the libnet-perl package are required to use some optional features of the package for handling very low volume newsgroups. 
Simple and efficient memory-leak tracer for C++ programs LeakTracer traces calls to new and delete, and reports inconsistencies in the C++-level memory-management. It has limitations (eg. when you override the new and delete operators yourself), but is very easy to use (eg. compared to more complete tools like mpatrol), traces the C++ level (unlike most other tools), and gives pretty good results. It uses gdb to display source-file information. 
LAN Emulation Address Resolution Protocol (LANE, ARP, ATM), "LE-ARP" 
LATA Equal Access System 
Leased Line
Refers to line such as a telephone line or fiber-optic cable that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7-days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line. 
least privilege
A best-practices principle that states that users have only the minimum access they need, and no more. Example: System administrators typically have multiple accounts with different rights. For example, when I'm logged in as a normal user, I do not have rights to administrator my own machine. I must login as a separate account in order to administer the system, then log out as soon as I'm done. Most UNIX systems will use the hash/pound sign # at the command prompt in order to hint to the user that they have root access and should be careful. Key point: One of the leading causes of security breaches is authorization creep: as users change roles, they often get new privileges, but old privileges are rarely taken away. 
Reminds you when you have to leave Leave waits until the specified time, then reminds you that you have to leave. You are reminded 5 minutes and 1 minute before the actual time, at the time, and every minute thereafter. When you log off, leave exits just before it would have printed the next message. 
LAN Emulation Client (LANE, ATM) 
Layered Error Correction (CD) 
Local Exchange Carrier (FCC, LATA, IEC) 
LAN Emulation Client IDentifier (LANE, ATM, LEC) 
Local area network Emulation Configuration Server (ATM, LANE, LEC) 
Light-Emitting Diode 
Scriptable keyboard LED control Ledcontrol is a package designed to show any kind of information on the unused LEDs on your keyboard. Features include blinking LEDs, animations, priority levels etc. The GTK+ interface gled is in the package ledcontrol-gtk. 
GTK frontend for ledcontrol Ledcontrol-gtk is a GTK+ frontend for ledcontrol with which you can easily test different kinds of blinkings, animations, etc. with ledd. 
A line editor for interactive programs. Ledit is a line editor, allowing to use control commands like in emacs or in shells (bash, tcsh). To be used with interactive commands. It is written in Ocaml and Camlp4 and uses the library unix.cma. 
Leetnux is a Linux distribution specifically designed for Linux users who want maximum configuratibility. Therefore, the installation is quite hard, absolutely nothing is done "automagically" as in modern Linux distributions, but the user has total control over the installation. The idea behind Leetnux comes from Linux From Scratch, but a Leetnux system is not as "pure" as an LFS system, because a minimal pre-compiled system must be installed. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Alternative OS for Lego Mindstorms RCX supports devel. in C/C++ A development environment and multitasking operating system for use as an alternative to the standard Lego Mindstorms RCX firmware. For more info: 
Leka Rescue Floppy
Leka Rescue Floppy is a Linux mini-distribution that installs into one floppy disk. It is meant for disaster recovery, but also contains many fine features like networking support, a dhcpd, a Web browser, and an IRC client. Initial release 0.5.0 is dated February 26, 2002. V0.5.1 was released the following day. Stable version 0.7.1 was released July 6, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. 
An explanatory dictionary of botanic and biological terms LEKSBOT is an explanatory dictionary of botanic and biological terms. Currently it contains about 1500 terms but the number is growing up and will cover other sciences relative with biology (entomology, etc.). The included program KATAXWR is a simple utility with which you can add terms in your personal database. 
Link, Embed and Launch (UNIX) 
LEM is a small i386 Linux distribution which provides full network and X Server. LEM has disappeared from this website [May 6, 2002]. 
Lightning ElectroMagnetic Pulse 
Low Entry Networking (IBM, SNA, PU) 
LeitungsEndgeraet, Optisch Mil., Germany 
Link Everything Online (WWW, TUM) 
LAN Emulation Server (LANE, ATM) 
Line Errored Seconds (DS1/E1, DS3/E3) 
A file pager program, similar to more(1) Less is a program similar to more (1), but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement. Also, less does not have to read the entire input file before starting, so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi (1). Less uses termcap (or terminfo on some systems), so it can run on a variety of terminals. There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. Homepage: 
opposite of more 
The less utility is a text file browser that resembles more, but has more capabilities. Less allows you to move backwards in the file as well as forwards. Since less doesn't have to read the entire input file before it starts, less starts up more quickly than text editors (for example, vi). You should install less because it is a basic utility for viewing textfiles, and you'll use it frequently. 
The less utility is a text file browser that resembles more, but has more capabilities. Less allows you to move backwards in the file as well as forwards. Since less does not have to read the entire input file before it starts, less starts up more quickly than text editors. 
expand metacharacters, such as * and ?, in filenames on Unix systems. 
"input preprocessor" for less. 
specify key bindings for less 
"input preprocessor" for less. 
LessTif is a free replacement for OSF/Motif(R), which provides a full set of widgets for application development (menus, text entry areas, scrolling windows, etc.). LessTif is source compatible with OSF/Motif(R) 1.2. The widget set code is the primary focus of development. If you are installing lesstif, you also need to install lesstif-clients. 
Lesstif is an API compatible clone of the Motif toolkit. Most of the Motif 1.2 API is in place. Motif 2.1 functionality is being improved. Many Motif applications compile and run out-of-the-box with LessTif, and we want to hear about those that don't. 
User binaries for LessTif. Contains user binaries for LessTif, the Hungry Programmers' version of OSF/Motif, including a clone of mwm, the Motif Window Manager. 
Library with debugging symbols for LessTif. LessTif, made by the Hungry Programmers, is a free (LGPL-ed) version of OSF/Motif; it aims ultimately at binary compatibility with Motif 1.2. Contains shared libraries with debugging symbols for libXm and libMrm. 
OSF/Motif implementation released under LGPL. Contains runtime shared libraries for LessTif, the Hungry Programmers' version of OSF/Motif. Contains runtime shared libraries for libXm and libMrm. 
a very small vi clone Levee is a screen oriented editor based on the Unix editor "vi". It provides a terse, powerful way to enter and edit text. 
a "Lexical Analyser". Its main job is to break up an input stream into more usable elements. 
fast lexical analyzer generator 
parse header information in man pages 
A printer driver for Lexmark 7000 "GDI" printers This is the printer driver for Lexmark 7000 "GDI" printers. * Known to work with Lexmark 7000, 7200 and 5700 printers * 600x600 dpi Black & White printing * Preliminary 600x600 CMY colour printing for 7000, 7200 Note that Lexmark printer drivers are now available for Ghostscript, so Debian's gs / gs-aladdin packages will include Lexmark printer support. Hence, this lexmark7000linux package will be obsolete soon, if not already. :-) Author: Henryk Paluch <> 
Line Feed (ASCII) 
Login Facility (DCE) 
Link Field Address (Forth) 
Local Feature Analysis 
Leight weight Flow Admission Protocol (Cabletron, RFC 2124) 
Linear Frame Buffer (CPU, VESA) 
Linux Federation for Commercial Customers (Linux) 
Low Frequency Effect (audio) 
Long File Names 
Long File Name BacKup (MS) 
Low Frequency Oscillator 
Loopback File System 
Linear Feedback Shift Register (IC) 
LFTP is a shell-like command line ftp client. The main two advantages over other ftp clients are reliability and ability to perform tasks in background. It will reconnect and reget the file being transferred if the connection broke. You can start a transfer in background and continue browsing on the ftp site. It does this all in one process. When you have started background jobs and feel you are done, you can just exit lftp and it automatically moves to nohup mode and completes the transfers. It has also such nice features as reput and mirror. 
LFTP is a sophisticated ftp/http file transfer program. Like bash, it has jobcontrol and uses the readline library for input. It has bookmarks, built-inmirroring, and can transfer several files in parallel. It is designed with reliability in mind. 
Sophisticated command-line FTP/HTTP client programs Lftp is a file retrieving tool that supports FTP and HTTP protocols under both IPv4 and IPv6. Lftp has an amazing set of features, while preserving its interface as simple and easy as possible. The main two advantages over other ftp clients are reliability and ability to perform tasks in background. It will reconnect and reget the file being transferred if the connection broke. You can start a transfer in background and continue browsing on the ftp site. It does this all in one process. When you have started background jobs and feel you are done, you can just exit lftp and it automatically moves to nohup mode and completes the transfers. It has also such nice features as reput and mirror. It can also download a file as soon as possible by using several connections at the same time. Lftp can also be scriptable, it can be used to mirror sites, it let you copy files among remote servers (even between FTP and HTTP). It has an extensive online help. It supports bookmarks, and connecting to several ftp/http sites at the same time. This package also includes lftpget - A simple non-interactive tool for downloading files. 
Linux Gazette magazine. 
A "Panzer General" - like game A game similar to well known to most of PC users strategic game - Panzer General. It is a turned-based strategy written by Michael Speck. Uses libSDL and requires X Window System. It's not a final version but works fine and is worth playing. Included HOWTO describes step-by-step how to create custom scenarios and campaigns. 
Lesser General Public License (GPL, GNU) 
LGPL (Library GPL)
A variation of the GPL that covers program libraries. 
Local Group Policy Object (AD, GPO) 
Linux/GNU/X [distribution] (Yggdrasil, Linux, GNU) 
LHA is an archiving and compression utility for LHarc format archives. LHA is mostly used in the DOS world, but can be used under Linux to extract DOS files from LHA archives. Install the lha package if you need to extract DOS files from LHA archives. 
An older file compression and archiving method rarely used anymore. Files packaged with this technology typically have a .lha or .lzh extension. 
Lawful Interception (ETSI) 
LIAP (Linux in a Pillbox)
This project puts together encapsulated pieces of a Linux operating system. Site is in English and Polish. Last update August 2001. A floppy-based distribution. 
Linear Incremental Backoff (CSMA/CD, BEB) 
AA-lib is a low level gfx library just as many other libraries are. The main difference is that AA-lib does not require graphics device. In fact, there is no graphical output possible. AA-lib replaces those old-fashioned output methods with powerful ascii-art renderer. Now my linux boots with a nice penguin logo at secondary display (yes! LikeWin95 does:) AA-lib API is designed to be similar to other graphics libraries. Learning a new API would be a piece of cake! The AA library is needed for GIMP 
This package contains the dynamic library which contains the POSIX 1003.1e draft standard 17 functions for manipulating access control lists. 
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a modularized architecture which supports quite a large range of ISA and PCI cards. It's fully compatible with old OSS drivers (either OSS/Lite, OSS/commercial). To use the features of alsa, one can either use:- the old OSS api- the new ALSA api that provides many enhanced features.Using the ALSA api requires to use the ALSA library. 
Libao is a cross platform audio output library. It currently supports ESD, OSS, Solaris, and IRIX. 
Graphics routines used by the GnomeCanvas widget and some other applications. libart renders vector paths and the like. 
This is the LGPL'd component of libart. Libart is a library forhigh-performance 2D graphics. All functions needed for running the Gnome canvas, and for printing support, will be going in here. The GPL'd component will be getting various enhanced functions for specific applications. 
Accessibility means providing system infrastructure that allows add-on assistive software to transparently provide specalized input and ouput capabilities. For example, screen readers allow blind users to navigate through applications, determine the state of controls, and read text via text to speech conversion. On-screen keyboards replace physical keyboards, and head-mounted pointers replace mice. 
This package contains the dynamic library which contains the extended attribute system calls and library functions. 
The MPEG Library is a collection of C routines to decode MPEG movies and dither them in a variety of colour schemes. Most of the code in the library comes directly from the Berkely MPEG player, an X11-specific implementation that works fine, but suffers from minimal documentation and a lack of modularity. A front end to the Berkeley decoding engine was developed by Greg Ward at theMontreal Neurological Institute in May/June 1994 to facilitate the development of an MPEG player specifically for Silicon Graphics workstations. The decoding engine together with the MNI front end constitute the MPEG Library. 
Bonobo is a component system based on CORBA, used by the GNOME desktop. 
Bonobo is a library that provides the necessary framework for GNOME applications to deal with compound documents, i.e. those with a spreadsheet and graphic embedded in a word-processing document. This package contains various needed modules and files for bonobo 2 to operate. 
Bonobo Activation is an object activation framework for GNOME. It uses ORBit. This package contains necessary libraries to run any programs linked with bonobo-activation. 
Bonobo configuration moniker. 
Bonobo is a library that provides the necessary framework for GNOME applications to deal with compound documents, i.e. those with aspreadsheet and graphic embedded in a word-processing document. This package provides libraries to use Bonobo. 
Bonobo is a component system based on CORBA, used by the GNOME desktop. libbonoboui contains the user interface related components that come with Bonobo. 
Bonobo is a library that provides the necessary framework for GNOME applications to deal with compound documents, i.e. those with a spreadsheet and graphic embedded in a word-processing document. This package contains various needed modules and files for bonobo 2 to operate. 
Library of bzip2 functions, for developing apps which will use thebzip2 library (aka libz2). 
libcap is a library for getting and setting POSIX.1e (formerly POSIX 6)draft 15 capabilities. 
This package provides the "" library and header filesas found in GNOME 1, used by some packages not yet ported to GNOME 2. 
libcapplet originally belongs to GNOME control-center, and is a library necessary for 'capplets', which means different modules for control-center. It has been splitted off from control-center as a package of its own. This package contains the main libraries necessary to run capplets. 
This is the development libraries for cdparanoia. cdparanoia is a complete rewrite of Heiko Eissfeldt's 'cdda2wav' program, and generally is much better at succeeding to read difficult discs with cheap drives. 
libraries for running GNOME media. 
This package contains libraries for console tools 
The Common Unix Printing System provides a portable printing layer for UNIX(TM) operating systems. This package contains the CUPS API library which contains common functions used by both the CUPS daemon and all CUPS frontends (lpr-cups, xpp, qtcups, kups, ...). This package you need for both CUPS clients and servers. It is also needed by Samba. 
libcurl is a library of functions for sending and receiving files through various protocols, including http and ftp. You should install this package if you plan to use any applications that use libcurl 
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit that provides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. Berkeley DB is used by many applications, including Python and Perl, so this should be installed on all systems. 
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit that provides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. Berkeley DB is used by many applications, including Python and Perl, so this should be installed on all systems. This package contains the files needed to build C++ programs which use Berkeley DB. 
This is a first approach to implement a file-system-inside-a-file. The library is called libefs (EFS = Embedded File System). This package is part of Bonobo. 
The libelf package contains a library for accessing ELF object files. Libelf allows you to access the internals of the ELF object file format, so you can see the different sections of an ELF file. 
Evolution is the GNOME mailer, calendar, contact manager and communications tool. The tools which make up Evolution willbe tightly integrated with one another and act as a seamless personal information-management tool. This package contains dynamic librairies used by Evolution. 
Most digital cameras produce EXIF files, which are JPEG files with extra tags that contain information about the image. The EXIF library allows you to parse an EXIF file and read the data from those tags. This library does not contain any documentation, but it seems to make the connection between libexif, the core library for EXIF, and GTK-based graphical frontends. 
Most digital cameras produce EXIF files, which are JPEG files withe xtra tags that contain information about the image. The EXIF library allows you to parse an EXIF file and read the data from those tags. 
The e2fsprogs package contains a number of utilities for creating, checking, modifying and correcting any inconsistencies in second extended (ext2) filesystems. E2fsprogs contains e2fsck (used to repair filesystem inconsistencies after an unclean shutdown), mke2fs (used toinitialize a partition to contain an empty ext2 filesystem), debugfs (used to examine the internal structure of a filesystem, to manually repair a corrupted filesystem or to create test cases for e2fsck), tune2fs(used to modify filesystem parameters) and most of the other core ext2fs filesystem utilities. You should install libext2fs2 to use tools who use ext2fs features. 
This package contains Fortran 77 shared library which is needed to run Fortran 77 3.1 dynamically linked programs. 
fam, the File Alteration Monitor, provides a daemon and an API which applications can use to be notified when specific files or directories are changed.This package contains library used by fam daemon. 
The Fast Light Tool Kit ("FLTK", pronounced "fulltick") is a LGPL'd C++ graphical user interface toolkit for X (UNIX(r)), OpenGL(r), and Microsoft(r) Windows(r) NT 4.0, 95, or 98. It was originally developed by Mr. Bill Spitzak and is currently maintained by asmall group of developers across the world with a central repository in the US. 
Fontconfig is designed to locate fonts within the system and select them according to requirements specified by applications. 
g-wrap is a tool for specifying types, functions, and constants to import into a Scheme interpreter, and for generating code (in C) to interface these to the Guile and RScheme interpreters in particular. 
Gail is the GNOME Accessibility Implementation Library 
A collection of GNOME widgets and utility functions. 
