Linux-Dictionary ( E - H )

E-mail Address
The unique address within the Internet which allows people to send mail to you. Your e-mail address is made up of your name, the symbol and your domain name, so the address is is the address for the user tripathi working at amadeus machine at the Statistics Faculty of University of Dortmund in Germany. To locate other netusers, please visit at From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
European digital transmission format 1 [2.048 Mbps] 
a keybinding editor for the enlightenment window manager e16keyedit is a gtk+ based keybinding editor for the enlightenment window manager 
enlightenment menu editor e16menuedit is an menu editor for the enlightenment window manager. 
European digital transmission format 2 [8.448 Mbps] 
check a Linux second extended file system 
A statically-linked version of the ext2 filesystem checker. This may be of some help to you if your filesystem gets corrupted enough to break the shared libraries used by the dynamically linked checker. This binary takes much more space than its dynamic counterpart located in e2fsprogs, though. You may want to install a statically-linked shell as well, to be able to run this program if something like your C library gets corrupted. 
The e2fsprogs package contains a number of utilities for creating, checking, modifying and correcting any inconsistencies in second extended (ext2) filesystems. E2fsprogs contains e2fsck (used to repair filesystem inconsistencies after an unclean shutdown), mke2fs (used to initialize a partition to contain an empty ext2 filesystem), debugfs (used to examine the internal structure of a filesystem, to manually repair a corrupted filesystem or to create test cases for e2fsck), tune2fs (used to modify filesystem parameters) and most of the other core ext2fs filesystem utilities. You should install the e2fsprogs package if you need to manage the performance of an ext2 filesystem. 
The EXT2 file system utilities and libraries. EXT2 stands for "Extended Filesystem", version 2. It's the main filesystem type used for hard disks on Debian and other Linux systems. This package contains programs for creating, checking, and maintaining EXT2 filesystems, and the generic `fsck' wrapper. 
Save critical ext2 filesystem data to a file 
Change the label on an ext2 filesystem 
convert all EPS files in a LaTeX document to PDF 
Convert plain text into PostScript Plain text into PostScript converter with automatically detection of EUC, JIS and SJIS but may be weak with SJIS. 
A very small editor This package contains an editor you can call via the following links: - e3em: Emacs-like key bindings - e3vi: Vi-like key bindings - e3pi: Pico-like key bindings - e3ne: Nedit-like key bindings - e3ws: Wordstar-like key bindings e3 has the following advantages over other editors: - it has no library dependencies - one very small binary (only 10 kB) that gives you 5 editors 
End-to-End Encryption (cryptography) 
European digital transmission format 3 [34.368 Mbps] 
European digital transmission format 4 [139.264 Mbps] 
European digital transmission format 5 [565.148 Mbps] 
Eingabe/Ausgabe, "E/A" 
Escrowed Authenticator (cryptography, EES) 
Extended Attribute (OS/2) 
Enterpreise Access Builder (IBM, Java) 
Engineering and Administrative Data Acquisition System (EADAS) 
EADAS/Network Management (EADAS), "EADAS/NM" 
Elliptical Aperture with Dynamic Focus 
Eagle Linux
Eagle Linux is a Linux distribution that boots and runs from floppy or CD-ROM, saving you the trouble of having to install Linux on your system - and you build it yourself! There is no longer a need to repartition your hard drive or uninstall your current operating system. Eagle Linux is also a great embedded systems learning tool, and since you build it yourself, it can easily be created to run on any processor family. Version 1.0 was announced November 2, 2002. Debian based Eagle Linux 2.0 was released January 12, 2003. Eagle Linux 2.2 was released May 9, 2003. 
Enterprise Application Integration 
External Authoring Interface (VRML) 
Evanescent Access Method (BS2000) 
European Article Numbering [system] 
Create an EAN-13 or UPC barcode in .xbm format The Universal Product Code (UPC) barcode has been used in the USA for many years, and EAN-13 is a similar barcode used on products both in and outside the USA. ean13 will create an EAN-13 or UPC barcode in .xbm format. The .xbm format is used by most browsers and many graphics programs such as bitmap. 
European Advanced Networking Test Center (org., Berlin, Germany, ANTC, FDDI) 
Extensible Authentication Protocol 
European Academic Research Network (network) 
Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory (ROM, IC) 
Enterprise Access System (Dynatech) 
Easy Access System Europe (Novell, FTP) 
Enhanced Asynchronous SCSI Interface 
Graphical interface to ipchains/ipfwadm Easy firewall is graphical interface to ipchains or ipfwadm, allowing to generate a ipchains/ipfwadm command script. The script can be used to execute the firewall rules on startup, or can be applied instanty. 
viewing, editing and writing ID3 tags of MP3 files EasyTAG is an utility for viewing, editing and writing the ID3 tags of MP3 files, using a GTK+ interface. Currently EasyTAG supports the following features: - Viewing, editing, writing ID3 TAGs of MP3 files, - Process all MP3 files of the selected directory, - Ability to browse subdirectories, - Recursion for tagging, removing, renaming, saving..., - Easy directory selection with a tree browser, - Supports ID3v1, ID3v1.1 tags, - Scan file for automatic tagging (using masks), - Scan tag for automatic renaming file (using masks), - Rename mp3 file, - Can apply a field (artist, title,...) to all other files, - Display MP3 header informations, - Can load a character translation file. 
Enhanced AT Bus Attachment 
EB(Electric Book) access library - utilities libeb is a library accessing CD-ROM books. It supports to access EB, EBG, EBXA, and EPWING formats. CD-ROM books are popular in Japan. This package includes runtime support files. 
Electronic Beam-Addressable Memory (IC) 
Elektronisches teile-BestellAbwicklungsSystem (MBAG) 
EISA Bus Controller (Wyse) 
/eb's*-dik/, /eb'see`dik/, or /eb'k*-dik/ n. [abbreviation, Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code] An alleged character set used on IBM dinosaurs. It exists in at least six mutually incompatible versions, all featuring such delights as non-contiguous letter sequences and the absence of several ASCII punctuation characters fairly important for modern computer languages (exactly which characters are absent varies according to which version of EBCDIC you're looking at). IBM adapted EBCDIC from punched card code in the early 1960s and promulgated it as a customer-control tactic (see connector conspiracy), spurning the already established ASCII standard. Today, IBM claims to be an open-systems company, but IBM's own description of the EBCDIC variants and how to convert between them is still internally classified top-secret, burn-before-reading. Hackers blanch at the very name of EBCDIC and consider it a manifestation of purest evil. See also fear and loathing. 
Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code 
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
A character set coding cheme that represents 256 standard characters. IBM mainframes use EBCDIC coding, while personal computers use ASCII coding. Networks that link personal computers to IBM mainframes must include a translating device to mediate between the two systems. 
Embedded Block Coding with Optimal Truncation (JPEG) 
European Committee for Banking Standards (org., Europe, banking) 
Electric-Dictionary search command using EB library. eblook is search command for CD-ROM (EPWING; a standard of CD-ROM book. This is very popular in Japan.) dictionaries. 
Extended Backus-Naur-Form 
A graphical chessboard program (BETA VERSION) eboard is a graphical chess program which can function as an interface to Internet chess servers such as FICS and to chess engines such as Crafty. eboard has a themeable and freely resizable board, a tabbed or multi-window display, and supports multiple simultaneous boards. NOTE: eboard is currently beta software. Although it seems to work well for many people, bugs and misfeatures may remain. Use xboard if you want a perfectly stable program. 
Enterprise Backup and Restore (ENS, Banyan, VINES) 
Extended Boot Record (MBR) 
Electronic Book - Read Only Memory (ROM), "EB-ROM" 
European Broadcasting Union (org., Europe) 
Elektronisches teile-BUchungsSystem (MBAG) 
Elektronische BildVerarbeitung 
Electronic Commerce 
Error Correction (MODEM) 
European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (conference, AI, ECCAI, Europe) 
an audio effects pedal application Using ecasound libraries, this program provides a real-time effects pedal simulated in an X screen. It can read from the audio device, and output to an audio device in real time, or can process wave files. It can work very flexibly. For more complex interface, see ecawave, and qtecawave. For command-line addicts, this is not the way to go, go for ecasound. It can apply any ladspa plugin to the audio data. 
Fast, Flexible Mailing List Manager Ecartis is a powerful mailing list manager in the tradition of listserv but with an open architecture and free source (GPL license). It has some features not found in Majordomo. One of the most interesting things in Ecartis is plugin module system; many functions are implemented as dynamically-loadable modules. You may also want to check out the ecartis-cgi program, which provides a web-based front-end for your Ecartis mailing lists. 
CGI front-end for Ecartis This is the experimental web-based front-end for the Ecartis mailing list management program. 
Multitrack-capable audio recorder and effect processor Ecasound is a software package designed for multitrack audio processing. It can be used for simple tasks like audio playback, recording and format conversions, as well as for multitrack effect processing, mixing, recording and signal recycling. Ecasound supports a wide range of audio inputs, outputs and effect algorithms. Effects and audio objects can be combined in various ways, and their parameters can be controlled by operator objects like oscillators and MIDI-CCs. As most functionality is located in shared libraries, creating alternative user-interfaces is easy. A versatile console mode interface is included in the package. 
graphical audio file editor Ecawave is a simple graphical audio file editor. The user-interface is based on Qt libraries, while almost all audio functionality is taken directly from ecasound libraries. As ecawave is designed for editing large audio files, all processing is done direct-to-disk. Simple waveform caching is used to speed-up file operations. Ecawave supports all audio file formats and effect algorithms provided by ecasound libraries. This includes ALSA and OSS soundcard support and common file formats like wav, cdr, raw, aiff, mp3, etc. 
Electronic CodeBook [mode] (cryptography, DES) 
Event Control Block (IPX) 
Electrical Connectivity Checks (CAD) 
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (Certicom, cryptography) 
Error Checking and Correction 
Error Correction Circuit (CPU, POWER) 
Error Correction Code (CD) 
European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence (org., AI, Europe) 
Execute with Correct Checksum Only 
Error Checking and Correction ??? Random Access Memory (RAM) 
Energy Conversion Devices (manufacturer, OUM) 
Electronic Comerce for Developing Countries (ITU) 
European Computer Driving License 
Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange (EC, EDI), "EC/EDI" 
Enhanced Connectivity Facilities (IBM) 
display a line of text 
European Community Host Organisation (org., Europe) 
To repeat on the screen characters that are entered at the keyboard. You can use the echo command to explicitly display a string of characters. 
[FidoNet] n. A topic group on FidoNet's echomail system. Compare newsgroup. 
A small test tool for TCP servers. Can test if a server is listening on a remote machine and can measure the round-trip time. 
European Conference on Hypermedia Technology (INRIA, conference) 
Efficient Channel Integration (ADC, EDI) 
EClectic Language (Harvard, TOPS) 
Emitter Coupled Logic 
Entity Coordination Management (FDDI, SMT) 
Error Correction / Correcting Mode (FAX, HDLC) 
European Computer Manufacturers Association (org., Europe) 
European Counter Network 
Explicit Congestion Notification (IP, RFC 2481) 
Enterprise Certified Novell Engineer (Novell, Netware) 
European Conference on Optical Communications (conference) 
Electronic Computer Originated Mail, "E-COM" 
European Conference on Object Orientated Programming (OOP, conference) 
Enhanced Capability Port (MS) 
Enhanced Communication Port / Protocol 
Exessive CrossPosting (Usenet, EMP, spam) 
[PPP] Encryption Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1968) 
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (USA) 
Engineering Change Request (PCI) 
[cable & wireless] European Computer industry Research Centre [gmbh] (ISP, org.) 
Electronic Customer Relationship Management (Internet), "eCRM" 
EComStation (OS/2), "eCS" 
Elitegroup Computer Systems (manufacturer, Taiwan) 
Enhanced Chip Set (Amiga, Commodore) 
Exchange Carriers Standards Association (org.) 
European Customer Support Centre (HP) 
Enhanced Circuit Switched Data (8-PSK, mobile-systems) 
European Computer Trade Show (fair, London) 
EISA Configuration Utility (EISA) 
Ed is a line-oriented text editor, used to create, display, and modify text files (both interactively and via shell scripts). For most purposes, ed has been replaced in normal usage by full-screen editors (Emacs and vi, for example). Ed was the original UNIX editor and may be used by some programs. However, the more modern text editors are recommended for general use. 
End Delimiter (FDDI, Token Ring) 
Enhanced Density 
n. "ed is the standard text editor." Line taken from original the Unix manual page on ed, an ancient line-oriented editor that is by now used only by a few Real Programmers, and even then only for batch operations. The original line is sometimes uttered near the beginning of an emacs vs. vi holy war on Usenet, with the (vain) hope to quench the discussion before it really takes off. Often followed by a standard text describing the many virtues of ed (such as the small memory footprint on a Timex Sinclair, and the consistent (because nearly non-existent) user interface). 
The classic unix line editor ed is a line-oriented text editor. It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files. red is a restricted ed: it can only edit files in the current directory and cannot execute shell commands. 
Electronic Design Automation (RL, IC) 
Electromechanical Digital Adapter Circuit 
European Conference on Design Automation (IEEE-CS, conference) 
A database program for GNU Emacs EDB is a database program for GNU Emacs. It permits you to manipulate structured (or not-so-structured) data within Emacs and provides many of the usual database features. 
Einheitliche DatenBank-Schnittstelle (DB) 
Error Detection Code (CD) 
Enterprise Data Distribution (ENS, Banyan, VINES) 
Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval [system] (DB, Internet) 
Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Electronic Data Interchange (GOSIP) 
Extended Display Identification Data [standard] (VESA, DDC) 
Electronic Design Interchange Format 
Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport 
execute programs via entries in the mailcap file 
A program that is used to make changes to a file. The two programs used most often on Linux systems are the programmable emacs editor and the full-screen vi visual interpreter. 
One of several programs in Unix used to create and modify text files, some common editors include vi, ee and, pico. 
a dynamic resource editor for X Toolkit applications 
Ethernet Data Link Control (ethernet) 
Engineering Data Management 
Extended Data Message 
European Distributed Memory Computing Conference (GI, ITG, IFIP, conference) 
Engineering Document Management System 
Extended Data Out [ram] (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
Extended Data Out Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM), "EDO-DRAM" 
Extended Data Out Random Access Memory (RAM, IC), "EDO-RAM" 
Elektronisches DateiOrganisationsSystem (MBAG) 
Electronic Data Processing 
Electronic Data Processing 
Enhanced Dot Pitch (Hitachi) 
Electronic Data Processing System 
External Developer Release 
Enhanced Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
Electronic Data Systems [corporation] (provider, USA) 
Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator 
Earth Data System Reference Application (ISH, USA) 
Eastern Daylight Time [-0400] (TZ, EST, USA) 
edit users list created by package 
Elektronische DatenVerarbeitung 
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer 
Event-Driven eXecutive (OS, IBM) 
An "easy editor" for novices and compuphobics The editor 'ee' (easy editor) is intended to be a simple, easy to use terminal-based screen oriented editor that requires no instruction to use. Its primary use would be for people who are new to computers, or who use computers only for things like e-mail. ee's simplified interface is highlighted by the use of pop-up menus which make it possible for users to carry out tasks without the need to remember commands. An information window at the top of the screen shows the user the operations available with control-keys. 
Emotion Engine (Sony, Playstation) 
Elektro- und ElektronikAltGeraete 
[UDB] Enterprise Extended Edition (IBM, DB2, DB, UDB) 
Equipment to Equipment Interface 
External Environment Interface (mil., USA) 
Eazel Extensions Library 
Eazel Extensions Library is a collection of widgets and functions for use with GNOME. 
Engineering Electronic Library, Sweden (org., WWW, Sweden) 
External Expansion Module (Sun) 
Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification 
Early Experience Program (Borland) 
Entry Exit Procedure (R:Base, DB) 
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (ROM, IC, RL, EPROM) 
Escrowed Encryption Standard (cryptography, NSA) 
European EDIF Steering Committee (org., EDIF, Europe) 
Eastern European Time [+0200] (TZ) 
Edge Enhancement Technology (Seikosha, Itoh) 
The Electric Eyes graphics viewer/editor Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. ElectricEyes allows you to view and do simple manipulate of several image formats and gives a nice thumbnail selection mechanism. 
Elektronisches FAKturierungs- und abrechnungsSystem (MBAG) 
Efax is a small ANSI C/POSIX program that sends and receives faxes usingany Class 1, 2 or 2.0 fax modem. You need to install efax if you want to send faxes and you have a Class 1, 2 or 2.0 fax modem. 
Programs to send and receive fax messages. efax is a small ANSI C/POSIX program that provides the data transport function for fax applications using any Class 1 or Class 2 fax modem. Another program, efix, converts between fax, text, bit-map and gray-scale formats. fax, a shell script, provides a simple user interface to the efax and efix programs. It allows you to send text or Postscript files as faxes and receive, print or preview received faxes. The ghostscript package is needed to fax Postscript files, and a image viewing program as xloadimage is need to view incoming faxes. Note that you probably have to adapt /etc/efax.rc to your needs. 
Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (ATM) 
Electronic Frontier Foundation (Internet, org.) 
real-time video effect processor effectv is a real-time video effect processor. You can enjoy movies, TV programmes, and any other video stream through several amazing effects, including: - fire effects - afterimages - shagadelia - mosaics - ripples 
Effort Linux
Effort Linux comes from Brazil. The website is in Portuguese. A 'secured' distribution. 
Electronics For Imaging (manufacturer) 
Extensible Fimware Interface (Intel, MS) 
Another finger daemon for unix capable of fine-tuning your output. efingerd is a finger daemon, which executes programs and displays their output. This gives you complete control over what to display and to who, and an extreme configurability. 
Emitter Follower Logic (IC) 
Eight-to-Fourteen-Modulation (CD) 
Encrypting File System (cryptography) 
Extended Finite State Machine (TTCN, ...) 
Electronic Funds Transfer 
Euro-FileTransfer (ISDN, ETS 300 075) 
Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point-Of-Sale (EFT, banking), "EFT-POS" 
Electronic Funds Transfer System 
Evil Grin (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Enhanced Graphics Adapter (predecessor, VGA) 
Elektrostatisch gefaehrdete Bauelemente 
Entropy Gathering Daemon (Unix, GNU, GnuPG) 
Elektronischer Geschaeftsverkehr-Gesetz Germany 
Tamago V.4 -- EGG Input Method Architecture for Emacs EGG Emacs Input Method Architecture. All is written only with Emacs Lisp. Egg can use FreeWnn (jserver, cserver, tserver) and Wnn6 as server doing character string conversion with the back end. And can convert mixed sentence of Japanese and Chinese into. There is the part which is not implemented yet. 
Advanced IRC Robot Eggdrop is an IRC bot, written in C. Eggdrop, being a bot, sits on a channel and takes protective measures: to keep the channel from being taken over (in the few ways that anything can), to recognize banished users or sites and reject them, to recognize privileged users and let them gain ops, etc. 
the effective Group User ID that owns this process. 
Generates Eiffel code from XML produced by glade GUI builder Eglade takes the XML file that is produced by glade and generates Eiffel code, using the eGTK and egnome wrappers for GTK+ and Gnome. The code generated requires the SmallEiffel compiler to turn it into an executable program. 
Eiffel wrapper for the Gnome library An Eiffel wrapper for the Gnome library. It supports the SmallEiffel and the ISE compilers. This package is only marginally useful. It provides Gnome initialisation and access to gnome-help; all the rest remains to be developed. However, it is needed by eglade, which generates code that expects to use egnome. 
3D dungeon crawling adventure in the spirit of NetHack. Egoboo is an open source project, using OpenGL and SDL(Simple DirectMedia Layer) libraries. It is a 3d dungeon role playing game in the spirit of NetHack. Nice colorful graphics, and detailed models(using Quake2 modeling tools) make this game stand out int the gaming open-source community. 
The animator program from Siag Office The animator part of the Siag Office suite, which also contains SIAG and PW. Siag Office uses the Offix DND Drag-and-Drop protocol. A WWW browser is needed to read online doc. A postscript viewer is used for document preview. Be warned that this probably is the least stable part of Siag Office. All suggestions are welcomed. 
Exterior Gateway Protocol (RFC 904) 
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)
is a protocol for exchanging routing information between two neighbour gateway hosts (each with its own router) in a network of autonomous systems. EGP is commonly used between hosts on the Internet to exchange routing table information. The routing table consists a list of known routers, the addresses they can reach, and a cost metric associated with the path to each router so that the best available route is chosen. Each router pols its neighbour at intervals between 120 and 480 seconds and the neighbour responds by sening its complete routing table. EGP-2 is the latest version of EGP. A more recent exterior gateway protocol, the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), provides additional capabilites. From EGP
Erlangen General Purpose Array (MP) 
Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (8-PSK, mobile-systems) 
Extended Global Regular Expression Print (Unix, GREP) 
print lines matching a pattern 
Enhanced Graphics System (Commodore) 
Eiffel wrapper for GTK library An Eiffel wrapper for the GTK library. It supports the SmallEiffel and the ISE compilers. 
Encoding Header Field (Internet, RFC 1154) 
Einheitliche Hoehere KommunikationsProtokolle (BTX, ER, Telekom) 
Emulator High Level Language API (IBM, 3270, API) 
European Home Systems [concept] 
European Home Systems Association (org., Europe) 
Evolvable HardWare 
Electronics Industry Association (USA, org.) 
European Installation Bus 
European Installation Bus Association (org., Europe) 
European Institute for Computer Anti-Virus Research (org., Europe) 
European Informatics Continuous Learning (CEPIS) 
Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (HDD, IDE), "E-IDE" 
Enhanced Implementation of Emacs Interpreted Objects EIEIO is an Emacs lisp program which implements a controlled object-oriented programming methodology following the CLOS standard. EIEIO also has object browsing functions, and custom widget types. It has a fairly complete manual describing how to use it. 
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) 
extended TeX 
Enhanced Input/Output [architecture] (HP) 
Extended Internet Protocol (Internet, RFC 1385) 
Electronic Information Systems (manufacturer) 
European Information System (Europe) 
Executive Information System (IM) 
Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) 
European Imaging and Sound Association (org., Europe) 
Electronic Imaging Standards Board (org.) 
Europaeisches Institut fuer SystemSicherheit (org., Karlsruhe, Germany, Europe) 
Encoded Information Type 
Eesti InfoTehnoloogia Seltsi (org., Estland) 
Enterprise Java Beans (Java, Sun) 
Electronic Journal of Communication 
ejects CDs and operates CD-Changers under Linux This little program will eject CD-ROMs (assuming your drive supports the CDROMEJECT ioctl). It also allows setting the autoeject feature, currently supported by a number of the Linux CD-ROM drivers. See the documentation in /usr/src/linux/Documentation for more information on the autoeject feature. On supported ATAPI/IDE multi-disc CD-ROM changers, it allows changing the active disc. 
The eject program allows the user to eject removable media (typically CD-ROMs, floppy disks or Iomega Jaz or Zip disks) using software control. Eject can also control some multi-disk CD changers and even some devices' auto-eject features. Install eject if you'd like to eject removable media using software control. 
Electronic Key Management System (cryptography) 
Elektronisches KOmmunikationsSystem (MBAG) 
Electro Luminescent [display] 
the goal is to be a standards-compliant subset of POSIX and ANSI C. 
Extensible Language one (ECLogic) 
Education LANguage 
Emulated Local Area Network (ATM, LANE) 
Ethernet Link Access Protocol (LAP, ethernet) 
extended TeX 
an interface to the WebDAV servers for Emacs. WebDAV files can be treated just like a normal file in Emacsen. Emacs/w3 is not required. External program is used for WebDAV access. 
electrical CAD system Electric is a sophisticated electrical CAD system that can handle many forms of circuit design, including custom IC layout (ASICs), schematic drawing, hardware description language specifications, and electro-mechanical hybrid layout. 
A malloc(3) debugger Use virtual memory hardware to detect illegal memory accesses. 
screensaver collective dream of sleeping computers Electric sheep is the collective dream of sleeping computers from all over the internet. Less poetically, it is an Internet server and xscreensaver module that displays MPEG video of an animated fractal flame. In the background, it contributes render cycles to the next animation. Periodically, it uploads completed frames to the server, where they are compressed for distribution to all clients. 
Elevator seeking
In hard disks, a way to sort data requests to minimize jumping between tracks. In an elevator seeking scheme, the drive handles data requests in track order; that is, it gets needed data from inner tracks first, then from the outer tracks. Elevator seeking minimizes access time. 
Executable and Linkable Format (Unix, OS/2) 
Executable and Linking Format - a binary format that is much simpler to make shared libraries and dynamic loading. Originally developed by USL (UNIX System Laboratories). 
Entity Life History (DB) 
Embedded LISP Interpreter (Andrew mail system) 
Library of commonly-used Emacs functions Elib is designed to be for Elisp programs what libg++ is for C++ programs: a collection of useful routines which don't have to be reinvented each time a new program is written. Elib contains code for: - container data structures (queues, stacks, AVL trees, etc) - string handling functions missing in standard emacs - minibuffer handling functions missing in standard emacs - routines for handling lists of so called cookies in a buffer. 
From German firm SYSGO Real-Time Solutions GMBH, ELinOS is an embedded Linux distribution for Industrial Applications. ELinOS v2.0 includes PowerPC-Support, Real-Time Extension RTAI, Linux Kernel v2.4 and more. 
Extension Language Kit (Scheme) 
The Extension Language Kit, an Scheme implementation Elk is an implementation of the Scheme programming language, designed specifically as an embeddable, reusable extension language subsystem for applications written in C or C++. Elk is also useful as a stand-alone Scheme implementation. 
ELKS: The Embeddable Linux Kernel Subsystem. ELKS 0.1.0-pre4 was released March 4, 2002. The Elks Distribution Edition (EDE) 0.0.5 was released December 18, 2002. 
16-bit C library and include files This is the C library used to compile with bcc. It includes all the headers and static libraries needed to build 16-bit applications, for Linux/8086, Linux/i386 and DOS .COM executables. 
EuLisp LInda System (LISP) 
ELectronic Mailer (Unix) 
Elektronischer Leitz Ordner (OA) 
Erasable Laser Optical Disk (OD) 
Equational Logic Programming [language] 
Yet another presentation tool on Emacsen Elpoint is a presentation tool which runs on Emacs. Features * Easy to create and display a presentation. * Dynamic presentation content can be developed using emacs lisp. * A major mode `ept-mode' is included which supports editing elpoint presentation. * Inline images. Images can be retrieved from Internet. * Create a preseitation from outline-mode text. 
[magazin fuer] ELektronik und technische RechnerAnwenDungen 
Entry Level System ??? (Novell, Netware) 
The Linux Society Distro, eLSD, was announced September 21, 2002. Derived from Devil-Linux, eLSD is a highly secure CD boot only OS. It's currently available in three versions: 0.1 - Devil-Linux offered as a build and burn kit. 0.2 - This version begins to make changes towards the eLSD goals by creating a bigger divide between the initrd/linuxrc boot and the init/boot in the OS. It also boots w/o the floppy that includes the /etc filesystem. 0.3 - This version actually converts Devil-Linux into an optional hard drive boot OS. The boot process occurs entirely in the initrd phase and then accesses the harddrive. This kit offers a robust kernel, two custom initrds -- one that boots to busybox/tinylogin -- and grub and parted support. A CD-based distribution. 
HTTP server that runs on Emacsen. Elserv is an HTTP server which runs on Emacs, as a background process. Since Emacs does not support server sockets, Elserv runs dedicated server process (ruby script) as a backend process and communicate with it to provide a server feature on Emacs. 
A much improved "vi" editor with syntax highlighting. Elvis is a clone of vi/ex, the standard UNIX editor. Elvis supports nearly all of the vi/ex commands, in both visual mode and ex mode. Elvis adds support for multiple files, multiple windows, a variety of display modes, on-line help, and other miscellaneous extensions. Because of its html mode, and it ability to do http and ftp, it can now also be used as a poor man's web browser! Elvis provides color syntax highlighting, with syntax modes for c, c++, java, awk, makefiles, perl, postscript, pascal, sh, tcl, vrml, html, diffs, man pages, and fortran. If all this isn't enough for you, it is easy to add new syntax modes (additions are welcome!). Elvis also has a special hex editing mode for directly editing binary data. This version of elvis also includes ctags and ref, for quickly navigating about your source code. 
Tiny vi compatible editor for the base system. Elvis-tiny is based on a 1991 Minix version of elvis. You should install another vi-editor (such as "elvis", "nvi" or "vim") if you want a full featured vi editor. 
I/O elevator tuner 
ELX, Everyone's Linux
Elx combines the ease and familiarity of Windows with the indisputable power and robustness of LINUX. Elx does not expect you to change or re-learn the way you've been using your PCs. While features of Elx are far superior to Windows in all ways, they are presented and treated in a similar way (better in some cases) and all this resting unshakably on a rock solid foundation, the LINUX. 
Script language for automating HTTP requests Elza is a set of perl scripts which can be used as an interpreter for automating requests on web pages. It can extract dynamic URLs from a page, handle forms, cookies, HTTP authentication, redirects / refreshes, etc. 
Extensions Manager (Apple) 
Electronic Messaging Association (org., USA) 
Enterprise Management Architecture (DEC) 
Extended Mercury Autocode 
/ee'maks/ n. [from Editing MACroS] The ne plus ultra of hacker editors, a programmable text editor with an entire LISP system inside it. It was originally written by Richard Stallman in TECO under ITS at the MIT AI lab; AI Memo 554 described it as "an advanced, self-documenting, customizable, extensible real-time display editor". It has since been reimplemented any number of times, by various hackers, and versions exist that run under most major operating systems. Perhaps the most widely used version, also written by Stallman and now called "GNU EMACS" or GNUMACS, runs principally under Unix. (Its close relative XEmacs is the second most popular version.) It includes facilities to run compilation subprocesses and send and receive mail or news; many hackers spend up to 80% of their tube time inside it. Other variants include GOSMACS, CCA EMACS, UniPress EMACS, Montgomery EMACS, jove, epsilon, and MicroEMACS. (Though we use the original all-caps spelling here, it is nowadays very commonly `Emacs'.) Some EMACS versions running under window managers iconify as an overflowing kitchen sink, perhaps to suggest the one feature the editor does not (yet) include. Indeed, some hackers find EMACS too heavyweight and baroque for their taste, and expand the name as `Escape Meta Alt Control Shift' to spoof its heavy reliance on keystrokes decorated with bucky bits. Other spoof expansions include `Eight Megabytes And Constantly Swapping' (from when that was a lot of core), `Eventually malloc()s All Computer Storage', and `EMACS Makes A Computer Slow' (see recursive acronym). See also vi. 
A UNIX-based text editor that is sometimes configured as the default editor on UNIX systems. Programmed in LISP, emacs is an excellent hacker's tool, but can be a nightmare for users accustomed to user-friendly word processing programs. 
Editing MACroS (GNU) 
Emacs is a powerful, customizable, self-documenting, modeless text editor. Emacs contains special code editing features, a scripting language (elisp), and the capability to read mail, news and more without leaving the editor. This package includes the libraries you need to run the Emacs editor, so you need to install this package if you intend to use Emacs. You also need to install the actual Emacs program package (emacs-nox or emacs-X11). Install emacs-nox if you are not going to use the X Window System; install emacs-X11 if you will be using X. 
Emacs is a powerful, customizable, self-documenting, modeless text editor. Emacs contains special code editing features, a scripting language (elisp), and the capability to read mail, news, and more without leaving the editor. 
Emacs is different things to different people. Depending who you ask, you'll could get any of the following responses: Text Editor, Mail Client, News Reader, Word Processor, Religion, Integrated Development Environment, Whatever you want it to be!, But for our purposes, let's just pretend it's a text editor--an amazingly flexible text editor. We'll dig deeper into the question later on. Emacs was written by Richard Stallman (founder of the Free Software Foundation: and the GNU project and he still maintains it today. Emacs is one of the most popular and powerful text editors used on Linux (and Unix). It is second in popularity only to vi. It is known for it huge feature set, ability to be easily customized, and lack of bugs. It's large feature set and ability to be customized actually are the result of how Emacs was designed and implemented. Without going into all the details, I'll simply point out that Emacs isn't ``just an editor''. It is an editor written mostly in the programming language Lisp. At the core of Emacs is a full-featured Lisp interpreter written in C. Only the most basic and low-level pieces of Emacs are written in C. The majority of the editor is actually written in Lisp. So, in a sense, Emacs has an entire programming language ``built in'' which you can use to customize, extend, and change its behavior. Emacs is also one of the oldest editors around. The fact that is has been used by thousands of programmers over the past 20 (?) years means that there are many add-on packages available. These add-ons allow you to make Emacs do things that Stallman had probably never dreamed possible when he first began work on Emacs. More on that in a later section. There are many other web sites and documents which give a better overview of Emacs, its history, and related matters. Rather than attempt to reproduce much of that here, I suggest that you check out some of the places listed in Section Other Resources section of this document. From EMACs-HOWTO
The extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor. Emacs has special code editing modes, a scripting language (elisp), and comes with many packages for doing mail, news. 
Emacs-X11 includes the Emacs text editor program for use with the XWindow System (it provides support for the mouse and other GUIelements). Emacs-X11 will also run Emacs outside of X, but it has a larger memory footprint than the 'non-X' Emacs package (emacs-nox).Install emacs-X11 if you're going to use Emacs with the X Window System. You should also install emacs-X11 if you're going to run Emacs both with and without X (it will work fine both ways). You'll also need to install the emacs package in order to run Emacs. 
The GNU Emacs editor. (Dynamic Loading supported) GNU Emacs is the extensible self-documenting text editor. This binary supports the Dynamic Loading architecture(dl). If you want to use dynamic loadable modules, you should use this instead of pure emacs20 package. Dynamic Loadable Module examples are Canna/Wnn input method support. (emacs-dl-canna/emacs-dl-wnn package) And some dirty patch applied. Dirty means such as, Rejected by upstream authors (difficult for merge), Code from other emacsen, like XEmacs/Meadow/obsolete Mule2.3, or backported. 
GNU Emacs LISP (.el) files. GNU Emacs is the extensible self-documenting text editor. This package contains the elisp sources for the convenience of users, saving space in the main package for small systems. 
tells a running Emacs to visit a file 
Common facilities for all emacsen. This package contains code that is needed by all the (x)emacs packages. 
speech output interface to Emacs Emacspeak is a speech output system that will allow someone who cannot see to work directly on a UNIX system. Emacspeak is built on top of Emacs. Once you start emacs with emacspeak loaded, you get spoken feedback for everything you do. Your mileage will vary depending on how well you can use Emacs. There is nothing that you cannot do inside Emacs :-). This package includes speech servers written in tcl to support the DECtalk Express and DECtalk MultiVoice speech synthesizers. For other synthesizers, look for separate speech server packages such as emacspeak-ss. 
Emacspeak speech server for several synthesizers emacspeak-ss is an interface between Emacspeak and any of several speech synthesizers: DoubleTalk PC version 5.20 or later (internal), DoubleTalk LT version 4.20 or later (serial port version), LiteTalk version 4.20 or later, Braille 'n Speak, Type 'n Speak, Braille Lite, Apollo 2 from Dolphin, or Accent SA. If you have a DoubleTalk PC, you also need the dtlk device driver - either the module or compiled into your kernel. (Note that versions 2.2.16 and earlier of the Linux kernel sources have a bug in the dtlk device driver.) 
Electronic messages (usually plain text or hypertext) sent from one recipient to another over a network. Email is sent using a mail transfer agent and is read using a mail user agent (or email client).
Email (Electronic Mail)
Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses. 
Edinburgh Multi-Access System (OS, ICL 4-75) 
Enhanced Master Burst (EISA) 
Embedded Debian
The Embedded Debian project produced a very useful pre-packaged toolchain, and a tool for configuring filesystems (emdebsys, aka CML2+OS). Many groups and companies around the world are using the embedian toolchain for ARM which has proved robust and effective. Emdebsys has not been widely used as it is not quite mature enough for production use. 
Embedded Freedom Linux
Freedom is a bootable Linux CD, to help new users see the power of Linux. It is built with BBLCD, WhiteDwarf, and Slackware packages. It works on PCs and laptops, supports wireless PCMCIA cards and almost any network, video, and sound card, and features software from many open source projects such as fvwm95 ( familiar windows 95 look and feel) gftp, GTK-Gnutella, centerICQ, Dillo, sylpheed, airsnort, SSH, and more. The initial release, version 1, was released December 15, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
A compact, yet robust embedded Linux distribution from Lineo, Inc. 
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility 
[IBM] Europe, Middle East, Africa (IBM) 
file manager for X/gtk emelFM is a file manager that implements the popular two-window design. It features a simple GTK+ interface, a flexible file typing scheme, and a built-in command line for executing commands without opening an xterm. 
The LINUX EMERGENCY CD project has a bootable CD-ROM distribution, with Linux kernel 2.4.19-xfs(i586). It's a console-only mini-distribution based on Red Hat 7.3 and includes many console tools and utilities. The initial version, 2.01, was released under the GNU General Public License on January 27, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
ElectroMagnetic Interference 
External Machine Interface [protocol] (SMS) 
Conversion Filter for Internet Messages. Emil v2 is a filter for converting Internet Messages. It supports three basic formats: MIME, SUN Mailtool and plain old style RFC822. It can be used with sendmail, as a mailer, or as a prefilter or backend program with a mail client program, or as a plain filter. 
EntwicklungsMethoden fuer InformationsSysteme und deren Anwendung (org., GI) 
Element Management Layer (TMN) 
Expanded Memory Manager 
European MultiMedia Award 
Excessive Multiple Posting (Usenet, ECP, spam) 
the war game of the century Empire is a console game simulation of a full-scale war between two emperors, the computer and you. Naturally, there is only room for one, so the object of the game is to destroy the other. 
Electro-Magnetic Radiation 
European Mathematical Society (org.) 
Expanded Memory Specification (DOS, Intel) 
Electronic Mail Standards Committee (org.) 
Extended Modelling of Group Access This package can help you to extend the normal limits of unix groups. Right now there are two tools available: * Target handling, allowing you to have one group for read access and one group for write access. * Group file generator that makes it easier to define complex group structures. 
The duplication within a device of another device's functional capability, or a device designed to work exactly like another. In telecommunications, for example, a personal computer emulates a dumb terminal- a terminal without its own microprocessor - for on-line communication with a distant computer. 
This term can refer to either hardware or software that performs emulation. Popular software emulators for Linux are wine and WABI which are Windows emulators. 
ElektroMagnetische Vertraeglichkeit (EN 55022, DIN, VDE 0878) 
Weather Data processing The emwin package contains utilities for handling the data stream used in the Emergency Managers Weather Information Network. This data stream is carried over satellite and VHF and UHF radio transmitters, and also via multicast IP over the MBone. 
Enterprise Messaging eXchange [switch] 
Europa Norm (Europe) 
Electronic Networking Association (org., Internet) 
Enterprise Networking Association (Banyan, VINES, user group, org.) 
European Networking Associates (org., Europe) 
Extended Network Addressing (IBM, SNA) 
encoding (encode)
Contrast: Encoding is not encryption. A lot of passwords are sent across the wire encoded (such as HTTP's BASE64 encoded passwords). In essence, they are still clear-text passwords; most password sniffers will still read them from the wire. Example: The main issue with encoding is how to get binary data sent within a text message. For full binary data, this results in about 40% "expansion" of the file size (i.e. when you e-mail 1-megabyte of data to a fried, this encoding will result in about a 1.4-megabyte message size). BASE64 aka. RADIX64. Content-Transfer-Encoding: Base64 The preferred encoding method these days for MIME e-mail messages and virtually everywhere else. uuencode and uudecode UNIX-to-UNIX While having been largely replaced with BASE64 encoding, uuencoding is the granddady of encoding methods. It increases the file size roughly 42%. It was originally developed for e-mail encoding. Few e-mail programs generate this encoding, but most all of them can decode it. The main reason for its disfavor is that a lot of programs are slightly inconsistent in the way that they encode/decode data using this technique, subtly corrupting files. See also: uucp. quoted printable Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable This consists of normal ASCII text, where any binary character (or other problematic character such as a space at the end of the line) is converted to a 3-character code consisting of the equals sign followed by two hex digits representing the binary value. For example, the code =20 indicates a single character with the hex value of 0x20, which is equal to decimal 32. In ASCII, this is a space. E-mail messages are often automatically line-wrapped for long lines. The line is frequently wrapped after a space between two words, resulting in a space at the end of a line. Therefore, you will sometimes see e-mail messages with a lot of lines ending in =20 due to the requirements of this encoding method to encoding trailing spaces. This encoding is most often used for European text (especially French) which has occasional accented characters in what is otherwise largely ASCII text. BinHex. A standard Macintosh encoding method; rarely used elsewhere. Key point: E-mail clients typical support more encoding methods than content scanners (aka. anti-virus scanners). Therefore, by encoding your e-mail correctly, you can often bypass these. Key point: A big problem in the security industry is the presences of redunant encoding methods Microsoft's web servers were hacked because of redundant ways of encoding UNICODE characters. TODO See also: UNICODE 
a free web-browser for GNOME Encompass is a free web-browser for GNOME. It relies on gtkhtml for rendering HTML pages and on libneon for HTTP transport. 
The process of encoding data such that users and processes with proper authentication credentials can access it, while unauthorized users cannot. 
encryption (encrypt, encipher)
Encryption is a way of mangling data so that an unauthorized party cannot understand it. Encryption applies mathematical operations to data in order to render it incomprehensible. The only way to read the data is apply the reverse mathematical operations. In technical speak, encryption is applies mathematical algorithms with a key that converts plaintext to ciphertext. Only someone in possession of the key can decrypt the message. Analogy: Some aliens come down to earth and give you a safe, and a key to the lock. For purposes of this discussion, the aliens use some magic technology that is beyond our human understanding, and that we will never be able to break into the safe. You steal something, put it into the safe, and lock it up with the key. You hide the key. The police arrest you and confiscate the safe. The only way the police will ever recover this stolen object is when you give them the key. Encryption is the same way; it creates an unbreakable box that you can put data in that nobody can ever get back out unless they have the appropriate key. Controversy: Encryption has massive philosophical implications when put into widespread use. It means that citizens can hide their data from governments (especially repressive ones) and law enforcement (especially when you are committing a crime). This has the potential of making governments more accountable to the populace. It likewise has the potential of making crime easier. Key point: Encryption tends to be the strongest link in the chain. When encryption is cracked, it is usually through some other weakness like key distribution or weak passwords. Contrast: Asymmetric encryption uses different keys for encryption and decryption. Since the most useful form of this is one you keep one key private and make the other public, this is better known as public key encryption. In contrast, symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption. Notes: Some algorithms popular in cryptography are: DES, rc4 Some popular applications that use encryption are: PGP, web browsers. Some protocols that use encryption are: SSL, IPsec 
European Network Design Center (3COM) 
Enhanced Direct Interface Video Extensions (OS/2, MMPM/2, IBM), "EnDIVE" 
Embedded NAS Firmware (RAID, NAS, ArtStor) 
Engarde Secure Linux
EnGarde is a secure distribution of Linux engineered from the ground-up to provide organizations with the level of security required to create a corporate Web presence or even conduct e-business on the Web. It can be used as a Web, DNS, e-mail, database, e-commerce, and general Internet server where security is a primary concern. Version 1.2 (Professional) was released June 28, 2002. Version 1.3 (Community Edition) was released April 28, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer 
One of several user interfaces (window managers). For more on AfterStep, go to (Also, see AfterStep, GNOME, KDE and X Window System.) 
The Enlightenment Window Manager Enlightenment - the window manager that dares to do what others don't. It features KDE and GNOME integration, multi-program sound support, iconification, sliding desktops, docking, epplets, Xinerama support and much more. Enlightenment takes the concepts of themes to another level - everything can be changed. The visual components of themes are a rich set of graphical images in a variety of formats. Theme makers can unleash their artistic talents without bounds. Themes are not limited to just different colors and background images on the same old desktop. Enlightenment features the BrushedMetal theme, designed by gimp legend, tigert. It is predominately grey with the subtle texture of - you guessed it - brushed metal. The menus in particular look superb. The sound files for BrushedMetal are in a separate package, enlightenment-theme-brushedmetal. 
Embedded NPrinter (NEST, Novell) 
Enterprise Network Services (Banyan, VINES) 
Converts ASCII text to Postscript, HTML, RTF or Pretty-Print Enscript converts ASCII files to PostScript, HTML, RTF or Pretty-Print and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the printer. 
GNU enscript is a free replacement for Adobe's Enscript program. Enscript converts ASCII files to PostScript(TM) and spools generated PostScriptoutput to the specified printer or saves it to a file. Enscript can be extended to handle different output media and includes many options for customizing printouts. 
ENS - Information Query (Banyan, VINES, ENS), "ENS IQ" 
ENS - Management Tool (ENS, Banyan, VINES), "ENS-MT" 
A pseudorandom number sequence test program This program applies various tests to sequences of bytes stored in files and reports the results of those tests. The program is useful for those evaluating pseudorandom number generators for encryption and statistical sampling applications, compression algorithms, and other applications where the information density of a file is of interest. 
XML-based GUI builder for GTK+ Entity is an XML-based GUI builder and application scripting framework. It combines the ease of use of XML for GUI layout and the power of Perl, Python, TCL, JavaScript, and C for the application logic. An Entity GUI is usually much shorter than the same program written in any other language. This package contains the core portions of Entity along with Perl support. 
convert C source code to use trigraphs 
run a program in a modified environment 
A set of shell variables and their assigned values provided for each process that is called. The default environment for your terminal is stored in your home directory in a file called either .profile (Bourne or Korn shell) or .login (C shell). You can modify the environment by reassigning shell variables. 
The hardware and operating system for application programs, such as the Macintosh environment. In MS-DOS, the environment also is a space in memory reserved for storing variables that applications runnning on your system can use. 
environment variable
A setting that only applies to the current working environment. Environment variables set paths, permissions, and other configurable settings that help users efficiently run their system. 
environment variable
A variable that is available to any program that is started by the shell.
Environment variable
An instruction stored in the MS-DOS environment that controls, for example, how to display the DOS prompt, where to store any temporary files, and the path of directories that DOS searches to find commands. The PATH, COMSPEC, PROMPT, and SET commands in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file all define environment variables. 
Europe Online (network) 
End Of Address 
End Of Block 
Electrical Optical Circuit Board [project] (Bosch, Siemens, IZM, ...) 
End Of Discussion (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Erasable Optical Disk (OD) 
End Of File 
Enterprise Objects Framework (NeXT) 
Eye of Gnome graphics viewer program eog or the Eye of Gnome is a graphics viewer for GNOME which uses the gdk-pixbuf library. It can deal with large images, and zoom and scroll with constant memory usage. The goal is a standard graphics viewer for future releases of Gnome. 
End Of Input 
End Of Interrupt 
End Or Identify (GPIB) 
End Of Job 
End Of Line 
End Of Message 
Enhanced Other Networks (RDS) 
End Of Procedure (Fax) 
Electrical OverStress 
Extended Operating System (OS) 
End Of Text 
End Of Thread (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
End Of Transmission 
Enhanced Observed Time Difference (LBS) 
European Oracle User Group (org., DB, Oracle, user group, Europe) 
[WAI] Education and Outreach Working Group (WAI) 
[the] Extensible PERL PreProcessor (PERL) 
Enhanced Performance Architecture 
Environmental Protection Agency (USA, org.) 
Ein-Platinen-Allzweck-Computer (IC, C'T) 
Electronic Packaging and Assembly Concept 
Extended Partition Boot Record (PowerQuest) 
Embedded Portable Document Format (Adobe, PDF, HTML) 
Embedded Perl 5 Language ePerl interprets an ASCII file bristled with Perl 5 program statements by evaluating the Perl 5 code while passing through the plain ASCII data. It can operate in various ways: As a stand-alone Unix filter or integrated Perl 5 module for general file generation tasks and as a powerful Webserver scripting language for dynamic HTML page programming. For more information, please visit Author: Ralf S. Engelschall <> 
Electronic Program Guide 
Electronic Payment Handling (banking) 
European Procurement Handbook for Open Systems 
Electronic Privacy Information Center (cryptography) 
European Public sector Information systems Conference 
Explicit Parallelism Instruction Computing (Intel) 
Modified ircII client with additional functionality EPIC is 100% backwards compatible with ircII because EPIC *is* ircII. EPIC was originally built upon the ircII-2.6 client and has maintained faithfulness to remain current up to the 2.8.2 release. EPIC is somewhat larger than the stock client (24%), but that is mostly because of the multitude of new features, the dual ANSI/K&R compliant function headers, and the large amount of re-written code in an attempt to make ircii faster, more efficient, and more powerful. 
epic irc client, version 4 epic4 is an irc client based on ircII. It is primarily suited to users who wish to write their own irc scripts or have irc scripts written by others. Previous versions of epic were 100% compatible with ircII 2.8.2, though this is no longer the case. Instead we've taken a new direction and chosen to find places where compatibility with ircII is undesirable and fix them. No gratuitous incompatibilities have been added, though many new features have been. 
Ethernet Port Interface Module (ethernet) 
Enhanced Performance unIX (Unix), "EP/IX" 
Erasable Programmable Logic Device 
Cross-platform package builder by Easy Software Products This package allows a developer to produce packages for several different platforms from a single specification. Currently, Debian dpkg, RPM, AT&T/Solaris pkg, HP-UX depot/swinstall, and IRIX inst/tardist packages are supported, as well as a "portable" package that includes installation and removal scripts and a GUI setup program. 
Electronic-highway Platform Netherlands (ISP, Netherlands) 
[not an acronym] (Psion, OS, PDA) 
Language independent text-to-speech system. Epos is a language independent rule-driven Text-to-Speech (TTS) system primarily designed to serve as a research tool. Epos is (or tries to be) independent of the language processed, linguistic description method, and computing environment. 
Education Purchase Plan (Adobe) 
Enhanced Parallel Port / Protocol (Intel, Zenith, Xircom, IEEE 1284) 
The Epplets for the Enlightenment Window Manager Epplets are small applets for the Enlightenment Window Manager. Epplets are similar to dock apps for other window managers, but they take full advantage of Enlightenment's themeability. This is the base set of epplets, featuring E-Exec, E-Time, E-Sys, E-Mixer, E-Screenshoot, E-Xscreensaver, and others. 
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (ROM, IC, RL, EPROM) 
Electronic Publishing Systems 
Embedded PServer (NEST, Novell) 
EPS (Encapsulated Postscript File)
A high resolutionn image stored in the Postscript page description language. The EPS standard enables users to transfer high-resolution grphics images between applications. You can size EPS images without sacrificing image quality. A major drawback of EPS graphics is that to print them, you usually need a Postscript - compatible laser printer. A second drawback is that most application programs, you cannot view the image on-screen unless you attach a screen image to it. To provide an alternative to expensive PostSCript printers, developers have created programs, such as LaserGo, Inc.'s GoScript, that interpret and print EPS files on standard dot-matrix printers or non-Postscript laser printers. 
Ghostscript Encapsulated PostScript "distiller" 
Early Page Space Allocation (AIX, IBM) 
Encapsulated PostScript Interchange 
Electronic Publishing Special Interest Group (org.) 
convert an EPS file to PDF 
Several utilities for EB(Electric Book)/EPWING epwutil is a set of small utilities that can deal with dictionary files in EB (Electric Book) / EPWING format. It contains: catdump - dump EB / EPWING catalog file bookinfo - Show info about the dictionary squeeze - compress dictionary files Would be nice to use with ndtpd, lookup-el, etc. 
load balancing tool for serial network connections The eql_enslave tool allow you to double, triple, quadruple your network bandwidth with multiple point-to-point links. Works with PPP or SLIP. It needs "EQL (serial line load balancing) support" in the kernel. 
format equations for troff 
Circumventing Debian package dependencies This is a dummy package which can be used to create Debian packages, which only contain dependency information. This way, you can make the Debian package management system believe that equivalents to packages on which other packages do depend on are actually installed. Another possibility is creation of a meta package. When this package contains a dependency as "Depends: a, b, c", then installing this package will also select packages a, b and c. Instead of "Depends", you can also use "Recommends:" or "Suggests:" for less demanding dependency. Please note that this is a crude hack and if thoughtlessly used might possibly do damage to your packaging system. And please note as well that using it is not the recommended way of dealing with broken dependencies. Better file a bug report instead. 
Externer Rechner (T-Online) 
Tiny eRuby Yet another implementation of eRuby. It is written as pure Ruby script. 
an Emacs IRC client This package contains ERC, an advanced IRC client for Emacsen. It supports multiple channel-buffers, nick completion, keyword highlighting, and so on. 
European Research Consortium for Information and Mathematics (org., GMD, INRIA, CWI, RAL, ..., Europe) 
Entity-Relationship Diagram 
Eridani Linux
Eridani Linux is currently at version 6.3, which builds upon Red Hat Linux 6.2, Red Hat Linux 7.0 and Eridani Linux 6.2 to continue to bring you the very latest release of the Linux Operating System and additional software, while maintaining an affordable price. 
Environmental Resources Information Network (Australia, network) 
A real-time, concurrent and distributed functional language Open Source Erlang is a functional programming language designed at the Ericsson Computer Science Laboratory. Some of Erlang's main features are: Clear declarative syntax and is largely free from side-effects; Builtin support for real-time, concurrent and distributed programming; Designed for development of robust and continuously operated programs; Dynamic code replacement at runtime. This package contains architecture-specific files of the runtime system. 
Enterprise Resource Management 
Entity Relationship Model (DB) 
European Radiocommunications Office (org., Europe, CEPT) 
The ECLiPt Roaster The ECLiPt Roaster is a graphical frontend to cdrecord and mkisofs written in Python. It supports drag & drop out of most popular filemanagers and direct burning of .mp3 and .ogg files. 
Erasable Read Only Memory (ROM, IC) 
Enterprise Resource Planning [software] 
Messages that contain the most recent information about updates, fixes, and corrections for a particular piece of software distributed by a vendor. View and access Red Hat Linux errata at 
Bug fixes to software. 
Error message
In application programs, an on-screen message informing you that the program can't carry out a requested operation. Early copmuting systems assumed users to be technically sophisticated, and frequently presented cryptic error messages. Applications for general user should display mre helpful error messages that include suggestions about how to solve the problem. 
Enterprise Resource Sharing (ENS, Banyan, VINES) 
Error Report Suppression [flag] (CATNIP) 
Embedded Ruby Language eruby interprets a Ruby code embedded text file. For example, eruby enables you to embed a Ruby code to a HTML file. 
An extensible shell based on `rc'. Es is a command interpreter and programming language which combines the standard features of other Unix shells with the features of a functional programming language such as Scheme. The syntax is derived from rc(1). Es is intended for use both as an interactive shell and a programming language for scripts. 
End System (ATM) 
Errored Seconds (DS1/E1) 
Extended Services (OS/2) 
Extra Segment [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
EliteSwitch/1 (SMC, FDDI), "ES/1" 
Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM, MVS/XA, VM, CMS) 
European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks (conference, NN) 
Enterprise Systems Architecture / eXtended Architecture (IBM, ESA, XC), "ESA/XA" 
Enterprise Systems Architecture / eXtended Configuration (IBM, ESA, XA), "ESA/XC" 
Escape code
A series of characters, combining Esd (ASCII value 27) with one or more ASCII characters, that you can use to change screen colours, control the cursor, create special prompts, reassign keys on the keyboard, and change your printer's settings (to compressed type or bold, for example). Also, the series of characters that engages a modem's command mode. In the Hayes command set, the escape sequence consists of three plus signs (+++). Synonymous with escape sequence. 
Extended System Configuration Data (BIOS, PNP) 
Embedded Scheme Processor escm is a filter program which takes a text with embedded Scheme exressions, copies it to the output with evaluating the Scheme expressions. You can use the power of Scheme to preprocess various text files, including CGI scripts. 
Enterprise Systems CONnect (IBM) 
Epson Specific Code / Protocol 2 (Drucker), "ESC/P2" 
a utility for Epson Stylus printers escputil is a utility to clean and align the heads of Epson Stylus printers. It can also check the current ink levels in the printer. 
In general, escrow means to hold something aside in case of eventualities. Analogy: For example, one company provide software that another company sells imbedded in their hardware. The second company (the OEM) is scared that the first company may go out of business, so requests that the first company put the source code for the software in escrow. Should the first company go out of business, the second company would still be able to sell their product. Key point: Law enforcement is constantly pushing for key escrow where a third party holds back-door keys to all encryption products. Law enforcement would then be able to obtain these keys with a court order into order to decrypt messages or eavesdrop on communications. They first propose a variant of the two-person rule in order to prevent abuse of the system. 
Electronic Software Distribution 
ElectroStatic Discharge 
The Enlightened Sound Daemon 
ESD (Enlightened Sound Daemon)
This program is designed to mix together several digitized audio streams for playback by a single device.
Extra Segment Descriptor Cache [register] (ES, Intel, CPU) 
Enhanced Standard Device Interface 
ESounD Persistent Volume Daemon 
Entry Sequenced Data Set (VSAM) 
Extensible Storage Engine (AD, MS) 
European Software Engineering Conference (GI, BCS, AFCET, AICA, OeGI, SI, conference) 
Einheitliches System dEr Rechentechnik (GDR) 
Extended Super Frame (ISDN, T1) 
the easy shell esh was primarily written out of a need for a simple and lightweight shell for Unix. As such, it deviates completely from all of the traditional shells, opting instead for a Lisp-like syntax. This allows exceptionally small size, both in terms of lines of code and memory consumption, while retaining remarkable flexibility and programmability. 
An Emacs command shell Eshell is a command shell implemented entirely in Emacs Lisp. It invokes no external processes beyond those requested by the user. It is intended to be a functional replacement for command shells such as bash, zsh, rc, or 4dos, since Emacs itself is capable of handling most of the tasks accomplished by such tools. This package is provided only for Emacs20, because eshell is included as part of both Emacs21 and XEmacs21. 
Eshida Instant Embedded Linux
Eshida Instant Embedded Linux is an embedded Linux distribution for people who want to deploy embedded Linux technology immediately. Because the system runs directly on CD-ROM users spend zero effort to explor embedded systems. Version 1.0 was released April 18, 2003. 
End System IDentifier (ATM) 
Environment Specific Inter-ORB Protocol (OMG, CORBA, ORB, DCE) 
Element Structure Information Set (SGML) 
End System to Intermediate System [protocol / routing] (OSI), "ES-IS" 
External Storage Module (Sun) 
Embedded Storage Module Disk 
Enhanced Storage Module Device 
Extended Simple Message Transport Protocol (SMTP, RFC 1425/1869) 
Electronic Serial Number 
Electronic Switched Network 
Energy Sciences NETwork (network, USA, Internet) 
European Symposium On Research In Computer Security (conference) 
Enlightened Sound Daemon - Support binaries This program is designed to mix together several digitized audio streams for playback by a single device. 
ESounD, the Enlightened Sound Daemon, is a server process that mixes several audio streams for playback by a single audio device. For example, if you are listening to music on a CD and you receive asound-related event from ICQ, the two applications will not have to queue for the use of your sound card. Install esound if you would like to let sound applications share your audio device. You will also need to install the audiofile package. 
EFI System Partition (EFI) 
Emulation Sensing Processor (QMS) 
Ethernet Serial Port (ethernet) 
Extreme Support through Personalization (IBM) 
[IP] Encapsulating Security Payload (IPSEC, IP, RFC 1825/1827, VPN) 
Electronic Speech systems Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) 
European Strategic Program of Research and Development in Information Technology (Europe) 
Event Service Routine (IPX) 
Emacs statistics mode, supporting R,S and others ESS is an Emacs package which provides a standard interface between statistical programs and statistical processes. It is intended to provide assistance for interactive statistical programming and data analysis, and is based on and extends the capabilities of S-mode. 
Extended Service Set (WLAN) 
GNOME applet for starting SSH, RSH, Telnet, VNC & SCP sessions The ECLiPt Secure Shell Shell is a GNOME applet (or mini-toolbar for non-GNOME users) which makes managing remote shell accounts programs easy. Features: * Supports SSH, RSH, Telnet & VNC * Drag and drop SCP * Hostname checking * Configurable window size & position * Supports compression, cipher selection, forwarding, port selection, X11 forwarding For more information, please see: <> 
European Software and Systems Initiative 
Eastern Standard Time [-0500] (TZ, EDT, USA) 
Administration program for ISDN PABX ISTEC 1003/1008 This program allows you the administration of the ISDN private automatic branch exchanges ISTEC 1003 and ISTEC 1008 (produced by the German company Emmerich). Note, that the documentation is mostly in the German language. The package includes the C++ class library SPUNK. This library supports writing text mode applications that are portable between different operating systems. 
Electronic Systems Technology Office (org., ARPA) 
generate tag file for Emacs, vi 
Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
talk client for the Emacs editor GNU Talk supports talk protocols 0 & 1. Defines protocol 2. Client supports multiple connections, file transfer, primitive encryption, shared apps, auto-answer, multiple front-ends including GTK and Emacs. The daemon collects request versions 0, 1, & 2 together, and permits interaction between clients of different types. Also supports MRU tty announce, announce-redirect, blacklists, and tty-bomb filtering. This package contains the ELisp files for Emacs. 
Electrically Trainable Analog Neural Network (NN) 
Elektronisches Teile-AuskunftsSystem (MBAG) 
Elektronisches TelefonBuch (T-Online) 
End of Transmission Blank / Block 
European Test Conference (VDE, IEEE-CS, conference) 
The etcskel package is part of the basic Mandrake system. Etcskel provides the /etc/skel directory's files. These files are then placedin every new user's home directory when new accounts are created. 
Enlightened Terminal Emulator A terminal emulator in the spirit of xterm or rxvt, eterm uses an Enlightenment style config file, as well as themes. The Imlib graphics engine is used to render images. This version supports background images, pixmapped scrollbars, pseudo-transparency, POSIX threads, and unicode support. 
extended TeX 
Enterprise Transaction Gateway (EDI, NT) 
Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule 
Graphical network monitor modeled after etherman. EtherApe is an etherman clone. It displays network activity graphically. Active hosts are shown as circles of varying size, and traffic among them is shown as lines of varying width. It's Gnome and libpcap based. 
debconf interface to Ethernet configuration This package provides a debconf-based interface to configuring the Ethernet on your system. Currently, it will only configure one Ethernet device, but more support is planned in the future. 
Ethereal is a network traffic analyzer for Unix-ish operating systems. This package lays base for libpcap, a packet capture and filtering library, contains command-line utilities, and contains plugins and documentation for ethereal. A GTK+ based graphical user interface is available in a separate package. 
Network traffic analyzer Ethereal is a network traffic analyzer, or "sniffer", for Unix and Unix-like operating systems. A sniffer is a tool used to capture packets off the wire. Ethereal decodes numerous protocols (too many to list). This package provides ethereal (the GTK+ version) 
Network traffic analyser (common files) Ethereal is a network traffic analyzer, or "sniffer", for Unix and Unix-like operating systems. A sniffer is a tool used to capture packets off the wire. Ethereal decodes numerous protocols (too many to list). This package provides files common to both ethereal (the GTK+ version) and tethereal (the console version). 
a local area network (LAN) technology that transmits information between computers at speeds of 10 and 100 million bits per second (Mbps). Currently the most widely used version of Ethernet technology is the 10-Mbps twisted-pair variety. 
A network architecture that utilizes radio frequency signals to transmit data via a coaxial cable. Ethernet is most commonly used in local area networks to connect local machines together. 
A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. There is more than one type of Ethernet. By 2001 the standard type was "100-BaseT" which can handle up to about 100,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer. 
A little tool to send magic Wake-on-LAN packets You can wake up WOL compliant Computers which have been powered down to sleep mode or start WOL compliant Computers with a BIOS feature. WOL is an abbreviation for Wake-on-LAN. It is a standard that allows you to turn on a computer from another location over a network connection. etherwake also supports WOL passwords. 
A LaTeX package for typesetting Ethiopian texts. The Ethiopian script differs considerably from the Latin script. Most important, it consists of more than 350 different letters. A transcription method is presented here that can be used for the LaTeX typesetting system. It was implemented on the basis of the multilingual typesetting package 'babel'. 
Display or change ethernet card settings ethtool is used for querying settings of an ethernet device and changing them. It is mainly targeted to 2.4 kernel where this feature is available for many ethernet drivers. However, backward compatibility is ensured on 2.2 kernel running Sparc with SUN Happy Meal (hme) Ethernet card. 
This utility allows querying and changing of ethernet card settings, such as speed, port, auto-negotiation, and PCI locations. 
Embedded ToolKit [for Windows CE] (MS, Windows, CE) 
ASCII guitar tab editor This program is used to write out guitar tablature in the typical style of ascii tab, often found around the internet. The code is based on TkTab by Giovanni Chierico. Many of the ideas for the alerations found here came from emacs tablature mode by Mark R. Rubin. 
Extraction, Transformation and Loading 
Extended Three Letter Acronym 
Prosa is an Italian free software company and the providers of EtLinux, an embedded GNU/Linux distribution that can run on a 386sx with 2Mb of ram. 
Essentials - Tools - Objects (Apple), "E.T.O." 
Early Token Release (Token Ring) 
Embedded ToolSuite (Phar Lap) 
European Telecommunication Standard (ETSI) 
Executable Test Suite (ISO 9646-1) 
European Telecommunication Standards Institute (org., Europe, ETSI) 
Multipurpose sniffer/interceptor/logger for switched LAN Ettercap supports active and passive dissection of many protocols (even ciphered ones) and includes many feature for network and host analysis. Data injection in an established connection and filtering (substitute or drop a packet) on the fly is also possible, keeping the connection synchronized. Many sniffing modes were implemented to give you a powerful and complete sniffing suite. It's possible to sniff in four modes: IP Based, MAC Based, ARP Based (full-duplex) and PublicARP Based (half-duplex). It has the ability to check whether you are in a switched LAN or not, and to use OS fingerprints (active or passive) to let you know the geometry of the LAN. 
Ettrich, Matthias
Founder of the KDE Project with development of kwm (the KDE Window Manager), kpanel, session management and klyx. 
End of Transmission teXt 
Execution Unit (CPU) 
Extended Unix Code (Unix, AT&T) 
Emacs Unified Directory Client EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client, provides a common user interface to access directory servers using different directory protocols such as bbdb, CSO PH/QI, and LDAP. 
Expands to the effective user ID of the current user or process, initialized at shell startup. 
European Unix NETwork (network, Internet, ISP, Unix) 
Eurielec Linux
This was a project started by a a club of students at ETSIT (UPM), according to the Spanish web site. Distribution development is not all that active. 
EntscheidungsUnterstuetzende Systeme 
??? [European Association of Information Services] (org., Europe) 
EntscheidungsUnterstuetzendes System UmweltVertraeglichkeitsPruefung (EuropeS, XPS, Uni Hamburg, Germany) 
European Unix User Group (org., user group, Unix, Europe) 
EtagenVerteiler (cable, EN 50 173) 
evas library demo Evas is an advanced canvas library, providing three backends for rendering: X11 (without some features like alpha-blending), imlib2, or OpenGL (hardware accelerated). Due to its simple API, evas can be developed with rapidly, and cleanly. Install evas if you want to develop applications against the only hardware-accelerated canvas library, or if you want to try out the applications under development. 
Enhanced Video Connector (VESA) 
Extended Virtual Environment 
Even parity
In asynchronous communications, an error-checking technique that sets an extra bit (called a parity bit) to 1 if the number of 1 bits in a one-byte data item adds up to an even number. The parity bit is set to 0 if the number of 1 bits adds up to an odd number. See odd parity and parity checking. 
An all in one messaging client An all in one messaging client that supports AOL's Instant Messanger, ICQ, Yahoo chat, and MSN. 
easy Vim, edit a file with Vim and setup for modeless editing 
EvilEntity Linux
Some say the Linux desktop is dead. Undead Linux seeks to counter that opinion by offering EvilEntity Linux, an easy to install, easy to use, i686 "Windows replacement" Linux desktop for the home computer. The initial release, EvilE DR-0.2.4d, was released April 26, 2002. EvilE DR-0.2.5 was released January 27, 2003. 
easy Vim, edit a file with Vim and setup for modeless editing 
extended TeX 
Enterprise Volume Management System (core) The EVMS project provides unparalleled flexibility and extensibility in managing storage. This project represents a new approach to logical volume management. The architecture introduces a plug-in model that allows for easy expansion or customization of various levels of volume management. In order to make use of it, you must use a kernel which includes the EVMS patch, available in the kernel-patch-evms package. This package contains core infrastructure for EVMS, and the utilities evms_rediscover, evms_devnode_fixup and evms_info_level. 
Evolution is the GNOME collection of personal information management(PIM) tools. Evolution includes a mailer, calendar, contact manager and communication facility. The tools which make up Evolution are tightly integrated with one another and act as a seamless personal information-management tool. 
The groupware suite Evolution is the integrated mail, calendar and address book distributed suite from Ximian, Inc. See for more information. 
Surface Evolver The Surface Evolver is an interactive program for the study of surfaces shaped by surface tension and other energies, and subject to various constraints. 
Elektronisches WareneingangsAbwicklungsSystem (MBAG) 
[verein zur foerderung] Elektronischer WIssenschaftsKOmmunikation (org.) 
Ewing, Marc
executive VP and CTO of Red Hat, developer of the most popular Linux distribution. 
Yet another presentation tool based on Tcl/Tk Extended WIPE is a presentation tool written in Tcl/Tk. Unlike MagicPoint, the de facto standard in this realm, you can create resumes for presentation with user-friendly GUI, then save manuscripts in HTML and mgp(Magic Point file format). 
European Workshop for Open Systems (OSI, ODA) 
Employee Written Software (IBM) 
European Workshop on SGML (org., SGML) 
Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor 
EXchangeable Card Architecture, "ExCA" 
/eks'kl/ n. Abbreviation for `exclamation point'. See bang, shriek, ASCII. 
eXode database manager The eXode database manager is a structured ASCII-based database library. EXdbm can be used to manage the configuration files of eXode clients. The library uses a tree of hash tables structures stored in memory, favouring speed upon memory consumption. This is not a general purpose database library, its efficiency is based on the fact that the databases managed contain less than a few thousand entries. Note that eXdbm is a general purpose configuration library, it can be used in many other applications without relations to the eXode project. For information on the exode project visit 
/eks'ee/ or /eek'see/ or /E-X-E/ n. An executable binary file. Some operating systems (notably MS-DOS, VMS, and TWENEX) use the extension .EXE to mark such files. This usage is also occasionally found among Unix programmers even though Unix executables don't have any required suffix. 
/eg-zek'/ or /eks'ek/ vt., n. 1. [Unix: from `execute'] Synonym for chain, derives from the exec(2) call. 2. [from `executive'] obs. The command interpreter for an OS (see shell); term esp. used around mainframes, and prob. derived from UNIVAC's archaic EXEC 2 and EXEC 8 operating systems. 3. At IBM and VM/CMS shops, the equivalent of a shell command file (among VM/CMS users). The mainstream `exec' as an abbreviation for (human) executive is not used. To a hacker, an `exec' is a always a program, never a person. 
A binary file containing a program in machine language which is ready to be executed (run). 
Anything that can "run" on a computer. Contrast: Newbies often don't understand the difference between executables and normal files. For example, they don't understand the difference between opening an e-mail attachment with a .txt extension vs. a .exe. This misunderstanding comes about because GUIs like Windows and the Macintosh do a very good job at hiding technical details like this from users as to not upset them. Example: ActiveX, Java, JavaScript, .exe files, programs. 
Executable file
See executable program 
Executable program
A program that is ready to run on a given computer. For a program ro be executable, it first must be translated, usually by a comiler, into the machine language of a particular computer. 
To carry out the instructions in an algorithm or program. 
To run a program. On a chmod command line, you can add or remove permission to execute a file using the x symbol. You must have execute permission for a directory to be able to change to that directory or to be able to include that directory's name in a pathname given on a command line. 
EXtended File Control Block 
program to cycle exim logs 
program to extract information from exim logs 
An MTA (Mail Transport Agent) This MTA is rather easier to configure than smail or sendmail. It is a drop-in replacement for sendmail/mailq/rsmtp. Advanced features include the ability to reject connections from known spam sites, and an extremely efficient queue processing algorithm. 
Exim Mailer - with TLS (SSL) support This MTA is rather easier to configure than smail or sendmail. It is a drop-in replacement for sendmail/mailq/rsmtp. Advanced features include the ability to reject connections from known spam sites, and an extremely efficient queue processing algorithm. This version of Exim has been compiled with OpenSSL support, to allow secure SMTP over SSL. 
interactive configure script for exim 
X monitor for the exim mail transport agent. This allows administrators to view the exim agent's mail queue and logs, and perform a variety of actions on queued messages, such as freezing, bouncing and thawing messages. 
exim mail statistics 
program to build a database file for exim 
program to maintain exim mailer hint databases 
program to maintain exim mailer hint databases 
A program to lock a file exactly as Exim would 
program to maintain exim mailer hint databases 
program to extract information from exim retry database 
script to summarise contents of mail queue 
programs to query what running exim processes are doing 
An X user interface for MH mail. Exmh uses the regular MH programs to manipulate your mail folders and messages. This means it is compatible with command-line use of MH programs, and its actions should be familiar if you are an experienced MH user. If you are a new MH user, then the details of running MH programs is hidden behind the graphical interface. 
convert tabs to spaces 
Expat is a C library for parsing XML. Expat is a stream-oriented XMLparser; handlers are registered with the parser prior to starting theparse. These handlers are then called when the parser discovers the associated structures in the document being parsed. A start tag is an example of the kind of structure for which handlers can be registered. 
XML parsing C library - example application This package contains xmlwf, an example application of expat, the C library for parsing XML. The arguments to xmlwf are one or more files which are each to be checked for XML well-formedness. 
A program that "talks" to other programs. Expect is a program that "talks" to other interactive programs according to a script. Following the script, Expect knows what can be expected from a program and what the correct response should be. An interpreted language provides branching and high- level control structures to direct the dialogue. In addition, the user can take control and interact directly when desired, afterward returning control to the script. 
Expect is a tcl extension for automating interactive applications suchas telnet, ftp, passwd, fsck, rlogin, tip, etc. Expect is also useful for testing the named applications. Expect makes it easy for a scriptto control another program and interact with it. Install the expect package if you'd like to develop scripts which interactwith interactive applications. You'll also need to install the tcl package. 
A Tk/X11 version of the expect program. Expect is a program that "talks" to other interactive programs according to a script. Following the script, Expect knows what can be expected from a program and what the correct response should be. An interpreted language provides branching and high- level control structures to direct the dialogue. In addition, the user can take control and interact directly when desired, afterward returning control to the script. 
check and enforce password expiration policy 
exploit (exploitz, sploits)
A technique of breaking into a system, or a tool that implements the technique. An exploit takes advantage of a weakness/vulnerability in a system in order to hack it. Culture: Exploits are the key to hacker subculture. Hackers gain fame by discovering exploits. Others gain fame by writing scripts for them. Legions of script-kiddies apply the exploit to millions of systems, defacing webpages and gaining (in)fame. Controversy: There is no good definition for this word. It is debated a lot trying to define exactly what is, and is not, an exploit. Key point: Since people make the same mistakes over-and-over, exploits for very different systems start to look very much like each other. Most exploits can be classified under major categories: buffer overflow, backtracking, defaults, samples, Denial of Service Contrast: The words exploit and vulnerability are often used interchangeably. This is because the person who discovers a new vulnerability will usually write an exploit script for it at the same time. Therefore, the vulnerability is often known by the name of the exploit scriptl. 
To save data in a format that another program can read. Most programs can export a document in ASCII format, which almost any program can rad and use. Wen saving a document with a recent versions of a word processsing program, you can choose a format from a list of dozens. See import. 
maintain list of NFS exported file systems 
evaluate expressions 
The native filesystem for Linux which offers long file names, permissions, error tolerance and high throughput. 
ext2 file systems support large drive and disk partitions, along with added speed and reliability enhancements over previous UNIX file systems. Ext3 file systems add support for journalling to the ext2 file system, which alleviates lengthy file system checks (fsck) at bootup after a sudden system crash, reset, or power loss. 
an ext2 filesystem resizer ext2resize resizes ext2 filesystems. This is useful if you run out of space on one partition, or have too much free space on another. Warning: Although the program is quite safe these days, if you do something wrong things will go wrong badly. Watch out when using programs like this. 
waveform viewer. This is the extace waveform viewer. It plugs itself in as a EsounD monitor and samples and displays the output from the EsounD daemon. 
Extended partitions
The partition table has room for only four partitions. For more partitions, one of these four partitions can be divided into many smaller partitions, called logical partitions. The original four are then called primary partitions. If a primary partition is subdivided in this way, it is known as an extended primary or extended partition. Typically, the first primary partition will be small ( /dev/hda1, say). The second primary partition will fill the rest of the disk as an extended partition ( /dev/hda2, say). In this case, the entries in the partition table of /dev/hda3 and /dev/hda4 will be blank. The extended partition can be subdivided repeatedly to give /dev/hda5, /dev/hda6, and so on. 
Part of a file name that follows a period (also known as a suffix). For example, C program source files have the extension .c 
External modem
A modem with its own case, cables, and power supply, designed to plug into a serial power. See internal modem. 
Yet Another Boot Selector for IBM-PC compatibles. Extended-IPL is a boot selector which is upper compatible with original IBM IPL. This package includes the installer for this boot code which is written into MBR of your hard disk. With this boot selector, you can select a partition from all the partitions including the logical partitions as well as the primary ones in all the BIOS supported disks when booting a PC, and then it will boot up the OS reside at the selected partition. 
EXecutionTRace Analyser (IBM, OS/2) 
A means of networking that makes use of the Internet for private, encrypted communication. Extranets are often used to link two or more intranets. 
An intranet that is accesible to computers that are not hysically part of a companys' own private network, but that is not accessible to the general public, for example to allow vendors and business partners to access a company web site. Often an intranet will make use of a Virtual Private Network. (VPN.) 
multi-language reimplementation of ctags ctags parses source code and produces a sort of index mapping the names of significant entities (e.g. functions, classes, variables) to the location where that entity is defined. This index is used by editors like vi and emacsen to allow moving to the definition of a user-specified entity. Exuberant Ctags supports all possible C language constructions and multiple other languages such as assembler, AWK, ASP, BETA, Bourne shell, C++, Eiffel, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Perl, PHP, Python, REXX, Ruby, S-Lang, Scheme, Tcl and Vim. 
European X Users Group (org., user group, Europe) 
Play Ultima VII on a decent OS Exult is a game engine which can be used to play the classic games of Ultima VII under X11 (full-screen or in a window). The Black Gate (including Forge Of Virtue) and Serpent Isle (plus Silver Seed) are both playable to the end. Some minor differences to the originals remain, see FAQ 5.3./5.4. While it is possible to use the engine for other games, no such game has been written yet. Therefore, Exult is useless unless you own a copy of one of the Ultima VIIs. 
EXcessive Zeros [error event] (DS1/E1, DS3/E3) 
eyes applet for KDE An applet for the KDE panel containing a pair of eyes that follow your mouse around the screen. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
A client for most dynamic DNS services. ez-ipupdate is a quite complete client for the dynamic DNS service offered by and many more. Currently supported are: ez-ip, Penguinpowered, DHS, dynDNS, ODS, TZO, EasyDNS, GNUdip, Justlinux, Dyns and HN. 
A highly configurable IRC proxy Ezbounce is a very configurable IRC proxy or 'bouncer'. Its basic features include password protection, remote administration, logging and listening on multiple ports. It lets you configure hosts to give access to and which addresses and ports they may connect to. It also can be setup to ban connections to and from certain addresses. Other features include: * Ability to listen and connect on different interfaces or virtual hosts. * Configurable limits on amount of clients permitted to connect from an address and to an address. * Configurable idle time limits. * Transparent DCC Proxying (incoming and outgoing) * Uses nonblocking sockets. * Users can set their own idents, regardless of the uid the proxy is running as. * Basic facilities to 'detach' and reattach clients from proxy but keep their connections to the IRC server alive. * Logs chats while you are detached and DCC sends them back to you when you reattach. * Ability to reload configuration at run time. * Can be run in the background or foreground. 
Web browser for ezmlm-idx archives This is ezmlm-browse, a web interface for browsing ezmlm-idx (version 0.40 or later) archives. The default presentation is similar to that of the ezmlm-cgi archive browser that is part of ezmlm-idx, but with the addition of threaded subjects and online posting / replying. However, the output is completely template drive, so you can make it fit into your current web scheme. 
CMS for e-commerce, e-publishing and intranets eZ publish is a web based application suite. It delivers functionality ranging from publishing of news, web logs and diaries, through web shop functionality like shopping carts and wishlists and forums to intranet functions like contact handling and bug reporting. The software uses caching and other optimization techniques to speed up page serving. It handles users, user preferences and user tracking through a user database and both cookie- based and non-cookie sessions. It supports statistics for page views, links followed and banner ads, both images and HTML with presentation logic. The package lends itself easily to customization, from changing the look and feel by changing templates, localizing the languages and other internationalization issues to adding new functionality. The target audience for eZ publish are e-commerce, ASP (Application Service Providers), BSP (Business Service Providers), news publishing, intranets, bug reporting, content management, discussion boards, FAQ and knowledge handling, file and image management, group ware, calendaring, polls, todo lists, appointments as well as personal web sites. 
A FORTRAN 77 to C/C++ translator, plus static & shared libs. f2c translates FORTRAN 77 (with some extensions) into C, so that it can then be compiled and run on a system with no Fortran compiler. The C files must then be linked against the appropriate libraries. This is an actively maintained FORTRAN to C translator and with the fort77 frontend provides an ideal way to compile FORTRAN routines as black boxes (for example for invocation from C). Source level debugging facilities are not available, and error messages are not as well developed as in g77. 
FORTRAN to C [converter] 
Frequency - Double Frequency 
FernmeldeAmt (Telekom) 
Flow Admission Acknowledge [message] (LFAP) 
Fast Access Btree Structure 
Final Assembly Code (IMEI, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Fast Associated Control CHannel (GSM, DCCH, mobile-systems) 
Framed Access Command Environment (Unix, SVR4) 
Faces is a program for visually monitoring a list (typically a list of incoming mail messages, a list of jobs in a print queue or a list ofsystem users). Faces operates in five different modes: monitoring fornew mail, monitoring an entire mail file, monitoring a specified printqueue, monitoring users on a machine and custom monitoring. Faces also includes a utility for including a face image (a compressed, scannedimage) with mail messages. The image has to be compressed in a certain way, which can then be uncompressed and displayed on-the-fly in the mail program. This feature of faces is typically used with the exmh mailhandling system. Install faces if you'd like to use its list monitoring capability orits face image inclusion capability. If you would like to include face images in email, you'll also need to install the faces-xface package. If you would like to develop xface applications, you'll need to also install faces-devel. 
Firmware ACPI Control Structure (ACPI) 
Facsimile (FAX)
System used to transmit textual or graphical images over standard telephone lines. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
prints prime factors 
Fast Amsterdam Distributed (???) Operating System (OS, FAMP) 
Fixed ACPI Description Table (ACPI) 
File Access Data Unit (FTAM) 
Field Application Engineer 
Fully Automatic Installation FAI is a non interactive system to install a Debian Linux operating system on a PC cluster. You can take one or more virgin PCs, turn on the power and after a few minutes Linux is installed, configured and running on the whole cluster, without any interaction necessary. Homepage: 
fail-safe (fail-open, fail-close)
A philosophic point of view. When a system fails, how should it leave things: secure or unsecure? For example, if a firewall crashes, should it disable all network connectivity, or should it allow network connectivity to continue unprotected? A lot of security vulnerabilities occur because designers make the wrong choice. It is often easier to cause a system to fail than to break through it, so security items should probably fail in such a way to result in greater security at the expensive of stopping everything. Confusion: The terms "fail-open" and "fail-close" are frequently used to mean the opposite of each other. Some people think of a door, which when "open" allows things to pass through. Other people think of an electrical circuit, when "open" stops the flow of current (and conversely, a "closed" circuit passes current). Therefore, use the word "fail-safe" instead in order to avoid confusion. Analogy: The electrical circuit-breakers in your home are fail-safe switches using this concept. In the case of an electrical fault causing a short, the circuit breaker will blow open, halting the flow of electricity. This prevents a fire from starting. 
examine faillog and set login failure limits 
Login failure logging file 
IP address takeover tool Fake is a utility that enables the IP address be taken over by bringing up a second interface on the host machine and using gratuitous arp. Designed to switch in backup servers on a LAN. 
Gives a fake root environment. This package is intended to enable something like: dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot i.e. to remove the need to become root for a package build. This is done by setting LD_PRELOAD to, which provides wrappers around getuid, chown, chmod, mknod, stat, ..., thereby creating a fake root environment. If you don't understand any of this, you do not need fakeroot! 