This the G App Libs (GAL). This module contains some library functions that came from Gnumeric and Evolution. The idea is to reuse those widgets across various larger GNOME applications that might want to use these widgets. 
Some GCC version 3.0 and later compiled libraries and/or binaries need this shared support library. 
The libgcj package includes the Java runtime library, which is needed to run Java programs compiled using the gcc Java compiler (gcj). 
GConf is a configuration data storage mechanism scheduled to ship with GNOME 2.0. GConf does work without GNOME however; itcan be used with plain GTK+, Xlib, KDE, or even text mode applications as well. This package contains necessary libraries to run any programs linked with GConf. 
This package contains the library needed to run programs dynamically linkedwith libgdgd is a graphics library. It allows your code to quickly draw imagescomplete with lines, arcs, text, multiple colors, cut and paste fromother images, and flood fills, and write out the result as a .PNG or .JPGfile. This is particularly useful in World Wide Web applications, where .PNG and .JPG are two of the formats accepted for inline images by mostbrowsers. gd is not a paint program. If you are looking for a paint program, you are looking in the wrong does not provide for every possible desirable graphics operation. It is not necessary or desirable for gd to become a kitchen-sinkgraphics package, but version 1.7.3 incorporates most of the commonlyrequested features for an 8-bit 2D package. Support for truecolor images, including truecolor JPEG and truecolor PNG is planned for version 2.0. 
GNU Data Access is an attempt to provide uniform access to different kinds of data sources (databases, information servers, mail spools, etc). It is a complete architecture that provides all you need toaccess your data. libgda was part of the GNOME-DB project(, but has beenseparated from it to allow non-GNOME applications to be developed based on it. 
This package provides library needed to run programs dynamically linked with gdbm. 
The GdkPixBuf library provides a number of features: - Image loading facilities. - Rendering of a GdkPixBuf into various formats: drawables (windows, pixmaps), GdkRGB buffers. This package provides GTK+ version of gdk-pixbuf 
This package contains libraries used by GTK+ to load and handle various image formats. 
The GNOME library for making HTTP 1.1 requests. 
This is the non so versionated parts of the gimp core, aka part that're either build for gimp-1.2.x or gimp-1.3.x. We can handle multiple libgimpX.Y_Z at the same time since they've different version (eg libgimp1.2_1 and libgimp1.2_3) but we can install only one libgimp1.2 at the same time. So come the split 
This is the versionated library that contains the gimp fonctionnality core. It enable other programs to use gimp's features but is mainly intendedto be used by the GIMP and its "external" plugins. It contains :* libgck: color managment* libgimp: the gimp features core* libgimpui: the gimp GUI part 
This is a high-quality printing library used by the GIMP-Print plugin, the "stp" color/photo inkjet/laser driver in GhostScript, and by specialized CUPS drivers. 
Libglade is a small library that allows a program to load its user interface from am XML description at runtime. Libglade uses the XML file format used by the GLADE user interface builder GLADE, so libglade acts as an alternative to GLADE's code generation approach. Libglade also provides a simple interface for connecting handlers to the various signals in the interface (on platforms where the gmodule library works correctly, it is possible to connect all the handlers with a single function call). Once the interface has been instantiated, libglade gives no overhead, so other than the short initial interface loading time, there is no performance tradeoff. 
This library allows you to load user interfaces in your program, which are stored externally. This allows alteration of the interface without recompilation of the program. The interfaces can also be edited with GLADE. 
Glib is a handy library of utility functions. This C library is designed to solve some portability problems and provide other useful functionality which most programs require.Glib is used by GDK, GTK+ and many applications. You should install Glib because many of your applications will depend on this library. This package contains the library needed to run programs dynamically linked with the glib. 
The gmp package contains GNU MP, a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic, signed integers operations, rational numbers and floatingpoint numbers. GNU MP is designed for speed, for both small and verylarge operands.GNU MP is fast for several reasons: - it uses fullwords as the basic arithmetic type, - it uses fast algorithms - it carefully optimizes assembly code for many CPUs' most common inner loops - it generally emphasizes speed over simplicity/elegance in its operations 
GNAT is a GNU Ada 95 front-end to GCC. This package includes shared libraries, which are required to run programs compiled with the GNAT. 
Gnet is a simple network library. It is written in C, object-oriented, and built upon glib. It is intended to be small, fast, easy-to-use, and easy to port. The interface is similar to the interface for Java's network library. Features: * TCP 'client' sockets * TCP 'server' sockets * Non-blocking TCP sockets * UDP * IP Multicast * Internet address abstraction Gnet requires Glib 1.2. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of GUI applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The libgnome package includes non-GUI-related libraries that are needed to run GNOME. The libgnomeui package contains X11-dependent GNOME library features. 
The GNOME Virtual File System provides an abstraction to common filesystem operations like reading, writing and copying files, listing directories and so on. This package contains the main GNOME VFS libraries, which is requiredby the basic GNOME 2 system. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of GUI applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The gnome-libs package includes libraries that are needed to run GNOME. This package contains main library for GNOME 
The canvas widget allows you to create custom displays using stock items such as circles, lines, text, and so on. It was originally a port of the Tk canvas widget but has evolved quite a bit over time. 
The GNOME canvas is an engine for structured graphics that offers a rich imaging model, high performance rendering, and a powerful, high-level API. It offers a choice of two rendering back-ends, one based on Xlib forextremely fast display, and another based on Libart, a sophisticated, antialiased, alpha-compositing engine. Applications have a choice between the Xlib imaging model or a superset of the PostScript imaging model, depending on the level of graphic sophistication required. This package contains the main canvas library. 
This package provides a C++ interface for GnomeUI. It is a subpackage of the Gtk-- project. The interface provides a convenient interface for C++ programmers to create Gnome GUIs with GTK+'s flexible object-orientedframework. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The gnome-print package contains libraries and fonts needed by GNOME applications for printing. You should install the gnome-print package if you intend to use any ofthe GNOME applications that can print. If you would like to develop GNOME applications that can print you will also need to install the gnome-print devel package. 
This is an implementation of the Gnome Printing Architecture, asdescribed in: 
This package contains the printing apparatus for GNOME, the complete graphical desktop environment based entirely on free software. 
The libgnomeprintui package contains GTK+ widgets related to printing. 
This is an implementation of the Gnome Printing Architecture, as described in: 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of GUI applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The lib gnomeui packageincludes GUI-related libraries that are needed to run GNOME. (The libgnome package includes the library features that do not use the X Window System.) 
This library contains all the functionality to access to modern digital cameras via USB or the serial port. 
Library used by the gpm program. Install libgpm1-devel if you need to develop text-mode programs which will use the mouse. You'll also need to install the gpm package. 
A library for reading and writing structured files (eg MS OLE and Zip). 
GStreamer is a streaming-media framework, based on graphs of filters whichoperate on media data. Applications using this library can do anythingfrom real-time sound processing to playing videos, and just about anything else media-related. Its plugin-based architecture means that new datatypes or processing capabilities can be added simply by installing newplugins.This package contains the libraries. 
This package contains the static libraries and header files needed for developing GTK+ (GIMP ToolKit) applications. It contains GDK (the General Drawing Kit, which simplifies the interface for writing GTK+ widgets and using GTK+ widgets in applications), and GTK+(the widget set). This package contains the library needed to run programs dynamically linked with gtk+. 
GtkHTML is a HTML rendering/editing library. GtkHTML is not designed to be the ultimate HTML browser/editor: instead, it is designed to be easily embedded into applications that require lightweight HTML functionality. This package contains libraries used by GtkHTML. 
LibGTop is a library that fetches information about the runningsystem such as CPU and memory usage, active processes and more. On Linux systems, this information is taken directly from the /proc filesystem while on other systems a server is used to read that information from other /dev/kmem, among others. 
This package contains Guile shared object libraries and the ice-9 scheme module. Guile is the GNU Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension. 
libIDL is a library for parsing IDL (Interface Definition Language). It can be used for both COM-style and CORBA-style IDL. 
libIDL is a small library for creating parse trees of CORBA v2.2compliant Interface Definition Language (IDL) files, which is a specification for defining interfaces which can be used between different CORBA implementations. 
libieee1284 is a cross-platform library for parallel port access 
This package contains the libintl library for the gettext package. 
The libjpeg package contains a library of functions for manipulating JPEG images, as well as simple client programs for accessing the libjpeg functions. Libjpeg client programs include cjpeg, djpeg,jpegtran, rdjpgcom and wrjpgcom. Cjpeg compresses an image file into JPEG format. Djpeg decompresses a JPEG file into a regular image file. Jpegtran can perform various useful transformations on JPEGfiles. Rdjpgcom displays any text comments included in a JPEG file. Wrjpgcom inserts text comments into a JPEG file. 
linc is a library that eases the task of writing networked servers &clients. It takes care of connection initiation and maintenance, and the details of various transports. It is used by ORBit2 to handle message transmission/receipt. Currently supported transports:
MAD is a high-quality MPEG audio decoder. It currently supports MPEG-1and the MPEG-2 extension to Lower Sampling Frequencies, as well as theso-called MPEG 2.5 format. All three audio layers (Layer I, Layer II,and Layer III a.k.a. MP3) are fully implemented. MAD does not yet support MPEG-2 multichannel audio (although it should be backward compatible with such streams) nor does it currently support AAC. MAD has the following special features: * 24-bit PCM output * 100% fixed-point (integer) computation * completely new implementation based on the ISO/IEC standards 
This package contains the libraries needed to run programs dynamically linked with ImageMagick libMagick/libMagick++ libraries. 
libmal is really just a convenience library of the functions in Tom Whittaker's malsync distribution, along with a few wrapper functions. 
Mesa is an OpenGL 1.4 compatible 3D graphics library. GLU parts. 
Mesa is an OpenGL 1.4 compatible 3D graphics library. glut and GLU parts. 
LibMNG is a library for accessing graphics in MNG (Multi-image Network Graphics) and JNG (JPEG Network Graphics) formats. MNG graphics are basically animated PNGs. JNG graphics are basically JPEG streams integrated into a PNG chunk. 
The libmng library supports decoding, displaying, encoding, and various other manipulations of the Multiple-image Network Graphics (MNG) format image files. It uses the zlib compression library, and optionally the JPEG library by the Independent JPEG Group (IJG) and/or lcms (little cms), a color-management library by Marti Maria Saguar. 
This package contains the shared libraries (*.so*) which certainlanguages and applications need to dynamically load and use MySQL. 
The curses library routines are a terminal-independent method of updating character screens with reasonalble optimization. The ncurses (new curses) library is a freely distributable replacement for the discontinued 4.4BSD classic curses library. 
Allows low-level manipulation of TCP/IP headers that is impossible for normal programs. Key point: Most programs go through a high-level interface (like sockets) in order to send traffic on the network. Sometimes, for security or hacking reasons, a program needs to construct its own network headers. The existing TCP/IP stack is unable to build these headers, so you must bypass it and go directly to the hardware drivers. Libnet is a library that makes custom packet generation easier. Misunderstanding: Some people believe that libnet will not work on Win95 or WinNT because these systems do not support raw sockets. This is false -- libnet has been widely used on these platforms. 
The netpbm package contains a library of functions which supportprograms for handling various graphics file formats, including .pbm(portable bitmaps), .pgm (portable graymaps), .pnm (portable anymaps), .ppm (portable pixmaps) and others. 
Newt is a programming library for color text mode, widget based userinterfaces. Newt can be used to add stacked windows, entry widgets, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels, plain text fields, scrollbars,etc., to text mode user interfaces. This package contains theshared library needed by programs built with newt. Newt is based on theslang library. 
Name services library, a library of name service calls (getpwnam, getservbyname, etc...) on SVR4 Unixes. GNU libc uses this for the NIS (YP) and NIS+ functions. 
NSPR provides platform independence for non-GUI operating systemfacilities. These facilities include threads, thread synchronization, normal file and network I/O, interval timing and calendar time, basic memory management (malloc and free) and shared library linking. 
Network Security Services (NSS) is a set of libraries designed to support cross-platform development of security-enabled server applications. Applications built with NSS can support SSL v2 and v3,TLS, PKCS #5, PKCS #7, PKCS #11, PKCS #12, S/MIME, X.509 v3 certificates,and other security standards. 
OAF (Object Activation Framework) provides the activation mechanism for GNOME components. It is a replacement for GOAD in the GNOME 2 platform. 
Libogg is a library for manipulating Ogg bitstream file formats. Libogg supports both making Ogg bitstreams and getting packets from Ogg bitstreams. 
The applications today needs store multiple type of data. One way to do it is using a filesystem in a file. OLE2-developers used this approach. Inside a OLE2 file, there are streams (files) and directories. Using libole2 is easy to travel through such filesystem-in-a-file, and create, read, write or remove files, and create or remove directories. 
The libraries files are needed for various cryptographic algorithmsand protocols, including DES, RC4, RSA and SSL. This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit ( product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young( This product includes software written by Tim Hudson ( Patches for many networking apps can be found at:
ORBit is a high-performance CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) ORB (object request broker). It allows programs to send requests and receive replies from other programs, regardless of the locations of the two programs. CORBA is an architecture that enables communication between program objects, regardless of the programming language they're written in or the operating system they run on. This package contains all core libraries of the ORBit implementation of CORBA technology. 
A library to handle unicode strings as well as complex bidirectionalor context dependent shaped strings. It is the next step on Gtk+ internationalization. 
Allows low-level capture of network traffic. Most UNIX-based sniffers use this library. Misconception: You must have root privileges to run libpcap-based programs. This is a common problem when script-kiddies try to run programs based upon this library: they don't know they must run under root, and the scripts themselves rarely give instructional error messages as to what exactly is wrong. Point: Most Windows packet-sniffers are based upon a variation of the PCAUSA driver. This includes "WinDump", a libpcap implementation for Windows. 
Libpcap provides a portable framework for low-level network monitoring. Libpcap can provide network statistics collection, security monitoring and network debugging. Since almost every system vendor provides a different interface for packet capture, the libpcap authors created this system-independent API to ease in porting and to alleviate the need for several system-dependent packet capture modules in each application. Install libpcap if you need to do low-level network traffic monitoring on your network. 
PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressionsthemselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link. 
The libpng package contains a library of functions for creating and manipulating PNG (Portable Network Graphics) image format files. PNG is a bit-mapped graphics format similar to the GIF format. PNG was created to replace the GIF format, since GIF uses a patented data compression algorithm. 
C and C++ libraries to enable user programs to communicate with the PostgreSQL database backend. The backend can be on another machine and accessed through TCP/IP. 
The purpose of PL is to closely mimic the behavior of the property lists used in the GNUstep/OPENSTEP (they're formed with the NSString, NSData, NSArray and NSDictionary classes) and to be duly compatible. PL enables programs that use configuration or preference 3 files to make these compatible with GNUstep/OPENSTEP's user defaults handling mechanism, without needing to use Objective-C or GNUstep/OPENSTEP themselves. 
The pwdb package contains libpwdb, the password database library. Libpwdb is a library which implements a generic user information database. Libpwdb was specifically designed to work with Linux's PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules). Libpwdb allows configurable access to and management of security tools like /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and network authentication systems including NIS and Radius. 
This packages contains Python shared object library. Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language often compared to Tcl, Perl, Scheme or Java. 
Qt is a complete and well-designed multi-platform object-oriented framework for developing graphical user interface (GUI) applications using C++. Qt hasseamless integration with OpenGL/Mesa 3D libraries. Qt is free for development of free software on the X Window System. It includes the complete source code for the X version and makefiles for Linux, Solaris,SunOS, FreeBSD, OSF/1, Irix, BSD/OS, NetBSD, SCO, HP-UX and AIX. This edition of Qt may be modified and distributed under the terms found in the LICENSE.QPL file. Qt also supports Windows 95 and NT, with native look and feel. Code developed for the X version of Qt can be recompiled and run using the Windows 95/NT version of Qt, and vice versa. Qt is currently used in hundreds of software development projects world wide, including the K Desktop Environment (see For more examples, see Qt has excellent documentation: around 750 pages of postscript and fully cross-referenced online html documentation. It is available on the web: is easy to learn, with consistent naming across all the classes and a 14-chapter on-line tutorial with links into the rest of the documentation. A number of 3rd-party books are also available.Qt dramatically cuts down on development time and complexity in writing user interface software for the X Window System. It allows the programmer to focus directly on the programming task, and not mess around withlow-level Motif/X11 code. Qt is fully object-oriented. All widgets and dialogs are C++ objects, and, using inheritance, creation of new widgets is easy and natural. Qt's revolutionary signal/slot mechanism provides true component programming. Reusable components can work together without any knowledgeof each other, and in a type-safe way. Qt has a very fast paint engine, in some cases ten times faster than other toolkits. The X version is based directly on Xlib and uses neither Motif nor X Intrinsics. Qt is available under two different licenses: - The Qt Professional Edition License, for developing fully commercial software: see - The Q Public License (QPL), for developing free software (X Window System only). This package contains shared libraries. 