File Access Listener (DEC, DNA) 
A port of NetHack using SDL Falcon's Eye is a mouse-driven interface for NetHack that enhances the visuals, audio and accessibility of the game, yet retains all the original gameplay and game features. NetHack is a single player dungeon exploration game that runs on a wide variety of computer systems, with a variety of graphical and text interfaces all using the same game engine. Unlike many other Dungeons & Dragons-inspired games, the emphasis in NetHack is on discovering the detail of the dungeon and not simply killing everything in sight - in fact, killing everything in sight is a good way to die quickly. Each game presents a different landscape - the random number generator provides an essentially unlimited number of variations of the dungeon and its denizens to be discovered by the player in one of a number of characters: you can pick your race, your role, and your gender. 
do nothing, unsuccessfully 
False login shell Strange kind of 'shell' which don't let the user to log in. Before the next login prompt falselogin gives some info to the user. 
FAM, the File Alteration Monitor, provides a daemon and an API which applications can use for notification of changes in specific files ordirectories. 
File Alteration Monitor FAM monitors files and directories, notifying interested applications of changes. This package provides a server that can monitor a given list of files and notify applications through a socket. If the imon pseudo device driver is loaded into the kernel, it notifies FAM. Otherwise it has to poll the files' status. FAM can also provide a RPC service for monitoring remote files (such as on a mounted NFS filesystem). 
FORMEX Applied to Multilingualism in Europe (SGML, Europe) 
Familiar (iPAQ)
The Familiar Project is composed of a group of loosely knit developers all contributing to creating the next generation of PDA OS. Currently, most development time is geared towards producing a stable, and full featured Linux distribution for the Compaq iPAQ h3600-series of handheld computers, as well as apps to run on top of the distribution. Familiar v0.5.3 was released July 11, 2002. Familiar v0.6.1 was released January 9, 2003. 
Floating gate Avalanche injection Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Fast Amsterdam MultiProcessor 
Flow Attribute Notification Protocol (Toshiba, RFC 2129) 
Family Application Programmer Interface (DOS, VDM, API) 
/F-A-Q/ or /fak/ n. [Usenet] 1. A Frequently Asked Question. 2. A compendium of accumulated lore, posted periodically to high-volume newsgroups in an attempt to forestall such questions. Some people prefer the term `FAQ list' or `FAQL' /fa'kl/, reserving `FAQ' for sense 1. This lexicon itself serves as a good example of a collection of one kind of lore, although it is far too big for a regular FAQ posting. Examples: "What is the proper type of NULL?" and "What's that funny name for the # character?" are both Frequently Asked Questions. Several FAQs refer readers to this file. 
An Acronym for Frequently Asked Questions, these are lists of questions that occur frequently on Usenet newsgroups, they are posted at regular intervals and archived at several sites. You should always read the FAQ (if there is one) for a group before posting a message, or risk being flamed. 
Frequently Asked Questions (slang, Usenet) 
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
FAQs are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over. 
Online interactive FAQ CGI Creates updatable web-based FAQs with CGI. It keeps cumulative statistics about hits. Highly customizable to permit only those you choose to update the FAQ, or to allow anyone to change it depending on your requirements. It will also generate a cache of static pages if desired so that most accesses to unchanging data will be served directly through your webserver without the overhead of CGI. If you want to generate graphs of access statistics, install the libgd-perl package as well. 
False Acception Rate 
Fixed Alternative Routing (SNI) 
Flow Admission Request [message] (LFAP) 
Federation of American Research NETworks (network) 
Flow Admission Service 
Fast Analysis of Shared Multidimensional Information (OLAP) 
First Application System Test 
Forschungsinstitut fuer Angewandte Software-Technologie [e.v.] (org.) 
[Biology] A tool for construction of phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences fastDNAml is a program derived from Joseph Felsenstein's version 3.3 DNAML (part of his PHYLIP package). Users should consult the documentation for DNAML before using this program. fastDNAml is an attempt to solve the same problem as DNAML, but to do so faster and using less memory, so that larger trees and/or more bootstrap replicates become tractable. Much of fastDNAml is merely a recoding of the PHYLIP 3.3 DNAML program from PASCAL to C. URL: 
Jar creation utility Replacement for Suns .jar creation program. It is written in C instead of java and is tons faster. It is currently not complete. 
[Biology] A faster version of pedigree programs of Linkage Fastlink is much faster than the original Linkage but does not implement all the programs. 
File Allocation Table (DOS) 
see file allocation table (FAT). 
FAT (File allocation table)
A hidden table of every cluster on a floppy or hard disk. The FAT records how files are stored in distinct - and not necessarily contiguous - clusters. Viruses also like to hide out in the FAT; make sute youur virus-checking software loooks there for malicious programs. A file allocation table uses a simple method, much like a scavenger hunt, to keep track of data. The directory file stores the address of the file's first cluster. In the entry for the second cluster is the address of the third cluster, and so on, until the last cluster entry, which contains an end-of0-file code. Because this table provides only a menas for finding data on a disk, DOS creates and maintains two copies of the FAT in case one is damaged. 
Fatal error
An error in a program that, at best causes the program to abort, and, at worst causes a crash with losss of data. Bulletproff programs are supposed to be immune to fatal errors, but they usually are not. 
Software that is so laden with features, or is designed so inefficiently, that it monopolizes huge chunks of hard disk space, random-access memory (RAM), and microprocesssor power. Fatware is one of the undesirable result of creeping featurism. 
Flow Admission Update [message] (LFAP) 
Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet (org., Erlangen, Germany, Nuernberg, Germany) 
Backup System using a Filesystem for Storage This Program uses a filesystem on a hard drive for incremental and full backups. All Backups can easily be accessed by standard filesystem tools (ls, find, grep, cp, ...) Later Backups to the same filesystem will automatically be incremental, as unchanged files are only hard-linked with the existing version of the file. 
Fault tolerance
The capability of a computer system to cope with internal hardware problems without interrupting the system's performance, often by automatically bringing backup systems online whenever computers are assigned critical functions, such as guiding aircraft to a safe landing or ensuring a steady flow of medicines to a patient. Fault tolerance also is beneficial for non-critical everyday applications. 
Forschungsinstitut fuer Anwendungsorientierte Wissensverarbeitung (org., KI, Ulm) 
Fiber optic Backbone 
FarbBild-AustastSystem / Farb-Bild-Austast-Synchron-signal (video) 
Packet radio mailbox and utilities. The fbb package contains software written by f6fbb for setting up a packet radio mailbox. It is intended for amateur radio operators. A short overview of some of the binaries: o fbb: Script to start the daemon. o xfbbd: The daemon which listens for incoming connects. o epurmess: Delete messages based on age. o epurwp: White Pages maintenance. o reqdir: FBB server which requests directory listings. o xfbbC: B/W Ncurses console for xfbbd. 
Documentation for fbb, the packet radio mailbox This package provides documentation on setting up a packet radio mailbox with fbb. 
A console getty with and without frame buffer capability fbgetty is a console getty, which supports frame buffers. It also uses an extend issue field and refreshes the displayed issue, when an VT (Virtual Terminal) is activated. 
linux FrameBuffer Imageviewer This is a image viewer for linux framebuffer devices. It has buildin support for a number of common formats. For unknown files it tries to use convert from the ImageMagick package as external converter. 
Frame Burst error Length (CD) 
Converts images to framebuffer-logo header file fblogo takes an image as input and generates an appropriate linux_logo.h which can simply be included in the kernel. It will be displayed when the framebuffer device is enabled. You can also use it to generate full screen splash screens for the Linux Progress Patch. It will work for 2.2.x, 2.4.x and 2.5.x kernels. 
Flexible Buffer Management (QMS) 
Flexible Bandwidth Service (ATM, SDH) 
Fbset is a utility for maintaining frame buffer resolutions. Fbsetcan change the video mode properties of a frame buffer device, and is usually used to change the current video mode. Install fbset if you need to manage frame buffer resolutions. 
Framebuffer device maintenance program. Program to modify settings for the framebuffer devices (/dev/fb?) on Linux, like depth, virtual resolution, timing parameters etc. This program is useful for all Linux/m68k kernel versions, and for late 2.1 kernels on most other architectures. 
linux console (fbcon) TV application TV application for the linux console, requires a framebuffer device (vesafb, matroxfb, atyfb, ...) and a video4linux driver like bttv. 
Federal Criteria [for information technology security] (NIST, USA) 
Feedback Control 
Fibre Channel 
Frame Control (FDDI, Token Ring) 
Flow Control Ack (DLSW) 
Fibre Channel - Arbitrated Loop, "FC-AL" 
Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security [management areas] 
File Control Block (DOS) 
File Control BlockS (DOS) 
Federal Communications Commission (org., USA) 
Forward Carbon Copy (DFUe) 
Frequency Correction CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Fundacao para a Computacao Cientifica Nacional (org., Portugal) 
Floating Car Data 
The default editor for the fc builtin command. 
First Come, First Served 
IDS filesystem baseline integrity checker. The fcheck utility is an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) which can be used to monitor changes to any given filesystem. Essentially, fcheck has the ability to monitor directories, files or complete filesystems for any additions, deletions, and modifications. It is configurable to exclude active log files, and can be ran as often as needed from the command line or cron making it extremely difficult to circumvent. 
Fibre Channel Interface 
Flow Control Indicator (DLSW) 
Forward Cache Identifier (CATNIP) 
Free media files for FreeCraft. These are a set of free sounds and graphics for FreeCraft, a clone of the realtime fantasy strategy game, WarCraft II, from Blizzard Entertainment. These files come from the FreeCraft Media Project, reachable at . Note that this version contains almost all the files needed for a fair game experience, and has not anything to do with WarCraft II data (in fact spoofs it), as it's completely free. This is the last stable snapshot from the CVS repository. 
Flow Control Operator Bits (DLSW) 
[SCSI-3] Fibre Channel Protocol (SAM) 
Flip Chip Pin Grid Array (CPU), "FC-PGA" 
Fibre Channel PHysical and signaling interface (SAM), "FC-PH" 
Flow Change Request [message] (LFAP) 
cron-like scheduler with extended capabilities Fcron is a scheduler. It implements most of Vixie Cron's functionalities. But contrary to Vixie Cron, fcron does not need your system to be up 7 days a week, 24 hours a day: it also works well with systems which are running neither all the time nor regularly. Fcron also includes a useful system of options, such as: run jobs one by one, run jobs at fcron's startup if they should have been run during system down time, a better management of the mailing of outputs, set a nice value for a job... 
Fast Circuit Switching 
First Customer Ship (IBM) 
Frame Check Sequence (FDDI, Token Ring) 
Frame Check Sum (MODEM) 
Fd Linux
Fd Linux is a very tiny floppy distribution of Linux, set to fit on one floppy disk (kernel and root fs are combined!). All binaries are based on Red Hat. Version 2.1-0 was released March 12, 2002. Version 3.0-0 was released March 10, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
C malloc debug library Provides routines that can be plugged in to replace malloc(), realloc(), calloc(), and free(). If you're not debugging, and an allocation fails, FDA will call user supplied callbacks to allow you to free up some memory or shut down the program cleanly -- this means you don't have to check the return values from malloc if you don't want to. For debugging FDA provides a nice toolkit for validating pointers, checking for leaks, gathering memory statistics, bounds checking and other nice things. FDA uses shredding, prefix and postfix signatures, and a liberal amount of predicate asserts. 
Functional Data ADministrator 
Floppy Disk Controller (FDD) 
A console-base lightweight file manager FD(FD represents "File and Directory") is an easy-to-use file management tool for Un*x newbies. As its name shows, this is a rewrite from scratch - the original version was written by Atsushi Idei for MS-DOS(tm) and once very popular in Japan. Messages are available either in English or in Japanese. 
Fast Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) 
Floppy Disk Drive 
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (ANSI, ISO 8314) 
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as 10-BaseTEthernet, about twice as fast as T-3). See also: Ethernet, T-3 
FDDI Twisted Pair-Physical layer, Medium Dependent, "FDDI TP-PMD" 
Full Duplex Ethernet (ethernet) 
Full Duplex EtherSwitch (Kalpana) 
A disk-flushing program. fdflush is a band-aid for floppy (or other) drivers with bad disk-change sensing. fdflush makes the system believe the disk-change switch has been triggered forcing the system to discard the buffered data. If you have one of these slightly-broken disk drives, you'll have to run fdflush every time you change a disk 
Low-level formats a floppy disk 
[fachverband der ] Fuehrungskraefte der Druckindustrie und Informationsverarbeitung (org.) 
Partition table manipulator for Linux 
File Definition Language 
Free Documentation License (GNU) 
Floppy disk mount utility TQ 
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) 
Frequency Division Multiple Access (mobile-systems) 
Floppy disk mount utility TQ 
Floppy disk mount utility TQ 
Functional Device Object 
send raw commands to the floppy disk controller TQ 
Formal Description Technique 
Floppy disk mount utility TQ 
Identifies duplicate files within given directories. FDupes uses md5sums and then a byte by byte comparison to find duplicate files within a set of directories. It has several useful options including recursion. 
Linux floppy utilities This package contains utilities for configuring and debugging the Linux floppy driver, for formatting extra capacity disks (up to 1992K on a high density disk), for sending raw commands to the floppy controller, for automatic floppy disk mounting and unmounting, etc. Author: Released-date: 1999-07-03 Keywords: floppy 2m xdf superformat floppycontrol fdrawcmd URL: 
configure the suid bit of fdmount 
Full DupleX 
Forschung und Entwicklung, "F&E" 
Functional Entity (IN) 
Functional Entity Action (IN, UNI) 
Fast Data Encipherment Algorithm (DES, cryptography) 
Fast Data Enciphering Algorithm (cryptography) 
Far End Block Error (SONET) 
Forward Error Correction (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (ATM) 
imlib2 based image viewer feh is a fast, lightweight image viewer which uses imlib2. It is commandline-driven and supports multiple images through slideshows, thumbnail browsing or multiple windows, and montages or index prints (using truetype fonts to display file info). Advanced features include fast dynamic zooming, progressive loading, loading via HTTP (with reload support for watching webcams), recursive file opening (slideshow of a directory hierarchy), and mousewheel/keyboard control. 
Fujitsu Enhanced Imaging Technology (Fujitsu) 
File Encryption Key (cryptography) 
Package for introductory level finite element analysis. FElt is a free system for introductory level finite element analysis. It is primarily intended as a teaching tool for introductory type courses in finite elements - probably in the mechanical/structural/civil fields. In a command line environment, FElt uses an intuitive, straightforward input syntax to describe problems. It also includes a graphical user interface for workstations that allows the user to set-up, solve and post-process the problem in a single CAD-like environment. 
Finite Elemente Methode 
Free-net Erlangen/Nuernberg 
Front End Processor 
Forward Error Correction (satellite) 
Far End Receive Failure (UNI, ATM, SONET, OAM) 
Ferite programming language Ferite is a language that incorporates the design philosophies of other languages, but without many of their drawbacks. It has strong similiarities to perl, python, C, Java and pascal, while being both lightweight, modular, and embeddable. This package contains the ferite language interpreter. 
maintain and setup complicated firewall rules ferm allows one to reduce the tedious task of carefully inserting rules and chains by a large factor, thus enabling the firewall administrator to spend more time on developing good rules then the proper implementation of the rule. ferm supports ipchains firewalls, ipfwadm rules and iptables firewalls. Changing to another system will be very easy, and ferm will help in the process. ferm compiles ready to go firewall-rules from a structured rule- setup. These rules will be executed by the preferred kernel interface, such as ipchains(8) and iptables(8). ferm will also add in modularizing firewalls, because it creates the possibility to split up the firewall into several different files, which can be reloaded at will, so you can dynamically adjust your rules. ferm, pronounced "firm", stands for "For Easy Rule Making". 
Federacion Espanola de Sociedades de Informatica (org., Spain) 
speech synthesis system Festival is a general multi-lingual speech synthesis system. It offers a full text to speech system with various APIs, as well an environment for development and research of speech synthesis techniques. It includes a Scheme-based command interpreter. Besides research into speech synthesis, festival is useful as a stand-alone speech synthesis program. It is capable of producing clearly understandable speech from text. 
Field Effect Transistor 
Fetchmail is a remote mail retrieval and forwarding utility intended for use over on-demand TCP/IP links, like SLIP or PPP connections. Fetchmail supports every remote-mail protocol currently in use on the Internet (POP2, POP3, RPOP, APOP, KPOP, all IMAPs, ESMTP ETRN, IPv6,and IPSEC) for retrieval. Then Fetchmail forwards the mail through SMTP so you can read it through your favorite mail client. Install fetchmail if you need to retrieve mail over SLIP or PPP connections. 
POP3, APOP, IMAP mail gatherer/forwarder (crypto-crippled binary) fetchmail is a free, full-featured, robust, and well-documented remote mail retrieval and forwarding utility intended to be used over on-demand TCP/IP links (such as SLIP or PPP connections). It retrieves mail from remote mail servers and forwards it to your local (client) machine's delivery system, so it can then be read by normal mail user agents such as mutt, elm, pine, (x)emacs/gnus, or mailx. The fetchmailconf package includes an interactive GUI configurator suitable for end-users. Kerberos IV & V, RPA, OPIE and GSSAPI support are available if the package is recompiled. SSL is provided by the fetchmail-ssl package. 
Form(ular) Feed 
File Format API (MS, API) 
Fully Formed Character [printer] 
First Failure Data Capture 
FDDI Full Duplexing Technology (FDDI) 
a secure finger daemon ffingerd is a secure fingerd replacement. This version of the finger daemon is invoked by inetd, but it's not meant to be run as root. Requests that may indicate attacks are logged by ffinger through the syslog(3) facility. 
FDDI Follow-On-LAN 
Fallback Fault-tolerant Server (IBM, OS/2) 
Fast File System (Amiga, Commodore) 
Fast Filing System (BSD, Unix) 
Flexible Fertigungs-Systeme 
First Failure Support Technology /2 (IBM), "FFST/2" 
Final Form Text 
Library for computing Fast Fourier Transforms This library computes Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) in one or more dimensions. It is extremely fast. This package contains the shared library version of the fftw libraries in double precision. To get the static library and the header files you need to install fftw-dev. 
A built-in shell command that will take a suspended process and run it in the foreground.
Future Graphics Adapter (Spea) 
print the number of the active VT. 
Fifth Generation Computer Systems [project] (ICOT) 
Flight Gear Flight Simulator -- base files Flight Gear is a free and highly sophisticated flight simulator. This package contains graphics, sounds, aircraft models, and the minimum scenery you need to start Flight Gear. 
Fixed Global Regular Expression Print (Unix, GREP) 
print lines matching a pattern 
FreeHand Graphics Studio (Macromedia, DTP) 
File history, comparison and merge utilities The fhist package contains 3 utilities fhist - a file history tool fcomp - a file comparison tool fmerge - a file merging tool All three are bundled together, because they all use the same minimal-difference algorithm. 
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (WLAN) 
Fiberoptic Industry Association (org.) 
Fiber Optic Cable
The transport fibres of glass or plastic that are enclosed by material of a lower index of refraction and that transmit light throughout their length by internal reflections. These fibres are bundled into cables and are capable of transmitting very large amounts of digital information (data) in both directions with very little loss in signal quality. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
First International Computer [inc.] (manufacturer) 
File IDentifier (APDU) 
File Identifier Descriptor (UDF, CD-R) 
Gnome Hotline client. For more info on what Hotline is, see <>. Essentially it is a file-sharing and communication protocol that lets you share your files, post messages, and chat realtime. 
FIlter Device Object, "FiDO" 
Gateway Fido <-> Internet Fidogate is a Fido-Internet gateway and a Fido tosser. The gateway converts between the worlds of Fido NetMail/EchoMail (or FTNs, Fido Technology Networks in general) and the UNIX mail/news system. FIDOGATE will convert Fido mail packets to RFC822/1036-style messages and vice versa. FIDOGATE also includes a complete FIDO mail processor (NetMail/EchoMail scanner and tosser), an FTN-FTN gateway (NetMail only), a file processor (TIC file areas) and an Areafix/Filefix. Supports the Gatebau 94 standard. 
A set of data exchange standards and procedures that permit privately operated copmuter bulletin board systems (BBSs) to exchange data, files, and electronic mail internationally, using the world telephone syste. At an agreed-on time when telephone rates are low, subscribing BBSs send e-mail messages and files to a regional host, which in turn distributes them to other bulletin boards. Responses, or echoes eventually find their way back to the host bulletin board. A popular Fidonet feature is EchoMail, a set of moderated conferences that cover a variety of popular subjects, such as Star Trek, model aircraft, and political issues. 
In text-processing, a segment of a line of text that may be named and processed by a program. The sort program can use fields when it sorts lines in a file. In Linux, fields are usually separated by spaces or tab. 
field separator
A character, also called a delimiter, that is used to separate one field from another. The default field separator for many programs, such as sort, is a blank space (or a tab). 
Fractal Interchange Format 
Forum Informatikerinnen Fuer den Frieden (org.) 
First In First Out (CPU) 
fifteen pieces puzzle for KDE An applet for the KDE panel that lets you play the Fifteen Pieces sliding block puzzle. You have to order 15 pieces in a 4x4 square by moving them around. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
Forth Interest Group (org., Forth) 
Frank, Ian & Glenn's Letters Figlet is a program that creates large characters out of ordinary screen characters. It can create characters in many different styles and can kern and "smush" these characters together in various ways. Figlet output is generally reminiscent of the sort of "signatures" many people like to put at the end of e-mail and Usenet messages. 
Frank, Ian and Glenn's LETters (ASCII, fonts) 
an X11 vector graphics drawing program figurine is an X drawing program that is compatible with the xfig application. figurine is intended to be easier to use than xfig, while providing a similar set of features. 
A document or other collection of information stored on a disk and identified as a unit by a unique name. When you save a file, the disk may scatter the data among dozens or even hundreds of noncontiguous clusters. The file allocation table (FAT) is an index of the order in which those clusters are linked to equal a file. To the user, however files appear as units on disk directories and are retreived and copied as units. 
A piece of data stored as a single addressable object on a file system. Files can be executable, text or binary-based, and can also represent computer system hardware to be controlled by the operating system. 
Determines file type using "magic" numbers File tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. There are three sets of tests, performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic number tests, and language tests. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. 
Free Internet Lexicon and Encyclopedia (WWW, DICT) 
The file command is used to identify a file according to the type of data it contains. File can identify many different file types, including ELF binaries, system libraries, RPM packages, and different graphics formats. 
The file command is used to identify a particular file according to thetype of data contained by the file. File can identify many different file types, including ELF binaries, system libraries, RPM packages, and different graphics formats. You should install the file package, since the file command is such a useful utility. 
file allocation table (FAT)
A special file located in sector 0 on a disk that contains information about the sizes and locations of files stored on a disk. 
File attribute
A hidden code, stored with a file's directory, that contains the file's read-only or archive status and whether the file is a system, hidden, or directory archive. See archive attribute, hidden file, loacked file, and read-only attribute. 
File compression utility
A utility program, such as PKZIP, StuffIt or DriveSpace, that compresses and decompresses infrequently used files so that they take up to 40 to 90 percent less rooom on a hard disk. You use another utilit to decompress a file. Specialty file compression utilities that compress only certain types of files, such as downloadable font files, are also available. These programs usually load a special driver that remains in memory to decompress and recompress the files as needed. See archive, bulletin board system (BBSs), and compressed file. 
File conversion utility
A utility program that converts text or graphoics files created with one program to the file format used by another program. The best application programs now include a conversion utility that can handle a dozen or more file formats. 
file extension
In filenames, the group of letters after the period is called the file extension.
File format
The patterns and standards that a program uses to store data on disk. Few programs store data in ASCII format. Most use a proprietry file format that other programs cannot read, ensuring that customers continue to use the company's progam and enabling the progammers to include special features that standard formats might not allow. See file conversion utilitu and native file format. 
File fragmentattion
The allocation of a file in noncontiguoug sectors on a floppy or hard disk. Fragmentation occues because of multiple file delections and write operations. File gramentattion can seriously reduce disk efficiency, because a disk drive's rad/write head must travel longer distances to retreive a file that's scattered all over the disk. Defragmenting can improve disk efficiency by as much as 50 percent by rewriting files so that they are placed in contiguous clusters. See defragmentation. 
File Locking
Often, one would like a process to have exclusive access to a file. By this we mean that only one process can access the file at any one time. Consider a mail folder: if two processes were to write to the folder simultaneously, it could become corrupted. We also sometimes want to ensure that a program can never be run twice at the same time; this insurance is another use for ``locking.'' In the case of a mail folder, if the file is being written to, then no other process should try read it or write to it: and we would like to create a write lock on the file. However if the file is being read from, no other process should try to write to it: and we would like to create a read lock on the file. Write locks are sometimes called exclusive locks; read locks are sometimes called shared locks. Often, exclusive locks are preferred for simplicity. Locking can be implemented by simply creating a temporary file to indicate to other processes to wait before trying some kind of access. UNIX also has some more sophisticated builtin functions. 
File locking
On a network, a method of concurrency control that ensures the integrity of data. File locking prevents moe than one user from accessing and altering a file at the same time. See Local Area Network (LAN). 
File Manager
software that allows you to select, copy, move, and open files and directories in a graphical environment. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux Examples of file managers on Linux include konqueror for KDE and mc (Midnight Commander). The Windows equivalent would be Windows Explorer. From Binh
file name
The name given to a file to distinguish one piece of data from others. Modern operating systems such as Red Hat Linux allow long and descriptive file names with few restrictions (for example, all alphanumeric characters and spaces are allowed). 
File Ownerships
Each file on a system is owned by a particular user and also owned by a particular group. When you run ls -al, you can see the user that owns the file in the third column and the group that owns the file in the fourth column (these will often be identical, indicating that the file's group is a group to which only the user belongs). To change the ownership of the file, simply use the chown, change ownerships, command as follows. chown <user>[:<group>] <filename> 
file server
A process that provides access to a file from remote devices. 
File server
In a Local Area Network (LAN), a computer that stoes on its hard disk the application programs and data files for all workstations in the network. In a peer-to-peer network, all workstations act as file servers, because each workstattion can provide files to other workstations. In the more common client/server architecure, a single, high-powered machine with a huge hard disk is set aside to functino as the file server for all the workstations (clients) in the network. See Network Operating System (NOS). 
File System
A set of programs that tells an operating system how to access and interpret the contents of a disk or tape drive, or other storage medium. Common file systems include: FAT and FAT-32 (DOS/Windows), HPFS (OS/2), NFS, NTFS (Windows NT/2000), and others. 
file system
The method in which an operating system organizes and manages files. Red Hat Linux uses a hierarchical file system in which files are stored in directories and subdirectories. 
file system
the physical or logical device that holds a collection of files and directories. This might be a hard disk drive or a partition on a disk drive. 
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A protocol used for transferring files between machines on networks such as LANs and the Internet. In a typical FTP session, a client logs onto an FTP server, views directory listings, and downloads files from the server. FTP sessions can either be anonymous or require authentication for access. 
file type
A description of the function of a file. These types include ordinary files, directories, and special files, which represent devices in the system. 
kanji code checker This package contains file2. File2 tests each argument in an attempt to classify it to JIS, EUC, SJIS, ascii and UNKNOWN. 
Alternative boot mechanism using a single configuration file This package provides an alternative mechanism to boot the system, to shut it down and to change runlevels. The /etc/rc?.d/* links will be converted into one single configuration file /etc/runlevel.conf instead, which is easier to administrate than symlinks, and is also more flexible. The package will automatically convert your existing symlinks into the file method on installation, and convert the file back into symlinks on removal. Both mechanisms are compatible through /etc/init.d/rc, /etc/init.d/rcS, /usr/sbin/update-rc.d, and /usr/sbin/invoke-rc.d scripts. 
File Roller is an archive manager for the GNOME environment. This means that you can : create and modify archives; view the content of an archive; view afile contained in the archive; extract files from the archive. File Roller is only a front-end (a graphical interface) to archiving programs like tar and zip. The supported file types are : Tar archives uncompressed (.tar) or compressed with gzip (.tar.gz , .tgz), bzip ( , .tbz), bzip2 (.tar.bz2 , .tbz2), compress (.tar.Z , .taz), lzop (.tar.lzo , .tzo), Zip archives (.zip), Jar archives (.jar , .ear , .war), Lha archives (.lzh), Rar archives (.rar), Single files compressed with gzip, bzip, bzip2, compress, lzop 
allows you to configure how files of various types should be handled. 
A directory navigation GNOME applet. File Menu Applet is a small GNOME panel application which creates a file manager. File Menu Applet is not designed to replace your existing file manager, but instead work with it. It supports standard drag and drop, GNOME file types, and Nautilus icons. One may use it for small tasks such a easily attaching files to emails in Evolution or Sylpheed by dragging them out of File Menu Applet into the composer window. It's also excellent for selecting songs to play from your MP3 or OGG collection. 
A unique name assigned to a file when the file is written on a disk. 
X-Based FTP program & file manager FileRunner is an X-Based FTP program. It gives you a windowed view of files on your local system and a remote system. It allows transferring multiple files at once, tagging of files, etc. 
Common to every computer system invented is the file. A file holds a single contiguous block of data. Any kind of data can be stored in a file, and there is no data that cannot be stored in a file. Furthermore, there is no kind of data that is stored anywhere else except in files. A file holds data of the same type, for instance, a single picture will be stored in one file. During production, this book had each chapter stored in a file. It is uncommon for different types of data (say, text and pictures) to be stored together in the same file because it is inconvenient. A computer will typically contain about 10,000 files that have a great many purposes. Each file will have its own name. The file name on a LINUX or UNIX machine can be up to 256 characters long. 
The methods and data structures that an operating system uses to keep track of files on a disk or partition; the way the files are organized on the disk. Also used to describe a partition or disk that is used to store the files or the type of the filesystem. From Linux Administrator's Guide
Small utility to keep track of changes in config files. FileTraq is just a shell script that reads a list of files to watch, runs diff against each file and its backup, and reports any discrepancies, along with keeping a dated backup of the original. It's designed to be run as a cron job. 
GNU file management utilities This package contains the essential system utilities to manipulate files on your system. Included in this package are commands to change the permissions on files, list the files in a directory, create new directories, and list free disk space, among other things. The specific utilities included are: chgrp chmod chown cp dd df dir dircolors du install ln ls mkdir mkfifo mknod mv rm rmdir shred touch vdir sync. 
The fileutils package includes a number of GNU versions of common andpopular file management utilities. Fileutils includes the following tools: chgrp (changes a file's group ownership), chown (changes a file's ownership), chmod (changes a file's permissions), cp (copies files), dd (copies and converts files), df (shows a filesystem's diskusage), dir (gives a brief directory listing), dircolors (the setup program for the color version of the ls command), du (shows disk usage), install (copies files and sets permissions), ln (creates file links), ls (lists directory contents), mkdir (creates directories),mkfifo (creates FIFOs or named pipes), mknod (creates special files),mv (renames files), rm (removes/deletes files), rmdir (removes empty directories), sync (synchronizes memory and disk), touch (changes file timestamps), and vdir (provides long directory listings). 
Simple game in Java Filler is a simple two-player game written in java. The object of the game is to conquer more area of the playing board than your opponent. This game requires a java 2 runtime environment. Try or 
First In Last Out 
A program that filters local email via forward/pipe filter is one of the original mailfiltering programs written for UNIX. (originally a part of the 'elm' mailer) Install it via a pipe(|) reference in $HOME/.forward, and let it separate your incoming email into different personal mailboxes. 
A program that reads data (from a file, program output or command line entry) as input, processes it according to a set of predefined conditions (for example, sorted alphabetically) and outputs the processed data. Some filters include Awk, Grep, Sed and Sort. 
A program that takes a set of data (usually in a file) as input, processes the data, and makes the processed data its output. Some examples of filters include grep, sort, awk, and sed. 
Any utility program that functions automatically to screen data. In electronic mail, you can use a filter to delete unwanted messages automatically. 
Hardware or software designed to restrict access to certain areas on the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
A filtering proxy, which can among other things remove ads. FilterProxy is a Perl script that acts as a generic web proxy. It is unique in that it allows "Modules" to be installed that can perform arbitrary transformations on HTML(or any other mime-type). Currently it filters ads, and compresses HTML content (for a 5-1 speedup on modems!) Configuration is done with web forms. 
a collection of filters, including B1FF and the Swedish Chef A collection of filters to do all sorts of strange things to text. This includes such favorites as B1FF and the Swedish Chef, and a wide range of others. 
Financial Institution Message Authentication Standard (banking, ANSI) 
search for files in a directory hierarchy 
translate find command lines to Perl code 
Interactive spelling checking 
Finds visually similar or duplicate images findimagedupes is a commandline utility which performs a rough "visual diff" to two images. This allows you to compare two images or a whole tree of images and determine if any are similar or identical. The program can optionally export a GQView compatible collection file, so you can deal with the duplicates visually. On common image types, findimagedupes seems to be around 98% accurate. 
The findutils package contains programs which will help you locatefiles on your system. The find utility searches through a hierarchy of directories looking for files which match a certain set of criteria(such as a filename pattern). The locate utility searches a database (create by updatedb) to quickly find a file matching a given pattern. The xargs utility builds and executes command lines from standard input arguments (usually lists of file names generated by the findcommand). You should install find utils because it includes tools that are very useful for finding things on your system. 
The findutils package contains programs which will help you locatefiles on your system. The find utility searches through a hierarchy of directories looking for files which match a certain set of criteria (such as a filename pattern). The xargs utility builds and executescommand lines from standard input arguments (usually lists of filenames generated by the find command). 
utilities for finding files--find, xargs, and locate These utilities find files meeting specified criteria and perform various actions on the files which are found. 
A Unix command that provides information about users logged in, and can also be used to retrieve the .plan and .project files from a users home directory. 
A user information lookup program that shows a person's full name, most recent log-in time, and other information. 
An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do. 
An Internet utility that enables you to obtain information about a use who has an electronic mail addrss. Normally, this infromation is limited to the person's full name, job titile, and address. However, the use can set up finger to retrieve one or more text files that contain information (such as a resume) that the user wants to make public. 
Finger is a utility that displays information about system users (login name, home directory, name, how long they have been logged in, etc.). The finger package includes a standard finger client. You should install finger if you would like to retrieve finger information from other systems. 
In UNIX, the finger service provides information about a users. Fingering a user, such as running the command "finger", will often display the contents of the .plan file. Fingering no specific user, such as finger, will list all the users who are logged on. Fingering users is often done during the reconnaissance phase of an attack. Example: The following shows the output of the command "finger": Login: rob Name: Robert David Graham Directory: /home/rob Shell: /bin/bash On since Fri Dec 3 18:13 (PST) on ttyp0 from gemini No mail. No Plan Key point: The finger command reveals extensive information. For example, if I were attacking the above machine, I would notice that the user is running bash Therefore, I may try something like against the user, which in about 1% of the cases will give me a history file of recent commands they've entered, which may contain passwords and such. Key point: There are a number of fun things you can do with finger. The first is that you can use the "finger bounce" technique. Finger servers will often forward requests for you. The command: finger will query for You can use this technique to hide where your are coming from. On some systems, you can do a DoS attack by sending a finger command like: finger causing the system to go into a loop trying to resolve this. There are also special names you can finger. An empty name will sometimes list the currently logged on users, or sometimes all users with accounts on a machine. The special names of "0", "*", "**" will sometimes have similar effects. 
User information lookup program. finger displays information about the system users. 
[WAITS, via BSD Unix] 1. n. A program that displays information about a particular user or all users logged on the system, or a remote system. Typically shows full name, last login time, idle time, terminal line, and terminal location (where applicable). May also display a plan file left by the user (see also Hacking X for Y). 2. vt. To apply finger to a username. 3. vt. By extension, to check a human's current state by any means. "Foodp?" "T!" "OK, finger Lisa and see if she's idle." 4. Any picture (composed of ASCII characters) depicting `the finger'. Originally a humorous component of one's plan file to deter the curious fingerer (sense 2), it has entered the arsenal of some flamers. 
Finger is a utility that displays information about system users(login name, home directory, name, how long they've been logged in,etc.). The finger-server package includes a standard finger server. 
Remote user information server. Fingerd is a simple daemon based on RFC1196 that provides an interface to the "finger" program at most network sites. The program is supposed to return a friendly, human-oriented status report on either the system at the moment or a particular person in depth. 
A common scan hackers perform nowadays is fingerprinting a system in order to figure out what operating system it is running. The two main types of fingerprinting are Queso, which sends weird TCP flags, and nmap, which sends weird TCP options. Narrowing down the operating system is important. For example, attempting Windows-specific hacks against a UNIX system is pointless. Fingerprinting is possible because the TCP/IP specifications do not fully define the behavior of a protocol stack. Therefore, by sending unusual (undefined) network traffic at a system, the hacker will receive responses unique to that system. Key point: One of the key reasons for fingerprinting a system is to search for "old" or "unusual" systems. Non-computer devices like routers, printers, modem banks, etc. are not written to the same level of security standards as real computers. In addition, a hacker may be able to find old SunOS 4 systems which are rife with well-known security flaws. 
Finnix is a self-contained, bootable Linux CD distribution, based on Red Hat Linux 6.1. Finnix was created as a system maintenance distribution. You can mount hard drives, set up network devices, repair filesystems, and pretty much do anything you can do with a regular distribution. A CD-based distribution. 
Frame Input/Output Controller 
Facility Interface Processor 
Factory Instrumentation Protocol 
Fluorescent Indicator Panel 
Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (org., Agents) 
Federal Information Processing Standard (NIST, USA) 
Finite Impulse Response (DSP) 
FIRE is a portable bootable cdrom based distribution with the goal of providing an immediate environment to perform forensic analysis, incident response, data recovery, virus scanning and vulnerability assessment. The initial version (v. was released February 28, 2002. FIRElite v0.2b was released August 19, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
Flexible Intelligent Routing Engine (3Com) 
FireCast is a Linux-based software suite for building and managing interactive kiosk networks. It is designed for use with standard PC hardware, and bundles a tamper-resistant kiosk environment, customizable user interface, Web browser, and full multimedia support with a plug- and-play Linux operating system. It also includes a complete set of Web- based remote management and advertising control tools for scheduling content, monitoring device status, and creating and tracking ad campaigns. It requires no prior knowledge of Linux, and uses a familiar graphical interface for all administrative functions. This is a proprietary package, with a free trial. Version 2.0 was released August 31, 2002. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Firegate Server
The Firegate Server SMB Edition from Wiresoft is a self-managing server operating system designed for small and mid-sized businesses. It securely connects offices to the Internet and to each other, protecting valuable electronic information. Office staff can securely surf the web, send and receive email, host the company Web site, share files, host a customer database, and more. It is controlled through a simple Web browser or mobile telephone interface and managed by an artificial intelligence-based administration service. This package contains proprietary software. Version 7.1 was released September 25, 2002. A 'secured' distribution. 
gtk program for managing and observing your firewall. Firestarter is a complete firewall tool for Linux machines. It features an easy to use firewall wizard to quickly create a firewall. Using the program you can then open and close ports with a few clicks, or stealth your machine giving access only to a select few. The real-time hit monitor shows attackers probing your machine. Firestarter is made for the GNOME desktop. 
A combination of hardware and software that separates a Network into two or more parts for security purposes. 
A device that isolates a network from the Internet. The word is derived from construction, where "firewalls" isolate areas of a building in order to stop a fire from spreading. A firewall acts as a "choke point". Corporations install firewalls between their internal (private) networks and the (public) Internet. All traffic between the corporation and the Internet flows through the firewall. It acts as a "gate" with virtual guards that examines the traffic, and decided whether to allow it or block it. Misunderstanding: Many people believe that a firewall makes your network immune to hacker penetration. Firewalls have no ability to decide for themselves whether traffic is hostile or benign. Instead, the administrator must program the firewall with rules as to what type of traffic to allow or deny. This is similar to a guard checking badges at a gate: the guard can only detect if the badge is allowed/denied, but cannot detect impersonations or somebody climbing the fence in the back. Key point: Firewalls are based on the principle of blocking everything by default and only allowing those things that are absolutely necessary. Key point: Firewall administrators are frequently at odds with their management. Executives are frequently frustrated by things that don't work in the network. They don't understand how difficult it is to secure each new application, or the increased risks involved. Controversy: A lot of time is wasted on trying to come up with the exact definition of the word "firewall", usually by marketing flaks or nerds with attitude. The term isn't well defined. Most people equate firewalls with packet filters. Others include proxy servers and NATs along with the definition. Misunderstanding: A common question posed is "what is the best firewall?". People who ask the question mean "what stops hackers the best?". This is based upon the same misunderstanding highlighted above: firewalls isolate you from the Internet in the hopes of reducing exposure to hackers. The best firewall that will protect you best from hackers is therefore to completely isolate yourself from the Internet (i.e. don't use the Internet at all). If you want to use the Internet, then you will have some risk due to hackers that firewalls cannot prevent. For example, if you tell the firewall to accept incoming e-mail, then you are suddenly at risk to hacks against e-mail (either viruses, or attempts to force spam through your server). Therefore, the most secure firewall tends to be the cheapest, such as the basic packet filters built into most routers and operating systems. The more expensive firewalls allow you to secure more applications through the firewall, but the more features that you use, the more applications you expose, and ultimately the more risk you undertake. Misunderstanding: Some vendors are selling personal firewalls. This is based upon the misconception highlighted above: firewalls do not block hacker traffic, they are instead a (blunt) tool that allows security administrators to reduce risk. Putting packet filters in the hands of end-users doesn't give them the necessary expertise to secure their systems against hackers. There is also the issue that properly configuring a firewall is actually more difficult than hardening a single machine in the first place. It is only worthwhile because one firewall controls access to hundreds/thousands of machines. Putting a single firewall on a single machine isn't really worth the effort. 
a device that protects a private network from the public part (the internet as a whole). 
A firewall is a structure intended to keep a fire from spreading. Building have firewalls made of brick walls completely dividing sections of the building. In a car a firewall is the metal wall separating the engine and passenger compartments. Internet firewalls are intended to keep the flames of Internet hell out of your private LAN. Or, to keep the members of your LAN pure and chaste by denying them access the all the evil Internet temptations. ;-) The first computer firewall was a non-routing Unix host with connections to two different networks. One network card connected to the Internet and the other to the private LAN. To reach the Internet from the private network, you had to logon to the firewall (Unix) server. You then used the resources of the system to access the Internet. For example, you could use X-windows to run Netscape's browser on the firewall system and have the display on your work station. With the browser running on the firewall it has access to both networks. This sort of dual homed system (a system with two network connections) is great if you can TRUST ALL of your users. You can simple setup a Linux system and give an account accounts on it to everyone needing Internet access. With this setup, the only computer on your private network that knows anything about the outside world is the firewall. No one can download to their personal workstations. They must first download a file to the firewall and then download the file from the firewall to their workstation. BIG NOTE: 99% of all break-ins start with gaining account level access on the system being attacked. Because of this I don't recommend this type of firewall. It is also very limiting. 