LibraNet GNU/Linux
A Debian based distribution for the desktop. Version 2.7 was released September 4, 2002. Version 2.8 was released May 1, 2003. 
Executables should have no undefined symbols, only useful symbols; all useful programs refer to symbols they do not define (eg. printf or write). These references are resolved by pulling object files from libraries into the executable.
A collection of programs kept with a computer system and made available for processing purposes. The term often refers to a collection of library toutines written in a given programmin glanguage such as C or Pascal.
A collection of routines that perform commonly required operations. 
A collection of subroutines and functions stored in one or more files, usually in compiled form, for linking with other programs. Libraries are one of the earliest forms of organised code reuse. 
A library that uses libart and pango to render svg files. 
SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) is a sane and simple interface to both local and networked scanners and other image acquisition devices like digital still and video cameras. SANE currently includes modules for accessing a range of scanners, including models from Agfa SnapScan, Apple,Artec, Canon, CoolScan, Epson, HP, Microtek, Mustek, Nikon, Siemens,Tamarack, UMAX, Connectix, QuickCams and other SANE devices via network. For the latest information on SANE, the SANE standard definition, and mailing list access, see This package does not enable network scanning by default; if you wish to enable it, install the saned package. 
SASL is the Simple Authentication and Security Layer, a method for adding authentication support to connection-based protocols. To use SASL, a protocol includes a command for identifying and authenticating a user to a server and for optionally negotiating protection of subsequent protocol interactions. If its use is negotiated, a security layer is inserted between the protocol and the connection. 
S-Lang is an interpreted language and a programming library. The S-Lang language was designed so that it can be easily embedded into a program to provide the program with a powerful extension language. The S-Lang library, provided in this package, provides the S-Lang extension language. S-Lang's syntax resembles C, which makes it easy to recode S-Lang procedures in C if you need to. 
Socket services library, a library for the socket service calls (socket, bind, listen, etc...) on SVR4 Unixes. 
Soup is a SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) implementation in C. It provides an queued asynchronous callback-based mechanism for sending and servicing SOAP requests, and a WSDL (Web Service Definition Language) to C compiler which generates client stubs and server skeletons for easily calling and implementing SOAP methods. This package contains libraries used by soup. 
Startup-notification is a library used to monitor application startup. 
The libstdc++ package contains a snapshot of the GCC Standard C++ Library v3, an ongoing project to implement the ISO/IEC 14882:1998 Standard C++ library. 
The libtermcap package contains a basic system library needed toaccess the termcap database. The termcap library supports easy access to the termcap database, so that programs can output character-based displays in a terminal-independent manner. 
The libtiff package contains a library of functions for manipulating TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) image format files. TIFF is a widely used file format for bitmapped images. TIFF files usually end in the .tif extension and they are often quite large. The libtiff package should be installed if you need to manipulate TIFF format image files. 
The libtool package contains the GNU libtool, a set of shell scripts which automatically configure UNIX and UNIX-like architectures to generically build shared libraries. Libtool provides a consistent, portable interface which simplifies the process of using shared libraries. If you are developing programs which will use shared libraries, you should install libtool. 
The libungif package contains a shared library of functions for loading and saving GIF format image files. The libungif library canload any GIF file, but it will save GIFs only in uncompressed format; it will not use the patented LZW compression used to save "normal" compressed GIF files. 
unixODBC libraries. 
This package provides a way for applications to access USB devices. 
The libuser library implements a standardized interface for manipulatingand administering user and group accounts. The library uses pluggable back-ends to interface to its data sources. Sample applications modeled after those included with the shadow password suite are included. 
Libutempter is an library which allows some non-privileged programs to have required root access without compromising system security. It accomplishes this feat by acting as a buffer between root and the programs. 
Ogg Vorbis is a fully open, non-proprietary, patent-and royalty-free, general-purpose compressed audio format for audio and music at fixed and variable bitrates from 16 to 128 kbps/channel. The libvorbis package contains runtime libraries for use in programs that support Ogg Vorbis. 
VTE is an experimental terminal emulator widget for use with GTK+ 2.0. 
libwmf is a library for unix like machines that can convert wmf files into other formats, currently it supports a gd binding to convert to gif, and an X one to draw direct to an X windowor pixmap. 
libwnck (pronounced "libwink") is used to implement pagers, tasklists, and other such things. It allows applications to monitor information about open windows, workspaces, their names/icons, and so forth. 
libwnck is Window Navigator Construction Kit, i.e. a library to use for writing pagers and tasks lists and stuff. 
WvStreams aims to be an efficient, secure, and easy-to-use library for doing network applications development. 
Xaw3d is an enhanced version of the MIT Athena Widget set for the X Window System. Xaw3d adds a three-dimensional look to applications with minimal or no source code changes. You should install Xaw3d if you are using applications which incorporate the MIT Athena widget set and you'd like to incorporate a 3D look into those applications. 
Xclass is a Win95-looking GUI toolkit, it is Xlib-based and is written in C++. 
xine is a free gpl-licensed video player for unix-like systems. This package contains the shared libraries required by xine. 
This library allows to manipulate XML files. It includes support to read, modify and write XML and HTML files. There is DTDs support this includes parsing and validation even with complex DtDs, either at parse time or later once the document has been modified. The output can be a simple SAX stream or and in-memory DOM like representations. In this case one can use the built-in XPath and XPointer implementation to select subnodes or ranges. A flexible Input/Output mechanism is available, with existing HTTP and FTP modules and combined to an URI library. 
The xpm package contains the XPM pixmap library for the X WindowSystem. The XPM library allows applications to display color, pixmapped images, and is used by many popular X programs. 
This C library allows to transform XML files into other XML files (or HTML, text, ...) using the standard XSLT stylesheet transformation mechanism. A xslt processor based on this library, named xsltproc, is provided by the libxslt-proc package. 
Licensed Internal Code 
Licq supports different interfaces and functions viaplugins. Currently there are plugins for both the X Windowing System and the console. This package contains the base files for Licq (the Licq daemon) andthe Qt plugin, which is written using the Qt widget set. Currently this GUI plugin has most of the ICQ functions implemented. This starts the Qt plugin by default, so to run other plugins, you will have to issue the command "licq -p <plugin>" once. To get back the Qt plugin, you will have to run once "licq -p qt-gui". Alternatively you may be able to do it in a plugin dialog box if your plugin supports this feature. This version of licq has SSL support for those plugins that support it. 
IRC (Internet Relay Chat) client for Emacs. Liece is based on Irchat, simple IRC client running under Emacsen, nevertheless nothing to do with irchat-2.4jp which has various features added by Japanese contributers (e.g. Mule support, channel buffers). We are going to full-replace to redesign thoroughly, and to stand up to extension against arbitrary protocol backend. The most recent version of this program has been almost completely rewritten from Irchat. 
DCC program for liece. This program is DCC(Direct Client Connection) program for liece. Dcc is implemented not with EmacsLisp, but with C, so dcc package has been divided. And included "ltcp" which is connection support program, can use IPv6. 
Low Insertion Force (IC) 
Last In First Drop 
Laboratory for International Fuzzy Engineering [research] (MITI) 
Logistics Interface For manufacturing Environment 
Text-based genealogy software LifeLines is a genealogy program that runs on UNIX systems in text mode. It maintains genealogical records (persons, families, sources, events and others) in a database, and generates reports from those records. There are no practical limits on the number of records that can be stored in a LifeLines database, nor on the amounts or kinds of data that can be kept in the records. LifeLines does not contain built-in reports. Instead it provides a programming subsystem that you use to program your own reports and charts. Some standard report files are included in the lifelines-reports package. The programming subsystem also lets you query your databases and process your data in any way. LifeLines uses the terminal independent features of UNIX to provide a screen and menu based user interface. 
Reports for lifelines, a genealogy software system Lifelines has a very powerful reporting language. This package includes all "standard" reports, which come with the official Lifelines distribution. 
Last In First Out 
experiment with the OpenGL lighting model lightlab lets you set the colours and positions of several light sources, and then watch the effect that it has on a simple 3D scene. You can select whether the scene contains a rotating cube, sphere, or teapot, and whether that object has a texture image on its surface. lightlab is not a modelling program; it doesn't even let you save anything. But if you're having trouble wrapping your brain around the various parameters you can set in OpenGL code, you may find it helpful. 
Shows how objects moving at relativistic speeds look like. Light Speed! is an OpenGL-based program which illustrates the effects of special relativity on the appearance of moving objects. When an object accelerates past a few million meters per second, these effects begin to grow noticeable, becoming more and more pronounced as the speed of light is approached. These relativistic effects are viewpoint-dependent, and include shifts in length, object hue, brightness and shape. The moving object is, by default, a geometric lattice. 3D Studio and LightWave 3D objects may be imported as well. Best of all, the simulator is completely interactive, rendering the exotic distortions in real-time! 
lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
An online directory service protocol defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). An LDAP directory entry is a collection of attributes with a unique identifier, or distinguished name (DN). The directory system has a hierarchical structure. 
lightweight processes
See threaded code. 
Leaf Initiated Join Parameter 
Lietuvos kompiuterininko Sajunga (org., Litauen) 
A versatile boot loader for Linux. It does not depend on a specific file system, can boot Linux kernel images from floppy disks and from hard disks and can even act as a boot manager'' for other operating systems. 
install boot loader 
LILO (LInux LOader) is a basic system program which boots your Linux system. LILO loads the Linux kernel from a floppy or a hard drive, boots the kernel and passes control of the system to the kernel. LILO can also boot other operating systems. 
LInux LOader - The Classic OS loader can load Linux and others This Package contains lilo (the installer) and boot-record-images to install Linux, OS/2, DOS and generic Boot Sectors of other OSes. You can use Lilo to manage your Master Boot Record (with a simple text screen, text menu or colorful splash graphics) or call Lilo from other Boot-Loaders to jump-start the Linux kernel. 
LInux [boot] LOader (Linux) 
lilo configuration plugin for KDE lilo-config is a kcontrol plugin for configuring LILO, the most commonly used Linux boot loader. 
install boot loader 
interactive configure script for lilo 
A program for printing sheet music. LilyPond is a music typesetter. It produces beautiful sheet music using a high level description file as input. LilyPond is part of the GNU Project. URLs: Authors: Han-Wen Nienhuys <> Jan Nieuwenhuizen <> 
Lotus - Intel - Microsoft (manufacturer) 
Linear MAgnetic Drive [technology] 
Laser / Light Intensity Modulation, Direct OverWrite (MOD) 
Lotus - Intel - Microsoft Expamded Memory Specification (Lotus, Intel, MS, EMS), "LIM EMS" 
Lists files in a custom way limo is a replacement for ls with some knobs on. By default, it is installed as both limo and as li. It tries to give far more control over the output format than ls and has simpler and more straightforward (albeit more verbose) options. It also has the -l and -s options which behave similarly to those of ls. 
WWW site link checker linbot is a python program that allows webmasters to: view the structure of a site; track down broken links; find potentially outdated HTML pages; list links pointing to external sites; view portfolio of inline images; and do all this periodically and without user intervention. Results are displayed in a set of HTML pages. 
linc is a library that eases the task of writing networked servers & clients. It takes care of connection initiation and maintenance, and the details of various transports. It is used by ORBit2 to handle message transmission/receipt. Currently supported transports:
Build & maintain a city/country You are required to build and maintain a city. You must feed, house, provide jobs and goods for your residents. You can build a sustainable economy with the help of renewable energy and recycling, or you can go for broke and build rockets to escape from a pollution ridden and resource starved planet, it's up to you. Due to the finite resources available in any one place, this is not a game that you can leave for long periods of time. This game is similar to the commercial simulation game with a similar name. This package provides files common to both the X and SVGALIB versions of the game. To get the actual game binary, install either lincity-x or lincity-svgalib (or both). 
Generate nicely-formatted versions of the Linux CREDITS file This small package allows anyone to create beautified versions of the Linux CREDITS file in plain text, LaTeX or HTML formats. 
graphical CVS frontend LinCVS enhances the ease-of-use of CVS (Concurrent Versions System) by providing a simple, intuitive graphic interface to CVS. With the GUI and mouse, you can quickly and easily review the CVS status of files or groups of files or of entire directory trees. You can also quickly initiate common CVS commands without the need for typing long command lines with many option flags. 
LindowsOS is a product of, first announced in October 2001. This is a Debian-based distribution targeted at non-technical Windows users and boasts a 10 minute installation. Starting with version 4.0, there is also a LindowsCD, a Knoppix-like live CD. Version 4.0 was released June 23, 2003. 
A server to remotely control the internet connection. LineControl runs a server application on a masquerading - server (Linux). Clients on other hosts may now talk to this server and say that it should establish a certain line (usually using pppd/chat, isdnctrl or some other script). LineControl Server then calls a certain shellscript and waits until a specified network - device is up (for analog lines), until /dev/isdninfo changes its status (if using the ISDN capabilities) or until a certain file exists. Then it sends to all connected Clients a message that the connection is established. The connection won't get killed until each client told to do so, had a timeout or has been terminated. LineControl provides a nice status monitor via two easy to use cgi-bin pages. 
Developed by the Extremadura Regional Government, LinEx is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian and Gnome. LinEx forms part of a wider regional project which aims at promoting the Information Society in order to improve citizens' quality of life. Spanish distribution. 
A symbolic link (alias in MacOS and shortcut under Windows) is a file that points to another file; this is a commonly used tool. A hard-link rarely created by the user, is a filename that points to a block of data that has several other filenames as well.
link a file 
make a new name for a file 
check HTML documents for broken links Features: o recursive checking o multithreaded o output can be colored or normal text, HTML, SQL, CSV or a sitemap graph in GML or XML o HTTP/1.1, FTP, mailto:, nntp:, news:, Gopher, Telnet and local file links are supported o restrict link checking with regular expression filters for URLs o proxy support o give username/password for HTTP and FTP authorization o robots.txt exclusion protocol support o i18n support o command line interface o (Fast)CGI web interface (requires HTTP server) 
Fast link checker and web site maintenance tool Linklint is a full featured Perl program for checking HTML links: * both local and remote site checking * cross referenced and fully hyperlinked output reports * the ability to check password protected areas * support for all standard server-side image maps * reports of orphan files, and files with mismatching case * a report of which URLs have changed since last checked * support of proxy servers for remote URL checking * come with full documentation. Please visit for more information. 
Character mode WWW browser Links is a lynx-like character mode browser. It includes support for rendering tables and frames, features background downloads, can display colors and has many other features. This version is based on eLinks, the actively developed fork of links, and contains Lua langauge support as well. 
Links is a text based WWW browser, at first look similar to Lynx, but somehow different:- renders tables and frames- displays colors as specified in current HTML page- uses drop-down menu (like in Midnight Commander)- can download files in background- partially handle Javascript 
A program to selectively download usenet articles linleech is a small, script-driven *NIX program that automates the process of downloading USENET articles. Using a small command set, linleech will search groups for articles that match given criteria and automatically download them for you. This is useful for retrieving anything from binary posts to something as specific as searching for the latest HOWTO in a Linux group. 
A Linmodem is the Linux implementation of a "winmodem" (see disclaimer). These devices are 'less than' a modem in the sense that they depend on software to perform, to a greater or lesser extent, the functions traditionally handled by modem hardware. The rationale for this is, of course, that software is cheaper than hardware, and can be upgraded/expanded/improved without the use of screwdrivers (usually); however, for the modem to function at all, one requires software that can run on one's preferred operating system. From Linmodem-HOWTO
An SMB network browser for Linux and X11. This package allows users to browse SMB (e.g. Windows Network Neighborhood) networks under X, and mount/unmount SMB shared filesystems via a graphical interface. It is somewhat more network-efficient that other similar tools because it uses the proper protocol for identifying network shares rather than simply scanning IP address ranges. In order for LinNeighborhood to work properly, you must have the smbfs filesystem compiled into your kernel and have a working Samba setup. 
LinNeighborhood is a front end to Samba using the gtk libraries. 
Terminal for packet radio with mail client It is an aplication for the AX.25 packet radio environment. Has a mail client, and colors. 
Xwindow port of Winpopup, running over Samba This allows a linux system to communicate with a windows computer that runs Winpopup, sending or receiving message. It also provides an alternative way to communicate between Linux computers that run Samba. Note that LinPopUp is not only a port, as it includes several enhanced features. If you want to be able to send messages, you _must_ also install smbclient. Linpopup only recommends smbclient instead of depending on it, as perhaps you want to only receive messages with it. Users of versions < 0.9.4: note that the message file has moved, and isn't compatible with the old format anymore. 
freeware compiler and decompiler for PalmVII Palm Query Apps Compiler and decompiler for PalmVII Palm Query Apps. It is written in part from documentation provided by Palm in their devzone , and in part by examining hexdumps and playing around with the de-compiler. Unfortunately, the Palm documentation is a bit incomplete. (They tell what all of the tag tokens are, and what parameters they take, but don't give the byte values for the tag itself!). 
Program for operating PSK31/RTTY modes with X GUI linpsk is a program for operating on amateur radio digital modes. linpsk currently supports BPSK, QPSK, and RTTY modes, and it provides an X user interface. linpsk's main features are: --simultaneous decoding of up to four channels --different digital modes may be mixed --trigger text can be defined on each channel --each channel can be logged to a file --user-defined macros and two files for larger texts --spectrum and waterfall displays, both scalable in the frequency domain. At the Moment RTTY only supports 45 baud and 1.5 stopbits. 
Linpus Linux
Comes in Desktop, Server or Internet appliance editions. Linpus Linux 8.2 desktop and server editions were released June 27, 2002. Taiwanese distribution. 
[from Unix's lint(1), named for the bits of fluff it supposedly picks from programs] 1. vt. To examine a program closely for style, language usage, and portability problems, esp. if in C, esp. if via use of automated analysis tools, most esp. if the Unix utility lint(1) is used. This term used to be restricted to use of lint(1) itself, but (judging by references on Usenet) it has become a shorthand for desk check at some non-Unix shops, even in languages other than C. Also as v. delint. 2. n. Excess verbiage in a document, as in "This draft has too much lint". 
n. The emerging Linux/Intel alliance. This term began to be used in early 1999 after it became clear that the Wintel alliance was under increasing strain and Intel started taking stakes in Linux companies. 
Debian package checker Lintian dissects Debian packages and reports bugs and policy violations. It contains automated checks for many aspects of Debian policy as well as some checks for common errors. It uses an archive directory, called laboratory, in which it stores information about the packages it examines. It can keep this information between multiple invocations in order to avoid repeating expensive data-collection operations. This also possible to check the complete Debian archive for bugs, in a reasonable time. This package is useful for all people who want to check Debian packages for compliance with Debian policy. Every Debian maintainer should check packages with this tool before uploading them to the archive. This version of Lintian is calibrated for policy version 
Linu, from Korean company MIZI, is available for ARM, StrongARM, x86, and MIPS processors (so far). 
/leen'us'/ or /lin'us'/, not /li:'nus/ Linus Torvalds, the author of Linux. Nobody in the hacker culture has been as readily recognized by first name alone since Ken (Thompson). 
<operating system> ("Linus Unix") /li'nuks/ (but see below) An implementation of the {Unix} {kernel} originally written from scratch with no proprietary code. The kernel runs on {Intel} and {Alpha} hardware in the general release, with {SPARC}, {PowerPC}, {MIPS}, {ARM}, {Amiga}, {Atari}, and {SGI} in active development. The SPARC, PowerPC, ARM, {PowerMAC} - {OSF}, and 68k ports all support {shells}, {X} and {networking}. The Intel and SPARC versions have reliable {symmetric multiprocessing}. Work on the kernel is coordinated by Linus Torvalds, who holds the copyright on a large part of it. The rest of the copyright is held by a large number of other contributors (or their employers). Regardless of the copyright ownerships, the kernel as a whole is available under the {GNU} {General Public License}. The GNU project supports Linux as its kernel until the research {Hurd} kernel is completed. This kernel would be no use without {application programs}. The GNU project has provided large numbers of quality tools, and together with other {public domain} software it is a rich Unix environment. A compilation of the Linux kernel and these tools is known as a Linux distribution. Compatibility modules and/or {emulators} exist for dozens of other computing environments. The kernel version numbers are significant: the odd numbered series (e.g. 1.3.xx) is the development (or beta) kernel which evolves very quickly. Stable (or release) kernels have even major version numbers (e.g. 1.2.xx). There is a lot of commercial support for and use of Linux, both by hardware companies such as {Digital}, {IBM}, and {Apple} and numerous smaller network and integration specialists. There are many commercially supported distributions which are generally entirely under the GPL. At least one distribution vendor guarantees {Posix} compliance. Linux is particularly popular for {Internet Service Providers}, and there are ports to both parallel supercomputers and {embedded} {microcontrollers}. {Debian} is one popular {open source} distribution. The pronunciation of "Linux" has been a matter of much debate. Many, including Torvalds, insist on the short I pronunciation /li'nuks/ because "Linus" has an /ee/ sound in Swedish (Linus's family is part of Finland's 6% ethnic-Swedish minority) and Linus considers English short /i/ to be closer to /ee/ than English long /i:/ dipthong. This is consistent with the short I in words like "linen". This doesn't stop others demanding a long I /li:'nuks/ following the english pronunciation of "Linus" and "minus". Others say /li'niks/ following {Minix}, which Torvalds was working on before Linux. From Hyperdictionary From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (09 FEB 02) [foldoc]
/lee'nuhks/ or /li'nuks/, not /li:'nuhks/ n. The free Unix workalike created by Linus Torvalds and friends starting about 1991. The pronunciation /lee'nuhks/ is preferred because the name `Linus' has an /ee/ sound in Swedish (Linus's family is part of Finland's 6% ethnic-Swedish minority). This may be the most remarkable hacker project in history -- an entire clone of Unix for 386, 486 and Pentium micros, distributed for free with sources over the net (ports to Alpha and Sparc and many other machines are also in use). Linux is what GNU aimed to be, and it relies on the GNU toolset. But the Free Software Foundation didn't produce the kernel to go with that toolset until 1999, which was too late. Other, similar efforts like FreeBSD and NetBSD have been technically successful but never caught fire the way Linux has; as this is written in 2000, Linux is seriously challenging Microsoft's OS dominance. It has already captured 31% of the Internet-server market and 25% of general business servers. An earlier version of this entry opined "The secret of Linux's success seems to be that Linus worked much harder early on to keep the development process open and recruit other hackers, creating a snowball effect." Truer than we knew. See bazaar. (Some people object that the name `Linux' should be used to refer only to the kernel, not the entire operating system. This claim is a proxy for an underlying territorial dispute; people who insist on the term `GNU/Linux' want the the FSF to get most of the credit for Linux because RMS and friends wrote many of its user-level tools. Neither this theory nor the term `GNU/Linux' has gained more than minority acceptance). 
a completely free reimplementation of the POSIX specification, with SYSV and BSD extensions (which means it looks like Unix, but does not come from the same source code base), which is available in both source code and binary form. 
A widely used Open Source Unix-like operating system. Linux was first released by its inventor Linus Torvalds in 1991. There are versions of Linux for almost every available type of computer hardware from desktop machines to IBM mainframes. The inner workings of Linux are open and available for anyone to examine and change as long as they make their changes available to the public. This has resulted in thousands of people working on various aspects of Linux and adaptation of Linux for a huge variety of purposes, from servers to TV-recording boxes. 
An open source UNIX-like operating system, originally begun by Linus Torvalds. "Linux" really refers to only the operating system kernel, or core. More than 200 people have contributed to the development of the Linux kernel. The rest of a Linux distribution consists of various utilities, device drivers, applications, a user interface and other tools that generally can be compiled and run on other UNIX operating systems as well. 
Linux is a completely free reimplementation of the POSIX specification, with SYSV and BSD extensions (which means it looks like Unix, but does not come from the same source code base), which is available in both source code and binary form. Its copyright is owned by Linus Torvalds <> and other contributors, and is freely redistributable under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). A copy of the GPL is included with the Linux source; you can also get a copy from Linux, per se, is only the kernel of the operating system, the part that controls hardware, manages files, separates processes, and so forth. There are several combinations of Linux with sets of utilities and applications to form a complete operating system. Each of these combinations is called a distribution of Linux. The word Linux, though it in its strictest form refers specifically to the kernel, is also widely and correctly to refer to an entire operating system built around the Linux kernel. For a list and brief discription of various distributions, see None of these distributions is ``the official Linux''. Linux is not public domain, nor is it `shareware'. It is `free' software, commonly called freeware or Open Source Software[tm] (see, and you may give away or sell copies, but you must include the source code or make it available in the same way as any binaries you give or sell. If you distribute any modifications, you are legally bound to distribute the source for those modifications. See the GNU General Public License for details. Linux is still free as of version 2.0, and will continue to be free. Because of the nature of the GPL to which Linux is subject, it would be illegal for it to be made not free. Note carefully: the `free' part involves access to the source code rather than money; it is perfectly legal to charge money for distributing Linux, so long as you also distribute the source code. This is a generalization; if you want the fine points, read the GPL. Linux runs on 386/486/Pentium machines with ISA, EISA, PCI and VLB busses. MCA (IBM's proprietary bus) is not well-supported in 2.0.x and earlier versions, but support has been added to the current development tree, 2.1.x. If you are interested, see There is a port to multiple Motorola 680x0 platforms (currently running on some Amigas, Ataris, and VME machines), which now works quite well. It requires a 68020 with an MMU, a 68030, 68040, or a 68060, and also requires an FPU. Networking and X now work. See news:comp.os.linux.m68k Linux runs well on DEC's Alpha CPU, currently supporting the "Jensen", "NoName", "Cabriolet", "Universal Desktop Box" (better known as the Multia), and many other platforms. For more information, see Linux runs well on Sun SPARCs; most sun4c, sun4m, and sun4u machines now run Linux, with support for sun4 in development. Red Hat Linux is (as of this writing) the only Linux distribution available for SPARCs; see Linux is being actively ported to the PowerPC architecture, including PowerMac (Nubus and PCI), Motorola, IBM, and Be machines. See and Ports to other machines, including MIPS (see and and ARM, are under way and showing various amounts of progress. Don't hold your breath, but if you are interested and able to contribute, you may well find other developers who wish to work with you. Linux is no longer considered to be in beta testing, as version 1.0 was released on March 14, 1994. There are still bugs in the system, and new bugs will creep up and be fixed as time goes on. Because Linux follows the ``open development model'', all new versions will be released to the public, whether or not they are considered ``production quality''. However, in order to help people tell whether they are getting a stable version or not, the following scheme has been implemented: Versions n.x.y, where x is an even number, are stable versions, and only bug fixes will be applied as y is incremented. So from version 1.2.2 to 1.2.3, there were only bug fixes, and no new features. Versions n.x.y, where x is an odd number, are beta-quality releases for developers only, and may be unstable and may crash, and are having new features added to them all the time. >From time to time, as the currect development kernel stabilizes, it will be frozen as the new ``stable'' kernel, and development will continue on a new development version of the kernel. Note that most releases of the Linux kernel, beta or not, are relatively robust; ``stable'' in this context means ``slow to change'' in addition to ``robust''. The current stable version is 2.0.35 (this will continue to change as new device drivers get added and bugs fixed), and development has also started on the experimental 2.1.x kernels. The Linux kernel source code contains a file, Documentation/Changes, which explains changes that you should be aware of when upgrading from one kernel version to another. However, the great majority of Linux users simply update their Linux distribution occasionally to get a new kernel version. Most versions of Linux, beta or not, are quite robust, and you can keep using those if they do what you need and you don't want to be on the bleeding edge. One site had a computer running version 0.97p1 (dating from the summer of 1992) for over 136 days without an error or crash. (It would have been longer if the backhoe operator hadn't mistaken a main power transformer for a dumpster...) Others have posted uptimes in excess of a year. One site still had a computer running Linux 0.99p15s over 600 days at last report. One thing to be aware of is that Linux is developed using an open and distributed model, instead of a closed and centralized model like much other software. This means that the current development version is always public (with up to a week or two of delay) so that anybody can use it. The result is that whenever a version with new functionality is released, it almost always contains bugs, but it also results in a very rapid development so that the bugs are found and corrected quickly, often in hours, as many people work to fix them. In contrast, the closed and centralized model means that there is only one person or team working on the project, and they only release software that they think is working well. Often this leads to long intervals between releases, long waiting for bug fixes, and slower development. The latest release of such software to the public is sometimes of higher quality, but the development speed is generally much slower. For a discussion of these two models, read ``The Cathedral and the Bazaar'' at by Eric Raymond. As of September 1, 1998, the current stable version of Linux is 2.0.35, and the latest development version is 2.1.119. From Linux-Intro-HOWTO
The free Unix workalike created by Linus Torvalds and friends starting about 1991. The pronunciation /li'nuhks/ is preferred because the name `Linus' has an /ee/ sound in Swedish (Linus's family is part of Finland's 6% ethnic-Swedish minority) and Linus considers English short /i/ to be closer to /ee/ than English long /i:/. This may be the most remarkable hacker project in history -- an entire clone of Unix for 386, 486 and Pentium micros, distributed for free with sources over the net (ports to Alpha and Sparc and many other machines are also in use). Linux is what {GNU} aimed to be, and it relies on the GNU toolset. But the Free Software Foundation didn't produce the kernel to go with that toolset until 1999, which was too late. Other, similar efforts like FreeBSD and NetBSD have been technically successful but never caught fire the way Linux has; as this is written in 2001, Linux is seriously challenging Microsoft's OS dominance. It has already captured 31% of the Internet-server market and 25% of general business servers. An earlier version of this entry opined "The secret of Linux's success seems to be that Linus worked much harder early on to keep the development process open and recruit other hackers, creating a snowball effect." Truer than we knew. See {bazaar}. (Some people object that the name `Linux' should be used to refer only to the kernel, not the entire operating system. This claim is a proxy for an underlying territorial dispute; people who insist on the term `GNU/Linux' want the {FSF} to get most of the credit for Linux because RMS and friends wrote many of its user-level tools. Neither this theory nor the term `GNU/Linux' has gained more than minority acceptance). From Hyperdictionary From Jargon File (4.3.0, 30 APR 2001) [jargon]
The term "Linux" refers to either full the full OS packages provided by many vendors, or specifically the kernel these packages are based upon. The packages are known as distributions or distros. Well-known Linux distros include RedHat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Trinux, etc. Most of these distros rely solely upon open-source software. Point: Linux vies with Solaris and Windows as being the most popular OS for Internet servers. Contrast: Linux is a UNIX-like operating-system, more similar to UNIX System 5 than to BSD UNIX. 
UNIX-compatible operating system (and kernel) designed with free software tools and ported to several hardware architectures. Linux was initially developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991. Linux is open source software (OSS) and aims to be a viable alternative to competing proprietary operating systems. 
Linux Cyrillic Edition
UrbanSoft created the Linux Cyrillic Edition, Red Hat in Russian. This web site is no longer available [May 6, 2002]. 
Linux DA OS
More info on Empower Technologies makes this embedded OS for the Motorola Dragonball platform. Other platforms are "in the works". 
Linux ESware
Box sets are available, with a desktop edition and server edition. Support, classes and other services are available. Spanish distribution. 
Linux for Windows 9X
This is a Windows 9X friendly version of Linux. It installs onto a Windows 9X disk and allows for two way exchange of files between both Linux and Win9X. 
Linux Loader (LILO)
A legacy boot loader for the Linux operating system. LILO resides on the master boot record (MBR) of the bootable storage device and loads multiple operating systems. 
Linux MLD
This appears to be a full distribution from Media Lab. There is also a mini-distribution, as well as other Linux products. Japanese distribution. 
Linux MLD 

Linux Router Project
LRP is small enough to fit on a single 1.44MB floppy disk, and makes building and maintaining routers, access servers, thin servers, thin clients, network appliances, and typically embedded systems next to trivial. A floppy-based distribution. 
SIS stands for SchoolNet Internet Server and project to connect schools in Thailand. The latest version of Linux-SIS is 4.0, released October 3, 2001. 
A distribution dedicated to making available a Linux based system for the Motorla ColdFire processor family. The core is a port of the Micro-controller Linux (uC-Linux) kernel to the ColdFire processors. Additionally there is a growing number of ports of GNU/Linux utilities to the ColdFire. It is currently possible to build stable, complete, fully functional, embedded, Linux systems using uClinux/ColdFire. 
Q Rey Linux/Epia is a Linux distribution for Epia M motherboards. It boots quickly (in less than 20 seconds), has a quick installation (less than 4 minutes), and allows quick configuration (less than 5 minutes). It's ready for classic precompiled software (, Mozilla, etc.). Any GTK application should compile directly. Version 1.0 was released March 26, 2003. 
French based distribution. Slackware and Debian based versions available. Support for Intel, Sparc, Alpha and Motorola platforms. 
Linux4Geeks is a LFS-based small distro which works around several problems and issues mainstream Linux distributions have. It offers different versions compiled for each architecture and has all the packages required for a slim installation including a firewall and network administration tools, amongst others. Version 0.01 was released June 11, 2003.
A resource for Linux on Alpha processors. 