A firewall is used on some networks to provide added security by blocking access to certain services in the private network from the rest of the internet, in the same way that a firewall in a building keeps fire from spreading, an internet firewall keeps hackers from spreading. 
A security procedure that places a specially progammed computer system between an organisation's Local Area Network (LAN) and the Internet. The firewall computer precents acrackes from accessing the internal network. Unfortunately, it also prevents the organisation's copmuter uses form gaining direct access to the Internet. The access the the firewall provides is indirect and mediated by programs called proxy servers. 
An access system that keeps unauthorized users from accessing resources on a local private network. 
firewall machine
n. A dedicated gateway machine with special security precautions on it, used to service outside network connections and dial-in lines. The idea is to protect a cluster of more loosely administered machines hidden behind it from crackers. The typical firewall is an inexpensive micro-based Unix box kept clean of critical data, with a bunch of modems and public network ports on it but just one carefully watched connection back to the rest of the cluster. The special precautions may include threat monitoring, callback, and even a complete iron box keyable to particular incoming IDs or activity patterns. Syn. flytrap, Venus flytrap. [When first coined in the mid-1980s this term was pure jargon. Now (1999) it is techspeak, and has been retained only as an example of uptake --ESR] 
Easy to use packet filter firewall (usually zero config) Firewall easy is a set of scripts to setup firewalling rules with ease of use in mind. Features: - It can be used at home, and in Intranet servers - Autodetection of IP, net/mask, and DNS servers in resolv.conf and in bind (cache-dns) - Configures masquerading so a network can be connected to Internet - interfaces and IP can be configured in /etc/firewall-easy.conf - rules are in a easy/portable language in /etc/firewall-easy-lib It has been designed to allow: - testing of rules offline using an alias IP of - multi-kernel usage (2.0 ipfwadm and 2.4 iptables easy to add) - firewall script is generated from a user-configured file 
Federal Information Resources Management Regulations (USA) 
/ferm'weir/ n. Embedded software contained in EPROM or flash memory. It isn't quite hardware, but at least doesn't have to be loaded from a disk like regular software. Hacker usage differs from straight techspeak in that hackers don't normally apply it to stuff that you can't possibly get at, such as the program that runs a pocket calculator. Instead, it implies that the firmware could be changed, even if doing so would mean opening a box and plugging in a new chip. A computer's BIOS is the classic example, although nowadays there is firmware in disk controllers, modems, video cards and even CD-ROM drives. 
Broadly, the system software stored in a computer's read-only memory (ROM) or elsewhere in the computer's circuitry, such as the basic input-output system (BIOS) chips in IBM PC-compatible computers. 
Programming that is inserted into programmable read-only memory (PROM), thus becoming a permanent part of a computing device. Firmware is created and tested like software (using microcode simulation). When ready, it can be distributed like other software and, using a special user interface, installed in the programmable read-only memory by the user. Firmware is sometimes distributed for printers, modems, and other computer devices. 
Federal Internet Requirements Panel (Internet, USA) 
ForschungsInstitut fuer Rechnerarchitektur und SoftwareTechnik (org., GMD, Berlin, Germany) 
Forum of Incident Response and SecuriTy (org., NIST) 
Failures In Time 
Functional Interpolating Transformation System 
Fingerprint Identification Unit (Sony) 
fixed width fonts
Look like typewriter text, because each character is the same width. This quality is desirable for something like a text editor or a computer console, but not desirable for the body text of a long document. See variable width fonts. 
Fix non-ANSI header files FixIncludes was created to fix non-ANSI system header files. Many system manufacturers supply proprietary headers that are not ANSI compliant. The GNU compilers cannot compile non-ANSI headers. Consequently, the FixIncludes shell script was written to fix the header files. Not all packages with header files are installed at gccs build time 
FachInformationsZentrum karlsruhe Org., Germany 
Foundation Kit (NextStep, OpenStep, Apple, Rhapsody) 
Implementation of KISekae Set System (KISS) for the X Window System. fkiss - French-KISS! - is a sample implementation of KISekae Set system (KISS) on X Window System. It will allow you to play KISS, a game similar to those traditional paper doll ones. Kisekae means "changing clothes". 
Fernmelde-Klein-Steckverbindung (Westernstecker) 
Fiber optic Link 
Free Lossless Audio Codec - command line tools FLAC stands for Free Lossless Audio Codec. Grossly oversimplified, FLAC is similar to MP3, but lossless. The FLAC project consists of: * The stream format * libFLAC, which implements a reference encoder, stream decoder, and file decoder * flac, which is a command-line wrapper around libFLAC to encode and decode .flac files * Input plugins for various music players (Winamp, XMMS, and more in the works) This package contains the command-line tool, flac 
Full Level Algol Checkout Compiler 
A variable that serves as an indicator about the stattus of a program or some data. A flag in a database record might be true if the other fields in the record show that a videotape is overdue, for example. 
n. [very common] A variable or quantity that can take on one of two values; a bit, particularly one that is used to indicate one of two outcomes or is used to control which of two things is to be done. "This flag controls whether to clear the screen before printing the message." "The program status word contains several flag bits." Used of humans analogously to bit. See also hidden flag, mode bit. 
An offensive or insulting e-mail or Usenet News message, often the result of an error in netiquette. 
FLexible API for Module-based Environments (RL, API) 
Lacking elaborate structure. A file system withoug subdirectories in which you can group files is said to be flat. Such systems have not been used since the earliest days of personal computing. 
Flat address space
A method of organising a computer's memoery so the operating system can allocate portions of the memory without restriction. The opposite of a flat addres space is the segmented memoey architecture of MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.1, which divide memory into 64K sections (called segments). A falt memory space design is more efficient because the processor does not have to map each momery address to a spsecific 64K segment, but such a design requires the use of 32-bit memoery addresses. Microsoft Windows 95, which emplys 32-bit memory addressesm creates a flat address space for your applications. 
n. 1. [common] Variety, type, kind. "DDT commands come in two flavors." "These lights come in two flavors, big red ones and small green ones." "Linux is a flavor of Unix" See vanilla. 2. The attribute that causes something to be flavorful. Usually used in the phrase "yields additional flavor". "This convention yields additional flavor by allowing one to print text either right-side-up or upside-down." See vanilla. This usage was certainly reinforced by the terminology of quantum chromodynamics, in which quarks (the constituents of, e.g., protons) come in six flavors (up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom) and three colors (red, blue, green) -- however, hackish use of `flavor' at MIT predated QCD. 3. The term for `class' (in the object-oriented sense) in the LISP Machine Flavors system. Though the Flavors design has been superseded (notably by the Common LISP CLOS facility), the term `flavor' is still used as a general synonym for `class' by some LISP hackers. 
examines source code and looks for security weaknesses Flawfinder searches through C/C++ source code looking for potential security flaws, ranking them by likely severity. Flawfinder intentionally works similarly to another program, ITS4, which is not open source. 
Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal 
Four Letter Extended Acronym 
Report a bug (or rather a flea) in mutt. 
A fast lexical analyzer generator. flex is a tool for generating scanners: programs which recognized lexical patterns in text. flex reads the given input files for a description of a scanner to generate. The description is in the form of pairs of regular expressions and C code, called rules. flex generates as output a C source file, lex.yy.c, which defines a routine yylex(). This file is compiled and linked with the -lfl library to produce an executable. When the executable is run, it analyzes its input for occurrences of the regular expressions. Whenever it finds one, it executes the corresponding C code. This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. The upstream source code can be found at 
fast lexical analyzer generator 
The flex program generates scanners. Scanners are programs which can recognize lexical patterns in text. Flex takes pairs of regular expressions and C code as input and generates a C source file as output. The output file is compiled and linked with a library to produce an executable. The executable searches through its input for occurrences of the regular expressions. When a match is found, it executes the corresponding C code. Flex was designed to work with both Yacc and Bison, and is used by many programs as part of their build process. 
fast lexical analyzer generator 
FLEXible Internet Protocol (Novell, Netware), "FLeX/IP" 
File Transfer to Flex.Memory on Siemens GSM Mobiles Application to access the Flex.Memory on Siemens GSM Mobiles via the OBEX Protocol over IrDA or Serial link, maybe bluetooth. The Object Exchange protocol can best be described as binary HTTP. OBEX is optimised for ad-hoc wireless links and can be used to exchange all kind of objects like files, pictures, calendar entries (vCal) and business cards (vCard). OBEX is builtin in devices like PDA's like the Palm Pilot, and mobile phones like the Ericsson R320, Siemens S25, Siemens S45, Siemens ME45, Nokia NM207 and Nokia 9110 Communicator. This application should work with other equipment like other mobiles, palm pdas etc., too, that use this generic protocol. 
Generate fast validating XML processors and applications. FleXML makes it easy to generate very fast validating XML processors as flex(1) source. By design it can only handle documents using an external DTD. 
Fli4l (Floppy ISDN/DSL)
"the on(e)-disk-router". Website in German and English. Fli4l is a single floppy Linux-based ISDN, DSL and Ethernet-Router. You can build it from an old 486 based pc with 16 megabyte memory, which is more than adequate for this purpose. Development version 2.1.2 was released February 15, 2003. Stable version 2.0.8 was released April 27, 2003. 
Flexible IDL Compiler Kit Flick is a flexible and optimizing compiler for interface definition languages (IDLs). Flick can read a high-level specification describing an interface to a software component or module, and from that, produce a special functions called stubs to implement the interface in the C or C++ programming language. More information can be found at the FLICK web site 
Flight Gear Flight Simulator Flight Gear is a free and highly sophisticated flight simulator. This package contains the runtime binaries. 
FlightLinux is a concept that uses a real-time variation of the open source Linux Operating System for onboard spacecraft use. 
Faithful Library about Internet Message (EMACS, GNU) 
Library to provide basic features about message for Emacsen FLIM is a library to provide basic features about message representation or encoding for Emacsen. FLIM is conflicts with Standard Gnus. Do not use with Gnus of Emacs20. If you want to use with gnus, please install semi-gnus package. 
Menuing system with fvwm-like syntax A color, ncurses-based menu system, intended to be an easy login shell for new users. It understands the simple menu syntax that was once used by fvwm-1.xx. Flin means "Flin's a Learners Interface to 'Nix Systems." 
Mail-checking GNOME applet supporting multiple accounts The Flink mail checker is a small applet for the GNOME panel. It features support for multiple accounts, so that you will not need to have several applets for checking different accounts, Flink is capable to have (almost) an infinite amount of accounts configured. Flink supports POP3, IMAPv4 and mbox right now. Support for other types of mail accounts will be added in time. 
convert text file line endings between Unix and DOS formats This program converts line endings of text files between MS-DOS and **IX formats. It detects binary files in a nearly foolproof way and leaves them alone unless you override this. It will also leave files alone that are already in the right format and preserves file timestamps. User interrupts are handled gracefully and no garbage or corrupted files left behind. 'flip' does not convert files to a different character set, and it can not handle Apple Macintosh line endings (CR only). For that (and more), you can use the 'recode' program (package 'recode'). 
slowly modify the color of the X root window Subtly changes the color of the root window over time, so slowly that it won't be noticed. This is a good alternative to placing a picture in the root window. 
A class of hacker attack whereby the victim is flooded with information. Examples: The DDoS attacks of early 2000 Major websites where flooded with traffic, clogging their 1-gbps high-bandwidth Internet connections. IRC A user in the chat room is flooded with commands, or the user's client is triggered into flooding the server with commands. Either way, the user has to log out or is kicked off. RalF In the olden days, a UNIX command that looks like ls / -RalF > /dev/tty1 would flood a user's terminal with huge quantities of text, forcing them to logout. stick/snot By generating a steady stream of spoofed, random/meaningless attacks, these tools flood the IDS console, making it impossible for the operator to discover real attacks. 
v. [common] 1. To overwhelm a network channel with mechanically-generated traffic; especially used of IP, TCP/IP, UDP, or ICMP denial-of-service attacks. 2. To dump large amounts of text onto an IRC channel. This is especially rude when the text is uninteresting and the other users are trying to carry on a serious conversation. Also used in a similar sense on Usenet. 3. [Usenet] To post an unusually large number or volume of files on a related topic. 
Floppix is a teaching tool; it is a very small subset of Debian/ GNU Linux that fits on two 3.5 in. 1.4Mb diskettes. The current version is derived from Debian 2.1 (slink), providing a platform to practice Linux commands and experiment with simple system administration. A floppy-based distribution. 
floppy disk
See diskette. 
Floppy backup using a diversity of floppy formats This little package was hacked together because all the more sophisticated backup systems were more suited for tape drives and such, and even if they supported floppies, verify mode was either lacking or missing, and mixed-size floppies caused problems. 
floppy driver configuration utility TQ 
Daemon for remote access to floppy drives Floppyd is used as a server to grant access to the floppy drive to clients running on a remote machine, just as an X server grants access to the display to remote clients. 
floppyfw is a static router with firewall capabilities. Suitable for use as a screening router or as a packet filtering firewall. Version 2.0.3 was released October 3, 2002. Stable version 2.0.5 was released June 18, 2003. Development version 2.9.1 was released February 14, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
measure raw capacity and exact rotation speed of floppy drive TQ 
A measure of processor performance based on floating point operations per second. 
FLoating-point Operations Per Second (CPU) 
Flow control
A method of ensuring that the data devide such as a modem or a computer system sends does not overwhelm the receiving device, such as a modem. Software handshaking (also XON/XOFF handshaking) regulates communications between two modems. Hardware handshaking (CTS/RTS) regulates data flow between the computer and the modem. 
Fast Link Pulse (ethernet, LAN, NLP) 
flphoto is a basic photo/image management and display program. - Download of photos from digital cameras or usual file systems - Organization in albums - Loss-less rotation for portrait-oriented photos - Basic correction tasks - Printing series of photos (full access to printer settings): o Index prints o 1, 2, or 4 equally-sized images per page o 8 photos in different sizes on one page o Calendar: 1 photo per month o Framed/Matted photos - Slide-show with manual or automatic advancing - Web album generation - Integration of GPhoto2 and CUPS 
v. 1. [common] To delete something, usually superfluous, or to abort an operation. "All that nonsense has been flushed." 2. [Unix/C] To force buffered I/O to disk, as with an fflush(3) call. This is not an abort or deletion as in sense 1, but a demand for early completion! 3. To leave at the end of a day's work (as opposed to leaving for a meal). "I'm going to flush now." "Time to flush." 4. To exclude someone from an activity, or to ignore a person. `Flush' was standard ITS terminology for aborting an output operation; one spoke of the text that would have been printed, but was not, as having been flushed. It is speculated that this term arose from a vivid image of flushing unwanted characters by hosing down the internal output buffer, washing the characters away before they could be printed. The Unix/C usage, on the other hand, was propagated by the fflush(3) call in C's standard I/O library (though it is reported to have been in use among BLISS programmers at DEC and on Honeywell and IBM machines as far back as 1965). Unix/C hackers found the ITS usage confusing, and vice versa. 
Highly configurable and low resource X11 Window manager Fairly similar to blackbox, from which it is derived, but has been extended with features such as pwm-style window tabs, configurable key bindings, toolbar, and an iconbar. It also includes some cosmetic fixes over blackbox. This package contains support for Gnome and KDE. 
Fast Light Window Manager Flwm is an attempt to combine the best ideas from several window managers. The primary influence and code base is from wm2 by Chris Cannam. Primary features copied from wm2 are: - Does not look like Windoze. - Nifty sideways titlebars. - No icons. You deiconize by picking off a pop-up menu. This means no space is wasted by icons. - Really small and fast code. It is enhanced by the author's own further nutty ideas: - Does not use shape extension, more standard resize handles. - Occupies as little screen space as possible. The border and titles are as thin as I could possibly make them. And maximized windows waste only 15 pixels horizontally and zero (count'em) pixels vertically! - Independent maximize buttons for width & height, close button. - Understands Motif, KDE, and Gnome window manager hints. - Multiple desktops, controlled from the same menu as the icons. 
pool/snooker/carrom/hockey/curling simulator for X11 Especially the billiards variants are very playable and nice. The only drawback is that there are no rules implemented so you have to know them yourself :-) NOTE: The game will only run on a screen with 8 bit color depth (256 colors); displays with a color depth above 8 won't work. You've got to switch to a 8 bit display before playing the game or with XFree4.0 you could use an 8 bit overlay if available. The original author has abandoned the game so it's unlikely that the color depth problem will get fixed anytime soon. If you are able to fix the game for other depths please send the patch. 
Flying Linux
Flying Linux was originally based on Bambi. This wireless distribution is oriented to security in wireless environments and mobility. Unfortunately it looks defunct (20020605). A 'wireless' distribution. 
Federated Management Architecture (Java) 
memory efficient ftp mirror program A program for mirroring a directory from a remote ftp server. It allows regex-matching for files that are to be included and excluded. It uses a combination of timestamp, file size and file permissions to decide what files to transfer from the ftp server. 
Mailing List Server Package FML is a package of mailing list server and utility programs. It consists of perl scripts. It has been developed, tested and advanced in Japan from 1993 to 1999. FML contains distributer (filter program which passes articles to MTA to deliver) command server for users command interface for general user command interface for remote administration listserv/majordomo style interface (emulation) digest server CUI installer and configuration program other utility programs FML design policy is based on the degree of freedom, so that I respect "each environment for each man/women". 
Flash Memory Manager (Intel) 
FORTRAN Monitor System (OS, IBM 709) 
simple optimal text formatter 
Far More Than Everything You Ever Wanted To Know (slang, PERL) 
FM radio tuner Command-line utility for adjusting the frequency and volume and muting and unmuting FM radio cards. 
utility for maintaining TeX format files 
Federal Networking Council (org., USA) 
Font files needed by Fnlib Graphics files that fnlib renders as fonts for use by Enlightened apps. 
Fiber Optic 
Fiber Optic Association (org.) 
Fiber Optic Cable / Communications 
A full GNU/Linux Portuguese guide (Html Format) The Foca GNU/Linux is a Portuguese Linux guide that is splitted in three learning levels: Beginner, Intermediary and Advanced and is based in the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. This package contains the Html version of all learning levels of the guide: 
A full GNU/Linux Portuguese guide (Text Format) The Foca GNU/Linux is a Portuguese Linux guide that is splitted in three learning levels: Beginner, Intermediary and Advanced and is based in the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. This package contains the Text version of all learning levels of the guide: 
[symposium on] Foundations Of Computer Science (conference) 
The command line of a terminal has the focus when the actual input is being directed to it. 
Flexible Optical Disk (OD) 
Formal specification of ODA document structures (ODA, ISO) 
[international conference on] Foundations Of Data Organization and algorithms (conference, INRIA) 
[verein zur] Foerderung des OEffentlichen Bewegten und Unbewegten Datenverkehrs [e.v.] (org.), "FoeBud" 
Fiber Optic InterRepeater Link (OWG) 
Forschungszentrum fuer Offene KommUnikationsSysteme (org., GMD, Berlin, Germany) 
wrap each input line to fit in specified width 
Free OnLine Dictionary Of Computing (WWW, UK) 
Flexible Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED) 
Fiber Optic MAU (ethernet) 
Fiber Optics Network 
A character set or typeface family denoting a particular size and style, either for on-screen display or printing, usually on a laser or inkjet printer. Popular fonts are Times New Roman, Helvetica and Courier. 
font-tools is used by drakfont and include:- ttf2type1: convert .ttf to .pfb and .afm.- tt2afm: convert .ttf to .afm .- pfm2afm: convert .pfm to afm. 
Write PostScript Type 0 or Type 1 font as C code 
Fontconfig is designed to locate fonts within the system and select them according to requirements specified by applications. 
Interactive font editor for the console Fonter is an interactive console font (8x16 .fnt) manipulation tool. It's a linux-console-only program that displays all 256 characters of the font on screen and lets you edit them in realtime. 
export fonts from the teTeX directory structure 
import fonts into the teTeX directory structure 
utility to run TeX as fontinst 
This package is a collection of free True Type Fonts. 
This package is a collection of free True Type Fonts. 
Fonts on Linux console. Fonty package brings a set of iso-8859-n fonts with VT100 graphics: single frames, a few symbols. 
FTP Operation Over Big Address Records (RFC 1639, FTP) 
An Xkb state indicator -- plain X version. WindowMaker docked Xkb state indicator. Fookb can switch xkb groups and display a pixmap corresponding to the selected group. It also can execute a specified command upon the switch (for example, play sound). This is the plain X-compiled version. 
An Xkb state indicator -- WindowMaker version. WindowMaker docked Xkb state indicator. Fookb can switch xkb groups and display a pixmap corresponding to the selected group. It also can execute a specified command upon the switch (for example, play sound). This is the WindowMaker-compiled version. 
Foomatic is a comprehensive, spooler-independent database of printers, printer drivers, and driver descriptions. It contains utilities to generate driver description files and printer queues for CUPS, LPD,LPRng, and PDQ using the database. There is also the possibility to read the PJL options out of PJL-capable laser printers and take them into account at the driver description file generation. There are spooler-independent command line interfaces to manipulatequeues (foomatic-configure) and to print files/manipulate jobs (foomatic printjob). The site is based on this database. 
Forum for Object Oriented Technology (CERN, OOP) 
A conceptual location in a computer system where interaction takes place between a user and a process initiated by the user; the opposite of background. 
vt. [Unix; common] To bring a task to the top of one's stack for immediate processing, and hackers often use it in this sense for non-computer tasks. "If your presentation is due next week, I guess I'd better foreground writing up the design document." Technically, on a time-sharing system, a task executing in foreground is one able to accept input from and return output to the user; oppose background. Nowadays this term is primarily associated with Unix, but it appears first to have been used in this sense on OS/360. Normally, there is only one foreground task per terminal (or terminal window); having multiple processes simultaneously reading the keyboard is a good way to lose. 
Foreground Process
In a multitasking operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, the foreground process is the program that the user is interacting with at the present time (for example, data entry). Different programs can be in the foreground at different times, as the user jumps between them. In a tiered windowing environment, it is the topmost window. 
Graphical Gopher Browser forg is a new graphical browser for gopher written in python. It will let you browse the world-wide gopherspace and handles various types of media, including HTML and video. 
A Linux system call used by a process (the "parent") to make a copy (the "child") of itself. The child process is identical to the parent except it has a different process identifier and a zero return value from the fork call. It is assumed to have used no resources. 
In the open-source community, a fork is what occurs when two (or more) versions of a software package's source code are being developed in parallel which once shared a common code base, and these multiple versions of the source code have irreconcilable differences between them. This should not be confused with a development branch, which may later be folded back into the original source code base. Nor should it be confused with what happens when a new distribution of Linux or some other distribution is created, because that largely assembles pieces than can and will be used in other distributions without conflict. Forking is uncommon; in fact, it is so uncommon that individual instances loom large in hacker folklore. Notable in this class were the, the GCC/EGCS fork (later healed by a merger) and the forks among the FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD operating systems. 
adj.,vi. 1. [common after 1997, esp. in the Linux community] An open-source software project is said to have forked or be forked when the project group fissions into two or more parts pursuing separate lines of development (or, less commonly, when a third party unconnected to the project group ). Forking is considered a Bad Thing - not merely because it implies a lot of wasted effort in the future, but because forks tend to be accompanied by a great deal of strife and acrimony between the successor groups over issues of legitimacy, succession, and design direction. There is serious social pressure against forking. As a result, major forks (such as the Gnu-Emacs/XEmacs split, the fissionings of the 386BSD group into three daughter project, and the short-lived GCC/EGCS split) are rare enough that they are remembered individually in hacker folklore. 2. [Unix; uncommon; prob. influenced by a mainstream expletive] Terminally slow, or dead. Originated when one system was slowed to a snail's pace by an inadvertent fork bomb. 
mail (re)formatter 
To prepare a disk to operate with a particular operating system by adding a file system such as ext2 to the disk. 
format-string attacks (printf())
A common vulnerability created by programmers who use tainted input as the format string for printf() (a common C function). Normally, printf() uses a "format string" to specify how following data will be formatted when printed. For example, when printing the time, you could use the following command: printf("%02d:%02d:%02d", hours, minutes, seconds); This will print the time in a format that looks like "09:15:00" (i.e. quarter after nine). The format string "%02d" means print a decimal number that is 2 digits long, and if the number isn't long enough, put a 0 at the front. Character strings can be printed in a similar manner: printf("greetings=%s", "hello"); This prints the output: greetings=Hello However, if you wanted to be lazy, you could simply program the system: printf("greetings=Hello"); Up to this point, everything is fine. The problem comes about when the string is read from input: g = read_input(); printf(g); The programmer is expecting the user to enter normal input such as "Hi". However, the user could enter something like "die %s". This makes the above statement equivalent to: printf("die %s"); Since there is no following string, this may cause the program to crash. The correct way that this should have been handled is: g = read_input(); printf("%s", g); Printf will treat the first parameter as the format string, but will know not to interpret any formatting characters in subsequent strings. Key point: A popular technique to see if a system is possibly vulnerable to format string bugs is to send the input "%x %x %x". If the hacker sees hex output, then they know the system was vulnerable to format string bugs. 
FORMalised EXchange of electronic publications (SGML, Europe) 
Formal Object Role Modelling Language 
Framework for OCaml Regression Testing FORT provides an environment for testing programs and Objective Caml modules. It contains a module that oversees the testing process as well as a front-end for executing tests. Individual test cases are written as Objective Caml functions that return the result of executing the test. 
Invoke f2c like a real compiler. The fort77 script invokes the f2c command transparently, so it can be used like a real Fortran compiler. It can be used to compile Fortran, C and assembler code, and to link it with the f2c libraries. 
FORmula TRANslation 
FORmula TRANslator - The first and still the most widely used programming language for numerical and scientific applications. The original versions lacked recursive procedures and block structure and had a line-oriented syntax in which certain columns had special significance. 
A popular version of FORTRAN with Block IF, PARAMETER and SAVE statements added, but still no WHILE. It has fixed-length character strings, format-free I/O, and arrays with lower bounds. 
Fortran 90
An extensive enlargement of FORTRAN 77. Fortran 90 has derived types, assumed shape arrays, array sections, functions returning arrays, case statement, module subprograms and internal subprograms, optional and keyword subprogram arguments, recursion, and dynamic allocation. 
Data files containing fortune cookies There are far over 15000 different 'fortune cookies' in this package. You'll need the fortune-mod package to display the cookies. 
FORschungsverbund fuer Technisch-WIssenschaftliches HochleistungsRechnen (org., Bavaria) 
a collection of FORTRAN 77 utilities ForUtil-0.62 is a small utilities to analyze the FORTRAN code. A very brief description of each program found in ForUtil is given below. - fflow, a FORTRAN flowgraph generator. - ffscan, a subroutine argument checker; - ftags, a FORTRAN tag file generator for use with vi. Common utilities. These are three tools that allow you to create, examine and search a database with each and every common that is defined in a collection of FORTRAN include files. They are the following: - scan_commons, needed for creating a database; - list_commons, to list the contents of the database or the contents of one or all files stored in the database; - get_common, to quickly search through the database to see in which include file a common is defined. 
forward lookup
is an ordinary lookup of the IP address from the host name. 
bayerisches FORschungszentrum fuer WISsensbasierte Systeme (org., KI) 
Format Output Specification Instance (SGML, CALS) 
Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer 
Fiber Optic Transceiver 
Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation, "FOT & E" 
FOUR Character Code (RIFF, TIFF) 
Field Of View (VRML) 
Field Operational X.500 
Free Pascal Compiler The Free Pascal Compiler is a Turbo Pascal 7.0 and Delphi compatible 32bit Pascal Compiler. It comes with fully TP 7.0 compatible run-time library. Some extensions are added to the language, like function overloading. Shared libraries can be linked and created. Basic Delphi support is already implemented (classes,exceptions,ansistrings). This package contains the commandline compiler. You need at least the RTL package before you can start compiling anything. 
Fast Packet Adaption (FPS, FPR) 
Floating Point Accelerator 
Field Programmable ALU Array (IC, ALU, RL) 
Floating Point Coprocessor 
Flat Panel Display Interface (VESA) 
FTAM Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 
Floating Point Engine 
Field Programmable Gate Array (RL) 
Flux Changes per Inch (HDD) 
Formal Public Identifier (DTD, SGML) 
Functional Process Improvement 
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts. fping is a ping like program which uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request to determine if a target host is responding. fping differs from ping in that you can specify any number of targets on the command line, or specify a file containing the lists of targets to ping. Instead of sending to one target until it times out or replies, fping will send out a ping packet and move on to the next target in a round-robin fashion. 
Field Programmable Logic Array 
Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System (IN, mobile-systems) 
Fast Page Mode [DRAM] (RAM, DRAM) 
Fast Page Mode [ram] (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
Password Manager Figaro's Password Manager is a program that allows you to securely store the passwords you use on the web. 
Fast Page Mode DRAM (RAM, DRAM, IC), "FPM-DRAM" 
Flat Panel Monitor Physical Mounting Interface [standard] (LCD, VESA) 
File and Print service for NetWare (MS, Windows NT, DSMN) 
Fixed Priority Orientated Demand Assignment (MAC, PODA) 
Floating Point Processor 
FORTRAN Pre-Processor (FORTRAN) 
Fast Packet Relay (FPS, FPA) 
Floating Point Register (FPU) 
Fast Packet Switching (X.25, Datex-J) 
Frames Per Second 
Floating Point Unit (CPU) 
FPU (Floating Point Unit)
A portion of a microprocessor that handles operations in which the deimal point moves left and right to handle operations to allow for very high precision when dealing with very large or very small numbers. An FPU usuallu makes a microprocessor much faster. Early Pentium chips had flaws in their FPUs. 
Fully Qualified DOMAIN Name (Internet) 
See fully qualified domain name (FQDN). 
Frame Relay Access Device 
Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
A framebuffer device is an abstraction for the graphic hardware. It represents the frame buffer of some video hardware, and allows application software to access the graphic hardware through a well-defined interface, so that the software doesn't need to know anything about the low-level interface stuff [Taken from Geert Uytterhoeven's framebuffer.txt in the linux kernel sources] 
an extremely configurable console login program francine is an easy to configure themeable console login program. Its great configurability for per tty access-settings and that the prompt for username and password can be located anywhere in a nice colored ANSI-screen should be makes it a greatly enhanced replacement for the old clumpy login. You need a getty that is able to run different programs than just login. I suggest rungetty for that, but (alternative) getty does suffice. It can also be used from the telnetd with the -L option. This project is a spin-off from the fancylogin project, which is still maintained by Richard Bergmair. 
FrazierWall Linux
Originally developed as a customized firewall, early versions were based on the Linux Router Project and Coyote Linux 1.03. It has evolved into a unique router/firewall distribution. FrazierWall 3.4 was released on August 29, 2001. A 'secured' distribution. 
Functional Requirements Description 
Allocate and free dynamic memory 
Display amount of free and used memory in the system 
free software
n. As defined by Richard M. Stallman and used by the Free Software movement, this means software that gives users enough freedom to be used by the free software community. Specifically, users must be free to modify the software for their private use, and free to redistribute it either with or without modifications, either commercially or noncommercially, either gratis or charging a distribution fee. Free software has existed since the dawn of computing; Free Software as a movement began in 1984 with the GNU Project. See also open source. 
Free Software Foundation (FSF)
An organization that sponsors free software projects such as GNU and various free tools and applications. The FSF promotes all free software developments and free documentation efforts. 
Free-EOS is a French distribution with the aim of being incredibly easy to set up and get a set of services running. Version 1.1 was released June 14, 2003. 
Any one of more than two dozen freely accessible Internet sites, primarily offering community and educational information. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Extensible, cross-platform audio player FreeAmp is an extensible, cross-platform audio player. It features an optimized version of the GPLed Xing MPEG decoder which makes it one of the fastest and best sounding players available. FreeAmp provides a number of the most common features users have come to expect in a clean, easy to use interface. Some of the these features are: o Plays all MPEG 1, MPEG 2, and MPEG 2.5 encoded files. o Support for Vorbis o Support for Xing's Variable Bitrate Encoding Technology. o Play songs over the Internet through HTTP unicast streaming (ShoutCast), or RTP multicast streaming (Obsequiem). o Supports IceCast style title streaming. o Save ShoutCast and IceCast streams locally to your computer for offline listening... o A powerful music browser and playlist editor. o A built in download manager which supports downloading files from sites using the RMP (RealJukebox) download process. o User defined prebuffering for slower machines. o Enlightened Sound Daemon support 
Bass synthesizer/sample player/sequencer similar to Rebirth Freebirth is a free software bass synthesizer / step sequencer / sample player for the linux operating system. It is currently at version 0.3.2. The bass synthesizer vaguely 303ish but in the author's opinion, it has much more sonic capability such as: - Three oscillators (saw, sin , sqr) - Phase offsets for each oscillator. - Separate filter and amplitude envelopes. - Separate tuning for each oscillator - Two effects busses (reverb and delay) 
FreeBSD (Free Berkeley Software Distribution)
Similar to Linux in that it includes many GNU programs and runs many of the same packages as Linux. However, some kernel functions are implemented differently. (Also, see BSD UNIX.) 
a package for creating and reading constant databases freecdb is a small, fast and reliable utility set and subroutine library for creating and reading constant databases. The database structure is tuned for fast reading: - Successful lookups take normally just two disk accesses. - Unsuccessful lookups take only one disk access. - Small disk space and memory size requirements; a database uses 2048 bytes for the header and 24 bytes per record. - Maximum database size is 4GB; individual record size is not otherwise limited. - Portable file format. - Fast creation of new databases. - No locking, updates are atomical. This package contains both the utilities and the development files. 
Library for solving Freecell games Freecell Solver is a library for automatically solving boards of Freecell and similar variants of card Solitaire. This package contains the header files and static libraries necessary for developing programs using Freecell Solver. This package contains the binaries included with freecell-solver 
Freeciv is a turn-based, multi-player strategy game for the X Window System. Freeciv is generally comparable to, and has compatible rules with, the Civilization II(TM) game by Microprose(R). In Freeciv, each player is the leader of a civilization, and is competing with the other players in order to become the leader of the greatest civilization. 
Realtime fantasy strategy game for Unix and X. FreeCraft is a clone of the realtime fantasy strategy game, WarCraft II, from Blizzard Entertainment. It is nearly feature complete compared to the original game, and includes a handful of Neat New Features, such as queuing peon/fighter production, finding out idle workers, and a completely new AI. Also has network connectivity for up to 16 players. Note that this is a beta for the next stable release of FreeCraft, and as such is both fairly playable and fairly bug-free. This version is compiled with nearly all the possible options, and thus has gzip, bunzip, SDL and SVGAlib support (the last one only for i386 arches). The sound options will depend on your personal election on SDL packages. 
The Organization for Free Software in Education and Teaching (OFSET) has produced Freeduc, a Knoppix/Debian-based Linux system with educational software, all on one bootable CDROM. Version 1.1 of the Freeduc CD-ROM was released November 5, 2002. Version 1.3 was released May 20, 2003. 
A pde oriented language using Finite Element Method. FreeFEM is a language adapted to Partial Differential equation. The underlying method used is the Finite Element Method. This tool has been successfully used as a teaching tool and even as a research tool. It can be seen a RSD ( Rapid Research Development (tm) :) ) to test new ideas. 
A peer-to-peer network for anonymous publishing Freenet is a decentralised network of nodes designed to allow for efficient distribution of information over the Internet. Freenet's goals are resilience to censorship, and anonymity for producers and consumers of information through plausible denyability. There are different, incompatible versions of the Freenet protocol. This dummy package will ensure that you always have the most useful node software version installed. 
Client to configure an IPv6 tunnel to freenet6 Providing tspc, a Tunnel Server Protocol Client, this Package allows an easy way to connect the machine to the 6bone. Configured tunneling is a transition method standardized by IETF to use IPv6 in coexistence with IPv4 by encapsulating IPv6 packets over IPv4. Any host already connected to Internet with IPv4 which has an IPv6 stack can establish a link to the Internet IPv6. FREENET6's TSP is a new model based on a client/server approach. A protocol is used to request a single IPv6 address to a full IPv6 prefix from a client to a tunnel server according to the IPv6 broker model. 
Freepia is small GNU/Linux distribution designed to run on Via Epia-M Mainboards. At present it only runs on the M-9000. The motivation behind this project is to build a full featured, low noise media box to play movies/mp3s/images etc. It currently uses Freevo, but in the future there maybe support for other media players like mythtv or vdr. Version 0.3.6 was released on June 11, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Free JIS X 4081 Formatter Freepwing is a system to make JIS X 4081 data. JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) X 4081 is a subset of EPWING V1 which stands for Electoric Publishing WING. 
a portable interpreter for SCI games like Space Quest 3 FreeSCI is a portable interpreter for SCI games, such as the Space Quest series (starting with SQ3) or Leisure Suit Larry (2 and sequels). FreeSCI is in beta right now; the current release still has several known bugs. It is feature-complete within the following limits: - Only SCI0 games are supported - The SCI debug functions aren't fully supported (and probably never will be, since FreeSCI uses its own debug functions). It offers the following improvements over Sierra SCI: - Improved background picture support - Trilinear filtering for text and images - readline-like editing in controls - General MIDI sound output (still experimental) 
FREESCO (stands for FREE ciSCO) is a free replacement for commercial routers supporting up to 3 ethernet/arcnet/token_ring/arlan network cards and up to 2 modems. Mirror sites are available in Canada, Europe, Russia, and South Africa. A floppy-based distribution. 
IPSEC utilities for FreeSWan IPSEC is Internet Protocol SECurity. It uses strong cryptography to provide both authentication and encryption services. Authentication ensures that packets are from the right sender and have not been altered in transit. Encryption prevents unauthorised reading of packet contents. These services allow you to build secure tunnels through untrusted networks. Everything passing through the untrusted net is encrypted by the IPSEC gateway machine and decrypted by the gateway at the other end. The result is Virtual Private Network or VPN. This is a network which is effectively private even though it includes machines at several different sites connected by the insecure Internet. Please note that you will need kernel support for using this package. The standard Debian kernel does not include support for FreeSWan. You can build your own kernel by installing the kernel-source package and kernel-patch-freeswan, which can be automatically applied when using make-kpkg. 
a text-based minesweeper Freesweep is an implementation of the popular minesweeper game, where one tries to find all the mines without igniting any, based on hints given by the computer. Unlike most implementations of this game, Freesweep works in any visual text display - in Linux console, in an xterm, and in most text-based terminals currently in use. 
Facilitates production of HTML tables Freetable is a perl script that aims to make the production of HTML tables a little easier. This script works as a filter, reading stdin and writing to stdout. The input syntax is as roughly follows: <wwwtable table-options...> initial text (e.g. <caption> ... </caption>). (X, Y) options for cell (X, Y) text for cell (X,Y)... ((X,Y)) options for header cell X,Y text for header cell (X,Y)... </wwwtable> Rows and cells may be specified in any order, numbering starts at 1. X and/or Y may be replaced by regular expression, explicit range or even arbitrary Perl code to indicate rows or columns. Options or text (or both) may be omitted for cells. Cells may be omitted completely if they are empty or fall under the rowspan/colspan specifications of another cell. Cells may contain arbitrary HTML text, including other freetable tables. 
Pure Java JDBC driver for MS SQL and Sybase This is a sneak peek of a free type 4 JDBC driver for SQLServer and Sybase. Currently it has only been tested mostly on SQLServer 6.5. The driver is not complete yet, but Methods that aren't implemented will throw a SQLException with the message "Not implemented". 
libraries for connecting to MS SQL and Sybase SQL servers FreeTDS is an implementation of the Tabular DataStream protocol, used for connecting to MS SQL and Sybase servers over TCP/IP. This package includes the shared libraries for the DB-Lib and CT-Lib APIs. You will need this if you plan to connect to MS SQL or Sybase servers, or use the PHP sybase or Perl DBD::Sybase extensions. 
The FreeType engine is a free and portable TrueType font rendering engine. It has been developed to provide TT support to a great variety of platforms and environments. Note that FreeType is a library, not a stand-alone application, though some utility applications are included. 
Tools to manipulate TTF fonts. 
Bundled tests, demos and tools for FreeType 1 The FreeType 1 engine is a free and portable TrueType font rendering engine. It has been developed to provide TT support to a great variety of platforms and environments. This package contains several programs bundled with the FreeType 1 engine for testing and demonstration purposes, as well as some contributed utilities such as ttf2pk, ttf2bdf, ttf2pfb and ttfbanner. 
The FreeType2 engine is a free and portable TrueType font rendering engine. It has been developed to provide TT support to a great variety of plat forms and environments. Note that FreeType2 is a library, not a stand-alone application, though some utility applications are included 
freevix is a tiny GNU/Linux distribution designed to provide a complete but small foot print environment for people wanting to build a media player system with Freevo. Initial version 0.2 was released March 12, 2003. Version 0.7 was released June 10, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Copyrighted prorgams that have been made available without charge for public use. The programs cannot be resold for profit. 
n. [common] Free software, often written by enthusiasts and distributed by users' groups, or via electronic mail, local bulletin boards, Usenet, or other electronic media. At one time, `freeware' was a trademark of Andrew Fluegelman, the author of the well-known MS-DOS comm program PC-TALK III. It wasn't enforced after his mysterious disappearance and presumed death in 1984. See shareware, FRS. 
vrml browser and netscape plugin freewrl includes a standalone vrml browser, which also browses url's from the command line. Currently, you must edit the xswallow configuration file by hand in order to get the plugin function. Web Page: 
To stop software development at a point at which the developer judges that the software is sufficiently stable for release. From QUECID Can also be used to describe when a computer system seems to 'hang' and doesn't seem to be accepting any input. From Binh
v. To lock an evolving software distribution or document against changes so it can be released with some hope of stability. Carries the strong implication that the item in question will `unfreeze' at some future date. "OK, fix that bug and we'll freeze for release." There are more specific constructions on this term. A `feature freeze', for example, locks out modifications intended to introduce new features but still allows bugfixes and completion of existing features; a `code freeze' connotes no more changes at all. At Sun Microsystems and elsewhere, one may also hear references to `code slush' -- that is, an almost-but-not-quite frozen state. 
The number of complete oscillations per second of an electromagnetic wave. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Floatingpoint Register File (DEC, Alpha, CPU) 
Federal Research Internet Coordinating Committee (org.) 
Fried Chicken
Fried Chicken Linux (FCL) is a Linux software repository designed for use by students and staff at the IT University of Copenhagen. FCL contains Fried Chicken Linux packages and integrates these with Red Hat Linux. The Repository furthermore comprises mirrors of the Red Hat distributions and updates to these. Finally, automatically updated Red Hat distributions are provided. 
Frame Representation Language (AI) 
FRaMe Reject (HDLC, LAPB, SDLC) 
Factory Read Only Memory (ROM) 
print names of those who have sent mail 
Converts text files between DOS and Unix formats. 