Linuxcare Bootable Business Card
The LBT is a fully usable miniature Linux distribution which can be placed on a credit-card sized CD media. The distribution should work in almost any PC with almost any operating system. It offers over 101mb of software including a 2.4 kernel, Xfree86 4.1, full network services for both pci and pcmcia cards, wireless connectivity, perl, and a lot more. 
a powerful Linux administration kit Linuxconf is a sophisticated administration system for Linux with a text, an X and a web interface. This is the base package which includes only the text and web interface to the configurator. For more information please take a look at the Linuxconf homepage at 
Linuxconf is an extremely capable system configuration tool. Linuxconf provides four different interfaces for you to choose from: command line, character-cell (like the installation program), an X Window System basedGUI and a web-based interface. Linuxconf can manage a large proportion of your system's operations, including networking, user accounts, filesystems, boot parameters, and more. Linuxconf will simplify the process of configuring your system. Unlessyou are completely happy with configuring your system manually, you should install the linuxconf package and use linuxconf instead. 
Tips and techniques to help the busy modern computer user This is an online version of a book written by Michael Stutz and published by No Starch Press. This book covers getting started with linux for the average user, ranging in topics from how to move files to sound to networking. 
LinuxDoc DTD SGML converter to other output format 
Linuxdoc-tools is a text formatting suite based on SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), using the Linux Doc document type. Linuxdoc-tools allows you to produce LaTeX, HTML, GNU info, LyX, RTF,plain text (via groff), and other format outputs from a single SGML source. Linuxdoc-tools is intended for writing technical software documentation. 
SGML converters for the LinuxDoc DTD only. LinuxDoc is a kind of SGML DTD. It was created for the Linux HOWTOs, and had been used officially by the Linux Documentation Project (LDP). Now LDP has aggressively migrated into the DocBook world, but many documents are still available in LinuxDoc DTD sgml. So users may still need the tool for LinuxDoc, therefore LinuxDoc-Tools was created on the basis of sgml-tools_v1. The main command is linuxdoc, and -B option is provided to choose the proper backend driver for desired output. linuxdoc -B check: for syntax checking linuxdoc -B html: conversion to html linuxdoc -B info: conversion to info linuxdoc -B latex: conversion to latex, dvi, and postscript linuxdoc -B lyx: conversion to lyx linuxdoc -B rtf: conversion to rtf linuxdoc -B txt: conversion to text HTML can be generated without any other Debian text processing package, but for the other formats the appropriate packages will have to be installed. - Text conversion requires groff - LaTeX conversion requires tetex-base, tetex-bin, and tetex-extra - Info conversion requires texinfo You can install linuxdoc-tools-text for required dependency of text conversion. linuxdoc-tools-latex and linuxdoc-tools-info are provided for dependencies of latex or info conversion. This linuxdoc-tools has been designed and implemented only for linuxdoc DTD. If you wish to convert debiandoc DTD documents, Please install and use debiandoc-sgml package. If you wish to convert docbook DTD documents, Please install and use jade (with or without sgmltools-lite). 
Info output facility of LinuxDoc-Tools LinuxDoc-Tools is a SGML converter for the LinuxDoc DTD only. This package is to provide the required dependency for info conversion facility of LinuxDoc-Tools. See the description of linuxdoc-tools package for more detail. 
LaTeX/PS/PDF output facility of LinuxDoc-Tools LinuxDoc-Tools is a SGML converter for the LinuxDoc DTD only. This package is to provide the required dependency for LaTeX/PS/PDF conversion facility of LinuxDoc-Tools. See the description of linuxdoc-tools package for more detail. 
Text output facility of LinuxDoc-Tools LinuxDoc-Tools is a SGML converter for the LinuxDoc DTD only. This package is to provide the required dependency for text conversion facility of LinuxDoc-Tools. See the description of linuxdoc-tools package for more detail. 
An Italian manual for newbies. Linux Facile is an Italian manual for those who have little experience with GNU/Linux, but who wish to become familiar with it. It is designed to make the experience of learning and using GNU/Linux an easy and gradual one. It is available in several formats, and is covered by the GNU Free Documentation License. This package includes the PostScript version. 
Linux From Scratch (LFS) is a project that provides you with the steps necessary to build your own custom Linux system using the LFS book. The web site also contains links to other resources such as mailing lists, mailing list archives, newsgroups, search engine, faq and more. Released under the original BSD License. Development version 3.2-rc2 was released February 27, 2002. Stable version 3.3 was released April 7, 2002. Version 4.1 was released April 28, 2003. 
Linuxin GNU/Linux
Linuxin GNU/Linux is based on Debian Woody, with many ease-of-use type of enhancements, such as automated graphical installation, hardware autodetection and configuration -- all geared towards users with little Linux experience. Version 1.0 was released August 6, 2002. Spanish distribution. 
Displays extended system information. Displays system info, such as Kernel revision, glibc version, processor type and memory size. Project 1.0 is based on Red Hat Linux 8.0 with Personal Desktop Packages including Mozilla Web Browser, Evolution Mail Client, and the Office Suite. It also comes with latest kernel as of January 7, 2003 and the latest software updates (also as of January 7, 2003). The main features are auto hardware detection, auto root account creation, auto hard drive partitioning, auto network setup using DHCP and auto package selection. No questions are asked during installation, the process is completely automated and it only takes about 15 minutes. The entire system comes on one CD. Version 3.0 was released April 20, 2003. 
Color ANSI System Logo. A Color ANSI Logo with some system information that can be displayed at system boot time or, with some local configuration, at the login prompt. Four different Logos are available: Debian Swirl(default), Debian Banner, Tux Classic and Banner. The Classic and Banner Logos are based on Larry Ewing's Penguin. Monochrome ASCII versions of all the logos are included. 
LinuxPPC Inc. started the frst wave of interest in native Linux on PowerPC systems in 1996, releasing its first CD-ROM discs, and providing them to developers and people interested in alternative operating systems. Its fourth major release, LinuxPPC R4, came out in June 1998. That highly successful release was followed by LinuxPPC 4.1, 1999 (5.0), 1999 Q3 (5.5), and the current release, LinuxPPC 2000 (6.0). Unfortunately now dead - March 5, 2003. 
MJPEG-tools GTK graphical user interface Linux Video Studio is a small-'n-simple GUI for the MJPEG-tools ( The MJPEG-tools can be used to record video from a zoran-based capture card (DC10+, Buz, LML33), playback video to the same card and encode video to MPEG. Linux Video Studio tries to extend this with simple editing functions, like deleting frames, adding frames from new videos, moving frames, scene detection etc. The Debian package of non-free/mjpegtools must be downloaded from to run linuxvideostudio. 
Large Internet Packet 
Logical Inferences Per Second (AI, KI, XPS) 
Multiplayer simplified wargame A unique wargame where you pilot your numerous soldiers (or bees) with one target only. 
Linux Infra-red Remote Control support This package provides the daemons and some utilities to support infra-red remote controls under Linux. 
LIRC (Linux Infrared Remote Control)
LIRC is a package that allows you to decode and send infra-red signals of many (but not all) commonly used remote controls. Former versions docussed on home-brew hardware connected to the serial and parallel port. Current versions of LIRC also support a varity of other hardware. The most important part of LIRC is the lircd dameon that will decode the IR signals received by the device drivers and provide information on a socket. It will also provide the information on a socket. It will also accept commands for IR signals to be sent if the hardware suports this. The second daemon program called lircmd will connect to lircd and traslate the decoded IR signals to mouse movements. For example, you can configure X to use your remote control as a remote input device. The user space applications allow you to control your computer with your remote control. You can send X events to applications, start programs and much more on just one button press. The possible applications are obvious: Infra-red mouse, remote control for your TV tuner card or CD-ROM, shutdown by remote, program your VCR and/or satellite tuner with your computer, etc. MP3 players are also quite popular. From LIRC
Logical IP Subnet (RFC 1577, ION) 
Linux Installation & System Administration (Linux, LST) 
LISa is intended to provide a kind of "Network Neighborhood" type of interface, but relies only on the TCP/IP protocol stack instead of SMB or proprietary protocols. 
A high-level programming language, often used for artificial intelligence research, that makes no distinction between the program and the data. This language is considered ideal for manupulating text. One of the oldest programming labguages still in use, LISP is a declarative language; the programer composes lists that declare the relationships among symbolic values. Lists are the fundamental data structure of LISP, and the program performs computations on the symbolic values expressed in those lists. Like other public domain programming languages, however, a numbver of mutually unintelligible versions of LISP exist. A standardised, fully configured, and widely accepted version is Common LISP. See interpreter. 
LISt Processing language - Artificial Intelligence's mother tongue, a symbolic, functional, recursive language based on the ideas of lambda-calculus, variable-length lists and trees as fundamental data types and the interpretation of code as data and vice-vers. 
LISt Processor (LISP) 
Lots of Isolated Silly Parentheses (LISP, slang) 
n. [from `LISt Processing language', but mythically from `Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses'] AI's mother tongue, a language based on the ideas of (a) variable-length lists and trees as fundamental data types, and (b) the interpretation of code as data and vice-versa. Invented by John McCarthy at MIT in the late 1950s, it is actually older than any other HLL still in use except FORTRAN. Accordingly, it has undergone considerable adaptive radiation over the years; modern variants are quite different in detail from the original LISP 1.5. The dominant HLL among hackers until the early 1980s, LISP now shares the throne with C. Its partisans claim it is the only language that is truly beautiful. See languages of choice. All LISP functions and programs are expressions that return values; this, together with the high memory utilization of LISPs, gave rise to Alan Perlis's famous quip (itself a take on an Oscar Wilde quote) that "LISP programmers know the value of everything and the cost of nothing". One significant application for LISP has been as a proof by example that most newer languages, such as COBOL and Ada, are full of unnecessary crocks. When the Right Thing has already been done once, there is no justification for bogosity in newer languages. 
A sequence of one or more pipelines separated by one of the operators ;, &, &&, or ||, and terminated by one of ;, &, or . 
list resources in widgets 
Web archive for mailing lists Creates a website of historical posts to mailing lists, in the sorted style used by the Debian Project ( It works by subscribing a procmail recipe to the list, so any list can be archived. Full-text searching is possible if glimpse is also installed (Glimpse is no longer in the archive, but the search scripts still are). This package may also be used as the backend archiver for mailman ( For the full effect, configure the webserver: Alias /Lists-Archives /var/lib/lists-archives/archives 
provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas through email. A popular mailing list server for Linux is Majordomo. 
The most common kind of maillist, "Listserv" is a registered trademark of L-Soft international, Inc. Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on the Internet. See also: BITNET, Internet (Upper case I), Maillist. 
Listservers (also just called mailing lists or electronic discussion lists) extend simple email communication onto another level of efficiency by enabling a user to send one message to a large audience. They are usually semi-automated (sometimes fully automated) email distribution systems and have been around since the early 80's and the launch of BITNET by the State University of New York. 
[thueringer] LandesInformationsSystem Umwelt, Agrar und Forst (UIS), "LIS-UAF" 
Library and Information Technology Association (org., USA) 
Latvijas Informacijas Tehnologiju un Telekomunikaciju Asociacija (org., Lettland) 
Line Interface Unit 
Link Integrity Verification 
LInux VErband (Linux, org.) 
Live audio streaming application LiveIce is a live streaming program that allows input either from your soundcard's line in or from mp3 files to be mixed and re-encoded and then streamed to an icecast server. This means that you can use liveice with your microphone and do live audio broadcasts, or even use a mp3 playlist and use the multi channel support to speed up, slow down, adjust volumes, and mix between the two channels, and then re-encode the data at a lower bitrate to be sent out to a icecast server. 
Language Identification and Voice IDentification 
Long Instruction Word (CPU) 
Tools for manipulating C source code Includes programs for converting C++ comments to C comments, removing C comments, print out string literals, and converting characters to trigraphs and trigraphs to characters. 
Labor fuer Kuenstliche Intelligenz (org., KI, Hamburg, Germany) 
Localtalk Link Access Protocol (AppleTalk, LAP) 
Lower Layer ATM Interface (ATM) 
Local Location Broker (NCS) 
Logical Link Control (IEEE 802.2, ISO, OSI) 
Logical Link Control/SubNetwork Access Protocol (LLC, SNAP), "LLC/SNAP" 
GTK letters-learning game for small children This is based on author's daughter's (formerly) favorite game, Larry's Learning Letters and Numbers. This is a Linux replacement, written from scratch, with many improvements. It was built using the GTK (Gimp ToolKit) for X. It presently works with 1.0.x and 1.1.x, but images load faster with the newer library. It is intended for children 2 and up, and is a fun learning game. It helps younger chilren learn their letters and numbers, while older children will improve their spelling, and vocabulary skills. It also helps them develop important keyboard and mouse skills too. You can have more than one image for each word, more than one word for each letter, and you can add new images without recompiling too. THIS IS ALPHA SOFTWARE, use it at your own risk. 
linux letters and games for young kids 
GTK letters-learning game for small children This is based on author's daughter's (formerly) favorite game, Larry's Learning Letters and Numbers. This is a Linux replacement, written from scratch, with many improvements. It was built using the GTK (Gimp ToolKit) for X. It presently works with 1.0.x and 1.1.x, but images load faster with the newer library. It is intended for children 2 and up, and is a fun learning game. It helps younger chilren learn their letters and numbers, while older children will improve their spelling, and vocabulary skills. It also helps them develop important keyboard and mouse skills too. This package installs the images and sounds required by the lletters package. 
Line Link Network 
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (org., USA) 
Link Level Protocol (BTX) 
A Cute and Cuddly APM Battery Monitor It's a APM battery monitor on your desktop with a cute and cuddly -Moe- accessory character. 
Utilities to read temperature/voltage/fan sensors Lm-sensors is a hardware health monitoring package for Linux. It allows you to access information from temperature, voltage, and fan speed sensors. It works with most newer systems. This package contains programs to help you set up and read data from lm-sensors. You will need lm-sensors and i2c kernel modules to use this package. This requires installing the lm-sensors-source package, and possibly the kernel-package package, and using those to build lm-sensors modules. i2c modules can be built from either the i2c-source package or from the Linux kernel sources (version 2.4.13 or later). 
Kernel drivers to read temperature/voltage/fan sensors (source) Lm-sensors is a hardware health monitoring package for Linux. It allows you to access information from temperature, voltage, and fan speed sensors. It works with most newer systems. This package contains the source for kernel modules that are necessary to access the data. The kernel sources must be installed to compile these modules. lm-sensors requires a separate set of drivers to access the I2C bus. If you are using kernel 2.4.13 or newer, it is sufficient to enable "I2C /proc support" and a set of I2C drivers in your kernel configuration. If you have an older kernel or want more up-to-date support, you need to also install the i2c-source package and build modules from that. 
Local Multi-point Distribution System 
Large Memory Enabled [devices and drivers] (DAC) 
Layer Management Entity (OSI) 
A children's game based on the "memory" card game This game is intended for children aged 3 and up. It features the ability to add your own 64x64 pixmap images. 
Laughing My F****** Ass Off (Usenet, IRC, slang) 
Layer Management Interface (ATM) 
Library Maintenance System (BS2000) 
LAN Manager for Unix (Unix), "LM/U" 
LAN Manager for uniX (LAN, Unix, MS), "LM/X" 
The lm_sensors package includes a collection of modules for general SM Bus access and hardware monitoring. NOTE: this package requires special support which is not in standard 2.2-vintage kernels. 
make links between files 
create a shadow directory of symbolic links to another directory tree 
Lotus Notes Network (Lotus) 
LNX System
The LNX System aims to be a well-engineered Linux distribution, with a centralized CVS repository; structured and flexible packaging; maintained and integrated subsystems; pro-actively-secure and audited code; ... LNXS 0.2.0 was released April 11, 2001. 
The LNX-BBC is a mini Linux-distribution, small enough to fit on a business card sized CDROM. LNX-BBC can be used to rescue ailing machines, perform intrusion post-mortems, act as a temporary workstation, install Debian, and perform many other tasks. Version 2.1 was released May 1, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
load balancing
distributing processing and communications activity evenly across a computer network so that no single device is overwhelmed. 
load keyboard translation tables 
a loader (running under DOS) for LINUX kernel images LOADLIN-1.6 is highly adaptable to different DOS configurations, and now has very few loading restrictions. It makes use of extended memory and also can load big kernels (bzImages) and ramdisk images (initrd) directly high. LOADLIN also can load out of Virtual-86 mode (which is normal when using EMS drivers) if a VCPI server is present. The loadlin package also includes the freeramdisk program, which can return memory to the system when a ramdisk is no longer needed. 
Attractive X11 load meter Loadmeter is an attractive X11 based system monitor. It displays load average, uptime, disk and memory usages. It uses a coloured bar graph display for easy reading and popup menus for other info. It uses less memory than xload. 