Interpreter of Z-code story-files Frotz interprets Z-code story-files, which are usually text adventure games (although a few arcade-style Z-code games have been written). Examples of such story files include the adventure games published by Infocom, as well as any games produced by compilers to this format, such as Inform. You can find a number of Inform-compiled games up for anonymous FTP at Frotz complies with the Z Machine specification version 1.0. 
Caching ftp proxy Frox is a caching ftp proxy. It also optionally supports non-transparent proxying, active-->passive conversion of the data connection, and caching of anonymously downloaded files either locally or by rewriting the requests in HTTP and sending them through a HTTP proxy. Transparent support is supported by frox but not compiled into this package. 
Pop out the bubbles ! Frozen-Bubble is a free clone of the popular "Puzzle Bobble" game, written in perl and using SDL. It features 50 levels of 1 player game, a 2 player mode, and beautiful music. The game mainly consists of firing randomly chosen bubbles across the board. If a bubble hits a clump of at least 2 bubbles of the same color, they all pop. The goal is to pop all the bubbles on the board as quickly as possible. You WANT this game. 
False Rejection Rate 
Functional Recovery Routine 
Flexible Route Selection 
Frame Relay Service (ATM, UNI) 
File System (LVM) 
Frame Status (FDDI, Token Ring) 
Free Software Association of Germany (org.) 
For Small Business (Novell) 
Front Side Bus 
Fujitsu Siemens Computer (manufacturer) 
audits and interactively repairs inconsistent conditions for the file systems on mass storage device files. 
check and repair a Linux file system 
File System Consistency checK (Unix) 
check a Linux second extended file system 
check a Linux second extended file system 
a file system consistency checker for Linux 
File System Driver 
/F-S-F/ abbrev. Common abbreviation (both spoken and written) for the name of the Free Software Foundation, a nonprofit educational association formed to support the GNU project. 
Free Software Foundation (org., GNU) 
Free Software Foundation. The FSF owns most of the offical GNU SW and licences its use with the 3000 word GPL and 4000 word LGPL licences. 
FSF (Free Software Foundation)
A nonprofit organisation, based in Massachusetts, that is devoted to the ideal of the free sharing of useful software for noncommercial purposees. To promote this goal, FSF supports a UNIX compatible operating system (called GNU) and system utilities, which are freely redistributable under FSF' GPL (General Public License). 
Fast remote command execution over rsh/ssh/lsh The problem: logging in to a remote system with a cryptographic solution such as lsh or ssh takes time, due to the computationally expensive key exchanges that occur when the connection is established. It is common to trigger a lot of remote logins while using remote CVS, which makes it painfully slow compared to having the repository locally. The solution: reuse the secure tunnel once it has been established. fsh is a drop-in rsh-compatible replacement for ssh that automatically reuses ssh tunnels. 
File System Hierarchy (Linux, LSB) 
Full Scale InPut (FSOP) 
Frequency Shift Keying (DFUe) 
list fonts served by X font server 
Finite State Machine (TTCN, ...) 
Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle Multimedia Org., Germany 
??? Graphics Device Operating System (OS, Atari) 
[scripting runtime library] File System Objects (MS, WSH) 
Full Scale OutPut (FSIP) 
Free Standing Operating System (OS) 
A file transfer system similar to FTP, distinguished by the ability for servers to run on any port without requiring special privledges, and the lower system load from FSP servers than from FTP. 
client utilities for File Service Protocol (FSP) FSP is an alternative to anonymous FTP. In the words of the developers, `FSP is what anonymous FTP *should* be'. FSP is a protocol, a bit like FTP, for moving files around. It's designed for anonymous archives, and has protection against server and network overloading. It doesn't use connections, so it can survive things falling over. It's also designed to prevent network congestion, so it can be very nice for large transfers over slow links. 
File Slurping Protocol 
A minimalist panel for X It's a panel for Linux that lists all your windows, but the difference is that it's tiny. The binary is about 10k and it takes barely any memory. It works under any gnome compliant window manager (eg. E, Sawfish, WindowMaker, IceWM, Oroborus) and supports KDE's mini icons (the KWM_WIN_ICON atom). 
A File Service Protocol (FSP) server FSP is an alternative to anonymous FTP that is very resource friendly. The server does not fork so it can handle far more concurrent users. Also, the protocol is designed with a transmisson failure backoff, so it's transfers do not interfere with interactive network applications. If you don't provide anonymous FTP access, you probably don't want this software either. 
File System RunTime Library 
Fast System Switch (Unix) 
Often the group, which creates the Linux File System Structure document, or the document itself, is referred to as the 'FSSTND'. This is short for "file system standard". This document has helped to standardize the layout of file systems on Linux systems everywhere. Since the original release of the standard, most distributors have adopted it in whole or in part, much to the benefit of all Linux users.
FileSystem Safe UCS Transformation Format (UCS, Unicode), "FSS-UTF" 
Flat Square Technology (Hitachi) 
Film SuperTwisted Nematic (LCD) 
generate BDF font from X font server 
Foiled Shielded Twisted Pair [cable] (STP, TP), "F/STP" 
Free Software Union (org.) 
A NeXT FileViewer lookalike for Window Maker. Features include Browser mode, DND and file operations. 
Fractional T1 (ISDN, T1, DS-0, DS-1) 
Floptical Technology Association (3M u.a.) 
File Transfer, Access and Management (GOSIP, ISO 8571/8572) 
Bleeding Edge floppy tape driver (source) A substitution for the stock ftape driver in the kernel. If you want to use a floppy tape drive with a 2.0.x kernel you should definitly use these sources instead of the stock ftape driver in the kernel. This driver detects and supports many more tape drives than the 2.0.x driver which is ancient. Compared to the 2.2.x stock ftape driver the difference is reduced to support for the Iomega Ditto Max, parallel port floppy tapes (Colorado Trakker, Iomega, Exabyte and Seagate parallel port drives) and multiple tape drives in one box. Supported drives according to upstream README: "Currently, the driver supports many QIC-40/QIC-80/QIC-3010/QIC-3020 tape drives that conform to the respective QIC-* development standards, as well as the Iomega Ditto 2GB and Max drives. Some parallel port tape drives are also supported, too. These are the Colorado Trakker and several kinds of parallel port drives that use the Micro Solutions' "Backpack" protocol, i.e. the Iomega Ditto parallel port drives, and some parallel port floppy tape drives made by Exabyte and Seagate." Please note that the kernel sources must be installed to compile these modules. 
Federal Trade Commission (org., USA) 
Text editor for programmers - base package Package contains files necessary to build configuration file and some elementary documentation. There is no editor in this package. Please select some from the list of suggested binary packages. 
[DCOM] For The Enterprise (DCOM, SAG) 
A replacement for make This is the version of Jam/MR with additional features, which is maintained by the FreeType project. Current version (2.3.5) is claimed to be backward compatible with the original Jam/MR from Perforce (in package `jam'). A powerful and highly customizable utility to build programs and other things, that can run on Un*x, Nt, VMS, OS/2 and Macintosh MPW, using portable Jamfiles. It can build large projects spread across many directories in one pass. It takes some time to fully apprehend, as there's no tutorial available yet, especially when one's already accustomed to make(1), but there's no comparison in power when comparing these 2 tools. Standard rules: - can automatically extract header dependencies for C/C++ (you can customize for you own language) - provide for automatic "clean", "install", "uninstall" rules, so that an automake-like tool is not needed 
Fido Technology Network (FidoNet) 
File Transfer Access and Management 
A semantic checker for Fortran 77 programs. ftnchek (short for Fortran checker) is a tool designed to detect certain errors in a Fortran program that a compiler usually does not, thus assisting users in the debugging of their Fortran programs. Unlike syntax errors, semantic errors are legal in the Fortran language but are wasteful or may cause incorrect operation. For example, variables which are never used may indicate some omission in the program; uninitialized variables contain garbage which may cause incorrect results to be calculated; and variables which are not declared may not have the intended type. ftnchek can also be used to provide call-trees, cross-reference of subprogram calls and COMMON blocks usage, source listings, symbol tables and other things you might find useful when debugging a Fortran program. 
File Transfer NEtwork Architecure (SNI) 
File Transfer Open Systems 
File Transfer OSI Support 
FTOSX Desktop 2003, and other versions like WebServer and Professional for Intel (IA-32) as well other platforms are a new generation Operating System, because we made all the necessary design, in back-end and front-end to offers something new and innovative. 
File Transfer Protocol (Internet, RFC 959) 
Foiled Twisted Pair [cable] (UTP, TP) 
The FTP client. ftp is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol. The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. 
The ftp package provides the standard UNIX command-line FTP (File Transfer Protocol) client. FTP is a widely used protocol for transferring files over the Internet and for archiving files. 
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
An Internet standard for the exchange of files. FTP (uppercase letters) is a specific set of rules that comprise a file transfer protocol. To use FTP, you start an FTP client, an application program that enables youy to contact another computer on the Internet and exchange files with it. To gain access to the toher computer, you normally must supplu a login name and password, after which you are given access to the computer's file directory system, and you can send (upload) and receive (download) files. An exceptin is anonymous FTP, which makes a file arvhive publicly accessible to any Internet use who possesses an FTP clietnl in response to the authentication prompts, you enter anonmous rather than a login name, and as a courtesy supply your electronic mail address as a password. Many web browsers can function as FTP clients to download files from anonymous FTP file archives. 
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
is a client/server protocol that allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. It works with TCP and is most commonly used on the Internet, although it can also be used on a LAN. An FTP site is a computer that is running FTP server software (also known an FTP daemon, or ftpd). A public ftp site can usually be accessed by anybody by logging in as anonymous or ftp. There are many excellent public ftp sites that make repositories of free Unix software available. By learning how to use FTP, you give yourself access to an indespensible resource. Private FTP sites require a user name or password. If you have a shell account with your ISP, you may be able to access your files via FTP (contact your system administrator to check on this). An FTP client is the userland application that provides access to FTP servers. There are many FTP clients available. Some are graphical, and some are text-based. FTP was first developed by the University of California, Berkeley for inclusion in 4.2BSD (Berkeley Unix). The RFC (Request for Comments) is available at 
FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name "anonymous", thus these sites are called "anonymous ftp servers". FTP was invented and in wide use long before the advent of the World Wide Web and originally was always used from a text-only interface. 
The ftp package provides the standard UNIX command-line FTP client. FTP is the file transfer protocol, which is a widely used Internet protocol for transferring files and for archiving files. If your system is on a network, you should install ftp in order to do file transfers. This version supports kerberos authentication. 
SuSE Proxy-Suite FTP-Proxy SuSE Proxy Suite is a set of programs to enhance firewall security. The first (and currently only) component released is the FTP-Proxy: o Securely relays FTP connections between clients and servers o Can switch connections from active to passive and vice versa o Utilizes port ranges for both control and data connections o Provides extensive auditing (via syslog or rotating log files) o Can separate user related from system triggered audit events o Provides command restriction based on logged in user name o Allows command argument checking with regular expressions o Is able to retrieve configuration data from an LDAP directory o Has been thoroughly tested against buffer overflow attacks o Fully conforms to RFC 959 and 1123 (the basic FTP RFCs) o Planned to support RFC 1579 ("Firewall Friendly FTP") o Planned to support RFC 2428 (IPv6 Extensions for FTP) o Based on GNU AutoConf, supposed to run on many UNIX systems 
The FTP client with SSL encryption support. ftp is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol. The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. ftp-ssl replaces normal ftp using SSL authentication and encryption. It interoperates with normal ftpd. It checks if the other side is also talking SSL, if not it falls back to normal ftp protocol. Advantages over normal ftp(d): Your passwords and the data you send will not go in cleartext over the line. Nobody can get it with tcpdump or similar tools. 
put files with FTP from a script ftp-upload transfers local files to another machine using FTP. It's meant to be used by scripts and such rather than interactively. There's no user interface, the program is controlled strictly via the command line. It is disciplined with its exit status. 
ftp support for shell scripts ftp-utils is a small collection of shell tools for the FTP protocol. Using it, you can write shell scripts which work equally well for both local file systems and remote file systems accessed via FTP. Included in the distribution is a simple shell script to build or maintain an FTP-mirror (pushing from origin to mirror). 
File Transfer Protocol DAEMON (FTP) 
FTP server This is the netkit ftp server. It is recommended for you to use one of its alternatives, such as wu-ftpd or proftpd. 
FTP server with SSL encryption support. This is the netkit ftp server with encryption support ftpd-ssl replaces normal ftpd using SSL authentication and encryption. It interoperates with normal ftp. It checks if the other side is also talking SSL, if not it falls back to normal ftp protocol. Advantages over normal ftp(d): Your passwords and the data you send will not go in cleartext over the line. Nobody can get it with tcpdump or similar tools. 
The virtual filesystem for transparent FTP access FTP File System is a Linux kernel module, enhancing the VFS with FTP volume mounting capabilities. That is, you can "mount" FTP shared directories in your very personal file system and take advantage of local files operations. This package contains prepared source which you can use with make-kpkg to build a modules package for your kernel. 
Mount utils for FTP filesystem This package contains the ftpmount utility, needed to mount the FTP filesystem. There is also a auto.ftp helper application, which allows to use FTP ressources with autofs. 
file mirroring utility ftpgrab is a utility for maintaining FTP mirrors. In fact not unlike the "Mirror" perl program. However ftpgrab is oriented towards the smaller site which doesn't have the resources to mirror entire version trees of software. The primary "plus point" of ftpgrab is that it can base download decisions by parsing version numbers out of filenames. For example, ftpgrab will recognize that the file "linux-2.2.2.tar.gz" is newer than "linux-2.2.1.tar.gz" based on the version string. It will then download the new version and delete the old one when it is done, thus saving you mirroring 10 kernel versions all at >10Mb each. 
Library of callable ftp routines Ftplib presents a convenient C interface for the standard File Transfer Protocol (FTP). It makes it easier for programmers to use file transfer in their programs. 
Mirroring directory hierarchy with FTP ftpmirror is an utility to copy directory hierarchy (this is called ``mirror'') with FTP. A similar perl script exists, whose name is `mirror', but ftpmirror requires less memory than mirror. 
Notifies you of changes on remote ftp servers This package should be installed as a cron job (for interested users) which every week makes a ftp connection to a list of sites and studies a set of files or directories and report any changes it finds by email. Every user can have his own set of sites and directories to watch. 
Full Text Retrieval 
Fidonet Technical Standard 
Federal Telecommunications Services - 2000 (USA), "FTS-2000" 
Federal Telecommunications Standards Committee (org., USA) 
Fidonet Technical Standard Conference (conference) 
FreeType font utilities. mkttfdir utility generates font.dir file for TrueType font. ftinfo utility reports TrueType font info. mkttfdir only supports iso8859-1 and JIS encodings. For other font encoding try the ttmkfdir package. 
FernmeldeTechnische Zentralamt / Zulassung (Telekom, ZZF, predecessor) 
Flow Update Acknowledge [message] (LFAP) 
Freie Universitaet Berlin (org.) 
Fouled / F***** Up Beyond All Belief (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Fouled / F***** Up Beyond All Recognition / Repair (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Fear, Uncertainty, & Doubt (slang, IBM) 
Interface for Fuji digital cameras fujiplay is a command-line program to control and manipulate settings Fuji digital cameras, such as MX-500 or MX-700. You are able to download, upload and delete pictures from the memory card. It's also possible to trigger the shoot button, get a preview image, set the settings of the flash and set the Camera ID. The preview images are in a special format which can be converted to ppm using yycc2ppm which is also included in the fujiplay package. 
Full Duplex
Process that allows both parties to Receive (listen) and transmit (talk) at the same time. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Full Motion Video
Signal which allows transmission of complete action taking place at the origination site. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
full pathname
the name of a directory or file in relation to the root (/) directory. 
Uses Pliant as an whole operating system on top of a Linux kernel. 
fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
A name that contains a host, second level domain, and a top level domain. For example, is an FQDN. 
Flow Update Notification [message] (LFAP) 
Frame User Network Interface 
A literate-programming tool Literate-programming allows the programmer to write a program's code and the code's documentation, with equal importance accorded to both. This helps to produce well-documented code. Unlike other literate-programming tools, funnelweb is not derived from Knuth's cweb. It claims the following technical features: * Can be used with any programming language. * Runs on most platforms. * Mature and essentially bug-free (released 1992). * Simple; specifically designed to minimize errors. * High speed; doesn't stretch the development cycle. * Generates documentation in HTML and TeX forms. This package does not include the reference, tutorial, and developer manuals. See package funnelweb-doc for these. 
more funny manpages A set of miscellaneous humorous manpages (don't take them too seriously!). Includes, amongst others, rtfm (1). Warning! Some of these manpages might be treated offensive. You've been warned. 
filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe 
identify processes using files or sockets 
stress-test programs by giving them random input The fuzz generator is designed to attack certain kinds of software and expose one particular kind of bug common in software. This is the situation where the programmer implicitly makes some assumptions about the data stream that the program will be parsing. If the data stream is substantially different then the program might not be able to deal with it. 
fuzzy hashing
a hashing scheme which can handle range based lookups and multiple keys. It was born from debugging problems arising from from the removal of the old AVL tree mechanism for finding the virtual memory area (vma) associated with a page fault. 
a tool for viewing and editing FITS format files Fv provides a graphical user interface to data stored in FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files. Local files can be created, viewed and edited, files on the internet can be opened read-only through the http and ftp protocols. Through the POWplot program, FITS data can be visualized in a large variety of styles. An interface to the SkyView online database allows for searching, downloading, and plotting of images and object lists for a region of the sky. 
F(?) Virtual Window Manager, version 2.4 FVWM 2 is an ICCCM-1.1 compliant window manager requiring relatively little memory and providing a three-dimensional appearance and a virtual desktop, complete with colour icons. 
Old version of the F(?) Virtual Window Manager This package contains the old version of the FVWM windows manager. It is no longer supported upstream, having been replaced by FVWM 2, and so no non-Debian-related bugs will be fixed unless someone else provides a patch. You probably only want to use this package instead of the fvwm package if you know what you are doing or have very specific requirements. FVWM is a fairly small window manager which provides a three-dimensional appearance and a virtual desktop, complete with colour icons. You will need to install the fvwm-common package if you want the xpmroot command and some icons, along with manual pages for the modules. 
F(?) Virtual Window Manager, version 2.xx. The FVWM 2,xx is now packaged as fvwm since version 2.2 was officially released as a stable package. This Debian package is provided to allow smooth upgrades from the old fvwm2 package to the new fvwm package. 
Win95 lookalike Window Manager for X fvwm95 is a Window Manager for the X Window System, configured to look like a win95 user interface. Fvwm95 is no longer maintained upstream; it's main continued advantage is that it has low resource requirements compared to some of the other window managers that attempt to look somewhat like windows 95. (TM) 
iptables log-file report generator (using analog) fwanalog is a shell script that parses and summarizes firewall logfiles. It currently understands logs from ipchains (Linux 2.2) and iptables (Linux 2.4). It uses analog to generate the log-files, which includes daily statistics and such, and is both formatted in html and text (for online perusing, and a daily email, for instance). 
Firewall administration tool GUI Firewall Builder consists of an object-oriented GUI and a set of policy compilers for various firewall platforms. In Firewall Builder, firewall policy is a set of rules, each rule consists of abstract objects which represent real network objects and services (hosts, routers, firewalls, networks, protocols). Firewall Builder helps the user maintain a database of objects and allows policy editing using simple drag-and-drop operations. This is the GUI part of fwbuilder 
Linux iptables policy compiler for Firewall Builder Firewall Builder consists of an object-oriented GUI and a set of policy compilers for various firewall platforms. In Firewall Builder, firewall policy is a set of rules, each rule consists of abstract objects which represent real network objects and services (hosts, routers, firewalls, networks, protocols). Firewall Builder helps the user maintain a database of objects and allows policy editing using simple drag-and-drop operations. This package contains the fwbuilder policy compiler for the Linux 2.4 iptables target. It creates a shell script to be run during the system bootup process. 
configure ipchains firewall using higher level abstraction This Perl Module and the script is used to generate ipchains rules from config files which are easy to use. It also handles accounting. The rules will be installed from a init script and accounting data is dumped daily. 
A literate-programming tool for C/C++/Fortran/Ratfor Literate-programming allows the programmer to write a program's code and its code's documentation, with equal importance accorded to both. This helps producing a well-documented code. FWEB has grown out of Knuth and Levy's CWEB; it is far more configurable and customizable than the original, uses LaTeX to typeset documented code, provides a very powerful macro processor... Ratfor programmers may appreciate the builtin Ratfor-to-Fortran translator if they don't have the right compiler. Other languages than those cited may be used, but without code pretty-printing. 
FirmWare Hub (BIOS, Intel) 
For What It's Worth (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Firewall log analyzer fwlogwatch produces ipchains, netfilter/iptables, ipfilter, Cisco IOS and Cisco PIX log summary reports in text and HTML form and has a lot of options to find and display relevant patterns in connection attempts. With the data found it can also generate customizable incident reports from a template and send them to abuse contacts at offending sites or CERT coordination centers. Finally, it can also run as daemon and report anomalies or start countermeasures. 
FiXed point Unit (POWER, CPU) 
For Your Information (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
The GNU C++ compiler. This is the GNU C++ compiler, a fairly portable optimizing compiler for C++. 
g-wrap is a tool for creating Scheme interfaces to C libraries. At the moment it is most heavily focused on providing access to C libraries from guile, but it also supports RScheme. 
extract data from scanned graphs g3data is used for extracting data from graphs. For example, graphs are typically published in scientific journals without tables of the actual data; g3data makes the process of extracting these data easy. Home page: 
gtk-based 5-in-a-row game A simple game vs. an AI player. Still beta, but the core game is there; authors are looking for contributions of graphics or sound. This game is a Debian exclusive (at least for now). :-) 
The GNU Fortran 77 compiler. This is the GNU g77 Fortran compiler, which compiles Fortran 77 on platforms supported by the gcc compiler. It uses the gcc backend to generate optimized code. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU Fortran 77 compiler for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
A GNOME Jabber client. Gabber is a Free and Open Source GNOME client for an instant messaging system called Jabber. Jabber is a Free and Open Source distributed instant messaging system. It does not rely on a single server, and the protocol is well documented. Jabber allows communication with many different instant messaging systems, including ICQ and AIM. 
Small Gnome personal databases manager Gaby is a _small_ personal databases manager for Linux using GTK+ and Gnome for its GUI. It was designed to provide straight-forward access to databases a 'normal' user would like (addresses, books, ...) while keeping the ability to easily create databases for other needs. On a technical side it was designed with extensibility in mind and thus use relies a lot on plug-ins. 
Government Advisory Council (ICANN) 
Personnal accounts manager gAcc is a program intended to manage one's bank accounts. It provides basic functions such as : - having multiple accounts in a wallet file - user readable configuration file & wallets files - add / remove any account from the file (happily ;-) ) - add / remove any operation from any account (idem :) ) - modify the category list - point or un-point operations - display intermediate balance for each operation - re-edit operations - re-edit accounts - internationalisation (not yet finished. volunteers ?) and locale formats - etc... Some other functions need to be implemented for better use. See the TODO file to know what they are. 
gaddr is a nice simple little address book written using GTK+. 
SQL database and parser generator in Python Gadfly is a relational database management system which uses a large subset of very standard SQL as its query language and Python modules and optional Python/C extension modules as its underlying engine. Gadfly stores the active database in memory, with recovery logging to a file system. It supports an optional TCP/IP based client server mode and log based failure recovery for system or software failures (but not for disk failures). kwParser, included as part of the Gadfly package, is a parser generator for Python. It transforms an abstract specification of a language grammar (for example the CORBA Interface Definition Language) together with "interpretation functions" that define the semantics of the language into a compiler or translator or interpreter. 
Global Application Developers Kit (Sun) 
Generic Application Environment 
GUI Application Interoperability Architecture (OSF) 
GAIL implements the abstract interfaces found in ATK for GTK+ and GNOME libraries, enabling accessibility technologies such as at-spi to access those GUIs. 
Gail is the GNOME Accessibility Implementation Library 
Gaim allows you to talk to anyone using a variety of messaging protocols, including AIM (Oscar and TOC), ICQ, IRC, Yahoo!,MSN Messenger, Jabber, Gadu-Gadu, Napster, and Zephyr. These protocols are implemented using a modular, easy to use design. To use a protocol, just load the plugin for it. Gaim supports many common features of other clients, as well as many unique features, such as perl scripting and C plugins. Gaim is NOT affiliated with or endorsed by AOL. 
GPL multi-protocol instant messenger client - Gtk+ version Gaim is a Gtk+ based instant messenger client that supports the TOC and OSCAR (and hence ICQ) AIM protocols, as well as providing plugins for the Gadu-gadu, IRC, Jabber, MSN Messenger, Napster, old ICQ, Yahoo! Messenger and Zephyr protocols. As the name suggests, it was originally designed for using AOL's Instant Messenger service (you can sign up at Consequently it contains many of the same features as AOL's IM client, as well as incorporating many new features, such as the multiple protocol support. This version is compiled without GNOME support, making Gaim a stand-alone Gtk+ program. 
German Advanced Integrated Network (IBM) 
Governmental Accessed Keys (cryptography) 
Generic Array celL / Logic 
The GNOME Application Library (GAL) contains GNOME widgets and utility functions. 
Mozilla based web browser with GNOME look and feel Galeon is a fast Web Browser for the GNOME Desktop Environment. Galeon's use of Mozilla's Gecko rendering engine makes it more feature complete and standards compliant than most other browsers available. By using the GNOME and GTK libraries for the user interface, Galeon is usually faster than mozilla and the interface integrates well with the GNOME Desktop Environment. 
a web-based photo album written in php Gallery is a web-based photo album with multiple user support. It provides users with the ability to create and maintain their own albums via an intuitive web interface. Photo management includes automatic thumbnail creation, image resizing, rotation, ordering, captioning, searching and more. Albums can have read, write and caption permissions per individual authenticated user for an additional level of privacy. Created in an effort to prevent well meaning folks from sending obscenely large photos by email, Gallery provides an easy place for friends and relatives to create and maintain their own photo albums. The upstream web site is: 
Command line image gallery generator. It also makes thumbnails. Galrey is a command line image gallery generator. It takes your pictures and creates thumbnails and browsable HTML pages. Galrey also allows you to add a comment for each image. The HTML output can be fully customized editing the template file. 
Graphical mixer for ALSA using gtk+. This package contains a graphical front-end (using the GTK+ toolkit) to the ALSA native mixer device. 
Global Area Network 
Generic Access Profile (DECT, Europe) 
Generic Address Parameter 
Archiver with a WinZip and a tree interface, and full drag and drop. garchiver is an archiver for Gnome. It has a tree interface that lets you navigate through your archives very easily, as well as the classic WinZip interface. File can be dragged from a file manager and dropped on garchiver. Single files can be extracted with or without the path they were in. It currently fully supports .zip, .tar, .tar.gz, .tar.bz2, .tar.Z. Extracting and viewing of rar and arj archives is working, but not stable. It uses python modules to do all the work, so it is very easy to extend. 
[Chemistry] a free molecular visualization program Garlic is probably the most portable molecular visualization program in the Unix world. It's written for the investigation of membrane proteins. It may be used to visualize other proteins, as well as some geometric objects. The name should has something to do with the structure and operation of this program. This version of garlic recognizes PDB format version 2.1. Garlic may also be used to analyze protein sequences. Features include (but not limited to): o The slab position and thickness are visible in a small window. o Atomic bonds as well as atoms are treated as independent drawable objects. o The atomic and bond colors depend on position. Five mapping modes are available (as for slab). o Capable to display stereo image. o Capable to display other geometric objects, like membrane. o Atomic information is available for atom covered by the mouse pointer. No click required, just move the mouse pointer over the structure! o Capable to load more than one structure. o Capable to draw Ramachandran plot, helical wheel, Venn diagram, averaged hydrophobicity and hydrophobic moment plot. o The command prompt is available at the bottom of the main window. It is able to display one error message and one command string. Author: Damir Zucic (, University of Osijek, Croatia. Keywords: molecular visualization, protein structure, DNA structure, PDB, molecular rendering, biological macromolecule 
Graphics Address Remapping Table (AGP) 
Group Admin SHell (Unix, Shell) 
Gnome front end to the aspell spell checker Gnome frontend to the Aspell library. It has a 'Lookup' facility to look up definitions from online dictionaries using the dict protocol. 
Database administration tool gASQL is a program which helps administer a DBMS database using the gnome-db framework (see for more information about gnome-db). Basically, it memorizes all the structure of the database, and some queries, and does the SQL queries instead of the user (not having to type all over again those SQL commands, although it is still possible to do so). 
A network device or machine that connects a local private network to another network or the Internet. 
A program or piece of hardware that passes data between networks. 
The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example America Online has a gateway that translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet. 
GUI interface to the "at" command. Gato is a GTK interface to the "at" command. The "at" command is the standard Unix way to allow you to schedule commands to be run sometime in the future. 
ATI All-in-Wonder TV capture software The General ATI TV and Overlay Software (GATOS) suite for capturing video. This package does not require kernel patches, and includes: * xatitv: GUI TV-in-a-window application GUI access to all GATOS functionality, save tv-out. * atitv: Simple text-mode program Basic functionality to record video and toggle tv-out. * atitoppm: * atitogif: * atitojpg: YUV conversion utilities * yuvsum: video field to frame converter Averages all images in gatos.yuv (must all be same size). * atisplit: YUV conversion to ucbmpeg This splits the output file for MPEG encoding. 
GNU awk, a pattern scanning and processing language `awk', a program that you can use to select particular records in a file and perform operations upon them. Gawk is the GNU Project's implementation of the AWK programming language. It conforms to the definition of the language in the POSIX 1003.2 Command Language And Utilities Standard. This version in turn is based on the description in The AWK Programming Language, by Aho, Kernighan, and Weinberger, with the additional features defined in the System V Release 4 version of UNIX awk. Gawk also provides more recent Bell Labs awk extensions, and some GNU-specific extensions. 
Gnome Basic - VB compatible Basic for GNOME Gnome Basic is an embryonic attempt to provide Visual Basic compatible functionality for the GNOME project, particularly with respect to office (VBA) compatibility. This package provides the command-line Gnome Basic controller. 
GuoBao [codepage] 
see gigabit. 
see gigabyte. 
small numeric base converter If you specify a number on the command line (preceded by a switch to describe the base the number is in) the program will display that number in all four bases on the console and exit. You can also specify the -s switch which will allow you to enter/display signed numbers. (This allows the use of a - (minus) before a decimal number). Just running the program without any switches will display the main window. There are four entry boxes, corresponding to each of the four bases. You can type into any of these boxes and the others will update automagically. The program will ignore any characters that are not allowed for that particular base. It will only allow a - (minus) at the start of a decimal number, if the signed option is on. 
networked BattleShip game Batalla Naval is a networked BattleShip game. It supports multiple players and multiple robots at the same time. 
user-friendly editor and browser for BibTeX databases You can use it also to insert citations inside a LyX document. gBib is able to import and export BiBTeX databases. 
A mail notification program supported GTK+ and Gnome gbiff checks for mail within a file, a qmail or MH style dir, or an IMAP4 or a POP3 server. It can display headers (number, sender, subject, and date) when new mail has arrived. It interprets any ISO-8859 encoding and supports both GTK and GNOME. 
General Purpose Interface Bus 
GigaBits Per Second 
A GTK+-based, XBuffy-like multiple mailbox "biff" program GBuffy will poll multiple mailboxes for new mail. It will list the number of new messages in each mailbox you configure. It will also highlight the mailboxes which have new mail. Pressing the left mouse button on a mailbox with new mail will display the Sender and Subject of each new message. Additionally, GBuffy will display the X-Face header for messages which have them. Pressing the middle mouse button on a mailbox will launch the configured command, generally a command to read the mailbox with your favorite mailreader. Pressing the right mouse button will bring up the configure menu. GBuffy is currently capable of watching MBOX, MMDF, Maildir and MH Folders. This version also supports IMAP4rev1 and NNTP with XOVER mailboxes. Support for an external program for notification is planned. 
Global Catalog (MS, AD) 
Utility to calculate bearing and range to a location Gcb computes Great Circle Bearing and Range given the latitude and longitude (degrees and minutes). You must input the lat/long of the two stations. The output will then be relative from station1 to station2. 
General Communications Architecture (Ingres) 
Geographical Computer Aided Design System 
Prints calendars Gcal displays a calendar for a month or a year, eternal holiday lists and fixed date lists, in many ways. The program correctly omits the dates that were skipped when the current Gregorian calendar replaced the earlier Julian calendar. Apart from the usual and well known calendar functions like the output of a month or a year calendar sheet, or the output of an eternal holiday list, Gcal offers the facility to display fixed dates on the day of their occurrence and to remind or inform the user about them. So it's imaginable after booting the computer or starting the work session, that the user is informed on screen or by means of electronic mail, about all holidays or appointments which are observed or scheduled for that day. 
GNOME applet for changing PCMCIA-CS schemes. GCardScheme is a GNOME applet for changing PCMCIA-CS card schemes. Schemes allow for multiple configurations without having to change configuration files (e.g. different schemes for home and office networks). 
Georgia Center for Advanced Telecommunications Technology (org., USA) 
A compiler aimed at integrating all the optimizations and features necessary for a high-performance and stable development environment. This package is required for all other GCC compilers, namely C++, Fortran 77, Objective C and Java. If you have multiple versions of GCC installed on your system, it is preferred to type "gcc-$(gcc3.2-version)" (without double quotes) in order to use the GNU C compiler version 3.2.2. 
GNU C Compiler (GNU) 
The GNU C compiler by Richard Stallman et al. A very high quality, very portable compiler for C, C++ and Objective C. The compiler is designed to support multiple front-ends and multiple back-ends by translating first into Register Transfer Language and from there into assembly code for the target architecture. 
Memory access debugger for C language development Checker automatically finds: * null pointer dereferences (read, write, and execute accesses) * writes to read-only memory * accesses to free blocks (read, write, and execute) * reads of uninitialized bytes (in automatic and dynamic memory) * reads/writes to "red zones" (in automatic and dynamic memory) * reads/writes/executes outside memory segments * free called with address not obtained from malloc * free an already freed block * ...and many other kinds of memory and API errors. Checker's main disadvantage is that it causes the program to run much slower. You can compile your program to use Checker by replacing calls to gcc by calls to checkergcc. Please read the documentation in /usr/share/doc/gccchecker. This version of Checker works only with GNU gcc 2.95. It will not work with earlier or later versions. There is limited support for C++, with no support for libstdc++. 
create dependencies in makefiles using 'gcc -M' 
Global Command and Control System (DISA, mil.) 
MySQL/PHP billing system. gcdb is a GUI to a MySQL database. It supports Customer, Payment, Invoice, Account, and Trouble Ticket entries. Records can be added, edited, or deleted. 
Create audio CDs and write them in disk-at-once mode gcdmaster allows creation and editing of audio CD images in an easy to use GNOME environment. It can read audio CDs with jitter compensation for outstanding quality, add CD-TEXT and perform direct CD to CD copies. gcdmaster is a graphical version of the cdrdao command-line utility. 
Ada quality & style checker This is an ASIS application that enforces various quality and style rules, including those from the Ada Quality and Style Guide. 
the GNOME Character Map 
Global Call IDentifier 
Global Call IDentifier- Information Element (GCID), "GCID-IE" 
The GNU Java compiler. GCJ is a front end to the GCC compiler which can natively compile both Java(tm) source and bytecode files. The compiler can also generate class files. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU Java compiler for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 3.0.4 for architecture i386). 
GNU Common Lisp compiler. GNU Common Lisp (GCL) is a Common Lisp compiler and interpreter implemented in C, and complying mostly with the standard set forth in the book "Common Lisp, the Language I". It attempts to strike a useful middle ground in performance and portability from its design around C. This package contains the Lisp system itself. Documentation is provided in the gcl-doc package. 
Graphics Command Language 
Draft ANSI Common Lisp specification in info format This is a draft specification of the ANSI Common Lisp language in the GNU info format. The gclinfo-html package contains the same document in HTML format. GNU Common Lisp specific information can be found in gcl and gcl-doc packages. 
The Gnome Comics Organizer. GCO is a database for keeping track of your comics collection. It supports titles, publishers, types, writers, pencilers, inkers, cover prices, current prices, comments, and much more. It also allows you to sort the list in various ways. 
the GNOME Color Browser 
gcombust is a gtk+ frontend for mkisofs, mkhybrid, cdrecord and cdlabelgen. It's written in C. It has primitive support for controlling the directory (root) structure and size of image without copying files/symlinking or writing 10 lines of arguments and can maximize disk by hinting which directories/files to use. 
GTK+ based CD mastering and burning program gcombust is a GTK+ frontend for mksisofs and cdrecord. Features: * burning on the fly from HD * CD-to-CD copying (audio CD on-the-fly copy is experimental) * makes creation of iso-images easy * maximize CD usage by hinting which directories/files to use * audio CD creation (DAO support) * bootable CD support * multisession support * CD-RW support * cover printing via cdlabelgen * save/load path selections (for always burning the same set of files) * save/load settings * tooltips * NLS support * verify 
Educational game for small children GCompris is a framework for educational games for the GNOME desktop, already providing a number of boards. It is meant to become some sort of unified interface for more educational games. In French GCompris is pronounced like "j'ai compris", which means "I Have Understood". Currently available boards include: * learning how to use a mouse and keyboard * learning simple arithmetics * learning how to read an analog clock * recognize letters after hearing their names * reading practice * small games (memory games, jigsaw puzzles, ...) * etc. It is designed so that it is easy to implement new boards to GCompris. 
GConf is the GNOME Configuration database system. GNOME is the GNU Network Object Model Environment. It is an easy touse, powerful, and highly configurable desktop environment. 
GNOME configuration database system. (daemon and tools) GConf is a configuration database system, functionally similar to the Windows registry but lots better. :-) It's being written for the GNOME desktop but does not require GNOME. This package contain gconfd daemon and gconf tools binaries. 
An editor for the GConf configuration system. An editor for the GConf configuration system. 
GConf is a configuration data storage mechanism scheduled to ship with GNOME 2.0. GConf does work without GNOME however; it can be used with plain GTK+, Xlib, KDE, or even text mode applications as well. 
GConf is a process-transparent configuration database API used to store user preferences. It has pluggable backends and features to support workgroup administration. 
GNOME configuration database system. (daemon and tools, for GNOME2) GConf is a configuration database system, functionally similar to the Windows registry but lots better. :-) It's being written for the GNOME desktop but does not require GNOME. This package contain gconfd daemon and gconf tools binaries for GNOME2 
General Comprehensive Operating System (Honeywell, OS, Honeywell Series 60, Honeywell Series 6000) 
test coverage program for GNU CC 
Global Consciousness Project EGG Software The GCP studies data from random event generators in widely distributed locations, to discern non-random patterns that may result from the interaction of human consciousness with the generators. This package provides the software required to operate a random event generator and return data to the project. Unless you are registered with the GCP and have received event generator hardware, this package will be useless to you. If you have no idea what this means, don't bother installing this package! More GCP information is available at 
Gray Component Replacement (RGB, CYMK, DTP) 
Group Coded Recording 
Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (UNI, ATM) 
GTK crontab editor gcrontab is a simple GTK editor for the UNIX cron system. 
Greek Computer Society (org., Griechenland) 
Group Control System (IBM, VM, VME, VM/ESA) 
gtk+ front-end for cvs An advanced, easy to use C++ front-end for cvs distributed under the GPL. gCvs features: - gCvs is part of the CvsGui project and shares a large portion of code with WinCvs and MacCvs, both of which are fairly mature. - gCvs is written in C++ using GNU gtk+. - Uses the latest cvs source code. - Makes cvs easier for the novice. - Increases the power of cvs by providing an high-end interface. - The project is growing because it is supported and developed by several cvs users. 
The gd graphics library allows your code to quickly draw images complete with lines, arcs, text, multiple colors, cut and paste from other images, and flood fills. The library will write out the result as a PNGor JPEG file. This is particularly useful in Web applications, where PNG and JPEG are two of the formats accepted for inline images by most Web browsers. Note that gd is not a paint or graphics manipulation program. 
Global Directory Agent (DCE) 
Visualization plug-in for xmms GDancer is a plugin to animate characters to the beat of the music. The default character is Space Ghost, but you can use and make your own characters through themes. You can find more theme here: 
Government Document Application Profile 
Gdb is a full featured, command driven debugger. Gdb allows you to trace the execution of programs and examine their internal state atany time. Gdb works for C and C++ compiled with the GNU C compiler gcc.If you are going to develop C and/or C++ programs and use the GNU gcc compiler, you may want to install gdb to help you debug your programs. 
GDB, the GNU debugger, allows you to debug programs written in C, C++, and other languages, by executing them in a controlled fashion and printing their data. 
GNU DeBugger (GNU) 
The GNU Debugger GDB is a source-level debugger, capable of breaking programs at any specific line, displaying variable values, and determining where errors occurred. Currently, it works for C, C++, Fortran Modula 2 and Java programs. A must-have for any serious programmer. 
Gdbm is a GNU database indexing library, including routines which use extensible hashing. Gdbm works in a similar way to standard UNIX dbm routines. Gdbm is useful for developers who write C applications andneed access to a simple and efficient database or who are building C applications which will use such a database. 
GNU Data Base Manager (DB, GNU) 
Remote Server for the GNU Debugger 
Gesellschaft fuer Datenschutz und Datensicherung (org.) 
Graphical Data Display Manager (IBM) 
Graphical Device / Display Interface 
display dialog boxes from shell scripts 
Gnome client for MIT dictionary server 
molecular display A GTK based program for the display and manipulation of isolated molecules and periodic systems. It is in development, but is nonetheless fairly functional. It has the following features: * Support for several file types (CIF, BIOSYM, XYZ, XTL, MARVIN, and GULP) * A simple molecular creation and manipulation tool * A dialogue for creating starting configurations for molecular dynamics simulations * Assorted tools for visualization (geometry information, region highlighting, etc.) * Animation of BIOSYM files (also rendered animations, see below) GDIS also allows you to perform the following functions through other packages: * Model rendering (courtesy of POVRay) * Energy minimization (courtesy of GULP) * Morphology calculation (courtesy of cdd) * Space group processing (courtesy of SgInfo) * View the Periodic Table (courtesy of GPeriodic) * Load additional filetypes, such as PDB (courtesy of Babel) 
GNOME utility to monitor disk space usage 
Gdk-Imlib is an imaging library for use with gtk Gdk-Imlib is a low-level gdk interface for gtk programmers. It allows easier access to many graphics formats and can write to them as well. 