Gnome Object Activation Directory 
Run a program using only idle cycles loadwatch forks a child process and only allows it to run when the system load meets user defined parameters. loadwatch allows you to specify that a program should run only if the load is below a set point, and will stop it when that point is reached. When the load falls below a second setpoint, the program will be continued. The period of sampling the system load can also be specified by the user. 
Linux On A Floppy (LOAF) is a small yet extensible distribution of the Linux operating system. As the name implies, LOAF generally fits on a single floppy, but is not limited to just one, or floppies at all for that matter. LOAF's "new" [December 2001] intended purpose is a base in which the user can expand to his or her liking. Version 1 was essentially 'ssh on a floppy', as this was its initial raison d'etre. As of version 2, however, LOAF is a much more generic distribution, meant to be expanded via packages. It can be a client, it can be a server, it can be a router. The ultimate function of LOAF is completely up to the user. A floppy-based distribution. 
LAN Operations Center (LAN) 
Lines Of Code 
Loss of Cell delineation (UNI, ATM) 
local area network (LAN)
A computer network that covers a relatively small area. Most LANs cover a single building or group of buildings. A system of LANs can be connected over any distance through telephone lines and radio waves, creating a wide-area network. 
local loop
In telephony, the term local loop means the pair of copper wires that lead from your house to the nearby central office (CO). It is called a "loop" because it is a wire leading out from the CO, through your home, and back to the CO again. When the FBI puts a wiretap on your phone, it may put an eavesdropping device onto this pair of wires. 
Describes a locale definition file 
Description of multi-language support 
Get locale-specific information. 
generates localisation files from templates 
debconf interface to locale configuration This package provides a debconf-based interface to configuring the system-wide locale settings on your system. 
compile locale definition files 
Automagically removing unnecessary locale data This is just a simple script to recover diskspace wasted for unneeded locale files and localized man pages. It will automagically be invoked upon completion of any apt installation run. Please note, that this tool is a hack which is *not* integrated with Debian's package management system and therefore is not for the faint of heart. Responsibility for it's usage and possible breakage of your system therefore lies in the sysadmin's (your) hands. Please definitely do abstain from reporting any bugs blaming localepurge if you break your system by using it. If you don't know what you are doing and can't handle any resulting breakage on your own then please simply don't use this package. 
GNU C Library: National Language (locale) data [support] Machine-readable data files, shared objects and programs used by the C library for localization (l10n) and internationalization (i18n) support. This package contains the i18n files, plus tools to generate locale definitions from source files (included in this package). It allows you to customize which definitions actually get generated. This is a savings over how this package used to be, where all locales were generated by default. This created a package that unpacked to an excess of 30 megs. 
These are the base files for language localization. You also need to install the specific locales-?? for the language(s) you want. Then the user need to set the LANG variable to their preferred language in their ~/.profile configuration file. 
These are the base files for English language localization. Contains: en_CA en_DK en_GB en_IE en_US 
The name typically given to a standalone computer system (or a system on a network that does not have its host name assigned to it by a server). 
list files in databases that match a pattern 
Library Of Congress Information System (Internet) 
A temporary file that keeps data and applications from being used by multiple processes or users, which may cause data collisions and/or corruption. 
Lockdev provides a reliable way to put an exclusive lock to devices using both FSSTND and SVr4 methods. 
conditional semaphore-file creator 
Programs for locking and unlocking files and mailboxes. This package includes several programs to safely lock and unlock files and mailboxes from the command line. These include: lockfile-create lockfile-remove lockfile-touchlock mail-lock mail-unlock mail-touchlock These programs use liblockfile to perform the file locking and unlocking, so they are guaranteed compatible with Debian's file locking policies. 
Screensaver to lock your Linux console(s) Lockvc is a console-locking-program combined with some nifty vga- screensavers. All virtual consoles get locked, i.e. you cannot change to another VC and you can't stop the program by pressing any key-combos. You can only exit the program by entering your system-password. Root's password will also terminate lockvc. To make the program available to any users, lockvc is installed setuid by default. Use dpkg-statoverride if you want to change this. 
Perl script to add nice colors to your /var/log/messages file loco is a Perl script which gives the messages file (usually /var/log/messages) some color, so the output is easier to read. It uses a Perl module called Term::ANSIColor to produce the colors. The Perl script is very readable and customizable. 
Layered Open Crypto Toolkit (RSA, cryptography) 
Level Of Detail (3D) 
Loss of Frame (UNI, ATM, DS3/E3) 
A file that contains status information collected from services and daemons. Logs can usually alert system administrators to issues that need resolution. 
To store application or system messages or errors. Also, a file that holds this information. 
Log file rotation
Log files are rotated daily or weekly by the logrotate package. Its configuration file is /etc/logrotate.conf. For each package that happens to produce a log file, there is an additional configuration file under /etc/logrotate.d/. It is also easy to write your own - begin by using one of the existing files as an example. Rotation means that the log file is renamed with a .1 extension and then truncated to zero length. The service is notified by the logrotate program, sometimes with a SIGHUP. Your /var/log/ may contain a number of old log files named .2, .3, etc. The point of log file rotation is to prevent log files from growing indefinitely. 
Log files
UNIX has a strict policy of not reporting error messages to the user interface whenever there might be no user around to read those messages. Whereas error messages of interactive commands are sent to the terminal screen, error or information messages produced by non-interactive commands are ``logged'' to files in the directory /var/log/. A log file is a plain text file that continually has one-liner status messages appended to it by a daemon process. The usual directory for log files is /var/log. The main log files are /var/log/messages and possibly /var/log/syslog. It contains kernel messages and messages from a few primary services. When a service would produce large log files (think web access with thousands of hits per hour), the service would use its own log file. sendmail, for example, uses /var/log/maillog. Actually, lpd does not have a log file of its own--one of its failings. View the system log file with the follow option to tail: tail -f /var/log/messages; tail -f /var/log/syslog. Restarting the lpd service gives messages like: [Not all distributions log this information.] . Jun 27 16:06:43 cericon lpd: lpd shutdown succeeded; Jun 27 16:06:45 cericon lpd: lpd startup succeeded. 
Analyse system's logs to find out problems Log-analysis will analyse syslog, wtmp and sulog files in the system in order to summarise information found there. It will also apply a number of known expressions in order to extract relevant data it knows of. Log-analysis can be customized and extended with custom configuration files to detect certain events that are system-dependant. 
Daemon watching logfiles and mailing lines matching patterns. log2mail is a small daemon watching logfiles and sending mail to a specified address if a regular expression is matched. log2mail uses a configuration file. It has some options to reduce the amount of messages send to the user. 
Mails anomalies in the system logfiles to the administrator Logcheck is part of the Abacus Project of security tools. It is a program created to help in the processing of UNIX system logfiles generated by the various Abacus Project tools, system daemons, Wietse Venema's TCP Wrapper and Log Daemon packages, and the Firewall Toolkit) by Trusted Information Systems Inc.(TIS). Logcheck helps spot problems and security violations in your logfiles automatically and will send the results to you in e-mail. This program is free to use at any site. Please read the disclaimer before you use any of this software. 
A database of system log rules for the use of log checkers This database is part of the logcheck package, but might be used by others. It brings a database of regular expressions for matching system log entries after various criteria. 
make entries in the system log 
logical block addressing (LBA)
Used by large hard disk drives to translate hard drive elements (blocks, cylinders, and sectors) into block numbers for processing. 
logical volume management (LVM)
A kernel-level subsystem for managing multiple storage devices. Physical drive partitions are collected into logical volumes and provides dynamic resizing of logical volumes with the addition (or removal) of physical drives. 
Tools to write courses in XML and export them to various formats logidee-tools is a set of tools to write courses in XML. You can then export those courses in various formats (PS, PDF, HTML) using several XSL stylesheets. The DTD is quite simple and you can generate files in English and in French. 
Begin session on the system 
Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password). Verb: the act of connecting to a computer system by giving your credentials (usually your "username" and "password"). 
System login tools These tools are required to be able to login and use your system. The login program invokes you user shell and enables command execution. The newgrp program is used to change your effective group ID (useful for workgroup type situations). The su program allows changing your effective user ID (useful being able to execute commands as another user). Also supplies a logout daemon that can place limits on when, from where, and for how long certain users can login to the system.
A login application designed with the NeXTStep look in mind provides a graphical login prompt, resembling the one found on NeXTStep systems. WindowMaker (wmaker package) is the closest-to-NeXTStep window manager available, therefore, if you want a consistent look and feel, suggests it. It doesn't substitute xdm, it's merely a spiffy login prompt. 
A GTK client for LiveJournal LogJam is a GTK+ client for It is the official LiveJournal *nix client, too. LogJam allows you to quickly and easily work with your LiveJournal without leaving the comfort of X. As an added bonus, it looks fancy. LogJam does everything you'd expect it to, and more. LogJam is the new release of LoserJabber. 
print user's login name 
a dialect of lisp using turtle graphics famous for teaching kids. 
log out from your X session by pressing a button on your screen. This is a button that appears on your screen when you log into xdm. When you press it, it logs you out of the session. You need to have a file called .xsession in your home dir that starts the logout button in the foreground and your window manager in the background. By putting other things in this file, you can do things like change your background to your favorite image, start a clock and/or a terminal window, or even add a rotating earth or fish tank! You can start any number of programs as long as you background them. An example of .xsession is in /usr/doc/logout-button/examples and if you edit it choosing your favorite window manager, it will try to find and use it. Remember to place it in ~you/.xsession and make it executable. If you don't edit it, it will try to find and use the fvwm2 window mgr. X infrastructure has a mechanism which waits for some program to exit indicating the user wishes to end his X session. logout-button is the simplest form of such a "session manager". The example .xsession file provided in the doc/examples directory picks a window manager to run, starts it in the background, optionally starts other clients (xterm, xearth, xfishtank) also in the background and finally starts the session manager (logout-button) in the foreground, replacing the process and process ID belonging to the shell interpreting the .xsession. Because the infrastructure of X is waiting for this process to exit, when logout-button is pushed, the session is ended. 
Log rotation utility The logrotate utility is designed to simplify the administration of log files on a system which generates a lot of log files. Logrotate allows for the automatic rotation compression, removal and mailing of log files. Logrotate can be set to handle a log file daily, weekly, monthly or when the log file gets to a certain size. Normally, logrotate runs as a daily cron job. 
Logrotate is designed to ease administration of systems that generate large numbers of log files. It allows automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of log files. Each log file may be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or when it grows too large. 
Returns parts of logfiles that have not already been returned This program will read in a standard text file and create an offset marker when it reads the end. The offset marker is read the next time logtail is run and the text file pointer is moved to the offset location. This allows logtail to read in the next lines of data following the marker. This is good for marking log files for automatic log file checkers to monitor system events. This program is mainly used by logcheck, because it returns only parts of the system logfiles that have not already been checked. 
Syslog-style logfile parser with lots of output options logtool is a syslog-style logfile parser and report-generator, capable of producing ANSI, ASCII, CSV (for spreadsheets), HTML or just raw output. It's very handy in generating nightly reports and in online monitoring of logfile activity. 
Russell's misc tools for managing log files. clfmerge - merge common-log-format web logs in order without sorting (good for when you have a gig of logs). logprn - like "tail -f" but after a specified time period of inactivity will run a program (such as lpr) and pipe the new data to it) funnel - pipe one stream of data to several files or processes. clfsplit - split CLF format web logs by client IP address. clfdomainsplit - split CLF logs by server domain. 
the GNOME logfile viewer 
LogWatch is a customizable log analysis system. LogWatch parses through your system's logs for a given period of time and creates areport analyzing areas that you specify, in as much detail as you require. LogWatch is easy to use and claims that it will work right out of the package on almost all systems. Note that LogWatch now analyzes Samba logs. 
Commonly used wordlists for the lojban language This package contains the (hopefully latest) versions of the gismu, cmavo, and lujvo wordlists for the lojban language. See for more information on this language. 
basic interactive firewall configuration tool (console interface) Lokkit is an attempt to provide firewalling for the average Linux end user. Instead of having to configure firewall rules the Lokkit program asks a small number of simple questions and writes a firewall rule set for you. Lokkit is not designed to configure arbitary firewalls. To make it simple to understand it is solely designed to handle typical dialup user and cable modem setups. It is not the answer to a complex firewall configuration, and it is not the equal of an expert firewall designer. Home Page: 
The Lokkit utility attempts to provide firewalling for the average Linux end user. Instead of configuring firewall rules, Lokkit asks asmall number of simple questions and writes a firewall rule set for you. Lokkit is not designed to configure arbitrary firewalls. To make it simple to understand, it is solely designed to handle typical dialup user and cable modem setups. It will not provide a complex firewall configuration, and it is not the equal of an expert firewall designer. 
Laughing Out Loud (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Transmeta(TM) Crusoe(TM) LongRun(TM) utility LongRun (power management mechanism of Transmeta's Crusoe CPU) control utility. You can set/get LongRun status from command line. This utility only works on the LongRun support Crusoe CPU, and require the Linux CPUID and MSR device drivers. 
Lonix is a console-based full Linux system which runs from a live CD. Based on Linux From Scratch, this distribution includes useful utilities for students and developers. Some servers, such as Apache, Proftpd, and sshd are pre-configured and included. It can also be used as a partition tool (featuring fdisk and parted) or as a rescue CD. Currently, the homepage and some scripts in the CD are just in Spanish. There may be a future release that is also in English. The initial Freshmeat announcement for version 1.0rc3, was made on October 13, 2002. Version 1.0rc5 was released October 27, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
display lines beginning with a given string 
Looks like Italian. Distro at 4.0; site is also news and comments in Italian. 

utility to search text files quickly and powerfully. It provides: Romaji-to-Kana Converter, Fuzzy Searching, Search with Regular Expressions, Filtering, Automatic Modifications, Smart Word-Preference Mode 
Search interface to electronic dictionaries by Emacs. The original name of this software is lookup, then here after this package is referred as "Lookup". Lookup is a search dictionary software for Emacs|XEmacs. (The original Lookup supports Mule, but this debian-package does not support Mule.) Lookup provide the simple and unified search interface for the commercial electric dictionary as well as the network dictionary server . The features of Lookup - Lookup can access various dictionaries. Furthermore the interface of search is unified. - Lookup can be used to search a number of dictionaries at one try. - You can add the new search command easily, p.r.n. (See info) - If you need, You can customize the result of search. (See info) 
A virtual device that allows a computer system to mount image files (a loopback device) or run services for the local machine (a loopback network address). 
loopback address
a special IP number ( that is designated for the software loopback interface of a machine. through is also reserved for loopback and is used for internal testing on local machines. 
loopback device
is a block device that can be used as a disk but really points to an ordinary file somewhere. If your imagination isn't already running wild, consider creating a floppy disk with file system, files and all, without actually having a floppy disk, and being able to dump this creation to floppy at any time with dd. You can also have a whole other LINUX system inside a 500 MB file on a Windows partition and boot into it--thus obviating having to repartition a Windows machine just to run LINUX. All this can be done with loopback and RAM devices. 
This is a Slackware based distribution of the Linux operating system that can be installed and run from a DOS system, i.e. MSDOS, PCDOS, DRDOS, and Win9X in DOS mode. With the loop or UMSDOS version of the Linux system there's no need to repartition. The Linux system will just be a file or directory on your current DOS/Win9X system, and act like it was on it's own partition. LoopLinux 3.0 was released June 4, 2003. 
LISP Object Oriented Programming System (Xerox, OOP, LISP) 
Loss of Pointer (UNI) 
A Napster client using the GTK UI. Lopster is a Napster Client developed in C using the GTK user interface. Napster is a protocol for sharing MP3 files between users. With Napster, the files stay on the client machine, never passing through the server. The server provides the ability to search for particular files and initiate a direct transfer between the clients. In addition, chat forums similar to IRC are available. 
list dependencies for object files 
Local Operating System 
Loss of Signal (UNI, ATM) 
Linux supports a special block device called the loop device, which maps a normal file onto a virtual block device. This allows for the file to be used as a "virtual file system" inside another file. Losetup is used to associate loop devices with regular files or block devices, to detach loop devices and to query the status of a loop device. 
set up and control loop devices 
LOw SPeed channel connector (Cray, I/O) 
Lossless compression
A data compression technique that reduces the size of a file without sacrificing any original data; used by programs, such as Stacker to compress all the program and document files on a hard disk. In lossless compression, the expanded or restored file is an exact replica of the original fie before it was compressed, while in lossy comprssion, data is lost in a way imperceptible to humans. Lossless compression is suitable for text and computer code, while lossy compression is good mainly for shrinking audio and graphics files. 
Lossy compression
A data compression technique in which some data is deliberately discarded to achieve massive reductions in the size of the compressed file. Lossy compression techniques can reduce a file to 1/50 of its former size (or less), compred to the average of one-third achieved by lossless compression techniques. Lossy compression is used for graphics files in which the loss of data - such as information about some of the graphic's several million colors - isn't noticeable. An example is the JPEG compression technique.see lossless compression. 
Lost cluster
A cluster that remains on disk, even though the file allocation table (FAT) contains no record of its link to a file. Lost clusters can occur when the computer is turned off (or the power fails) or tries to perform other operation while a file is being written. 
Typesetting system, an alternative to (La)TeX. Lout is a document formatting system similar in style to LaTeX, i.e. it works with mark-up files - plain text files containing commands to control the formatting. Lout offers a very full range of features, including o PostScript, PDF, and plain text output o optimal paragraph and page breaking o automatic hyphenation o PostScript EPS file inclusion and generation o equation formatting, tables, diagrams o rotation and scaling o sorted indexes, bibliographic databases o running headers and odd-even pages, automatic cross referencing o multilingual documents including hyphenation (most European languages are supported, including Russian), o formatting of C/C++ programs. Lout may be extended by writing definitions which are much simpler than the equivalent troff or TeX macros. Lout has several advantages over (La)TeX. It is much smaller, and it is much easier to understand how to do things in Lout (including writing definitions) than in TeX or LaTeX. Lout's PostScript output is very small and clean. However, it is much less widely used than (La)TeX, so there are fewer add-on definition packages for Lout than for (La)TeX and fewer local experts around to ask about problems. You are unlikely to find many Lout documents floating around the 'net. 
List Of Values (DB, Oracle, Java) 
LagerOrtVerwaltungs- und InformationsSystem (MBAG) 
adj. [from communication theory] Used to indicate a talk that, although not content-free, was not terribly informative. "That was a low-bandwidth talk, but what can you expect for an audience of suits!" Compare zero-content, bandwidth, math-out. 
low-level language
A computer language that deals with hardware registers by name; also known as assembly language. A program written in a low-level language can be used only on a computer system that uses one type of main processor (or possibly a member of a family of processors). 
Line Printer (Unix) 
Linear Programming 
Logical Partition (LVM) 
lp (line printer, lpd, lpr)
On UNIX systems, the printer is generally known as the "line printer". Remember that in the days before computers, there actually existed printing devices that were not attached to computers. The line-printer is a printer that was "on-line" and available for use by the computer. 
Solve (mixed integer) linear programming problems The linear programming (LP) problem can be formulated as: Solve A.x >= V1, with V2.x maximal. A is a matrix, x a vector of (nonnegative) variables, V1 a vector called the right hand side, and V2 a vector specifying the objective function. An integer linear programming (ILP) problem is an LP with the constraint that all the variables are integers. In a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem, some of the variables are integer and others are real. The program lp_solve solves LP, ILP, and MILP problems. It is slightly more general than suggested above, in that every row of A (specifying one constraint) can have its own (in)equality, <=, >= or =. The result specifies values for all variables. lp_solve uses the 'Simplex' algorithm and sparse matrix methods for pure LP problems. If one or more of the variables is declared integer, the Simplex algorithm is iterated with a branch and bound algorithm, until the desired optimal solution is found. lp_solve can read MPS format input files. 
[S3] Local Peripheral Bus 
line printer control program 
Linear Predictive Coding (voice processing) 
Low Pin Count [interface] 
Line Printer DAEMON 
line printer spooler daemon 
Lpd is the line printer daemon (spool area handler) and is normally invoked at boot time from the rc(8) file. It makes a single pass through the printcap(5) file to find out about the existing printers and prints any files left after a crash. It then uses the system calls listen and accept to receive requests to print files in the queue, transfer files to the spooling area, display the queue, or remove jobs from the queue. In each case, it forks a child to handle the request so the parent can continue to listen for more requests. 
Link Problem Determination Aid 
Line Printer DAEMON Protocol (RFC 1179) 
Link Protocol Data Unit 
Lightweight Programmer's Editor Lpe stands for "lightweight programmer's editor", and is exactly that. It is designed to provide at the same time all the features that might be required in a decent code editor and a light, intuitive feel that makes it a pleasure to work with, making all necessary commands accessible as easily as possible. 
Live Parsing eXtensible Editor (IBM, OS/2) 
League for Programming Freedom (org.) 
lpd filter for nroff output 
prepares hibernation partition for Phoenix NoteBIOS This utility prepares and formats the hibernation partition for notebook computers that use Phoenix NoteBIOS. Once this partition has been prepared, it can be used with the BIOS's APM Suspend-To-Disk feature. Laptops that can make use of a hibernation partition include several ARMNotes, the Dell Inspiron 5000, Sony VAIOs, and many Tuxtops laptops. See the README in this package for a complete list. 
Lines Per Inch 
Linux Professional Institute (Linux, org.) 
Newton MessagePad PDA Package Loader Using lpkg you can install Newton packages from your Linux machine to your Apple's Newton MessagePad PDA device through the serial port. Use /usr/sbin/lpkgconfig to configure which port you want to use, and users must be in the 'dialout' group to use lpkg. 
Licensed Program Product (IBM) 
lpq examines the spooling area used by lpd for printing files on the line printer, and reports the status of the specified jobs or all jobs associated with a user. Lpq invoked without any arguments reports on any jobs currently in the queue. 
spool queue examination program 
BSD lpr/lpd line printer spooling system This is the BSD printer spooler and associated utilities. You can use this for local and remote printers. If you install magicfilter or apsfilter (along with ghostscript), lpr will be able to automatically handle special file types (such as Postscript and PDF files). 
Low Priority Request (VUMA) 
off line print 
The line printer command uses a spooling daemon to print the named files when facilities become available. If no names appear, the standard input is assumed. 
BSD lpr/lpd line printer spooling system This is the BSD printer spooler and associated utilities. You can use this for local and remote printers. If you install magicfilter or apsfilter (along with ghostscript), lpr will be able to automatically handle special file types (such as Postscript and PDF files). If you install printfilters-ppd, lpr will be able to handle device-specific options via PPD files. 
Utility to allow printing to a fax modem lprfax provides a set of scripts and programs to control network fax spooling through the LPRng print system. The goal is to enable transparent faxing in any application able to print, via 'lpr -Pfax -J<number or name>'. Features: * integration with mgetty/sendfax system and configuration files * load balancing among multiple fax modems * remote queue/log inspection and control * Customizable cover page generation via banner-page filters * Customizable name/fax number lookup from job specification * automated fax retries via lprng hold/release mechanism 
remove jobs from the line printer spooling queue 
lpr/lpd printer spooling system The LPRng software is an enhanced, extended, and portable version of the Berkeley LPR software (the standards UNIX printer spooler) You can use this for local and remote printers. 
LPRng is an enhanced, extended, and portable implementation of the Berkeley LPR print spooler functionality. LPRng provides the same interface and meets RFC1179 requirements, but the implementation is completely new and provides support for the following features:lightweight (no databases needed) lpr, lpc, and lprm programs; dynamic redirection of print queues; automatic job holding; highly verbose diagnostics; multiple printers serving a single queue; client programs do not need to run SUID root; greatly enhanced security checks; and a greatly improved permission and authorization mechanism. LPRng is compatible with other print spoolers and network printers that use the LPR interface and meet RFC1179 requirements. LPRng provides emulation packages for the SVR4 lp and lpstat programs, eliminating the need for another print spooler package. These emulation packages can be modified according to local requirements, in order to support older printing systems. For users who require secure and/or authenticated printing support,LPRng supports Kerberos V, MIT Kerberos IV Print Support, and PGPauthentication. Additional authentication support is very simple to add. 
The next-generation line printer daemon that adds features and printer filters over the legacy lpr. 
GUI frontend to LPRng based /etc/printcap LPRngTool is a graphical frontend to configure the /etc/printcap on LPRng based printing systems. It is based on Red Hat's printtool, but has a number of added features. It has support for configuring local, remote, SMB, JetDirect, and raw printers and queues. It has support for a number of queue management features such as: pause/resume, reprinting of errored jobs, ability to view remote printcaps, job removal, job redirection, job reordering, and the ability to stop or start queueing, printing, or both. 
Lines Per Second 
Lotus Professional Services (Lotus) 
/L-P-T/ or /lip'it/ or /lip-it'/ n. 1. Line printer (originally Line Printing Terminal). Rare under Unix, more common among hackers who grew up with ITS, MS-DOS, CP/M and other operating systems that were strongly influenced by early DEC conventions. 2. Local PorT. Used among MS-DOS programmers (and so expanded in the MS-DOS 5 manual). It seems likely this is a backronym. 
Line PrinTer 
generate lineprinter ripple pattern 
Low Profile eXtended [motherboard] 
Letter Quality 
Link Quality Monitoring (PPP) 
Location Register (LA, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Longitudinal Redundancy Check 
Lightweight Remote Procedure Calls (OLE) 
Line Repeater Station 
LRs-Linux is based upon Linux From Scratch (LFS). In contrast to LFS and most common distros, LRs Linux has the ability to compile directly from the CD. This means that binaries can be natively compiled for the target host during the install, enhancing the performance of the resultant system. The install process is largely automated. LRs-Linux was initially released at version 0.2.5 on February 27, 2002. Version 0.3.1-rc2 was released February 12, 2003. 
Least Recently Used 
Leibniz RechenZentrum (org., BADW) 
Lrzsz (consisting of lrz and lsz) is a cosmetically modified zmodem/ymodem/xmodem package built from the public-domain version of the rzsz package. Lrzsz was created to provide a working GNU copylefted Zmodem solution for Linux systems. 
Tools for zmodem/xmodem/ymodem file transfer Lrzsz is a cosmetically modified zmodem/ymodem/xmodem package built from the public-domain version of Chuck Forsberg's rzsz package. These programs use error correcting protocols ({z,x,y}modem) to send (sz, sx, sb) and receive (rz, rx, rb) files over a dial-in serial port from a variety of programs running under various operating systems. 
LAN Server (IBM) 
The program ls lists first its non-directory file arguments, and then for each directory argument all listable files contained within that directory. 
Unix command used to list files and directories. 
Link State Advertisement (OSPF) 
Lotus Solution Architecture (Lotus) 
Licensed Services Application Program Interface (MS, API) 
list file attributes on a Linux second extended file system 
Least Significant Bit 
Linux Standard Base (Linux) 
Linux Standard Base 1.1 core support package The Linux Standard Base ( is a standard core system that third-party applications can depend upon. This package provides an implementation of version 1.1.0 of the Linux Standard Base for Debian on the Intel x86 architecture with the Linux kernel. Future revisions may support the LSB on additional architectures and kernels. The intent of this package is to provide a best current practice way of installing and running LSB packages on Debian GNU/Linux. Its presence does not imply that we believe that Debian fully complies with the Linux Standard Base, and should not be construed as a statement that Debian is LSB-compliant. 
The skeleton package defining packages needed for LSB compliance. Also contains some directories LSB tests look for that aren't owned by other Mandrake packages, and scripts to re-create the old /sbin/fasthalt and /sbin/fastboot. Currently, to be able to run the LSB binary test suit successfully, you need to boot with devfs=nomount, as well as insure that the partitions containing /tmp and /home are mounted with the option 'atime', rather than 'noatime'. You should also note that using the fstab option 'acl' for Posix ACLs will generate 1 test failure. This is not enabled by default on Mandrake Linux. 
LSB version query program This program forms part of the required functionality ofthe LSB (Linux Standard Base) specification. The program queries the installed state of the distribution to display certain properties such as the version of theLSB against which the distribution claims compliance as well. It can also attempt to display the name and release of the distribution along with an identifier of who produces the distribution. 
LSB Application Developers' Guide This is the LSB Application Developers' Guide, a document that covers the highlights and specifics that are important when developing applications for Linux that are compliant with the Linux Standard Base (LSB) specification. 
LSD was proposed as a Linux OS that could be a cache server distribution on CD-ROM, is suitable for installation on lowest-common-denominator PC hardware. Version 001 of the cache appliance was released in June 1998. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Link Service Data Unit 
Local Subscriber Environment 
Load Sharing Facility 
Linux Socket Filter Command Compiler This is lsfcc, a compiler producing Linux Socket Filter instructions out of a vaguely C-like toy language. LSF is a facility available in the Linux kernel since 2.1.something, whereby one can attach a set of filter rules to a socket to restrict the traffic that is allowed to pass through it. 
baby shell for novices with DOS compatible commands Lsh is a shell partially inspired by some command interpreters for PC monitors (such as 4-DOS, DR-DOS, MS-DOS, N-DOS, PC-DOS, Q-DOS and others, which might be trademarks of their owners and which is hereby acknowledged). However, most of the features of this shell are simply adapted from Unix (which also happens to be a trademark) shells. Lsh is especially useful for users who have had some DOS experience and are now supposed to do something under UNIX. This shell will ease the transition and make the usage of dialup services extremely easy for them. Note that this has nothing to do with the lsh Secure Shell v2 (SSH2) protocol implementation. If you need that SSH2 client, install lsh-client and see the lshc command. upstream webpage: 
A Secure Shell v2 (SSH2) protocol implementation -- client lsh is GNU GPL'd implementation of the Secure Shell protocol version 2 (SSH2). The SSH (Secure SHell) protocol is a secure replacement for rlogin, rsh and rcp. This package contains the lsh client. This package is required to log into a remote lsh or ssh2 server. Please note that the client binary is normally called `lsh' rather than `lshc', but as there is already a `lsh' binary in Debian (the Limited SHell - see the `lsh' package), the client binary has been renamed to `lshc'. All the other program names remain as normal. This software may be freely imported into the United States; however, the United States Government may consider re-exporting it a criminal offense. Thus, if you are outside the US, please retrieve this software from outside the US. In some countries, particularly Russia, Iraq, Pakistan, and France, it may be illegal to use any encryption at all without a special permit. WARNING: This is a work in progress, and may be totally insecure. 
A Secure Shell v2 (SSH2) protocol implementation -- server lsh is GNU GPL'd implementation of the Secure Shell protocol version 2 (SSH2). The SSH (Secure SHell) protocol is a secure replacement for rlogin, rsh and rcp. This package contains the lsh server, lshd. This package is required to allow SSH2 logins to the local machine. If you also want to enable SSH1 logins, make sure you install the ssh package. This software may be freely imported into the United States; however, the United States Government may consider re-exporting it a criminal offense. Thus, if you are outside the US, please retrieve this software from outside the US. In some countries, particularly Russia, Iraq, Pakistan, and France, it may be illegal to use any encryption at all without a special permit. WARNING: This is a work in progress, and may be totally insecure. 
Secure Shell v2 (SSH2) protocol implementation -- utilities lsh is GNU GPL'd implementation of the Secure Shell protocol version 2 (SSH2). The SSH (Secure SHell) protocol is a secure replacement for rlogin, rsh and rcp. This package contains the lsh utilities. This includes programs such as lsh_keygen, lsh_writekey (both programs for public/private key generation), lsh-authorize (for automatic remote key authentication) and a number of other utilities for use with both the lsh server and client. This software may be freely imported into the United States; however, the United States Government may consider re-exporting it a criminal offense. Thus, if you are outside the US, please retrieve this software from outside the US. In some countries, particularly Russia, Iraq, Pakistan, and France, it may be illegal to use any encryption at all without a special permit. WARNING: This is a work in progress, and may be totally insecure. 
Enforce limits to protect system integrity. This program enforces resource quotas stored in a configuration file. It is easier and more secure that writing a shell script in /etc/profile and trying to compare user names in hard-coded if/else type trees. 
Large Scale Integration 
Latent Semantic Indexing 
Lieutnant Skat card game for KDE. Lieutnant skat (from German Offiziersskat) is a card game for two players. It is roughly played according to the rules of Skat but with only two players and simplified rules. Every player has a set of cards in front of him/her, half of them covered and half of them open. Both players try to win more than 60 of the 120 possible points. After 16 moves all cards are played and the game ends. 
Linux Security Knowledge Base This package contains a downloaded copy of the LSKB which includes information on many security related issues specific to Linux. The uptodate copy can be found at 
Link Support Layer (ODI) 
a lock file lister Lslk attempts to list all of the locks on the executing system's local files (i.e., on the active inodes). 
Linux Software Map (Linux) 
list loaded modules. 
Logical Sector Numbers (OS-9) 
A text-base maze-orientated game for linux. Snipes is a single-player text-mode action game in which the object is to kill a number of evil smiley face characters (the "snipes") and the hives which create them. Of course, the snipes try to kill you at the same time. 