The gdk-pixbuf package contains an image loading library used with the GNOME desktop environment. The GdkPixBuf library provides image loading facilities, the rendering of a GdkPixBuf into various formats (drawables or GdkRGB buffers), and a cache interface. 
GNOME-dependent portions of the gdk-pixbuf image loading library. 
The GdkPixBuf library provides a number of features: - Image loading facilities. - Rendering of a GdkPixBuf into various formats: drawables (windows, pixmaps), GdkRGB buffers. This package provides image loaders used by all versions of GdkPixBuf 
gtk+-1.2 anti-aliased font support control panel *** THIS WILL CAUSE APPLICATIONS TO CRASH, DIE, LOSE INFORMATION, AND OTHER NASTY EFFECTS. DON'T USE THIS IF YOU WANT STABILITY *** This gnomecc capplet can assist in managing the use of libgdkxft. 
Gdm (the GNOME Display Manager) is a highly configurable reimplementation of xdm, the X Display Manager. Gdm allows you to log into your system with the X Window System running and supports running several different X sessions on your local machine at the same time. 
GNOME Display Manager host chooser window 
Generic Definition of Management Information 
GNOME Display Manager greeting window 
Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects (OSI) 
Graphics Device Operating System (OS, Atari) 
Greater Detroit OS/2 User Group (org., user group, OS/2, USA) 
Grundsaetze zum Datenzugriff und zur Pruefbarkeit Digitaler Unterlagen (BMF), "GDPdU" 
??? Read Only Memory (Sega, ROM), "GD-ROM" 
Generalized Data Stream (IBM, APPC) 
Global Directory Service (DCE) 
Global Descriptor Table 
Tcl interface to GD graphics creation library. This package provides a simple Tcl interface to the gd (PNG drawing) package, version 1.3. It includes an interface to all the gd functions and data structures from Tcl commands. 
Global Descriptor Table Register Cache (GDT, Intel, CPU) 
General Electric (manufacturer, GE) 
GNU Enterprise Application Server The GNU Enterprise Application Server provides a way to do CORBA communication without having to understand CORBA. It turns relational data structures into objects for use by a client. Methods are written in Python. 
General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor / System (OS, GE, GCOS, predecessor, Honeywell) 
GNU EDA -- Electronics design software GNU EDA, an electronics design package, including gschem, a schematic editor. This is alpha software! 
gEdit is a small text editor designed specifically for the GNOME GUI desktop. gEdit includes a plug-in API (which supports extensibility while keeping the core binary small), support for editing multiple documents using notebook tabs, and standard text editor functions. 
Light-weight text editor Gedit has all the basic features you come to expect from a simple text editor, but Gedit has a native graphic user interface (GUI). Gedit also has command line arguments available to users to quickly and easily view and edit files from a terminal. Overall, Gedit is an easy to use text editor with utilizing the powerful capabilities of the GNOME desktop. Gedit has a versatile plug-in architecture to extend its capablilties. This allows you to perform functions you don't normally expect from a text editor, such as piping the output of a shell command to the screen. The plug-in architecture also lets you email people, browse the internet, or produce a diff from gedit. 
Program for generating geekcode. This is a program for generating the geekcode. See for more info and for discovering if you need the geekcode. 
a GTK+ Equation Grapher geg is a very simple utility for parsing and plotting 2D-functions, eg f(x) = 3 + sin(x), and much more complicated functions of course. It is written with GTK+ and provides a neat, configurable user interface. 
Gesellschaft fuer Elektronische Informationsverarbeitung [mbh] (manufacturer, Aachen) 
German Encyclopedic Internet Service Terminal (org.) 
Generalized Executive for realtime Multiprocessor applications (OS) 
Graphics Environment Manager (DR, PC) 
Gem Drop X is an interesting one-player puzzle game for X11 The game is played with YOU at the bottom of the screen. At the top is a random assortment of colored shapes ("gems"). As time goes on, more gems appear at the very top of the screen, pushing the rest downwards. The game is over when the gems reach the bottom. It's your job to keep the screen from filling up. You do this by "grabbing" gems from the top of the screen, carrying them around, if need be, and "throwing" them back up. If, when you throw some gems back up, you create a "match" of 3 or more gems in a vertical column, they disappear (with a cool little explosion). At this point, if there are any "matches" of the same gem to the left or right of this column, they disappear too! And so on. This is great for cool chain-reactions! You also get more points for the more gems that disappear in a match. (Matching four gives as many points as matching three twice, for example.) 
utility to aid in error-free diff file generation 
GENDIST (the Linux Distribution Generator) allows you to create your own special mini-distribution. It creates a makefile-based build system for your distribution, and helps you to automate the following three tasks: maintaining your root filesystem, maintaining your "CD filesystem" (in case you create a bootable CD), and packaging everything on media. GENDIST 1.4.7 (Stable) was released December 29, 2002. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Documentation generation from Python source files 
General-purpose neural simulator GENESIS is a general purpose simulation platform which was developed to support the simulation of neural systems ranging from complex models of single neurons to simulations of large networks made up of more abstract neuronal components. GENESIS has provided the basis for laboratory courses in neural simulation at both Caltech and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA. Most current GENESIS applications involve realistic simulations of biological neural systems. Although the software can also model more abstract networks, other simulators are more suitable for backpropagation and similar connectionist modeling. 
Genealogy Software with Web Interface Geneweb allows you to keep track of ancestral data. It is a powerful system for maintaining a set of data about your family history. It supports much of the GEDCOM tag system for data storage, and can be used either as your primary system for archiving genealogical data, or as a web service (through a CGI interface) for publishing your data for others to use. Geneweb is under active use and development, so its feature set is constantly improving. It already boasts features not found in most off-the-shelf products, such as consanguinity and relationship calculations, as well as other statistical analysis tools. 
skeleton main.c generator gengetopt reads an interface description file, and writes a skeleton main.c file. gengetopt supports: long and short options, 11 types of parameters (including flag, int, double, string, and function call), and a usage message. 
General Electric Network for Information Exchange (network, GE) 
generate symbol version information 
generate symbol version information 
command line parser generator Genparse is a generic command line parser generator. From simple and concise specification file, you can define the command line parameters and switches that you would like to be able to pass to your program. Genparse creates the C code of the parser for you, which you can then compile as a separate file and link with your program. 
Monitor UPS and handle line power failures The express aim of the genpower package is to add additional functionally and a simpler means of configuring UPS monitoring, in a full featured suite that can be configured to work with most UPSs featuring an RS232 monitoring port. Depending on the UPS, cable, and the manner in which the genpower package is configured, the genpower package provides the following features: * Line power sensing * Low battery detection * Physical cable detection * The ability to kill the UPS's inverter The Debian package has an extra cable description called "apc-pnp" that should support all of the above for the APC Back-UPS Pro, Smart-UPS, and Matrix-UPS systems using the included Windows-95 Plug-and-Play cable! 
This is the mkfs equivalent for romfs filesystem You need it to build a romfs filesystem. romfs is a small, read-only filesystem intended for installation/rescue disks or "embedded" applications. This filesystem is supported by Linux 2.1.25 and later. 
Generate /etc/sgml/sgml.env and /etc/sgml/sgml.cenv 
A fully GUI configurable X file manager using GTK+ gentoo is a file manager for X11, written from scratch in pure C. It utilises the GTK+ toolkit for its interface. A goal with gentoo is to let the user do all configuration from within the program itself; there should be no need to hand-edit configuration files and restart the program in order to customize it. gentoo features a fairly complex and powerful file identification system, coupled to a object-oriented style system, which together give you a lot of control over how files of different types are displayed and acted upon. 
Gentoo Linux
Gentoo Linux is a source-based distribution, versatile, fast and completely free. It's geared towards developers and network professionals. Gentoo 1.4_rc4 was released April 15, 2003. 
interactive geometry viewing program Geomview is interactive geometry software which is particularly appropriate for mathematics research and education. In particular, geomview can display things in hyperbolic and spherical space as well as Euclidean space. Modules that rely on the non-free libforms library are not included. Geomview allows multiple independently controllable objects and cameras. It provides interactive control for motion, appearances (including lighting, shading, and materials), picking on an object, edge or vertex level, snapshots in SGI image file or Renderman RIB format, and adding or deleting objects is provided through direct mouse manipulation, control panels, and keyboard shortcuts. External programs can drive desired aspects of the viewer (such as continually loading changing geometry or controlling the motion of certain objects) while allowing interactive control of everything else. Homepage: 
Graphic Environment Operating System (OS) 
format equations for troff 
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GSM, EDGE, mobile-systems) 
Gerber file viewer for PCB design gerbv is a utility for viewing Gerber files. Gerber files are used for communicating printed circuit board (PCB) designs to PCB manufacturers. 
Frontend for Simple Asynchronous File Transfer Gerstensaft is an easy to use graphical oriented frontend for sendfile(1). It features sending files and directories and provides a history for addresses. 
GESellschaft fuer Informatik in der Pharmazie [e.v.] (org.) 
Query system configuration variables 
get entries from administrative database 
print the current format information TQ 
print kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table 
POP3, APOP mail gatherer/forwarder. getmail is intended as a simple replacement for fetchmail. It retrieves mail (either all messages, or only unread messages) from one or more POP3 servers for one or more email accounts, and reliably delivers into a qmail-style Maildir, mbox file or to a command (pipe delivery) like maildrop or procmail. specified on a per-account basis. getmail also has support for domain (multidrop) mailboxes. 
Parse command line options 
parse command options (enhanced) 
Government Emergency Telecommunications System (USA) 
GNU Internationalization utilities Interesting for authors or maintainers of other packages or programs which they want to see internationalized. 
The GNU gettext package provides a set of tools and documentation for producing multi-lingual messages in programs. Tools include a set of conventions about how programs should be written to support message catalogs, a directory and file naming organization for the message catalogs, a runtime library which supports the retrieval of translated messages, and stand-alone programs for handling the translatable and the already translated strings. Gettext provides an easy to use library and tools for creating, using, and modifying natural language catalogs and is a powerful and simple method for internationalizing programs. 
add internationalization files to your project 
alternative Linux getty 
The GNU HaliFAX Sender This is the GNU HaliFAX Sender, a component of GNU HaliFAX which will help you send Postscript and TIFF g3/g4 files to mgetty+sendfax or hylafax for sending faxes. The GNU HaliFAX will be a complete free client package for HylaFAX and maybe for other fax systems in the future. It is intended to run on both the Win32 platform and the GNU system. 
Generic Flow Control (ATM) 
Going For Coffee (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
GTK firewall control center Allows setup of a firewall using a GTK gui. 
GNU Free Documentation License (GNU) 
a simple floppy formatter for the GNOME 
Giga FLoating-point Operations Per Second (CPU) 
the GNOME Font selector 
A font viewer for Type 1 and TrueType fonts gfontview is a font viewer for outline fonts, PostScript(tm) Type 1 and TrueType(tm). gfontview allows you to display a particular character or string of a font in an own window, thus allowing a comparison between several fonts with a particular string sample. This character or string can be antialiased (smoothed). The string can also consider the kerning pairs if available in the AFM or TTF file. The displayed character or string can be saved in GIF format. A table with all glyphs in the font (for PostScript Type 1 fonts also in several encodings) can also be created. A custom encoding will be generated on the fly to allow you to see all characters (also not encoded ones) in a Type 1 font, the so called "Custom" encodings. You can also print a sample of a font. The program generates PostScript code with sample strings in several sizes, which you can download to any PostScript printer or to ghostscript. TrueType fonts can be saved as Type42 PostScript fonts. 
GNU Forth Language Environment This is the GNU'ish implementation of a Forth programming environment. Forth, as a language, is best known for being stack-based, and completely extensible. Each Forth environment provides one or more dictionaries of pre-defined words, and programming in Forth consists of defining and executing new words that are combinations of previously defined words. It has been said that learning Forth changes forever the way you think about writing programs. For more information about Forth, visit the Forth Interest Group web site at 
Global Functional Plane (IN) 
Recreate a grid of mirrors from clues given by tests Send balls through an invisible grid of mirrors (and other interesting widgets) and observe where they end up. Then, try to recreate the same grid from the results you just obtained. 
??? File System 
Global File System; an open source shared disk file system for networked storage. 
Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (DFUe) 
A utility to split and join files gfslicer is a utility which allows you to split (slice) files into files with the size of your choice. It can also join (desclice) these files back into the original file. Other features are compression and error checking. 
make proof sheets from generic font files 
convert generic font files to packed font files 
gFTP is a multi-threaded FTP client for the X Window System. gFTPsupports simultaneous downloads, resumption of interrupted filetransfers, file transfer queues to allow downloading of multiple files, support for downloading entire directories/subdirectories, a bookmarks menu to allow quick connection to FTP sites, caching of remote directory listings, local and remote chmod, drag and drop, a connection manager, and much more. 
X/GTK+ FTP client gFTP is a multithreaded FTP client, available in two versions: * version for X, written using GLib and GTK+ * version for the console, using only GLib This is an upgrade convenience package, it's only useful for depending on 
translate a generic font file for humans to read 
An instant messenger compatible with Gadu Gadu - GNOME version Gadu Gadu is a Windows instant messenger, very popular in Poland. GNU Gadu is a GTK+/GNOME version for *nix systems. This version is linked against GNOME, and allows you to use gg as a panel applet. 
An instant messenger compatible with Gadu Gadu - GTK+ version Gadu Gadu is a Windows instant messenger, very popular in Poland. GNU Gadu is a GTK+/GNOME version for *nix systems. This is a GTK+-only version, which allows you to use gg without the need to install GNOME libraries. 
General Graphics Interface 
Gateway to Gateway Protocol (RFC 823) 
a Gradebook to help teachers manage student grades. A well-featured Gradebook which uses gtk. 
GueteGemeinschaft Software [e.v.] (org.) 
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GPRS, mobile-systems) 
GNOME Ghostview (ggv) is a frontend for Ghostscript, an interpreter of PostScript that is able to properly render PostScript documents in a display or a printer. GGv serves as a layer that isolates the user from the cumbersome options and interface of Ghostscript, and, at the same time, gives extra features such as panning and persistent user settings. 
the Glasgow Haskell Compilation system the Glorious Glasgow Haskell Compilation system (GHC). GHC is a compiler for Haskell98. Haskell is "the" standard lazy functional programming language. Haskell98 is the current version of the language. The language definition and additional documentation can be found in the `haskell-doc' package. Alternatively, there is an online version at 
A GNOME molecular modelling environment Ghemical is a computational chemistry software package written in C++. It has a graphical user interface and it supports both quantum- mechanics (semi-empirical) models and molecular mechanics models. Geometry optimization, molecular dynamics and a large set of visualization tools using OpenGL are currently available. Ghemical relies on external code to provide the quantum-mechanical calculations. Semi-empirical methods MNDO, MINDO/3, AM1 and PM3 come from the MOPAC7 package (Public Domain), and are included in the package. The project started as a freeware molecular modelling package, but since the graphical user interface part of the package is quite advanced and clearly written (according to our own biased view, at least), the package now aims to become a common framework for molecular modelling programs generally. 
GNOME Hex editor for files The GHex program can view and edit files in two ways, hex or ascii. Good for editing savegame files. 
The GNU HaliFAX Viewer This is the GNU HaliFAX Viewer, a component of GNU HaliFAX which will help you look at the TIFF g3/g4 fax files produced by HylaFAX The GNU HaliFAX will be a complete free client package for HylaFAX and maybe for other fax systems in the future. It is intended to run on both the Win32 platform and the GNU system. 
Goal Hierarchy and Objectives Structuring Technique (TUB) 
Ghostscript is a set of software that provides a PostScript(TM) interpreter, a set of C procedures (the Ghostscript library, which implements thegraphics capabilities in the PostScript language) and an interpreter for Portable Document Format (PDF) files. Ghostscript translates PostScript code into many common, bitmapped formats, like those understood by your printer or screen. Ghostscript is normally used to display PostScript files and to print PostScript files to non-PostScript printers. Most applications use PostScript for printer output. You should install ghostscript if you need to display PostScript files, orif you have a non-PostScript printer. 
a PostScript viewer for X11 This is the GNU PostScript viewer (an X11 frontend for GhostScript, in the gs package), and it is VERY old. Its last release was in 1993, and its user interface is considered ugly by some. You may find the gv package a better alternative. 
Guest Host Technique SuperTwisted Nematic (LCD), "GHT-STN" 
Gesellschaft fuer Informatik (org.) 
wrapper library for imlib2, and other stuff. giblib is a library of handy stuff. Contains an imlib2 wrapper to avoid the context stuff, doubly-linked lists and font styles. 
Gibraltar is a project that aims to produce a Debian GNU/Linux-based router and firewall package. This package boots and runs from CD-ROM, so a hard disk installation is not necessary. Version 0.99.6 was released January 13, 2003.. Version 0.99.7a was released April 30, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Boot support for Gibraltar live CD-ROM This package contains the necessary support for the live Gibraltar CD-ROM. It will manage /etc and /var to be writeable and will take care of saving and restoring /etc. Therefore this package should be installed on the master copy that will be used as the live file system on the CD-ROM. Do not install it on a system that boots from a harddisk partition (e.g. the development system for creating the bootable CD-ROMs), it will break. 
Group ID 
Group identification number for the process. Valid group numbers are given in /etc/group, and in the GID field of /etc/passwd file. When a process is started, its GID is set to the GID of its parent process. 
Grafisch-Interaktives DatenAnalyseSystem 
General Input Device Emulation Interface 
RFC1413 compliant IPv4/IPv6 ident daemon gidentd is a fully functional, RFC1413 compliant ident daemon, written by Joern Heissler. It provides IPv4/IPv6 functionality. Its possible to run the gidentd from inetd or as standalone daemon. 
A simple GTK Dictionary gidic (Gtk Inter DICtionary) is a simple dictionary program which is a GTK-based front-end to The Internet Dictionary project from Tyler Chambers, which includes French, German, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, and Spanish dictionaries. 
General Intrusion Detection Object (CIDF) 
is an acronym for Graphic Interchange Format, developed by compuserve this is a very popular format for exchanging pictures, it is slowly being replaced by the JPG image format. 
GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)
A common format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas of the same color. GIF format files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would be if stored in JPEG format, but GIF format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG. 
GIF -> PNG conversions This program can convert GIF images to PNG images. It comes from ESR's page at 
Convert any GIF file into a GIF89a. Allows for setting the transparent or background color, changing colors, adding or removing comments. Also code to analyze GIF contents. 
Giftrans will convert an existing GIF87 file to GIF89 format. In other words, Giftrans can make one color in a .gif image (normally the background) transparent. Install the giftrans package if you need a quick, small, one-purpose graphics program to make transparent .gifs out of existing .gifs. 
Gb - 1,024 megabits or 1 billion bits of information.
1000 or 1024 Megabytes, depending on who is measuring. See also: Byte 
GB - 1,024 megabytes or 1 billion characters of information.
Garbage In Garbage Out 
General Input Interface 
The GNU Java bytecode interpreter. GIJ is not limited to interpreting bytecode. It includes a class loader which can dynamically load shared objects, so it is possible to give it the name of a class which has been compiled and put into a shared library on the class path. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU Java bytecode interpreter for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 3.0.4 for architecture i386). 
Gesellschaft fuer Informatik in der Land-, forst- und ernaehrungswirtschaft [e.v.] (org.) 
An OpenAmulet graphical user interface builder Gilt is an interface builder for the OpenAmulet graphical user interface toolkit. Gilt allows dialog boxes and other windows to be created interactively using the mouse. Widgets, such as scroll bars, buttons, and text input fields can be placed with the mouse, and properties set. Then, Gilt will generate C++ code to generate the same window at run time. Gilt stands for Graphical Interface Layout Tool. 
Gesellschaft fuer informationstechnik und InformationsManagement [mbh] (ISC, Bremen) 
Image Viewer using GTK+ GImageView is image viewer. It has some useful features such as, Simple GUI. Tabbed thumbnail viewer for directories. Low memory use. Image file management tool. Slide show. read/write many image cache formats of thumbnail. read : Konqueror, GQview, Electric Eyes (Picview) write : Nautilus, .xvpics Supported image formats are: JPEG, PNG, PNM, GIF, TIFF, XBM, XPM, XWD, BMP and PCX. Drag and Drop. You can drop image into like a Gimp from GImageView window. 
A GTK configuration tool for imgstamp gimgstamp is a GTK configuration tool that can customise imgstamp, and allows the user to see what an image will look like after being stamped. 
General / GNU Image Manipulation Program (Linux, Graphik, GNU) 
The GIMP is an image manipulation program suitable for photo retouching,image composition and image authoring. Many people find it extremely useful in creating logos and other graphics for web pages. The GIMP has many of the tools and filters you would expect to find in similar commercial offerings, and some interesting extras as well. The GIMP provides a large image manipulation toolbox, including channel operations and layers, effects, sub-pixel imaging and anti-aliasing, and conversions, all with multi-level undo. This version of The GIMP includes a scripting facility, but many of the included scripts rely on fonts that we cannot distribute. The GIMP ftpsite has a package of fonts that you can install by yourself, which includes all the fonts needed to run the included scripts. Some of the fonts have unusual licensing requirements; all the licenses are documented in the package. Get if you are soinclined. Alternatively, choose fonts which exist on your system before running the scripts. 
The GNU Image Manipulation Program, stable version 1.2 The GIMP lets you draw, paint, edit images, and much more! GIMP includes the functionality and plug-ins of other famous image editing and processing programs. This is the stable 1.2 version of GIMP. You ***MUST*** <--- (really!) have the xfonts-75dpi and xfonts-100dpi packages available on the X server, whether via files or via a font server like xfs. The gimp package only Recommends: these packages because it's possible to have them served remotely, but you really should install them. :) 
Generische INteraktive Anwendung (GMD) 
Graphic Identification and Authentication 
Some tools for the GiNaC framework GiNaC (which stands for "GiNaC is Not a CAS (Computer Algebra System)") is a library for doing symbolic (i.e. non-numeric) computation directly in the C++ programming language. This package provides some additional tools, like the popular ginsh (GiNaC interactive shell) and viewgar (for inspecting GiNaC archive files). See <> for detailed information about the GiNaC framework. 
General Inter-ORB Protocol (OMG, CORBA, ORB, IIOP) 
giotto is a floppy Linux, a bootable floppy disk that comes with the necessary parts of the Linux operation system. giotto boots from a floppy (it can be installed also on a hard disk) and runs completly out of the system's RAM. Generally no hard disks are required. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Giga Instructions Per Second (CPU) 
IP Subnet Calculator for X. The IP Subnet Calculator is a tool that allows network administrators to make calculations that will assist in subnetting a network. You give the network class and subnet bits and you get back the maximum number of subnets, maximum number of hosts per subnet, a bimap showing the breakdown of network bits, subnet bits, and host bits, the decimal and hexadecimal class netmask, the decimal and hexadecimal subnet mask and lists subnets and host information. CIDR support, reverse engineer the network information for a particular interface (e.g. eth0, ppp0) and save capability. 
Generalized Information Retrieval Language 
Geographic Information System 
There are many ways to describe a Geographic Information System. Here are three working definitions (from David A. Hastings, 1992, Geographic Information Systems: A Tool for Geoscience Analysis and Interpretation): (The minimal definition): A GIS is a hardware/software system for the storage, management, and (with hardcopy or screen graphic) selective retrieval capabilities of georeferenced data. Definitions like this one are often used by vendors and users of vector-only GIS, whose objective is sophisticated management and output of cartographic data. (A parallel definition): A GIS is a hardware/software system for managing and displaying spatial data. It is similar to a traditional Data Base Management System, where we now think in spatial rather than in tabular terms, and where the "report writer" now allows output of maps as well as of tables and numbers. Thus we can consider a GIS a "spatial DBMS" as opposed to traditional "tabular DBMSs." Few people use this definition, but it might help to explain GIS to a DBMS user. (A more aggressive definition): A GIS is a system of hardware, software, and data that facilitates the development, enhancement, modeling, and display of multivariate (e.g. multilayered) spatially referenced data. It performs some analytical functions itself, and by its analysis, selective retrieval and display capabilities, helps the user to further analyze and interpret the data. Properly configured, the GIS can model (e.g. synthetically recreate) a feature or phenomenon as a function of other features or phenomena which may be related - where all features or phenomena are represented (characterized) by spatial and related tabular data. The analytical objectives described here are sometimes controversial - and often given lip service by cartographic GIS specialists who have not yet seen what can be accomplished scientifically by a select few GISs that go beyond cartographic approaches. Another definition can be found at the University of Edinburgh. From GRASS mini-HOWTO
GNU Interactive Tools (GNU) 
GNU Interactive Tools git is a file system browser with some shell facilities which was designed to make your work much easier and more efficient. gitps is an interactive process viewer/killer. It calls the ps(1) utility internally. and gitps parameters are in fact ps(1) ones. Running gitps is self explanatory. Use the arrows, PageUp, PageDown, Home, End, C-n, C-p, C-v, ESC v to move in the list, C-l to refresh it and F10 or C-g to leave. You can change these keys. gitview is a hex/ascii file viewer. Too simple to need a separate manual page. Use the arrows, PageUp, PageDown, Home, End, C-n, C-p, C-v, ESC v to move in the file, C-l to refresh the screen and F10 or C-g to leave. You can change these keys. 
Government Information Technology Service (USA) 
GNU Java Server Pages (GNU, Java, JSP) 
Group Key Distribution Centre (KDC, CBT) 
Helper to reconfigure packages with Debconf This is a program that helps one using the "dpkg-reconfigure" tool. It is basically a graphical frontend. It makes life easier showing a simple menu of packages which can be reconfigured with Debconf and the Debconf frontends that can be used for the reconfiguration. 
Gtk-based PPP dial-up configuration tool. GKDial stands for Gtk Kov Dialer. It is meant to setup PPP connections easily without needing to edit config files. It is also meant to dial to the peers you registered using pon/poff or another ppp dialer. 
A serial and network communications package. Gkermit is a GPL'd kermit package. It offers medium-independent terminal session and file transfer. The non-free package ckermit adds connection establishment, charecter-set translation and scripting features. 
Group Key Management Protocol 
GKrellM plugin that displays a periodically updating image GKrellKam is basically wmGrabImage in a GKrellM panel, except that it is more flexible (you can specify a local or remote image, or a list of local or remote images, or a script that outputs the right image, etc). The image (any format or size) is resized to a thumbnail and placed in a GKrellM panel, where it is updated periodically. Multiple images are rotated. This plugin is useful for keeping track of webcams, weather maps, or any other kind of changing image information. 
Multiple stacked system monitors: 1 process. GKrellM charts CPU, Disk, and all active net interfaces automatically. An on/off button and online timer for the PPP interface is provided. Meters for memory and swap usage as well as a system uptime monitor are provided. Additional features are: * Clicking on left or right frame slides GKrellM shut to gain screen space. * Autoscaling grid lines with configurable grid line resolution. * LED indicators for the net interfaces. * Configurable chart sizes. 
Graphic Kernel System 
Gtk+ Frontend to su and sudo gksu is a Gtk+ frontend to /bin/su. It supports login shells and preserving environment when acting as a su frontend. It is useful to menu items or other graphical programs that need to ask a user's password to run another program as another user. gksu can also act as a frontend to sudo. It installs a link /usr/bin/gksudo, which you can call to use this feature. When using sudo, gksudo respects /etc/sudoers definitions. 
GTK+ User Interface Builder Glade is a RAD tool to enable quick and easy development of user interfaces for the GTK+ toolkit. It also contains built-in support for generating the C source code needed to recreate the interfaces. If you want Glade with support for the Gnome libraries, you should install the glade-gnome package. The user interfaces designed in Glade are stored in the well-known XML format, enabling easy integration with external tools. Several tools are already available which can turn the XML files into source code in other languages such as C++, Perl and Python. Other tools such as libglade can load the XML files and create the interfaces at runtime. 
A versatile audio processor. GLAME provides a powerful and extensible framework for processing audio files similar to what GIMP offers in the graphics area. GLAME so far features a graphical frontend to set up filter networks and perform basic audio editing tasks. A flexible Scheme-based command line editor offers low-level access for scripting purposes. 
This is a program similar to xbiff with a nicer output This is a program similar to xbiff, except that it provides somewhat nicer output. It requires the Mesa (OpenGL clone) libraries to render the 3D mailbox. The idea comes from the "mailbox" program available on SGI machines, and hence tries to mimic some of the features present in it. Note that this is an alpha version, and hence there are still some outstanding bugs. 
Gesellschaft fuer Linguistische DatenVerarbeitung (org.) 
a program for viewing text files 
GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU) 
GLib is a library of utility functions designed to solve some portability problems and provide other useful functionality which most programs require. 
GLib is a handy library of utility functions. This C library is designed to solve some portability problems and provide other useful functionality which most programs require. 
The glibc package contains standard libraries which are used by multiple programs on the system. In order to save disk space and memory, as well as to make upgrading easier, common system code is kept in one place and shared between programs. This particular package contains the most important sets of shared libraries: the standard C library and the standard math library. Without these two libraries, a Linux system will not function. 
The glibc package contains standard libraries which are used by multiple programs on the system. In order to save disk space and memory, as well as to make upgrading easier, common system code iskept in one place and shared between programs. This particular package contains the most important sets of shared libraries: the standard C library and the standard math library. Without these two libraries, a Linux system will not function. The glibc package also contains national language (locale) support. 
glibc-kernheaders includes the C header files from the Linux kernel. The header files define structures and constants that are needed for building some standard programs and are also needed for rebuilding the glibc package 
The latest version of the GNU C Library. It currently runs unmodified on GNU Hurd systems and Linux i386, m68k, and alpha systems. 
Report a bug to the Glibc developers 
Provides ld-lsb* dynamic loader links for LSB compliance. 
a proprietary API plus drivers to access 3D graphics accelerator hardware based on chipsets manufactured by 3Dfx. Glide has been developed and implemented for DOS, Windows, and Macintosh, and has been ported to Linux by Daryll Strauss. 
Binaries for glide2. This is a support package which should be installed if you have a card based on 3dfx Interactive, Inc's Voodoo chipsets. 
Glide3 provides the necessary low-level interface glue between the Mesa3D graphics library, and 3Dfx Voodoo series of hardware. This package is required by the XFree86 tdfx driver in order to provide 3D acceleration support for the 3Dfx Voodoo 3/4/5 and Voodoo Banshee hardware. 
Programmer's editor with multiple windows and syntax highlighting Glimmer is a simple code editor for use with just about any programming language, which makes use of of the Gtk+ widget set and the GNOME libraries, which includes drag and drop support. It includes syntax and bracket highlighting, the ability to build from within the editor, and support for saving sessions of many different code files open at once. Most settings can be customised from within the editor. Glimmer includes support for the following languages: Ada, bash/sh, C, C++, FORTRAN, HTML, Java, Javascript, Latex, GNU Make, Perl, PHP, Python, Lisp (guile, scheme, etc), SGML, SQL, Tcl/Tk, XML, XHTML, and Z80 Assembly, to name a few. Glimmer is also very extensible in the languages it supports for its syntax highlighting. If support for your language of choice is not included, you can write it very easily. In addition to this, Glimmer is completely scriptable with python. See for more information. 
A momentary power interruption or some other unexpected fluctuation in electronic circuits, such as those caused by power surges or dirty connections, that causes computer systems to generate garbage output or, in the extreme, to crash. A glitch is a hardware problem; software problem is called a bug. 
image viewer using gdk-pixbuf and OpenGL GLiv is an image viewer that uses gdk-pixbuf to load images, and OpenGL to render them. Moving and zooming is very fast and smooth if you have an OpenGL board. 
Generalized Markup Language 
/glob/, not /glohb/ v.,n. [Unix; common] To expand special characters in a wildcarded name, or the act of so doing (the action is also called `globbing'). The Unix conventions for filename wildcarding have become sufficiently pervasive that many hackers use some of them in written English, especially in email or news on technical topics. Those commonly encountered include the following: * wildcard for any string (see also UN*X) ? wildcard for any single character (generally read this way only at the beginning or in the middle of a word) [] delimits a wildcard matching any of the enclosed characters {} alternation of comma-separated alternatives; thus, `foo{baz,qux}' would be read as `foobaz' or `fooqux' Some examples: "He said his name was [KC]arl" (expresses ambiguity). "I don't read talk.politics.*" (any of the talk.politics subgroups on Usenet). Other examples are given under the entry for X. Note that glob patterns are similar, but not identical, to those used in regexps. Historical note: The jargon usage derives from glob, the name of a subprogram that expanded wildcards in archaic pre-Bourne versions of the Unix shell. 
To expand special characters in a wildcarded name, or the act of so doing (the action is also called `globbing'). 
From the beginning of a file to the end. This term is often used to describe an operation such as a search; the opposite of local. 
Source code search and browse. GLOBAL is a source code tag system that works the same way across diverse environments. Currently, it supports the following: o Shell command line (see 'Global') o nvi editor (see 'Extended nvi using global') o emacs editor (see 'Emacs using global') o Web browser (see 'Hypertext generator') o Elvis editor (see 'Elvis using global') Supported languages are C/C++ Yacc and Java. You can locate a specified function in the source files and move there easily. It is especially useful for hacking large projects containing many subdirectories, many '#ifdef' and many main() functions, like X or kernel source. This package include the htmake(1) extension which allows GLOBAL's hypertext search function to be implemented from a single central cgi script. 
If set, bash includes filenames beginning with a `.' in the results of pathname expansion. 
[center for] GLObal COMmunications (org., Japan) 
Slide the blocks to reach a goal Slide blocks around the puzzle until a certain goal condition is reached. 
Linear programming kit with integer (MIP) support GLPK (GNU Linear Programming Kit) is a set of routines written in ANSI C and organized in the form of a library. This package is intended for solving large-scale linear programming (LP), mixed integer linear programming (MIP), and other related problems. GLPK has the following main features: * implementation of the revised simplex method (based on sparse matrix technique, steepest edge pricing, and two-pass pivoting technique); * implementation of the primal-dual interior point method; * implementation of the branch-and-bound procedure (based on the dual simplex method); * application program interface (API). Included is a solver that reads problems in the standard MPS format, or in the GLPK/L modeling language. 
3D lightcycle game glTron is a tron-like lightcycle game with a nice 3D perspective. 3D acceleration is recommended. More information can be found at the gltron web site . 
sample programs using gltt A couple of sample programs that come with gltt, a library that allows you to read and draw TrueType fonts in any OpenGl application. Includes a general demo, a logo program that lets you deform text in interesting ways, and a bounding box demo. 
openGL Utility Library (OpenGL, GLU) 
openGL Utility library Toolkit (OpenGL, GLU) 
The OpenGL Utility Toolkit. GLUT (pronounced like the glut in gluttony) is the OpenGL Utility Toolkit, a window system independent toolkit for writing OpenGL programs. It implements a simple windowing application programming interface (API) for OpenGL. GLUT makes it considerably easier to learn about and explore OpenGL programming. GLUT is designed for constructing small to medium sized OpenGL programs. While GLUT is well-suited to learning OpenGL and developing simple OpenGL applications, GLUT is not a full-featured toolkit so large applications requiring sophisticated user interfaces are better off using native window system toolkits like Motif. GLUT is simple, easy, and small. 
GLX version of the infamous "gears" GL demo. 
display info about a GLX extension and OpenGL renderer. 
General MIDI [standard] (MIDI) 
Gesellschaft fuer Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik (org., VDI) 
GNOME mail client using SQL-based vfolders Gmail is an experimental SQL-based vfolder email system, using MySQL as its back-end database, which allows for large volumes of mail, without risk of data loss. The vfolders (virtual folders) are implemented as SQL queries. A cache system keeps gmail fast. 
small X/GTK+ based man(1) front-end Gman is nothing else but only a simple front-end for the original man page system. The most basic job of gman is to build a database for all the man pages and display them (or part of them) on the screen. When user decides to read a man page, gman will launch a terminal window and call the original man system to display the man page in the window. Gman can launch more than one terminal window at same time. And user can use the index search function to look for the man pages that he needs. It's simple, but it's useful. 
GTK+/GNOME Man pages editor GNOME Manpages Editor is an editor for man pages that runs on X with GTK. It's like most common HTML editors but more easy. You need to know manpages format. You can learn it from 'man(7)'. 
Midnight Commander - A powerful file manager. - Gnome version Warning: The gnome version from mc is alpha software! Midnight Commander is a feature-rich file manager. It started as a Norton Commander clone but now it is far superior to it. Among other things it can do FTP, includes a hex editor, comes with an internal editor and lets you do most system administration tasks. Browsing, unpacking and installation of Debian packages is possible by just pressing enter on a *.deb file. Handling of other archive formats like rpm, zip, zoo and tar.gz is equally supported. This version comes with undelete for ext2 filesystems compiled in. 
Graphics and Memory Controller Hub (Intel, ICH) 
Gesellschaft fuer Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (org., St. Augustin) 
deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Dokumentation, informatik und Statistik [e.v.] (org.) 
Gesellschaft MikroElektronik (org., VDE, VDI) 
Displays a graph detailing memory usage of each process. Gmemusage is a graphical program modelled after the Silicon Graphics Inc. program of the same name. Gmemusage displays a window with a stacked bar. Areas on the bar correspond to individual processes running on the system and are updated periodically. Multiple copies of the same program (actually, programs with the same name) are merged into one area on the stack. Sizes of areas in the stack correspond to resident sizes of the processes. 
Graphical menu editor for the Gnome panel 
GNOME MFSK terminal for HF/amateur radio MFSK is a data communication mode used by amateur radio operators for reliable communications on HF. It is used for chatting and not packet communications. gmfsk is an implementation of an MFSK terminal for GNOME. 
Matrox G400 graphics card overclocking tool gMGAclock is a GNOME-based overclocking utility for Matrox G400 cards users. 
Generic Management Information (OSI) 
General Markup Language 
Module player for Ultrasound and SB AWE soundcards Gmod plays MOD/669/MTM/S3M/ULT/XM modules on machines that have an Gravis Ultrasound family sound card or a Soundblaster AWE. 
a GTK+ based MOO (and MUD) Client Gmoo is a GTK+ based MOO client that also works for MUDs, MUSHs, etc. It's many features include internal and external editors, multiple world connecting, (configurable) ANSI, PERL and/or TCL based scripting and MCP (the MOO Client Protocol). Each world is independently configurable, with it's own settings and logs. Logging and shell integration are possible. 
GNU Multi-Precision [library] (GNU) 
The gmp package contains GNU MP, a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic which operates on signed integers, rational numbers and floating point numbers. GNU MP is designed for speed, for both small and very large operands. GNU MP is fast because it uses full words as the basic arithmetic type, it uses fast algorithms, it carefully optimizes assembly code for many CPUs' most common inner loops, and generally emphasizes speed over simplicity/elegance in its operations. 
Giant Magneto-Resistive [heads] (HDD, IBM, Toshiba) 
Featureful CLI-like GTK+ application launcher This is gmrun; a small fast, yet featureful application launcher for use under X11, which uses GTK+ widget toolkit. Some features include tab- completion of file names and programs, history, easy x-terminal-emulator launching, and URL handling. 
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying 
Generic Mapping Tools GMT is a free, public-domain collection of ~60 UNIX tools that allow users to manipulate (x,y) and (x,y,z) data sets (including filtering, trend fitting, gridding, projecting, etc.) and produce Encapsulated PostScript File (EPS) illustrations ranging from simple x-y plots through contour maps to artificially illuminated surfaces and 3-D perspective views in black and white, gray tone, hachure patterns, and 24-bit color. GMT supports 25 common map projections plus linear, log, and power scaling, and comes with support data such as coastlines, rivers, and political boundaries. 
Greenwich Mean Time [+0000] (TZ, UTC, UK) 
Low resolution coastlines for the Generic Mapping Tools This package contains the crude, low and intermediate resolution coastlines contained in the GMT distribution which will be enough to get you started. Originally there were two more coastline packages (gmt-coast-high and -full) but they were to big for our servers and pulled from the distribution. Read /usr/share/doc/gmt/README.coastlines to learn were to get coastline data on the net. Otherwise you will not be able to create high quality maps with gmt. 
Global Network Academy (Internet) 
Gnome client for Napster GNOME/GTK based client for Napster 
GTK client for the Napster online mp3 community (GNOME version) Gnapster is a powerful client for the Napster online mp3 community. Currently, Gnapster supports all major features of the protocol including many opennap extensions to the protocol. This version of the client uses GNOME features and requires it to run. 
GTK client for the Napster online mp3 community (GTK version) Gnapster is a powerful client for the Napster online mp3 community. Currently, Gnapster supports all major features of the protocol including many opennap extensions to the protocol. This version of the client uses only GTK, not GNOME. 
GNU Ada Translator (GNU) 
The GNU Ada 95 compiler GNAT is a full Ada 95 compiler, which implements the whole Ada language. GNAT is actively maintained by Ada Core Technology ( This package contains the compiler, as well as the needed unstripped libraries so that debugging is possible. If you install this package, you do not need to install the `libgnat-3.14p-1' package as the latter contains only a version of the libraries unsuitable for debugging. 
The GNU problem report management system (central database) GNATS is a bug-tracking tool designed for use at a central "Support Site". Users who experience problems use electronic mail to communicate these problems to "maintainers" at that Support Site. GNATS offers many of the same features offered by more generalized databases, including editing, querying, and basic reporting. You can access the submitting, editing, and querying functions of GNATS through provided utilities or from within GNU Emacs. The "gnats" package has the full installation for the central database server. For client systems, use the "gnats-user" package which has just the user tools. Homepage: 
a scrolling news ticker applet designed for GNOME Supports the following news sites: bsdtoday and more. 
GayNet International (network) 
A program that tries to learn a human language. gNiall attempts to learn whatever language you try to teach it. It is basically a dissociator: it collects statistics on sentences you type and tries to construct meaningful replies. gNiall is inspired by Niall, an Amiga program by Matthew Peck. 
Government Network Management Profile (USA) 
Global Network Navigator (Internet, WWW) 
GNOME Bookmarks Organizer Gnobog (GNOME Bookmarks Organizer) is a program that lets you manage your favorite Internet sites' addresses. For more information visit the gnobog web site at 
Gnocatan server - a game for Gnome Gnocatan is an emulation of the Settlers of Catan board game which can be played over the internet. 
GNOME financial manager Gnofin is a light-weight financial management program well-suited for helping you keep your checkbook and savings accounts up-to-date. 
A GTK+ based wave file editor GNoise is a wave file editor that uses a display cache and a double- buffered display for maximum speed with large files. It supports common editing functions such as cut, copy, paste, fade in/out, reverse, interpolate, normalize and more with unlimited undo. 
Datasuite for Nokia mobile phones (console & X) Gnokii is a suite of programs linked against a backend library that allows communication with Nokia phones. It currently supports the 5110/6110 series, 3110/3810/8110 series and others. 
GNOME Samba browser Gnomba is a GUI machine and share browser for the SMB protocol. Gnomba allows you to scan any number of subnets for machines with SMB. The workgroups, machines and share are shown in a tree-view. For each machine you can then view the list of shares, and mount, unmount or browse them. 
GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNU) 
stands for GNU Network Object Model Environment. The GNOME project intends to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. GNOME is part of the GNU project, and GNOME is part of the OpenSource(tm) movement. The desktop will consist of small utilities and larger applications which share a consistent look and feel. GNOME uses GTK+ as the GUI toolkit for all GNOME-compliant applications. 
The Gnome about box. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. GNOME is similar in purpose and scope to CDE and KDE, but GNOME (like KDE) is based completely on Open Source software. The gnome-applets package provides Panel applets which enhance your GNOME experience. You should install the gnome-applets package if you would like to abuse the GNOME desktop environment by embedding small utilities in the GNOME panel. 
Various applets for GNOME panel another_clock: Simple analog clock. asclock: The AfterStep Clock applet. clockmail: Clock and Mailcheck applet. jbc: Jon's Binary Clock applet. battery: Show battery charge. cpumemusage: Show CPU, memory and swap usage. diskusage: Show disk usage. cpuload: Show CPU usage. memload: Show memory usage. swapload: Show swap usage. netload: Show load on different network interfaces. loadavg: Show load average. charpick: Allows you to easily write many characters which are not available on standard keyboards, drivemount: Allows you to quickly and easily mount and unmount various types of drives and filesystems on your computer. gkb: Allows you to easily and quickly change the keyboard map to those used in various different countries. mini-commander: Adds a command line to your Panel. quicklaunch: An applet which holds application launchers. tickastat: Watches various aspects of your system and delivers information when certain events occur. whereami: Shows the position of your mouse pointer on the screen. gweather: Retrieves from the Internet and displays various weather information. screenshooter: A handy little screen grabber (Need imagemagick). gnotes: Allows you to cover your GNOME desktop with little, yellow, virtual sticky-notes. webcontrol: allows you to launch your Netscape browser with the URL you indicate in the URL text box. slash: Show last news from modemlights: Monitor your modem while it is working. fifteen: Is a version of the old game of moving squares around a grid to put them into numerical order. geyes: Is a pair of eyes which follow your mouse pointer around the screen. life: An applet which runs "the game of life" according to Conway's rules. odometer: Tracks and measures the movements of your mouse pointer across the desktop. cdplayer: Play CDs from a panel. mixer: Interface for controlling the sound volume and launching the Audio Mixer. sound-monitor: A sound volume display and an interface for controlling ESD. 
Gnome front-end to apt Gnome-apt is a graphical package management program for Debian. It provides the same features as the apt-get command line utility with a GUI front-end based on Gnome. Gnome-apt allows you to easily upgrade your Debian system, as well as install/uninstall packages using any of the methods that apt supports (http, ftp*, file). 
GNOME Chess This is gnome-chess, a graphical user interface for playing chess. It works with chess programs and chess servers - it is also a PGN viewer. For chess programs, it works best with the chess engine crafty ( but most features should also work with GNU Chess ( You can use the "first chess program" option to choose the computer engine you want to play against. E.g. try "gnome-chess --fcp crafty" or "gnome-chess --fcp gnuchessx" 
File mangager for GNOME GNOME Commander is a file mangager aimed at people that wants an efficent and fast file manager. The program can currently perform most common file operations such as copy, move, delete, chown and chmod and so on. It can also detect changes to files caused by other programs and update the views without the need for the user to manually reload. The program also supports Copy&Paste as well as Drag&Drop. 
GNOME Control-center is a configuration tool for easily setting up your GNOME environment. GNOME is the GNU Network Object Model Environment. That's a fancy name, but really GNOME is a nice GUI desktop environment. It's a powerful, easy to configure environment which helps to make your computer easy to use. 
The Gnome Control Center Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains utilities to configure your desktop background, screen saver, keyboard and mouse properties. 
Tool for gnome-help-browser 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. GNOME is similar in purpose and scope to CDE and KDE, but GNOME is based completely on free software. The gnome-core package includes the basic programs and libraries that are needed to install GNOME. GNOME Desktop provides the core icons and libraries for the gnome desktop. 
Tools, stylesheets and DTDs for GNOME. This package provides tools, stylesheets and DTDs for use by the GNOME Documentation Project. 
Tool for gnome-help-browser 
Dump the metadata database. 
Gnome editor 
GNOME executable Mime type Handler. 
Graphical Version of the GNU find utility Gnome-find really is a graphical version of the GNU find utility. It is not just a front-end which just forks and execs "find", nor is it a utility that reinvents the wheel by rewriting the "find" utility itself. 
Fontmap file generator for gnome-print 
The gnome-games package includes games for the GNOME GUI desktopenvironment, including GnomeScott, ctali, freecell, gataxx, glines, gnibbles, gnobots2, gnome-stones, gnomine, gnotravex, gtali, gturing,iagno, mahjongg, same-gnome, and sol. 
This is a GNOME port of the old game ataxx. Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. 
Build the extension database for mime-magic. 
This is a version of the color lines program Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This is GNOME's version of the color lines program, aka fiveormore. The program is fully GPL-ed. It's written by Robert Szokovacs <> in gtk, I added gnome support... Shooby Ban 
A cute little game that has no description Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. 
Second Gnome version of robots game for BSD games collection Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. Gnome Robots 2 is a version of the text based robots game which can be found on a number of UNIX systems, and comes with the BSD games package on Linux systems. This version allows you to select a number of animated graphics scenarios, as well as providing a safe teleport feature so you are not totally at the mercy of your computer's random number generator. 
A tetris clone. Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. 
Classic find the mines in the minefield game (from Gnome) Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. Classic find the mines in the minefield game. 
A game based on Tetravex. Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. The goal of the game is to place all squares so that the numbers on their sides match. It is impossible to place a square beside another square without the numbers matching. When all squares are placed, the game is won, and over. It's possible to choose different sizes on the board from 2x2 to 6x6. 
Derivative game from Klotski. Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. Gnome Klotski is a small game for GNOME. The idea is originally from a game called "Klotski". 
Gnome version of Yahtzee Dice Game Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. Yahtzee dice game. 
GNOME PostScript/PDF viewer ggv is a graphical frontend to ghostscript which allows you to view postscript and pdf documents, and print ranges of pages. It is very comfortable due to many zoom and an anti-aliasing option and following the GNOME look and feel. 
GNOME help browser Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains the Gnome help browser application. Based on the gtk-xmhtml widget, it allows you to view documentation in the form of HTML, man pages, or GNU info pages. 
manual page for Gnome GnomeHelp 1.2.3 
show hint at Gnome startup. 
Startup hint properties for Gnome 
Gnome version of Othello (Reversi) board game Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. Classic Othello (Reversi) board game. 
GNOME-Iconedit is a simple icon editor for the GNOME desktop environment. It is not as powerful as the wonderful GIMP, but has enough features to create simple icons or cursors. 
UNIX Info Page to HTML translator 
Short introduction to Gnome This guide gives you a short introduction to Gnome. It is not intended to cover all details of Gnome. If you need more information, you should install the gnome-users-guide-en package. 
Tool for gnome-session 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of GUI applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The gnome-libs package includes libraries that are needed to run GNOME. 
Data for Gnome libraries Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains shared data used by the Gnome libraries, such as i18n messages and pixmaps. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a windowmanager for the X Window System. The gnome-linuxconf package includes GNOME's front end for the linuxconf system configuration utility. 
Tool for gnome-session 
basic interactive firewall configuration tool (GNOME interface) The gnome-lokkit package contains a utility which attempts to provide firewalling for the average Linux end user. Instead of having to configure firewall rules, gnome-lokkit asks a small number of simple questions and writes a firewall rule set for you. Gnome-lokkit is not designed to configure arbitary firewalls. To make it simple to understand, it is solely designed to handle typical dialup user and cable modem setups. It will not provide a complex firewall configuration, and it is not the equal of an expert firewall designer. Home Page: 
Classic Chinese Tile Game (from Gnome) Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. Classic Chinese Tile Game. 
UNIX Man Page to HTML translator 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of GUI applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The gnome-media package will install media features like the GNOME CD player. Install gnome-media if you want to use GNOME's multimedia capabilities. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly setof applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction witha window manager for the X Window System. GNOME is similar in purpose and scope to CDE and KDE, but GNOME (as KDE) is based completely on Open Source software. GNOME's powerful environment is pleasing on the eye, easy to configure and use. This package will install such media features as the GNOME CD player. 
Gnome Media Utilities (gmix, gtcd) Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains: gmix - a mixer gtcd - a cd player vumeter - watch sound output grecord - record sounds 
base MIME and Application database for GNOME. This module contains the base MIME and Application database for GNOME. It is meant to be accessed through the MIME functions in GnomeVFS. 
gnome-mime-data provides the file type recognition data files for gnome-vfs. 
Documentation tool for GNOME 
remote control of Mozilla. 
A simple MUD Client for X and GTK+ GNOME-Mud is a Multi-User Dungeon (MUD) client for X. It supports aliases, triggers, variables, key bindings, colour settings, multiple connections, command queuing and also features a connection wizard and a mapper utility. There's a plugin interface too, which can be used to add your own features (for example, a graphical health monitor). It uses the GNOME libraries, but it can be used with any window manager. GNOME-Mud is the successor of AMCL, a simple, GTK+-based MUD client. 
Orbit name service 
The gnome network utilities. Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains a ppp thingy, a mail thingy, a talk thingy and a sync thingy. 
Launch and/or dock Gnome applications Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains a toolbar (the "panel") that you can attach to the edge of your X desktop. You can install "applets" on it. Several applets are supplied: an application menu, a clock, a mail checker, a network monitor, etc. You can customize the location, and the "autohide" animations. 
add a launched in the Gnome panel. 
Data files for GNOME panel Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains data files (pixmaps etc.) for the panel that is not architecture-dependent. 
Configure your Gnome panel. 
A GNOME applet for management of your Palm PDA gnome-pilot is a GNOME applet with a daemon that monitors for pilot connections from a serial port, XCopilot, etc. It features a conduit system and includes basic conduits for backing up, email, memos, etc. More conduits may be found in the gnome-pilot-conduits package. Note that this has only been tested on a Palm III; any successes with other models would make for encouraging reports :). gnome-pilot is not known to cause any data loss, but as the version number indicates, it is still deep in its first development stages. Please use it with caution. 
Conduits for gnome-pilot This package contains conduits for the gnome-pilot Palm PDA applet. It adds expense, memo, time, email, and MAL (mobile application link) sync functionality to gnome-pilot. 
The GNOME Personal Information Manager consists of applications to make keeping up with your busy life easier. Currently these apps are present: - gnomecal : personal calendar and todo list - gnomecard: contact list of friends and business associates 
The gnome-pim-conduits package includes the conduits needed to connect your PalmPilot with gnome-pim applications. Currently these conduits are present: - gnomecal : synchronizes your GnomeCal calendar with your Palm's calendar - gnomecard: synchronizes your contact list 
GNOME stock portfolio manager This is a replacement for the "Java Portfolio Manager" provided by Yahoo!; its intent is to be faster and less memory-intensive than its Java cousin. It currently supports multiple portfolios and symbol lookup. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window managerfor the X Window System. GNOME is similar in purpose and scope to CDE and KDE,but GNOME is based completely on free software. The gnome-print package contains libraries and fonts that are needed by GNOME applications wanting to print.You should install the gnome-print package if you intend on using any of the GNOME applications that can print. If you would like to develop GNOME applications that can print you will also need to install the gnome-print devel package. 
Helper setuid application 
The gnome-python package contains the source packages for the Python bindings for GNOME called PyGNOME. PyGNOME is an extension module for Python that provides access to the base GNOME libraries, so you have access to more widgets, a simple configuration interface, and metadata support. 
The "Same Game" puzzle (from Gnome) Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. The "Same Game" puzzle. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The GNOME Session Manager restores a set session (group of applications)when you log into GNOME. 
gnome-session manages a GNOME desktop session. It starts up the other core GNOME components and handles logout and saving the session. 
Starts up the GNOME desktop environment 
Session Manager Proxy. 
GNOME/Bonobo component for spell checking Gnome spell is a GNOME/Bonobo component for spell checking. It's based on pspell. 
GUI frontend to sudo gnome-sudo will popup a dialog requesting the password for the user to run as (if necessary, sudo has caching), and copies ~/.Xauthority so that that user can reach it. This is to provide a way for GUI programs (such as package managers) to run in an easy, point-and-drool fashion. 
gnome-system-monitor is a simple process and system monitor. 
GNOME interface to Debian tasks This package provides a GNOME interface for selecting tasks. It aims to be compatible with and identical in functionality to tasksel, the standard task selection interface. 
Gnome Telnet provides a very nice graphical user interface for 3-in-1 telnet, ssh, and rlogin client for Gnome 
GNOME terminal emulator application. 
The Gnome terminal emulator application Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains the Gnome Gtk-based terminal application (based on the zvt widget). 
This packages contains Themes for GNOME, such as :-High Contrast-Large Print-Low Constrast 
Hierarchical organizer and outliner Think is a hierarchical organizer, allowing you to organize text in a tree form. It uses XML for its native file format. 
CD-Recording frontend for GNOME. 
This package contains the GNOME Glossary, Introduction to GNOME, and a Unix Primer. 
GNOME User's Guide Documentation for using the GNOME desktop environment and its components. It covers usage and setup of the core GNOME programs. This documentation comes in HTML format. For other formats, check the homepage at or create them yourself from the sgml source. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of GUI applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. The gnome-utils package includes a set of utilities for GNOME, including Gcalc, Gdialog, Gdiskfree, and many others. 
Gnome Utilities (gtt, gsearchtool, and more) Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment". It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. This package contains some assorted utilities for use with the Gnome. These are: gcalc - a simple calculator gcharmap - character map viewer. gcolorsel - a color selector gdialog - a Gtk version of the 'dialog' program gdict - dictionary server query and display. gdiskfree - graphical disk free (df) utility. gfloppy - GUI for formatting floppy gfontsel - a font selector gless - a Gtk version of the 'less' pager gsearchtool - a tool for finding and grepping through files gshutdown - reboot or shutdown your machine gtt - a task timer/tracker guname - display 'uname' information about your system gw - display users on the system, like 'w' idetool - an IDE disk viewing tool logview - Log viewing applications. splash/splac - splash screen renderer stripchart - plot system measurements (including applet version) 
The GNOME Virtual File System provides an abstraction to common filesystem operations like reading, writing and copying files, listing directories and so on. It is similar in spirit to the Midnight Commander's VFS (as it uses a similar URI scheme) but it is designed from the ground up to be extensible and to be usable from any application. 
The GNOME virtual file-system extra fs scripts for GMC. GNOME VFS is the GNOME virtual file system. It is the foundation of the Nautilus file manager. It provides a modular architecture and ships with several modules that implement support for file systems, http, ftp and others. It provides a URI-based API, a backend supporting asynchronous file operations, a MIME type manipulation library and other features. This package includes external fs scripts for GMC. Starting with version 3.1(gmc), the Midnight Commander comes with so called extfs, which is one of the virtual filesystems. This system makes it possible to create new virtual filesystems for the GNU MC very easily. 
The GNOME Virtual File System provides an abstraction to common filesystem operations like reading, writing and copying files, listing directories and so on. It is similar in spirit to the Midnight Commander's VFS (as it uses a similar URI scheme) but it is designed from the ground up to be extensible and to be usable from any application. 
Launches the user selected window manager for the GNOME session 
Fight the infection. Gnome is the "GNU Network Object Model Environment" It is a project to build a complete, user-friendly desktop based entirely on free software. As the README puts it: Ever get the feeling that nothing is going right? You're a sysadmin, and someone's trying to destroy your computers. The little people running around the screen are trying to infect your computers with Wingdows [TM], a virus cleverly designed to resemble a popular operating system. Your objective is to click the mouse on them, ending their potential threat. If one of the people reaches a computer, it will attempt to replace your operating system with the virus it carries. It will then attempt to run off the screen with your vital software. The game ends when only 0 or 1 of your computers is being productive. Additionally, some computers are connected with network cables. When one computer on a network becomes infected, a spark will be sent down the cable, and will infect the computer on the other end when it reaches there. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set ofapplications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. GNOME is similar in purpose and scope to CDE and KDE, but GNOME (like KDE) is based completely on Open Source software. The gnome-core package includes the basic programs and libraries that are needed to install GNOME.This package is a virtual package which requires all needed package to have a fully working GNOME desktop environment. 
allows you to configure various parts of your Gnome system. 
Small, fast and functional clone of Mirabilis' ICQ GnomeICU is a clone of Mirabilis' popular ICQ written with GTK+. ICQ informs you who's online at any time and enables you to contact them at will. -- Features -- * URL Transfer (w/transfer to Netscape ability) * Sign up as a new user, or with an existing account * Allow other users to add you to their list * Message History per user * Chat * Icon and Color Based on Status of User * Online and Offline Section * Receive Message Queue * Changeable Status * Sending Messages * Sound Events * Reply Box in Same Window as Receive Message * Send, Reply, Cancel, Read Next buttons in dialog boxes * Connection History Window * Invisible List * Color Customization * GUI Configuration * V5 Protocol (new) * Drag 'n' Drop support for files and URLs (from Netscape) 
A KiSS paper doll viewer for GNOME GnomeKiSS is a viewer for all KiSS paper dolls. Cherry KiSS and Enhanced Palette are supported, with full alpha transparency and FKiSS. If you want to open any lzh paperdoll files you have to install the package lha from non-free as well. 
H323 Compatible Netmeeting clone for the Gnome Desktop Netmeeting clone for the Gnome Desktop. Supports LPC10, GSM-06.10, MS-GSM, G.711-Alaw and G.711-uLaw audio codecs and H.261-QCIF and H.261-CIF video codecs. Also supports H.245 Tunneling, Fast Start, Auto Answering of calls, ability to register to ILS directories and browse them. Gnomemeeting comes with an animated Gnome applet. 
Board game for GNOME Gnomermind Mastermind(R) for your GNOME desktop. A nice looking and themeable game that can be played with mouse or customizable keybindings. The trade mark Mastermind(R) is owned by its owner. 
GNOME Bible Program based on the SWORD library A bible study program for GNOME using the SWORD library. 
a XMMS control applet. 
Graphical interface segfault for Gnome program. 
An MP3 player for large MP3 collections An MP3 player that supports large collections, with many options for manipulating that collection in playlists. Features: * Available songs can be displayed: * By album * By addition time * Sorted or unsorted * As the result of a text search * Dynamic playlists (generated from search rules) * XMMS compatible playlists * Drag and Drop support * MP3 search capabilities * Random play * Works well on slow filesystems such as NFS or SMB share 
A graphical configuration utility for Samba GnoSamba is a GUI tool for the configuration of Samba, the SMB file server on X11/Unix. It will read, edit and write /etc/samba/smb.conf, an alternate configuration file, or from a network. It uses the Gnome. The groff and bsdmainutils packages are needed for the online help system to work. 
GNOME-based Notepad editor This is an easy-to-use, yet fairly feature-rich, simple text editor for Unix based systems running X11 and using GNOME (the GNU Network Object Model Environment). Gnotepad+ was designed to have as little bloat as possible, while still providing many of the common features found in a modern GUI-based text editor. It is still fairly light-weight, especially for the features it offers, and aims to remain that way. The "+" in gnotepad+ is there to differentiate it from other GNOME-based text editors which may call themselves "gnotepad". Additionally, gnotepad+ is not intended to be fancy, so it leverages its text editing capabilities on the GTK Text Widget. Hence, if you are looking for a programmer's editor, look for another text editor or help improve the GTK Text Widget. 
Gnotes Applet for the GNOME panel. 
GnoZip aims to be the WinZip(tm) of the Gnome environment providing graphical interface to the most common compression utilities. 
/gnoo/, not /noo/ 1. [acronym: `GNU's Not Unix!', see recursive acronym] A Unix-workalike development effort of the Free Software Foundation headed by Richard Stallman <>. GNU EMACS and the GNU C compiler, two tools designed for this project, have become very popular in hackerdom and elsewhere. The GNU project was designed partly to proselytize for RMS's position that information is community property and all software source should be shared. One of its slogans is "Help stamp out software hoarding!" Though this remains controversial (because it implicitly denies any right of designers to own, assign, and sell the results of their labors), many hackers who disagree with RMS have nevertheless cooperated to produce large amounts of high-quality software for free redistribution under the Free Software Foundation's imprimatur. The GNU project has a web page at See EMACS, copyleft, General Public Virus, Linux. 2. Noted Unix hacker John Gilmore <>, founder of Usenet's anarchic alt.* hierarchy. 
GNU is Not Unix. A project to replace Unix with GPL'd software. 
GNU's Not Unix (rekursiv!, Unix, GNU, OS) 
The GNU project's goal is to provide freely redistributable Unix software. Gopher An information system available as a Unix command that provides access to many information services, see also WWW. 
GNU (GNU is Not Unix) Project
An effort of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Free Software Foundation (FSF) to develop and promote alternatives to proprietary UNIX implementations. GNU software is licensed under the GPL. 
GNU General Public License
intended to guarantee the freedom to share and change free software - to make sure the software is free for all its users. The term free refers to freely distributable. 
GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME)
A graphical desktop environment for UNIX and Linux that is designed to provide an efficient and user-oriented environment.
A UNIX-compatible operating system developed by the Free Software Foundation. The design philosophy of GNU is to create a full-featured operating system composed of completely free software. Red Hat Linux combines several parts of GNU along with the Linux kernel. 
GNU coding and package maintenance standards The GNU coding and package maintenance standards in a variety of formats. 
Same as Linux. So-called because many of the components included in a Linux distribution are GNU tools. 
GNU/Linux TerminalServer for Schools
Administration of school networks is complicated, time- and money-consuming. Even stable and low-adminstration Linux networks still need complete and powerful computers. Software still has to be installed on each computer. The FSuB TerminalServer (Code name "Dead sisyphos") is an approach to make administration of networks easier and to enable the reuse of older computers. Debian based. The website is available in German and English. 
GNU/Linux Ututo
A argentinian distribution does seem to be there. Also news and comments. 
A GTK/ascii backgammon program GNUbg is a strong backgammon program. It is used both as an engine by other programs (e.g. kbackgammon) but it also includes a sophisticated GTK interface. It should be considered beta software. 
Improved play for gnubg (gnu backgammon) This package includes a single large file of weights that gnubg uses to play slightly better. If you want gnubg to play at its best then install this file. 
/noo'bee/ n. Written-only variant of newbie in common use on IRC channels, which implies specifically someone who is new to the Linux/open source/free software world. 
SDL binaries for gnuboy - Game Boy Emulator. Gnuboy is a portable Game Boy emulator. It basically allows you to play most games designed for the Game Boy and Game Boy Color on your PC or workstation. This package includes SDL binaries. 
SVGALIB binaries for gnuboy - Game Boy Emulator. Gnuboy is a portable Game Boy emulator. It basically allows you to play most games designed for the Game Boy and Game Boy Color on your PC or workstation. This package includes SVGALIB binaries. 
X binaries for gnuboy - Game Boy Emulator. Gnuboy is a portable Game Boy emulator. It basically allows you to play most games designed for the Game Boy and Game Boy Color on your PC or workstation. This package includes X binaries. 
GNU Circuit Analysis package. GNUCAP is a general purpose circuit simulator. It performs nonlinear dc and transient analyses, fourier analysis, and ac analysis linearized at an operating point. It is fully interactive and command driven. It can also be run in batch mode or as a server. The output is produced as it simulates. Spice compatible models for the MOSFET (level 1,2,3) and diode are included in this release. 
A personal finance tracking program. Gnucash can track finances in multiple accounts, keeping running and reconciled balances. It has an X based graphical user interface, double entry, a hierarchy of accounts, expense accounts (categories), and can import Quicken QIF files. 
GnuCash is a personal finance manager. A check-book like register GUI allows you to enter and track bank accounts, stocks, income and even currency trades. The interface is designed to be simple and easy to use, but is backed with double-entry accounting principles to ensure balanced books. 
The gnuchess package contains the GNU chess program. By default,GNUchess uses a curses text-based interface. Alternatively, GNUchess can be used in conjunction with the xboard user interface and the XWindow System for a graphical chessboard. Install the gnuchess package if you would like to play chess on your computer. You also need to install the curses package. If you want to use a graphical interface with GNUchess, you also need to install the xboard package and the X Window System. 
Scripts to enable a server to provide dynamic IP to name mappings GnuDIP is a service desiged for an ISP to give its customers a static DNS name without having to give them their own IP address. For those who are familiar with this is a simple replacement. GnuDIP has 2 main parts on the server side. 1, the multi-threaded server that listens on a port 3495 that accepts connections from client applications and updates their hostname, and 2 the web cgi that is used as the administration tool and as the users tool to manage their own account. Using the web cgi a user can set their desired homepage in their settings and then set the special URL as the default page for their browser so now every time they open their browser their hostname will be automatically be updated without having to run any other sort of client application and then they would be redirected to the URL they set in their GnuDIP settings. 
The shared library for many items of the GNU Enterprise Framework GNUe-Common provides a set of images and classes that GNUe-Forms, GNUe-Reports, and GNUe-Designer are dependent upon. 
Plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi). GNUGO is an updated version of the GNU go playing program. This software is an attempt to distribute a free program to play Go. The idea of this program is based on the article "Programming the Game of Go. Byte, Vol.6 No.4" by J. K. Millen. Currently, this program only understands basic Go rules and skills. 
Plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi). GNUGO is an updated version of the GNU go playing program. This software is an attempt to distribute a free program to play Go. The idea of this program is based on the article "Programming the Game of Go. Byte, Vol.6 No.4" by J. K. Millen. Currently, this program only understands basic Go rules and skills. This is the "development version" of Gnugo. Development is fairly brisk, and new bugs occur frequently. Please support this software by reporting all (non-package related) bugs directly to "". 
A Perl script that converts html files to latex gnuhtml2latex is a Perl script that converts html files to latex files. It takes list of .html files as arguments and make .tex ones. Can also convert html stdin to latex stdout. 
A free implementation of Sun's Java Server Pages (JSP 1.0) GNUJSP is a Java servlet that allows you to insert Java source code into HTML files. When such a page is accessed, GNUJSP translates it into a pure Java source code, compiles it and runs the class file. This version conforms to the JSP 1.0 specification and is thus incompatible to GNUJSP 0.9.x which supported the 0.91 specification. For more information take a look at the GNUJSP home page at 
GNUlpr printing system. This task package installs packages needed to print using the advanced features of postscript printers. It installs a complete printing system, including autodetection and configuration utilities. 
/gnoo'maks/ n. [contraction of `GNU EMACS'] Often-heard abbreviated name for the GNU project's flagship tool, EMACS. `StallMACS', referring to Richard Stallman, is less common but also heard. Used esp. in contrast with GOSMACS and X Emacs. 
A GNUstep Mail User Agent (clone of the NeXT/Apple's is a clone of NeXT/Apple's excellent application. It uses the GNUstep development framework (or Apple Cocoa, which is based on the OpenStep specification provided by NeXT, Inc.). 
A GNOME spreadsheet application Gnumeric is a powerful spreadsheet application that interoperates well with other spreadsheets. It comes with plugins that enable it to deal with commonly used spreadsheet file formats, including o Microsoft(R) Excel95 (.xls) o Comma/Character Separated Values (.csv) o XBase (.dbf), o MultiPlan (.sylk) o PlanPerfect o Lotus 123 (.wks, .wk1) o Applix version 4 (.as) o Data Interchange Format (.dif) o GNU Oleo (.oleo) o SC/XSpread o Linear and integer program expression format (.mps) and can export to LaTeX, Roff and HTML as well. Gnumeric should be easy to use, in particular if you are familiar with Excel. Gnumeric is a GNOME application. GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set of applications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. 
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a user-friendly set ofapplications and desktop tools to be used in conjunction with a window manager for the X Window System. GNOME is similar in purpose and scope to CDE and KDE, but GNOME is based completely on free software. This is the Gnumeric, the GNOME spreadsheet program. If you are familiar with Excel, you should be ready to use Gnumeric. It tries to clone all ofthe good features and stay as compatible as possible with Excel in terms ofusability. Hopefully the bugs have been left behind :). 
GNU Privacy Guard (GNU, cryptography), "GnuPG" 
GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement. GnuPG is GNU's tool for secure communication and data storage. It can be used to encrypt data and to create digital signatures. It includes an advanced key management facility and is compliant with the proposed OpenPGP Internet standard as described in RFC2440. GnuPG does not use use any patented algorithms so it cannot be compatible with PGP2 because it uses IDEA (which is patented worldwide) and RSA. RSA's patent expired on the 20th September 2000, and it is now included in GnuPG. 
A command-line driven interactive plotting program. Package for making 2D and 3D graphs from data and functions. Supports lots of output formats, including drivers for many printers, (La)TeX, (x)fig, X11, PostScript, and so on. Data files and self-defined functions can be manipulated by internal C-like language. Can perform smoothing, spline-fitting, or nonlinear fits. Can work with complex numbers. 
Gnuplot is a command-line driven, interactive function plotting programespecially suited for scientific data representation. Gnuplot can be used to plot functions and data points in both two and three dimensions and in many different formats. Install gnuplot if you need a graphics package for scientific data representation. 
Program a robot to explore a world GNU Robots is a game/diversion where you construct a program for a little robot, then watch him explore a world. The world is filled with baddies that can hurt you, objects that you can bump into, and food that you can eat. The goal of the game is to collect as many prizes as possible before you are killed by a baddie or you run out of energy. Programs for the robot are written in Scheme. 
A versatile News and mailing list reader for Emacsen Gnus is a message-reading laboratory. This is by far the most powerful and extensible news reader that I am aware of. It will let you look at just about anything as if it were a newsgroup. You can read mail with it, you can browse directories with it, you can ftp with it---you can even read news with it! It handles single file groups, MH format folders, mbox files, digests, knows about POP, etc. It can split incoming mail ala procmail. This version of gnus handles MIME natively. It adds offline reading capability with gnus-agent. It is not compatible with older versions of TM (since a large number of hooks and variables have changed to allow that). NOTE: Please do not use tm-gnus with this version. Instead of boring old KILL files, it has an adaptive multifaceted scoring mechanism -- you add or reduce the score of the article based on rules, and a component of the score comes in from your past behaviour -- for example, articles similar to ones you read and saved get higher scores. This adaptive mechanism is one of the most interesting part of Gnus. Gnus tries to empower people who read news the same way Emacs empowers people who edit text. Gnus sets no limits to what the user should be allowed to do. Users are encouraged to extend Gnus to make it behave like they want it to behave. A program should not control people; people should be empowered to do what they want by using (or abusing) the program. Gnus comes by default with XEmacs, but this is a stand alone package that replaces the stock Gnusii. A note for people using the nnimap backend: SSL support requires w3-el-e20; and even otherwise w3-el makes following hyperlinks in mail and news easier. The upstream sources for this package are available at 
Miscellaneous add-ons for Gnus This package contains a few Emacs-Lisp files, mainly obtained from the gnu.emacs.sources newsgroup, that provide various functions to Gnus, the Emacs mail and news reader. This package contains: gnus-junk.el: semi-automatic replies to junk e-mails; nnnil.el: empty, read-only backend; nntodo.el: manage to-do items; message-x.el: customizable completion in message headers; nnir.el: searchable mail backend; nnmaildir.el: maildir mail backend. 
Allows you to attach to an already running Emacs gnuserv allows you to attach to an already running Emacs. This allows external programs to make use of Emacs' editing capabilities. It is like GNU Emacs' emacsserver/server.el, but has many more features. You do not need this package if you use XEmacs; it already includes gnuserv and gnuclient. If you want to use gnuserv with both GNU Emacs and XEmacs, you will only be able to use the alternative /usr/bin/gnuclient with one flavor of emacs; you will have to use either gnuclient.xemacs or gnuclient.emacs for the other flavor. 
A program to play shogi, the Japanese version of chess. Gnushogi plays a game of Japanese chess (shogi) against the user or it plays against itself. Gnushogi is an modified version of the gnuchess program. It has a simple alpha-numeric board display, or it can use the xshogi program under the X Window System. 
OpenStep (based on NeXTStep) was a GUI specification published in 1994 by Sun Microsystems and NeXT Computers, meant for building applications. It uses the Objective-C language, which is an object-oriented extension to C, that is arguably more suited to this kind of development than is C++. OpenStep requires a PostScript display engine that is analogous to the X protocol, but it is considered superior to X because all graphics are independent of the pixel resolution of the screen. In other words, high-resolution screens would improve the picture quality without making the graphics smaller. The GNUStep project has a working PostScript display engine and is meant as a Free replacement to OpenStep. 
The GNUstep Base Library The GNUstep Base Library is a library of general-purpose, non-graphical Objective C objects. It provides functionality that aims to implement the non-graphical portion of the OpenStep standard. 
Debugging versions for the GNUstep Base Library This package contains the shared library of the GNUstep Base Library compiled with debugging symbols. Install this package if you wish to develop your own programs using the GNUstep Base Library. 
The GNUstep Gui Library The GNUstep Gui Library is a library of graphical Objective C objects. It provides functionality that aims to implement the frontend-graphical portion of the OpenStep standard. 
Debugging versions for the GNUstep Gui Library This package contains the shared library of the GNUstep Gui Library compiled with debugging symbols. Install this package if you wish to develop your own programs using the GNUstep Gui Library. 
Basic GNUstep Scripts and Makefiles This package contains the basic scripts, makefiles and directory layout needed to run and compile any GNUstep software. 
The GNUstep Postscript Printer Description The GNUstep Postscript Printer Description is a collection of ppd files provided by GNUstep GUI. 
The GNUstep Xgps Library The GNUstep Xgps Library is a library of graphical Objective C objects. It provides functionality that aims to implement the xgps graphical-backend portion of the OpenStep standard. 
A command-line based client compatible with Gnutella-net Gnut implements the Gnutella-net networking and file sharing protocol. For more information on Gnutella-net, visit For more information on gnut, visit 
a fully-distributed information-sharing technology. 
GNU TLS library - runtime library gnutls is a portable library which implements the Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.0 and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) 3.0 protocols. Currently gnutls implements: - the TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0 protocols, without any US-export controlled algorithms - X509 Public Key Infrastructure (with several limitations). - SRP for TLS authentication. - TLS Extension mechanism This package contains the runtime libraries. 
Query the online Dutch Van Dale dictionary This program is a frontend for the online Van Dale dictionary, It will search any word in the dictionary and return its description in Dutch. Van Dale is a well known producer of dictionaries in the Netherlands. This package provides the commandline frontend. 
Query the online Dutch Van Dale dictionary - Gnome frontend This program is a frontend for the online Van Dale dictionary, It will search any word in the dictionary and return its description in Dutch. Van Dale is a well known producer of dictionaries in the Netherlands. This package provides the Gnome frontend. 
console Yahoo messenger client with guile and readline interfaces Purely console based Yahoo messenger client application which has geeky "readline" and "guile" interfaces. It connects to the Yahoo server using the "libyahoo" library. Gnuyahoo is highly extensible through the scheme language. Readline support means that it has powerful command-line editing and history features. It supports almost all of the features of the conventional Yahoo messenger for example email alert, conference, ignore, etc. It also has numerous additional features not contained in the original client. 
Gateway Network eXchange 400 (Proteon, SNA, SDLC), "GNX 400" 
Comes with PC!Linux magazine. German. 
Graphical GOAD browser 
A sticky-note type program for Gnome Goats is a yellow post-it note applet for the Gnome desktop. It's modelled after Knotes for KDE, and is also similar to gnome-gnotes. Goats features alarms, auto-saving and more.. 
GTK+ Object Builder GOB is a preprocessor which simplifies the writing of GTK+ objects in C. The syntax is somewhat similar to that for Java, yacc and lex. 
The GNU Objective-C compiler. This is the GNU Objective-C compiler, which compiles Objective-C on platforms supported by the gcc compiler. It uses the gcc backend to generate optimized code. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU Objective-C compiler for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
A portable library of classes for Eiffel This portable Eiffel class library provides classes for various data structures. It also provides lexical analysis and parsing on the lines of lex and yacc. 
Graphic Object Content Architecture (IBM, MO:DCA) 
A commandline OCR gocr is a multi-platform OCR (Optical Character Recognition) It can read pnm, pbm, pgm, ppm, some pcx and tga image files Currently the program should be able to handle well scans that have their text in one column and do not have tables. Font sizes of 20 to 60 pixels are supported. If you want to write your own OCR, libgocr is provided in a separate package. Documentation and graphical wrapper are provided in separated packages, too. 
Global OutDial 
Grundsaetze ordnungsmaessiger Datenverarbeitung, "GoD" 
GTK Based ODBC Configuration GUI GTK Based ODBC Configuration GUI - part of the unixODBC tools 
Offline mail reader for Fidonet and Usenet GoldED+ is an offline mail reader for Fidonet message bases in AdeptXBBS, EzyCOM, Fido (*.MSG), Goldbase, Hudson, JAM, PCBoard, Synchronet, Squish and WildCat. It is also able to import QWK (BBS offline mail format) and SOUP (Usenet offline mail format) packages into said message bases, and re-export packages for upload. GoldED+ is a successor of the well-known GoldED mail editor. 
A generic audio mixer (Base versions) gom is a generic audio mixer program; it tries to provide a complete and convenient interface for all kind of audio mixer manipulation. gom's facilities include sound driver (compile time) and sound card (run time) independence, arbitrary mixer selection, loading and saving of mixer settings, volume fading, verbosity-level driven output, "Un*x-like scripting support", etc. At the moment, gom only supports the Open Sound System (OSS) sound driver. OSS comes with the Linux kernel as free software called OSS/Free, and is available for a number of other platforms. Apart from the exhaustive command line interface described here, gom optionally has two built-in interactive interfaces (that I call gomiis, gom interactive interfaces;): a terminal gomii using ncurses, and a X gomii using the xview toolkit. All gomiis support adjustable (this includes disabling) real time updating. 
A generic audio mixer (X version) This package only includes a binary of gom with built-in X support (needs xview). It supersedes the binaries in the base package and will per default be the preferred alternative of all "gom" binaries. 
Good-Day GNU/Linux HA Server
Good-Day GNU/Linux HA Server is a Debian-based distribution, which uses only free software. It is developed by Good-Day Inc. (in Japan). They say that their distribution features high availability, and is for Web applications. The folks at Good-Day Inc. also make a "real-time backup utility for PostgreSQL" named "Usogres" ("Uso" is a Japanese word for "fake") available before the PostgreSQL team made replication available. 
v. [common] To search the Web using the Google search engine, Google is highly esteemed among hackers for its significance ranking system, which is so uncannily effective that many users consider it to have rendered other search engines effectively irrelevant. 
utility to search Google via your GNOME menu/panel This is a very simple and very handy utility that just spawns the configured GNOME browser with a Google search on whatever you have in the X clipboard (whatever you last selected). It's not even an applet, just a program with a launcher that's nice to put on the panel - drag it there from the menu. 
Guile interpreter linked with GOOPS. GOOPS is the object oriented extension to Guile. GOOPS can be dynamically loaded into any Guile interpreter. However, this package is useful if dynamic loading doesn't work on your system. Other GOOPS packages are: libgoops5, libgoops5-dev, goops-doc The implementation is derived from STk-3.99.3 by Erick Gallesio and version 1.3 of Gregor Kiczales `Tiny-Clos'. See `libgoops5' for further information. 
Group Of Pictures (video) 
Distributed Hypertext Client, Gopher protocol This package contains the client for the distributed global directory and hypertext system known as gopher. This is a text-based (ncurses) client from the University of Minnesota. It also supports the gopher+ protocol, as well as links to ftp, http, and other external viewers. 
Gopher is an almost irrelevant protocol today, but it was very popular in the early 1990s. Gopher is simply a hierarchical menu of hyperlinks. This means that like HTTP/HTML, you can build virtual sites containing documents from other sites. However, unlike HTTP/HTML, the only structure is that of a hierarchical menu: it doesn't support hyperlinking within the documents that it points to. Key point: There are still a lot of Gopher servers out there, However, since they are no longer mainstream, they are rarely maintained by security people. Therefore, they often present a way to compromise the network. 
In UNIX based systems linked to the Internet, a menu-based progam that helps you find files, programs, definitions, and other resources on topics you specify. Gopher was originally developed at the University of Minessota and nameeed after the school mascot. Unlike FTP and Archie, Gopher doesn't require you to know and use details of host, directory, and file names, Instead, you browse though menus and press Enter when you find something interseting. You usually see another menu, with more options, until finally you seect an option that displays information. You can then read the infromation or save it to your disk storage area after retreiving it with anonymous FTP. The World Wide Web (WWW) has begun to make Gopher and other text-based Internet search tools obsolete. 
Invented at the University of Minnesota in 1993 just before the Web, gopher was a widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher was designed to be much easier to use than FTP, while still using a text-only interface. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while. 
n. A type of Internet service first floated around 1991 and obsolesced around 1995 by the World Wide Web. Gopher presents a menuing interface to a tree or graph of links; the links can be to documents, runnable programs, or other gopher menus arbitrarily far across the net. Some claim that the gopher software, which was originally developed at the University of Minnesota, was named after the Minnesota Gophers (a sports team). Others claim the word derives from American slang `gofer' (from "go for", dialectal "go fer"), one whose job is to run and fetch things. Finally, observe that gophers dig long tunnels, and the idea of tunneling through the net to find information was a defining metaphor for the developers. Probably all three things were true, but with the first two coming first and the gopher-tunnel metaphor serendipitously adding flavor and impetus to the project as it developed out of its concept stage. 
Gopher server The UMN gopher server. This server is a robust and full-featured gopher and gopher+ server with a HTTP mode as well. It features support for indexing, ASK blocks, .Links files, .names files, .cap support, and pretty much any gopher feature you could imagine. 
Generate web link files for gopher servers This program is used to let you add links to web sites from Gopher directories on your gopher server. 
Giga Operations Per Second 
Government Open Systems Interconnections Profile (USA, UK) 
/goz'maks/ n. [contraction of `Gosling EMACS'] The first EMACS-in-C implementation, predating but now largely eclipsed by GNUMACS. Originally freeware; a commercial version was modestly popular as `UniPress EMACS' during the 1980s. The author, James Gosling, went on to invent NeWS and the programming language Java; the latter earned him demigod status. 
Script to fetch mail out of a hotmail account Gotmail is a perl script to fetch mail out of a hotmail account. This is especially useful if you want to move from Hotmail into one of the other free mail services - one command can do it all. GotMail also supports getting any new mail only from your Hotmail account - perfect for using a HotMail account as a redirect address into another account. 
a text renderer It's a commandline text renderer. It will take text on the commandline or from a file and render it using antialiased TrueType fonts, using optional font styles, word wrapping, justification and layout control. 