Linux Standards Organization (org., Linux) 
list open files 
List open files. Lsof is a Unix-specific diagnostic tool. Its name stands for LiSt Open Files, and it does just that. It lists information about any files that are open by processes current running on the system. The binary should work on any kernel in 2.2 or 2.4 
This tool shows all the open file handles, sockets, and who owns them. 
list all PCI devices 
list all PCI devices 
Leaf Setup Request 
Linux Support Team [distribution] (Linux) 
LAN Service Unit (LAN) 
Line Termination (ADSL) 
Logical Terminal (IBM) 
Lower Tester (ISO 9646-1) 
Line Termination Coordinator 
Logical TERMinal (IBM), "LTerm" 
Logical Terminal IDentifier (IBM) 
Linear Tape Open (Streamer, IBM, HP, Seagate) 
Low Temperature PolySilicon 
Low Temperature PolySilicon Thin Film Transistor (TFT, LCD) 
Ltrace is a debugging program which runs a specified command until the command exits. While the command is executing, ltrace intercepts and records both the dynamic library calls called by the executed process and the signals received by the executed process. Ltrace can also intercept and print system calls executed by the process. You should install ltrace if you need a sysadmin tool for tracking the execution of processes. 
Tracks runtime library calls in dynamically linked programs ltrace is a debugging program which runs a specified command until it exits. While the command is executing, ltrace intercepts and records the dynamic library calls which are called by the executed process and the signals received by that process. It can also intercept and print the system calls executed by the program. The program to be traced need not be recompiled for this, so you can use it on binaries for which you don't have the source handy. You should install ltrace if you need a sysadmin tool for tracking the execution of processes. 
The Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) is all about running thin client computers in a GNU/Linux environment. Version 3.0 was announced January 7, 2002. 
Lawrence TimeSharing System (OS, LLNL) 
Linux Trace Toolkit - tools LTT is a kernel event tracer with low overhead. LTT provides it's user with all the information required to reconstruct a system's behavior during a certain period of time. One can know exactly the dynamics of a system. Why do certain synchronization problems occur? What exactly happens to an application when a packet is received for it? Overall, where do all the applications that I use pass their time? Where are the I/O latencies in a given application? etc. LTT requires a modified linux kernel that enables events to be logged. This package contains only the user-level tools for collecting and analysing the trace data. The kernel patch is available in the kernel-patch-ltt package. 
Logical Unit (NAU) 
Logical Unit 6.2 (IBM), "LU6.2" 
Small embeddable language with Pascal like syntax Lua is a powerful, light-weight programming language designed for extending applications. Lua is also frequently used as a general-purpose, stand-alone language. Lua is free software. Lua combines simple procedural syntax (similar to Pascal) with powerful data description constructs based on associative arrays and extensible semantics. Lua is dynamically typed, interpreted from bytecodes, and has and rapid prototyping. 
Spanish Linux Documentation Project Documents. This package will install all the documents of LuCAS (Linux en Castellano), both the translated documents and the guides made within the project not available at the LDP. The Linux Documentation Project (LDP) is working on developing good, reliable documentation for the Linux operating system. Este paquete instala los documentos del proyecto de documentacisn de Linux traducidos al castellano, para mas informacisn ver /usr/share/doc/lucas/ o . El Proyecto de Documentacisn de Linux al Castellano, trabaja en el desarrollo de documentacisn buena y fiable en castellano para el sistema operativo Linux, esto incluye traducir documentacisn del Linux Documentation Project y realizar documentacisn nueva. 
Manifiesto del Proyecto LuCAS. This package installs the manifiesto of the LuCAS project. Este paquete instala el manifiesto del proyecto LuCAS, traduccisn en inglis del manifiesto del "Linux Documentation Project". 
De Novato a Novato. This is a guide from the LuCAS project (LDP in Spanish). Este paquete instala la guma "Linux: De Novato a Novato", del proyecto de Documentacisn de Linux en Castellano. Es una sencilla Guma con trucos para usuarios noveles para Debian. 
Introduccisn a la administracisn de redes TCP-IP. This is a guide from the LuCAS project (LDP in Spanish). Este paquete instala la guma "Introduccisn a la administracisn de redes TCP-IP" una traduccisn de una guma inglesa fruto del proyecto de Documentacisn de Linux en Castellano. Esta guma muestra al administrador csmo gestionar una red TCP-IP 
Guma del Enrootador de Linux. This is a guide from the LuCAS project (LDP in Spanish). Este paquete instala la guma "Guma del Enrootador" una traduccisn de una guma francesa fruto del proyecto de Documentacisn de Linux en Castellano. Es una Guma que intenta explicar csmo manejarse en el entorno Linux como superusuario (administrador). 
Linux Users' Group - A LUG is a group of Linux users. Usually avid Linux users and advocates join a local LUG. 
Local Users Group 
The enhanced ftp client. lukemftp is what many users affectionately call the enhanced ftp client in NetBSD ( The `lukem' comes from the account name of the NetBSD developer who wrote most of the enhancements: Luke Mewburn <>. This package is a `port' of the NetBSD ftp client to other systems. The enhancements over the standard ftp client in 4.4BSD include: * command-line editing within ftp * command-line fetching of URLS, including support for: - http proxies (c.f: $http_proxy, $ftp_proxy) - authentication * context sensitive command and filename completion * dynamic progress bar * IPv6 support (from the WIDE project) * modification time preservation * paging of local and remote files, and of directory listings (c.f: `lpage', `page', `pdir') * passive mode support, with fallback to active mode * `set option' override of ftp environment variables * socks4/socks5 support * TIS Firewall Toolkit gate ftp proxy support (c.f: `gate') * transfer-rate throttling (c.f: `-T', `rate') 
The enhanced ftp daemon from NetBSD. `lukemftpd' is what many users affectionately call the enhanced ftp server in NetBSD ( The `lukem' comes from the account name of the NetBSD developer who wrote most of the enhancements: Luke Mewburn <>. 
Logical Unit Number (SCSI) 
Leuchtendatei fuer UnfallfluchtNAchforschungen (INPOL) 
Lunar-Linux began as a fork of Sorcerer GNU/Linux. Lunar-Penguin, the development group behind Lunar-Linux, say they plan for this fork to stay close to the bleeding edge. The initial ISO image lunar-20020321.iso.bz2 was released March 21, 2002. An ISO codenamed PETRO was released April 9, 2002. A revised ISO Petro_e was released April April 19, 2002. Petro_h, the last of the Petro series, was released May 3, 2002. A development version of Lunar, theedge, was made available May 23, 2002. theedge achieved enough stability to become the first Lunar, announced July 15, 2002. Lunar-1.0Beta was released September 2, 2002. 
LANE User Network Interface (LANE, ATM) 
monitor changes in ftp sites and opt. mirror to a local directory This is the ultimate ftp site lurker program. It is a simple program to monitor changes in ftp sites and either just report changes or mirror changes into a local directory. So why another mirror program? Because I couldn't get any of the mirror programs on sunsite to do what I wanted half-way reliably & efficiently. 
Look-Up Table (RAMDAC, FPGA, RL) 
LuteLinux is a desktop oriented distribution. The most recent notes on the web site are dated November 2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Pac-Man clone A Pac-Man clone for SVGALIB. Includes color, sound, several different levels, and difficulty levels. Also includes tools for making your own levels and customizing the game. WARNING: This package CONTAINS SETUID ROOT BINARIES. This is a possible SECURITY RISK. I don't want to tell you not to afraid, but this package is in Debian since 4 years w/o problems. 
Logical Volume (LVM) 
Low Voltage 
Powerful Multilingual File Viewer lv is a powerful file viewer like less. lv can decode and encode multilingual streams through many coding systems: ISO-8859, ISO-2022, EUC, SJIS, Big5, HZ, Unicode. It recognizes multi-bytes patterns as regular expressions, lv also provides multilingual grep. In addition, lv can recognize ANSI escape sequences for text decoration. 
Low Voltage Differential [technology] (SCSI, Symbois Logic) 
Low Voltage Differential Signal (TI, NSC) 
Live Video Extension (video) 
Logical Volume Manager (AIX, HP/UX, OSF/1, HDD) 
Logical Volume Manager: Most Unix-like systems now have the ability to break up physical discs into some number of units. Storage units from multiple drives can be pooled into a "logical volume", where they can be allocated to partitions. Additionally, units can be added or removed from partitions as space requirements change. 
LVM includes all of the support for handling read/write operations on physical volumes (hard disks, RAID-Systems, magneto optical, etc., multiple devices (MD), see mdadd(8) or even loop devices, seelosetup(8)), creating volume groups (kind of virtual disks) from one or more physical volumes and creating one or more logical volumes (kind of logical partitions) in volume groups. 
The Logical Volume Manager for Linux (common files) LVM includes all of the support for handling read/write operations on physical volumes (hard disks, RAID-Systems, magneto optical, etc., multiple devices (MD), see mdadd(8) or even loop devices, see losetup(8)), creating volume groups from one or more physical volumes and creating one or more logical volumes in volume groups. This package includes parts of the LVM packaging which do not depend on the particular IO protocol version of the kernel implementation. You need to install in addition one of lvm5, lvm6, or lvm10. 
The Logical Volume Manager for Linux LVM includes all of the support for handling read/write operations on physical volumes (hard disks, RAID-Systems, magneto optical, etc., multiple devices (MD), see mdadd(8) or even loop devices, see losetup(8)), creating volume groups from one or more physical volumes and creating one or more logical volumes in volume groups. This provides the IO protocol version 10 compatible binaries (LVM 0.9.x/1.0.x). 
LandesVerwaltungsNetz (Baden-Wuerttemberg) 
Linux Virtual Server kernel patches and support programs The Linux Virtual Server is a highly scalable and highly available server built on a cluster of real servers. The architecture of the cluster is transparent to end users, and the users see only a single virtual server. This package provides the kernel patches and some support programs necessary to implement a virtual server under Linux. With the addition of the mon and heartbeat packages it is possible to implement a complete high-availability solution for Linux. This package includes kernel patches for 2.2.13 and 2.2.14 (0.9.7) and the ipvsadm program (0.9.7). 
Low Voltage Transistor Transistor Level (IC) 
Living Worlds (VRML) 
Last Working Configuration (ESCD, PNP, BIOS) 
LichtWellenLeiter (cable) 
Lightweight Window Manager lwm is a window manager for X that tries to keep out of your face. There are no icons, no button bars, no icon docks, no root menus, no nothing: if you want all that, then other programs can provide it. There's no configurability either: if you want that, you want a different window manager; one that helps your operating system in its evil conquest of your disc space and its annexation of your physical memory. 
Light Weight Process (Sun, OS) 
lightweight resolver daemon 
Lightweight Resolver Daemon lwresd is the daemon providing name lookup services to clients that use the BIND 9 lightweight resolver library. It is essentially a stripped- down, caching-only name server that answers queries using the BIND 9 lightweight resolver protocol rather than the DNS protocol. 
Linear eXecutable (OS/2) 
Dump and load databases from the HP palmtop gdbload/gdbdump converts any standard database to and from CSV (Comma-Separated-Values) format. Many formatting options are available. World-Time and Appointment databases as well as application specific fields are not supported. 
Linux port of boom, an enhanced version of DOOM Doom is a 3d shoot'em'up game, written by id Software, first released in 1993. LxDoom is a version of Doom, designed to run on Linux either under XFree86 or using SVGALib. LxDoom is based on Boom, a freely available port of Doom for DOS, written by TeamTNT ( This package includes only the network game server and the required game wad file (boomlump.wad). To actually play lxdoom, you require lxdoom-x11 or lxdoom-svga, depending on whether you're going to play lxdoom on the console or X. Packages which may also enhance your gameplay are lxdoom-sndserv and lxmusserv, which are the sound server and music server packages, respectively. 
Sound effects server for LxDoom Sound effects in LxDoom are played by a separate executable, the sound server. This sound server isn't required to play LxDoom (it will detect the presence or absence of both sndserv and musserv) -- it will, however, enhance your playing experience. 
Svgalib binary for lxdoom Doom is a 3d shoot'em'up game, written by id Software, first released in 1993. LxDoom is a version of Doom, designed to run on Linux either under XFree86 or using SVGALib. LxDoom is based on Boom, a freely available port of Doom for DOS, written by TeamTNT ( This is the svgalib binary for lxdoom. Note that installing this could be a security risk - if you don't completely trust a setuid doom binary, only use lxdoom-x11. 
X binary for LxDoom Doom is a 3d shoot'em'up game, written by id Software, first released in 1993. LxDoom is a version of Doom, designed to run on Linux either under XFree86 or using SVGALib. LxDoom is based on Boom, a freely available port of Doom for DOS, written by TeamTNT ( This is the X binary for LxDoom. 
Linux music server for Doom and Heretic A number of Linux DOOM and Heretic ports use this server to play music, separate from the main game binary. Install this if you want to hear music in these classic 3D shooters. 
Linux Cross-Reference The Linux Cross-Reference project is the testbed application of a general hypertext cross-referencing tool. (Or the other way around.) The main goal of the project is to create a versatile cross-referencing tool for relatively large code repositories. The project is based on stock web technology, so the codeview client may be chosen from the full range of available web browsers. On the server side, any Unix-based web server with cgi-script capability should do nicely. The main feature of the indexer is of course the ability to jump easily to the declaration of any global identifier. Indeed, even all references to global identifiers are indexed. Quick access to function declarations, data (type) definitions and preprocessor macros makes code browsing just that tad more convenient. At-a-glance overview of e.g. which code areas that will be affected by changing a function or type definition should also come in useful during development and debugging. 
Allows file management on HP100/200LX palmtops. lxtools is an implementation of the HP100/200LX palmtop "filer" protocol. You can put the palmtop into server mode and retrieve files directly from it. 
A full-screen, text-only Web browser for UNIX computers, created by Lou Montoulli of the University of Kansas. Lynx is a full-featured Web browser but it cannot display in-line images. 
a general purpose distributed information browser for the World Wide Web 
A text-based, non-graphical web brower for use in Telnet session. 
Lynx is a text-based Web browser. Lynx does not display any images, but it does support frames, tables, and most other HTML tags. One advantage Lynx has over graphical browsers is speed; Lynx starts and exits quickly and swiftly displays webpages. 
Text-mode WWW Browser Lynx is a fully-featured World Wide Web (WWW) client for users running cursor-addressable, character-cell display devices (e.g., vt100 terminals, vt100 emulators running on PCs or Macs, or any other "curses-oriented" display). It will display hypertext markup language (HTML) documents containing links to files residing on the local system, as well as files residing on remote systems running Gopher, HTTP, FTP, WAIS, and NNTP servers. 
Text-mode WWW Browser with NLS support (development version) Lynx is a fully-featured World Wide Web (WWW) client for users running cursor-addressable, character-cell display devices. It is very fast and easy to use. It will display HTML documents containing links to files residing on the local system, as well as files residing on remote systems running Gopher, HTTP, FTP, WAIS, and NNTP servers. 
Wrapper for lynx-cur This wrapper will provide almost all basic setup of lynx mainly for novice users using LANG environment variable so a user needs essentially nothing to do except setting LANG appropriately. 
Text-mode WWW Browser supporting SSL Lynx is a fully-featured World Wide Web (WWW) client for users running cursor-addressable, character-cell display devices (e.g., vt100 terminals, vt100 emulators running on PCs or Macs, or any other "curses-oriented" display). It will display hypertext markup language (HTML) documents containing links to files residing on the local system, as well as files residing on remote systems running Gopher, HTTP, FTP, WAIS, and NNTP servers. This version of Lynx provides the ability to make use of SSL over HTTP for secure access to web sites (HTTPS) and over NNTP for secure access to news servers (SNEWS). SSL is handled transparently, allowing users to continue accessing web sites and news services from within Lynx through the same interface for both secure and standard transfers. 
Emacs client for LysKOM. A LysKOM client implemented in Emacs LISP. This client is the most used and developed one. 
Server for the LysKOM conference system LysKOM has a lot in common with netnews, but LysKOM is intended for local discussions (instead of worldwide). LysKOM consists of a server process and several client programs. The server process maintains a data base of persons, conferences and articles. The clients connect to the server and let the users browse the database for unread articles. LysKOM is much faster than netnews - almost as fast as irc or ICQ! - but like in netnews the articles are saved so that you don't have to be logged in to receive the news. 
TTY client for LysKOM With lyskom you can connect to your favourite LysKOM. A LysKOM is a computerised conference system where you can participate in discussions, ask questions, and get in touch with interesting people. 
Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (a compression algorithm). 
A real-time compressor. lzop is a compressor similar to gzip. Its main advantages over gzip are much higher compression and decompression speed. lzop was designed with the following goals in mind: 1) reliability 2) speed (both compression and decompression) 3) reasonable drop-in compatibility to gzip 4) portability 
Lempel-Ziv-Stac [compression] 
[PPP] Lempel-Ziv-Stac - Data Compression Protocol (PPP, RFC 1967), "LZS-DCP" 
Lempel-Ziv-Welch [compression] 

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