GNU Privacy Assistant (GNU, GnuPG) 
The GNU Privacy Assistant The GNU Privacy Assistant is a graphical user interface for the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). 
GNU Paint - a small, easy to use paint program for GNOME This is gpaint (GNU Paint), a small-scale painting program for GNOME, the GNU Desktop Environment. gpaint does not attempt to compete with GIMP, it is just a simple drawing package based on xpaint, along the lines of 'Paintbrush' from a popular non-free operating system. Currently gpaint has the following features: * Drawing tools such as ovals, freehand, polygon and text, with fill or shadow for polygons and closed freehand shapes. * Cut and paste by selecting irregular regions or polygons. * Preliminary print support using gnome-print. * Modern, ease-to-use user interface with tool and color palettes. * Multiple-image editing in a single instance of the program. * All the image processing features present in xpaint. 
a friendly GUI frontend for the PayPal micropayment service gPal is a friendly GUI frontend for the PayPal micropayment service allowing users to check their balance, send money and make requests for money to and from other PayPal users. It uses SSL encryption to ensure the security of transactions. 
Guess PC disk partition table, find lost partitions Gpart is a tool which tries to guess the primary partition table of a PC-type disk in case the primary partition table in sector 0 is damaged, incorrect or deleted. It is also good at finding and listing the types, locations, and sizes of inadvertently-deleted partitions, both primary and logical. It gives you the information you need to manually re-create them (using fdisk, cfdisk, sfdisk, etc.). The guessed table can also be written to a file or (if you firmly believe the guessed table is entirely correct) directly to a disk device. Supported (guessable) filesystem or partition types: * BeOS filesystem type. * FreeBSD/NetBSD/386BSD disklabel sub-partitioning scheme used on Intel platforms. * Linux second extended filesystem. * MS-DOS FAT12/16/32 "filesystems". * IBM OS/2 High Performance filesystem. * Linux LVM physical volumes (LVM by Heinz Mauelshagen). * Linux swap partitions (versions 0 and 1). * The Minix operating system filesystem type. * MS Windows NT/2000 filesystem. * QNX 4.x filesystem. * The Reiser filesystem (version 3.5.X, X > 11). * Sun Solaris on Intel platforms uses a sub-partitioning scheme on PC hard disks similar to the BSD disklabels. * Silicon Graphics' journalling filesystem for Linux. Other types may be added relatively easily, as separately compiled modules. 
administer the /etc/group file 
General-Purpose Computation 
GNU Pascal Compiler (GNU) 
Graphics Performance Characterization [committee] (org., HP, IBM, DEC, SGI, Sun,...) 
Group Policy Container (AD, GPO) 
The GNU Pascal compiler. This is the GNU Pascal compiler, which compiles Pascal on platforms supported by the gcc compiler. It uses the gcc backend to generate optimized code. The current version 2.2 (release candiate 2) implements Standard Pascal (ISO 7185, level 1), a large subset of Extended Pascal (ISO 10206), and Borland Pascal. Many Borland Pascal units supported. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU Pascal compiler for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
The GNU Pascal compiler. NOTE: This is not a final release, but taken from the CVS gcc-2_95-branch (dated 2001-10-02). This is the GNU Pascal compiler, which compiles Pascal on platforms supported by the gcc compiler. It uses the gcc backend to generate optimized code. The current beta release 2.2 implements Standard Pascal (ISO 7185, level 1), a large subset of Extended Pascal (ISO 10206), and Borland Pascal. Many Borland Pascal units supported. 
Graphics Processor Command Interface 
Perfect hash function generator. gperf is a program that generates perfect hash functions for sets of key words. A perfect hash function is simply: A hash function and a data structure that allows recognition of a key word in a set of words using exactly 1 probe into the data structure. 
Perfect hash function generator (ACE version) gperf-ace is the ACE version of gperf. Both gperf-ace and gperf were written by the same author, and have basically the same options and functionality. gperf-ace simply takes advantage of the some of the features provided by the ACE library. 
periodic table application GPeriodic is a small X/GTK+-based program which allows you to browse through a periodic table of chemical elements, and view somewhat detailed information on each of the elements. 118 elements are currently listed. The program is available in English, Portuguese, Spanish, German, French, Italian, Dutch and Russian. 
General Protection Fault (Windows) 
encryption and signing tool 
GNU Privacy Guard (GNU) 
signature verification tool 
X/GTK-based internet telephone. Gphone is an internet telephone. As the name implies, it aims to be fully gnome-groovy, but that hasn't quite happened yet. Gphone is definitely a work in progress and you probably shouldn't bet your business on it. Don't be too hard on the program, though -- although the user interface is mighty rough, gphone does actually work pretty well. The data rate should be low enough to work over a reasonable modem connection. The protocol is nominally RTP/RTCP, and gphone complies well enough with the standard to be able to talk to speakfreely. 
gPhoto is part of the GNU project - and is an universal, freeGTK+ application and library framework that lets you download images from several different digital camera models, and from the local hard drive, and generate HTML albums. 
Universal application for digital cameras Gphoto will allow downloading, saving and manipulation of images from several different camera models, or from the hardrive. It also comes with a HTML engine, to publish photos on the web, and a command line interface to use it from a script 
The gPhoto2 project is a universal, free application and library framework that lets you download images from several different digital camera models, including the newer models with USB connections. Note that a) for some older camera models you must use the old "gphoto" package. b) for USB mass storage models you must use the driver in the kernel This package contains the command-line utility gphoto2. 
The gPhoto2 project is a universal, free application and library framework that lets you download images from several different digital camera models, including the newer models with USB connections. Note that for some older camera models you must use the old "gphoto"package. For USB mass storage models, you must use the driver in the kernel. This package contains the library that digital camera applications can use and the command-line utility gphoto2. Other (GUI) frontends are available separately. 
A tool to manage your photo collection GNOME Photo Collector has been designed to help you managing your photo collection, or any type of images. It uses a PostgreSQL database (either local or not) to store all sort of informations about your images, such as : o type of film used o ID, pathname, etc... o type and model of camera o date o description o keywords o ... The keywords defined for each image allow you to perform a search in your database to find a particular image. GPC supports all formats supported by the gdk-pixbuf library, since it is used to load the images. 
Graphics Programming Interface 
General-Purpose Interface Bus (IEEE 488, GPIB) 
compile pictures for troff or TeX 
General Purpose Input Output 
/G-P-L/ n. Abbreviation for `General Public License' in widespread use; see copyleft, General Public Virus. Often mis-expanded as `GNU Public License'. 
General Public Licence (GNU) 
Graphics Programming Language 
GPL (GNU General Public License)
A common usage and redistribution license. Visit to see a copy of the GPL agreement. 
General Purpose Mouse Interface This package provides a daemon that listens to the mouse when the console is displayed, and delivers them to applications. The default when no application is running is to emulate "selection", i.e. allow cut-and-paste with the mouse on the console the same way as under X. 
Gesellschaft fuer ProjektManagement [e.v.] (org.) 
Gpm provides mouse support to text-based Linux applications like the Emacs editor and the Midnight Commander file management system. Gpm also provides console cut-and-paste operations using the mouse and includes a program that allows pop-up menus to appear at the click ofa mouse button. 
Group Policy Objects (AD, GPO) 
[SCSI-3] Generic Packetized Protocol (SAM) 
GTK+ pppd monitoring and control utility gpppkill is a small GTK+ program which displays a graph of ppp link usage and also has options to kill pppd after a specified time of low link usage, or after a given amount of time. 
A gnome applet that is a wrapper around pon and poff. gpppon is a gnome applet that reads the names of the configured providers from /etc/ppp/peers and calls the pon and poff scripts with the selected provider as argument. 
General Purpose Register (CPU) 
GUI for lpr: print files and configure printer-specific options GPr is a graphical interface to lpr that provides for easy configuration of printer-specific options. GPr interfaces with a PostScript printer's PPD file to create a user-interface of configurable options. Based upon user choice, the device-specific option code is then inserted into the PostScript job and sent to the printer. This can be used to tell the printer to duplex or staple the print job, or tell it what paper tray to draw paper from. NOTE: gpr will detect if the file to be print is postscript, and, if not, it will call a2ps to preprocess it before sending it to ppdfilt and to lpr. 
display call graph profile data 
Reference documentation to GNU gprof, the GNU Profiler. 
GNU Prolog compiler. GNU Prolog is a free Prolog compiler with constraint solving over finite domains (FD) developed at INRIA by Daniel Diaz. GNU Prolog is based on two systems developed by the same author (with lot of code rewriting and a lot of new extensions): wamcc and clp(FD). A lot of work has been devoted to the ISO compatibility, GNU Prolog is very close to the ISO standard, full compliance being one of its goals. 
General Packet Radio Service / System (ETSI, GSM, TCP/IP, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Global Positioning System 
Graphical PS using GTK gPS a graphical applet to watch system processes, like ps and top. It shows lots of information on each process and allows users to kill, send signals to, renice and filter processes. And also with the rgpsp package can watch processes on other machines across a network. 
Graphics Processor Software Interface 
Simulator for Microchip's PIC microcontrollers Gpsim is a full-featured software simulator for Microchip PIC microcontrollers. Gpsim has been designed to be as accurate as possible. Accuracy includes the entire PIC - from the core to the I/O pins and including ALL of the internal peripherals. Thus it's possible to create stimuli and tie them to the I/O pins and test the PIC the same PIC the same way you would in the real world. Gpsim has been designed to be as fast as possible. Real time simulation speeds of 20Mhz PICs are possible. Gpsim has been designed to be as useful as possible. The standard simulation paradigm including breakpoints, single stepping, disassembling, memory inspect & change, have been implemented. In addition, gpsim supports many debugging features that are only available with in-circuit emulators. For example, a continuous trace buffer tracks every action of the simulator. Also, it's possible to set read and write break points on values (e.g. break if a specific value is read from or written to a register). 
LCD module for gpsim Gpsim-lcd is a LCD module for gpsim, it consists of a shared library that is dynamically loaded. Examples how to use the module are included. 
LED module for gpsim Gpsim-led is a 7-segment led module for gpsim, it consists of a shared library that is dynamically loaded. Examples how to use the module are included. 
logic module for gpsim Gpsim-logic is a simple module library that contains a 2-input AND gate and a 2-input OR gate. It consists of a shared library that is dynamically loaded. This library also illustrates how a module can drive a pin on the pic. Examples how to use the module are included. 
A gtk based psk31 This is a PSK31 transmission mode program using the sound card and optionally serial port to PTT the RIG. It has nice functions and listen very well. 
A GPS manager GPS Manager (GPSMan) is a graphical manager of GPS data that makes possible the preparation, inspection and edition of GPS data in a friendly environment. GPSMan supports communication and real-time logging with both Garmin and Lowrance receivers and accepts real-time logging information in NMEA 0183 from any GPS receiver. 
communicate with a Garmin Global Positioning System receiver GPStrans allows a user with a Garmin GPS receiver to upload and download waypoints, routes, almanac (satellite orbit elements), and track routes. 
Group Policy Template (AD, GPO) 
GUID Partition Table (EFI, GUID) 
Graphics Processing Unit 
GNU PIC utilities Those utilities for the Microchip PIC microcontrollers family contain an assembler (compatible with MPASM), a disassembler, and other tools. 
General Public Virus 
Trigraph Password Generator This package generates pronounceable passwords. It uses the statistics of three-letter combinations (trigraphs) taken from whatever dictionaries you feed it. Thus pronounceability may differ from language to language. Based on the ideas in Morrie Gasser's password generator for Multics, and Dan Edwards's generator for CTSS. FIPS Standard 181 describes a similar digraph-based generator, derived from Gasser's. 
GTK-based LDAP client GQ is GTK+ LDAP client and browser utility. It can be used for searching LDAP directory as well as browsing it using a tree view. Features include: - browse and search modes - LDAPv3 schema browser - template editor - edit and delete entries - add entries with templates - export subtree or whole server to LDIF file - use any number of servers - search based on single argument or LDAP filter - TLS support for LDAPv3 
GTK Webcam control Gqcam is a program originally created to pull frames from a greyscale Connectix QuickCam, but that has grown into a frame grabber for most any Video4Linux compatible webcam- like camera. It should work with any camera that supports the read() method of grabbing frames. 
a GTK+ front end to mpg321/mpg123 and ogg123 GQmpeg is a GTK+ front end to mpg321/mpg123 for mpeg audio file playing, as well as ogg123 for Ogg Vorbis support. It includes playlist support, many options, and its themeability is extraordinarily flexible. gqmpeg requires mpg321 or mpg123 for playback of mpeg audio files, and ogg123 for the playback of Ogg Vorbis files. 
A simple image viewer using GTK+ Simple image browser with thumbnail capability. Uses GTK+ and gdk-pixbuf. 
GQview is an image viewer for browsing through graphics files. GQview features include single click file viewing, support for external editors, previewing images using thumbnails, and zoom. 
An XY plotting tool Grace is a point-and-click tool that allows the user to draw X-Y plots. This is the program formerly known as Xmgr. A few of its features are: User defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors. Polynomial regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT, cross/auto-correlation. Batch mode for unattended plotting. Hardcopy support for PostScript, FrameMaker and several image formats. 
GRaphics Adapter Device Driver (OS/2, IBM) 
GTK FM radio tuner. GTK-based X11 application for adjusting the frequency and volume of, and muting and unmuting, FM radio cards. 
scientific visualization library Grafix is a utility originally designed to help scientists in the visualization of results of a computation, e.g. for numerical integrations of partial differential equations. It can be used, however, for any application that wants to use X for drawing pictures, functions or other graphic objects in a convenient interactive manner or even for writing a graphical user interface for any task. Grafix should be considered as a layer between an application and the X Window system built up of a bunch of basic classes as building elements. The simplest way of using it is to define instances of these classes. For more complicated programs the user has to define own derivations to the basic classes. 
Transfer sound from gramophone records to CD GramoFile enables you to record audio from (for example) gramophone records, process the signal and listen to the results. Because sound files in .WAV-format are used, it is possible to exchange the files with many other programs. Cdrecord(1) can burn CD-Recordables of these, so you can make CDs with the music of your favorite records. The user interface of GramoFile has a windows-like look-and-feel, making it fairly easy to use. One of the most important parts of GramoFile is the ability to process digital audio signals. Through the application of several filters it is possible to accomplish a significant reduction of disturbances like ticks and scratches. These filters have been programmed in such a fashion that they can be applied in any order (and multiple times) in a single run, thus avoiding the use of temporary files. It is possible to adjust the properties of each filter independently, so in every situation an optimal result can be achieved. Another interesting feature is the track splitting. Just make one .wav file of an entire side of an record and GramoFile will detect where the individual tracks are located. This happens fully automatically, without need to set any options. More experienced users may fine-tune the algorithm, or change the detected track starts and ends, but generally that will not be necessary. Track-times are saved in an editable (plaintext) .tracks file, that will be used during the signal processing to produce one processed .wav file for each individual track. To record and play .wav files, modified versions of brec(1) and bplay(1) by David Monro are included. These programs provide buffered recording and playback, so all will go well even on a highly loaded system. Both programs have been modified to support the standard GramoFile user interface. Brec also got a `graphical' peak level meter, and bplay a running time display. 
Grand Unified Bootloader (GRUB)
A small software utility that loads and manages multiple operating systems (and their variants). GRUB is the default bootloader for Red Hat Linux. 
a clock that tolls time acoustically grandfatherclock plays audio files to report the time. The default configuration emulates a grandfather clock with Westminster chimes. Cuckoo clock and Close Encounters of the Third Kind files are included as well. As a matter of fact, grandfatherclock can be configured to execute any command. The upstream default is simply to write a *.au file to a sound device file by using cat(1). Since cat is not a good sound player, the default is changed to use sox instead. grandfatherclock depends on sox to ensure that it can run under the default configuration. You also need a kernel support for a sound device to use grandfatherclock. 
Formerly Kaiwal Linux, GrandLinux 4.4 seems to be the most recent version (as of September 2002). Looks like box sets and training and other Linux stuff. Website text in Thai. 
A program for typesetting graphs This is grap, an implementation of Kernighan and Bentley's grap language for typesetting graphs. The grap preprocessor works with pic and troff (or groff). Grap is a language for describing graphical displays of data. It provides such services as automatic scaling and labeling of axes, and for statements, if statements, and macros to facilitate user programmability. Grap is intended primarily for including graphs in documents prepared with groff or TeX, and is only marginally useful for elementary tasks in data analysis. 
graphical login
A graphical interface for logging into a desktop environment. Red Hat Linux uses the GNOME Desktop Manager (GDM) for graphical login; XDM and KDM are also supported. 
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
A picture-like control panel or screen (as opposed to a text-based screen), that makes a computer or presentation system easy to use. Amiga, Macintosh, and Windows environments are example of GUIs. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
graphical user interface (GUI)
A visual object that enhances interaction between a computer and a user. A GUI displays windows, icons, menus, labelled buttons, and a virtual desktop. A GUI sends commands to the system via these icons and menus rather than typed commands. 
Graphic Animation System for Professionals 
GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System)
is a public domain raster based GIS, vector GIS, image processing system, and graphics production system. Created by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Constriction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA/CERL) and enhanced by many others, it is used extensively at government offices, universities and commercial organizations throughout the world. It is written mostly in C for various UNIX based machines. Linux is one of its more robust implementations. GRASS contains over 40 programs to render images on monitor and paper; over 60 raster manipulation programs; over 30 vector manipulation programs; nearly 30 multi-spectral image processing manipulation programs; 16 data management programs; and 6 point file management programs. GRASS' strengths lie in several fields. The simple user interface makes it an ideal platform for those learning about GIS for the first time. Users wishing to write their own code can do so by examining existing source code, interfacing with the documented GIS libraries, and by using the GRASS Programmers' Manual. This allows more sophisticated functionality to be fully integrated within GRASS. Other strengths include GRASS' pioneering of mixed resolutions in a data base, mixed geographic coverage areas in a data base, raster image compression techniques via run-length encoding and reclassification lookup tables, GRASS' rescaling of display images on the fly to fill the display screen, plus its fundamental design criterion of powerful computer-assisted scientific analysis of environmental issues (as opposed to merely going for intricate cartographic output of relatively simple processes). GRASS is usually supplied as free, non-copyright source code to be compiled on host machines. Some compiled binaries are also easily obtainable at no cost via the Internet. It runs on a variety of UNIX platforms. Copied from Project Assist Intro to GRASS. From GRASS HOWTO
Clone of Gravity Force, for SVGA Gravity Wars is based on Gravity Force, one of the greatest games for the Amiga. This version is a little different, with a much higher resolution, and better graphics. It also includes some new features like water, exploding doors, bonus objects, fans (ie. wind), and some other special effects like exploding bullets, and splashing water.. 
generic colouriser for everything generic colouriser, can be used to colourise logfiles, output of commands, arbitrary text.... configured via regexp's. 
Generic Reference Configuration 
sets your Xresources from your gtk theme grdb tries to apply the colors from your gtk theme to Xt/Motif/Tk apps. It does this by setting variables based on the current theme and piping them, along with some (supplied) appdefaults files into an "xrdb -merge" command. grdb uses the same appdefaults files as krdb from KDE. 
Gnome capplet for the grdb program grdb-capplet provides a capplet in the gnome control center for the grdb program. 
Generic Routing Encapsulation (RFC 1701, VPN) 
A tool testing framework. Greg is a framework for testing other programs and libraries. Its purpose is to provide a single front end for all tests and to be a small, simple framework for writing tests. Greg leverages off the Guile language to provide all the power (and more) of other test frameworks with greater simplicity and ease of use. 
/grep/ vi. [from the qed/ed editor idiom g/re/p, where re stands for a regular expression, to Globally search for the Regular Expression and Print the lines containing matches to it, via Unix grep(1)] To rapidly scan a file or set of files looking for a particular string or pattern (when browsing through a large set of files, one may speak of `grepping around'). By extension, to look for something by pattern. "Grep the bulletin board for the system backup schedule, would you?" See also vgrep. [It has also been alleged that the source is from the title of a paper "A General Regular Expression Parser" -ESR] 
Global Regular Expression Print (Unix) 
GNU grep, egrep and fgrep. The GNU family of grep utilities may be the "fastest grep in the west". GNU grep is based on a fast lazy-state deterministic matcher (about twice as fast as stock Unix egrep) hybridized with a Boyer-Moore-Gosper search for a fixed string that eliminates impossible text from being considered by the full regexp matcher without necessarily having to look at every character. The result is typically many times faster than Unix grep or egrep. (Regular expressions containing backreferencing will run more slowly, however.) 
Linux abbreviation for "get regular expression". A grep tool lets you search through a set of text files for a pattern called the regular expression, which is a syntax that lets you specify in great detail what kind of text you're looking for. 
print lines matching a pattern 
The GNU versions of commonly used grep utilities. Grep searches one ormore input files for lines which contain a match to a specified pattern and then prints the matching lines. GNU's grep utilities include grep, egrep and fgrep.You should install grep on your system, because it is a very useful utility for searching through text files, for system administration tasks, etc. 
Grep (Global Regular Expression and Print)
A tool that searches files for a string of text and outputs any line that contains the pattern. 
Grep Debian package information The grep-dctrl program can answer such questions as * "What is the Debian package foo?" * "Which version of the Debian package bar is now current?" * "Which Debian packages does John Doe maintain?" * "Which Debian packages are somehow related to the Scheme programming language?" and with some help * "Who maintain the essential packages of a Debian system?" given a useful input file. It is a specialised grep program that is meant for processing any file which has the general format of a Debian package control file. These include the dpkg available file, the dpkg status file, and the Packages files on a distribution medium (such as a Debian CD-ROM or an FTP site carrying Debian). 
search mailboxes for mail matching an expression Grepmail looks for mail messages containing a pattern, and prints the resulting messages. Usage is very similar to grep. It can handle compressed mailbox files, and can search the header or body of emails. It also supports searches constrained by date and size. 
The GNU Regression, Econometric & Time-Series Library The GNU Regression, Econometric and Time-Series Library (gretl) is a software package for econometric analysis. It is currently at an experimental, "alpha", stage. The package comprises a shared library, a command-line client program, and a graphical client built using GTK+. This package provides the GTK+ client and the command-line client. 
a language for scientific illustration. Gri is an open-source language for scientific graphics programming. It is command-driven, as opposed to point/click. Some users consider Gri similar to LaTeX, since both provide extensive power as a reward for tolerating a learning curve. The output is industry-standard PostScript as output, suitable for inclusion in other documents. Gri can make x-y graphs, contour graphs, and image graphs. Fine control is provided over all aspects of drawing, e.g. line widths, colors, fonts, etc. Greek letters and mathematical symbols are available in a TeX-like syntax. Folks who write 1000-line Gri scripts usually start with something as simple as the following: open file.dat # open a file read columns x * y # read the 1st column as x and the 3rd as y draw curve # draw the data and autoscale the axes A full manual is also available in HTML (gri-html-doc package), in PostScript suitable for printing (gri-ps-doc package) and on-line by following links from the gri home page: 
Global Research Internet Connection (org., ISP) 
To continually guess passwords to find the correct one. Analogy: If someone steals your bank card, they cannot sit in front of the cash machine and guess all possible PIN numbers. After a certain number of unsuccessful tries, the bank machine will "eat" the card. Key point: Secure systems (UNIX, Windows NT) lock out accounts after a certain number of unsuccessful tries. These lock-outs can either be temporary (and restore themselves automatically), or permanent until an administrator intervene and unlocks the account. Key point: Non-secure systems (Win9x and many software applications) do not lock out accounts. For example, if you have Win9x "File and Print Sharing" turned on and protected with a password, a hacker can try continuously and invisibly to gain access to your machine. Nothing is logged, nothing is locked out. Contrast: When brute-force cracking, the hacker does all the calculations himself (comparing them against the stolen encrypted password file). When doing a grind, the hacker must enter the passwords one by one, and the target system does the calculations to see if they are valid. An intrusion detection system can detect grinds, but not cracks. 
GRaphical iNterface to SMIL (SMIL, Oratix), "GRiNS" 
GNOME-based CD-player/ripper/encoder It has the ripping capabilities of cdparanoia builtin, but can also use external rippers (such as cdda2wav). It also provides an automated frontend for MP3 encoders, letting you take a disc and transform it easily straight into MP3s. The CDDB protocol is supported for retrieving track information from disc database servers. Grip works with DigitalDJ to provide a unified "computerized" version of your music collection. NOTICE: Old Grip did not depends on GNOME. But, the latest must depend on GNOME. You must install GNOME library to use Grip. 
Grip is a gtk-based cd-player and cd-ripper. It has the ripping capabilitiesof cdparanoia built in, but can also use external rippers (such ascdda2wav). It also provides an automated frontend for MP3 encoders, letting you take a disc and transform it easily straight into MP3s. The CDDB protocol is supported for retrieving track information from disc database servers. Grip works with DigitalDJ to provide a unified "computerized" version of your music collection. 
Graphical Process Monitor Gr_Monitor continuously displays information about processes resident on a UNIX system. For each process it displays a 3D bar graph of CPU consumed, memory consumed, resident set size, and elapsed time. The processes are grouped by username. Each username grouping sits on its own little plinth. 
front end for the groff document formatting system 
GNU troff text-formatting system This package contains optional components of the GNU troff text-formatting system. The core package, groff-base, contains the traditional tools like troff, nroff, tbl, eqn, and pic. This package contains additional devices and drivers for output to DVI, HTML, HP LaserJet printers, Canon CAPSL LBP-4 and LBP-8 printers, and PostScript. Besides these, the groff package contains man pages describing the language and its macro sets, info documentation, and a number of supplementary programs: - grn, a preprocessor for pictures in the 'gremlin' format; - tfmtodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tdvi'; - hpftodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tlj4'; - afmtodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tps'; - refer, which preprocesses bibliographic references for use with groff; - indxbib, which creates inverted indices for bibliographic databases used by 'refer'; - lkbib and lookbib, which search bibliographic databases; - addftinfo, which adds metric information to troff font files for use with groff; - pfbtops, which translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII for use with groff; - mmroff, a simple groff preprocessor which expands references in mm. All the standard macro packages are supported. 
Groff is a document formatting system. Groff takes standard text and formatting commands as input and produces formatted output. The created documents can be shown on a display or printed on a printer. Groff's formatting commands allow you to specify font type and size, boldtype, italic type, the number and size of columns on a page, and more. You should install groff if you want to use it as a document formatting system. Groff can also be used to format man pages. If you are going to use groff with the X Window System, you'll also need to install the groff-gxditview package. 
GNU troff text-formatting system (base system components) This package contains the traditional UN*X text formatting tools troff, nroff, tbl, eqn, and pic. These utilities, together with the man-db package, are essential for displaying the on-line manual pages. groff-base is a stripped-down package containing the necessary components to read manual pages in ASCII, Latin-1, and UTF-8. Users who want a full groff installation, with the standard set of devices, fonts, macros, and documentation, should install the groff package. 
The groff-for-man package contains the parts of the groff text processor package that are required for viewing manpages. For a full groff package, install package groff. 
GNU troff components for the X Window System This package contains the X75, X75-12, X100, and X100-12 groff devices, which allow groff output to be conveniently viewed on an X display using the standard X11 fonts. These devices display their output with gxditview, which is also included here. gxditview can also be used to view PostScript output from groff. With this package installed, 'man -X' can show man pages in a graphical window. 
guess options for groff command 
A ncurse based CD player. Groovy CD Player is an ncurses based CD player for Linux with a really cool interface and big fluffy numbers. It has CDDB support, and local caching for quick reload. Planned features include submittable CDDB records and a spectrum analyzer. 
groff driver for typewriter-like devices 
A simple logic game. The purpose is to put balls in pockets of the same color by manipulating a maze of tubes. For more information: 
a collection of users who have protected access to their resources. 
group ID (GID)
A unique identifier for UNIX and Linux groups. Users and files are assigned GIDs to determine permissions and access control. 
Create a new group 
Delete a group 
Modify a group 
print the groups a user is in 
Programs that help people work together collectively while located remotely from each other. Groupware services can include the sharing of calendars, collective writing, e-mail handling, shared database access, electronic meetings with each person able to see and display information to others, and other activities. For Linux there is the Teamwave Workplace and Lotus Notes will be ported. 
Programs that increase the cooperation and joint productivity of small groups of co-workers. 
verify integrity of group files 
convert to and from shadow passwords and groups. 
grpmi is a graphical frontend to show progression of download and installation of software packages. 
GTK+ reverse polish notation calculator grpn is a reverse polish notation calculator which uses the GTK+ widgets. 
General Packet Radio Service (GSM, mobile-systems) 
convert to and from shadow passwords and groups. 
GRand Unified Bootloader (GNU) 
GRand Unified Bootloader GRUB is a GPLed bootloader intended to unify boot loading across x86 operating systems. In addition to loading the Linux kernel, it implements the Multiboot standard, which allows for flexible loading of multiple boot images (needed for modular kernels such as the GNU Hurd). 
GRUB (Grand Unified Boot Loader) is a boot loader capable of booting into most free operating systems - Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, GNU Mach, and others as well as most commercial operating systems. 
GRUB is a GPLed bootloader intended to unify bootloading across x86 operating systems. In addition to loading the Linux and *BSD kernels, it implements the Multiboot standard, which allows for flexible loading of multiple boot images (needed for modular kernels such as the GNUHurd). 
See Grand Unified Bootloader (GRUB). 
An Open Source, distributed effort, data submission client This is the Grub crawler client, used to provide real time notification updates of webpage content to the distributed, Open Source project run and maintained at <>. You will have to request a client-id at the homepage to let you join the force. This is needed for authenticated submissions to the database. Also, currently you can only join if you have a static IP address. Grub, in turn, provides the returned updates to any indexing or search project that needs crawled content themselves. Notifications are FREE for public consumption, but there will be some type of charge for larger queries to their database, such as those needed by the larger engines. By centralizing and organizing the crawling process, Grub hopes to increase the rate at which the Internet can be crawled and simultaneously decrease the amount of crawler traffic required for sites wanting their content indexed on a regular basis. Please don't confuse this package with the bootloader with the same name. It has nothing to do with it besides the name. The project is currently searching for a better name. 
Generate a web page with statistics about an IRC channel. gruftistats is a program which reads your IRC logs and turns them into a web page. This has a mixture of statistics (like who talked most), and amusing facts (like who got kicked most). 
GTK based Run dialog gRun is a GTK based Run dialog that closely resembles the Windows Run dialog, just like xexec. It has a intelligent history mechanism and a dual level fork() mechanism for launching the application in its own process. gRun also has support for launching console mode application in an XTerm as well as associations for file types. gRun is much more powerful than xexec, looks a lot better, and has the big advantage that you can start typing a command without having to mouse-click into the text field. gRun is especially useful if you do not use the GNOME desktop which has a built-in run command, and if you use a window-manager (e.g. IceWM) where you can define a keyboard shortcut (e.g. Alt-F2) for staring gRun. 
Merge partial scans into a larger image grunch is a package of scripts and software which can take a pair of side-by-side partial scans of an image, and merge them into a single image without leaving an obvious seam. It was written to allow LP record jackets to be scanned using an ordinary single-page flatbed scanner. 
General Standard (MIDI) 
Gepruefte Sicherheit 
Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer) 
The Ghostscript Postscript interpreter Ghostscript is used for postscript preview and printing. Usually as a back-end to a program such as ghostview, it can display postscript documents in an X11 environment. Furthermore, it can render postscript files as graphics to be printed on non-postscript printers. Supported printers include common dot-matrix, inkjet and laser models. Package gsfonts contains a set of standard fonts for ghostscript. The Ghostscript World Wide Web home page is at 
Common files for different Ghostscript releases There are two different flavours of the Ghostscript postscript interpreter, released under different licenses: GNU Ghostscript: Free software released under the GPL. This package in included in Debian in the "gs" package. AFPL Ghostscript: This flavour is the more current and more up to date one but under a license that is not free. If you want to use that package please make sure that you agree to the license. The AFPL variant of Ghostscript is not part of the official Debian distribution but we provide a package for it in the non-free section as a service to our users. This package contains the common files of both packaging for managing the font installation and some wrapper scripts. 
Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer) 
Provides support to view encrypted PDFs with GhostScript. This package provides the modifications necessary to view encrypted PDF files with the gs and gs-aladdin packages. When you give a PDF document an owner password, Adobe Acrobat encrypts it so that you can't just remove the password from the file. Unfortunately, because of stupid US regulations about exporting cryptographic software, the encryption cannot be added into programs like GhostScript which are distributed with source code from the US. You have to install this package to be able to view encrypted PDF files. 
scan IEEE1394 (firewire/ bus gscanbus is a little bus scanning, testing and topology visualizing tool for the Linux IEEE1394 subsystem, with some AV/C support, especially for controlling Camcorders and VCRs. It is intended as a debugging tool for IEEE1394 development, but can also be used to simply check your IEEE1394 setup on Linux. 
GNUstep frontend to the dict UNIX utility Based on the object oriented GNUstep environment, this program is a frontend to the query/response protocol 'dict' that allows a client to access dictionary definitions from a set of dictionary databases. 
Game Software Development Kit (Linux, GGI, OpenGL) 
Genealogy Software Distribution System 
the GNOME Search Tool 
Fonts for the ghostscript interpreter These are free look-alike fonts of the Adobe Postscript fonts. Recommended for gs and gs-aladdin. 
render a ghostscript font in TeX pk format ' # small and boldface (not all -man's provide it) SB\$1 \$2 
reboot or shutdown your machine 
Graphics Software Labs (AT&T) 
GSL (GNU Scientific Library) -- binary package The GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a collection of routines for numerical analysis. The routines are written from scratch by the GSL team in C, and are meant to present a modern API for C programmers, while allowing wrappers to be written for very high level languages. 

Global System for Mobile communications 
Groupe Speciale Mobile (org. , CEPT) 
A smart card reading, writing and managing program for Gnome Gnome Smart Card is a smart card reader for Gnome. It uses the program smartcard to communicate with the card reader and the cards. Both programs are developed close together. gsmartcard's ability to read/write different cards relies 100% on its underlying program. 
General Switch Management Protocol (DEC, Sprint) 
GNOME/GTK user interface for SmsSend GNOME SmsSend is a user interface to SmsSend, a tool which allows you to send short messages to any GSM mobile through their provider's web site. GNOME SmsSend will detect each provider's respective script file from SmsSend's preference directory or its global defaults and create a tab in its user interface for each one. GNOME SmsSend will then fork or execute smssend with the proper options to send the SMS message you input into it. It also provides a link to SmsSend's homepage where you can download the required script (if available) for your GSM provider if it is not already provided with the SmsSend package. 
Gateway Service for NetWare (MS, Windows NT) 
GNU Server Pages (GNU, Java, JSP) 
Generic Security Service (IETF, GSS-API) 
Group Support System 
Generic Security Service API (RFC 2078, API), "GSS-API" 
Guam Standard Time [+1000] (TZ) 
Stock and commodity price charting utility The gstalker program charts stock and commodity prices in a way that is very similar to commercial software. Gstalker is designed to be simple and easy to use, and light on resources. 
a gtk front-end for the starchart program gstar is a gtk front-end for the "starchart" program (originally by Alan Paeth, updated in 1990 by Craig Counterman) which generates high-quality postscript charts of any chosen region of the sky. It also prints the current Julian date and gives positions of the planets. 
GStreamer is a streaming-media framework, based on graphs of filters which operate on media data. Applications using this library can do anythingfrom real-time sound processing to playing videos, and just about anything else media-related. Its plugin-based architecture means that new datatypes or processing capabilities can be added simply by installing newplugins. 
pressure sensitive "ink" drawing The program allows drawing in black (pen) or white (eraser) on a high resolution bitmap which is filtered down to screen resolution. XInput devices can be used (with pressure support), and different tools and tool properties can be assigned to each device. 
Graphics System eXtension 
plug-in replacement for standard talk GNU Talk supports talk protocols 0 & 1. Defines protocol 2. Client supports multiple connections, file transfer, primitive encryption, shared apps, auto-answer, multiple front-ends including GTK and Emacs. The daemon collects request versions 0, 1, & 2 together, and permits interaction between clients of different types. Also supports MRU tty announce, announce-redirect, blacklists, and tty-bomb filtering. This package contains the daemon and the clients. 
Tangram (puzzle) game using GTK+ The Tangram is a Chinese puzzle where the player has to arrange a set of pieces to match a given shape. All the pieces must be used and should not be laid on top of one another. The pieces are five triangles, a square and a parallelogram. gtans contains more than 290 figures to play with. It uses the mouse to control pieces. gtans is highly customizable using the interface. 
format tables for troff 
Group Time Division Multiplexing [protocol] 
multiplayer tetris-like game GTetrinet is a clone of Tetrinet, a multiplayer tetris version for Windows. It is compatible with the original tetrinet, although you need a separate program, such as tetrinet-x, to be able to create your own games. 
Generalized Timing Format (VESA) 
an image viewer and browser for GNOME gThumb is an image viewer and browser for GNOME. It is based on gqview. 
GTK-based metronome gtick is a small metronome app that uses the GTK widgets. It outputs to /dev/dsp and features a scale from 30 beats per minute to 250 BPM and 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 time. 
GTK-based X11 task timer Program to track how your time is spent. This useful piece of software allows multiple clocks to run simultaneously, allows for text annotations, and provides useful and portable reports (HTML and TXT formats.) 
At one point, before KDE was substantially complete, Qt antagonists reasoned that since there were more lines of Qt code than of KDE code, it would be better to develop a widget library from scratch--but that is an aside. The Gtk widget library was written especially for gimp (GNU Image Manipulation Program), is GPL'd and written entirely in C in low-level X calls (i.e., without the X Toolkit), object oriented, fast, clean, extensible and having a staggering array of features. It comprises Glib, a library meant to extend standard C, providing higher-level functions usually akin only to scripting languages, like hash tables and lists; Gdk, a wrapper around raw X Library to give GNU naming conventions to X, and to give a slightly higher level interface to X; and the Gtk library itself. Using Gtk, the Gnome project began, analogous to KDE, but written entirely in C. 
The GIMP Tool Kit is a set of widgets for the X11 windows system originally made for GIMP; the GNU Image Manipulation Program. 
[GNU] GUI ToolKit (GNU, GUI) 
The gtk+ package contains the GIMP ToolKit (GTK+), a library for creatinggraphical user interfaces for the X Window System. GTK+ was originally written for the GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) image processing program, but is now used by several other programs as well. If you are planning on using the GIMP or another program that uses GTK+, you'll need to have the gtk+ package installed. 
Gtk/Gtk+ (GIMP ToolKit)
A powerful, fast open source graphics library for the X window System on UNIX/Linux, used by programmers to create buttons, menus and other graphical objects. (Also, see GNOME, Motif and Qt.) 
GTK+ application for digital still cameras gtkam is a graphical application based on GTK+ for digital still cameras supported by gphoto2. ( It's available from the SourceForge gphoto project CVS repository. 
GTKam is now a part of the Gnome project, and is a fine interface for awide variety of digital cameras. 
Editor for cookie files This package provides a graphical editor for cookie files as stored by Netscape or Mozilla. 
Ready-to-use gtk+ dialog boxes:- xtest lets you test if X is running or not- gmessage show a message and some buttons, it returns with the number of the pressed button- gchooser presents a list of entries from which the user can choose 
A graphical text comparison tool gtkdiff is a graphical GTK/Gnome front-end to diff. gtkdiff can be used to compare files for directories. 
Graphical File Finder This package provides a graphical file finding program. Also includes a safe mktmp program. 
A gtk+ based font selection utility This is a nice utility for browsing, previewing and selecting a X11 font to insert its correct name via the X clipboard into a configuration file. 
Gimp Toolkit OpenGL area widget shared library A GTK widget for use with Mesa, an unlicensed OpenGL clone. 
C++ bindings for the GtkGLArea widget A Gtk-- widget for use with OpenGL 
GTK based go playing program with skins. A GTK-based go playing program. You can play go against another player or against a weak computer player. This program's main advantage is a pretty interface. 
an interactive function-plotter/calculator GtkGraph is an application designed to replace a conventional graphing calculator. It allows you to plot up to 10 functions on the same graph. Graphs may be exported to PostScript, printed, or exported to any bitmap file format that Imlib supports. The user can zoom and scroll, or set the range manually with X/Y minimums and X/Y maximums. In addition, a small arithmatic calculator window is included, which has a convenient history mechanism. 
A gtk front-end to grepmail A gtk front end to grepmail which provides you with a GUI interface to search through your sent and saved mail. Support is provided for both local mailboxes and remote mailboxes that are accessible using IMAP and ssh/rsh. 
GtkHTML is a HTML rendering/editing library. GtkHTML is not designed to be the ultimate HTML browser/editor: instead, it is designed to be easily embedded into applications that require lightweight HTML functionality. GtkHTML was originally based on KDE's KHTMLW widget, but is now developed independently of it. The most important difference between KHTMLW and GtkHTML, besides being GTK-based, is that GtkHTML is alsoan editor. Thanks to the Bonobo editor component that comes with the library, it's extremely simple to add HTML editing to an existing application. 
A GTK+ version of Hx, a UNIX Hotline Client This is a Hotline Client for Linux using the GTK+ libraries. Hotline is a protocol allowing chat, news, and file transfers. Any user can run his/her own server and register it with a public tracker, which is a meta-server that users can access to obtain a list of registered servers and connect to them. 
Frontend for cups written in gtk Frontend for cups written in gtk. It has: theme-support IPP support Printer specific options All standard-cups options different preferences-files for each printer It comes now with gtklpq, a frontend for adminstering your current print jobs. 
Digital image warper (gtk) gtkmorph loads, saves, warps, and dissolves images, and loads, saves, creates, and manipulates control meshes which determine the warping. It has support for making movies automatically (it needs extra packages). The technique was invented and first used by Industrial Light and Magic, and is commonly called "morphing." gtkmorph is a GUI for libmorph, using GTK; it is not completely finished but it is usable. 
simple GTK+ pool billiard game GtkPool brings that classic favourite game of lounge lizards to a Linux box near you. It currently has a rather simple playing interface, but supports a really nifty customizable physics system. 
GUI for recover gtkrecover is a GUI for recover, a program that undeletes files on ext2 partitions. You can search for a deleted file by: * Hard disk device name * Year of deletion * Month of deletion * Weekday of deletion * First/Last possible day of month * Min/Max possible file size * Min/Max possible deletion hour * Min/Max possible deletion minute * User ID of the deleted file * A text string the file included (can be ignored) 
GTK-based clone of ACDSee (an image viewer) GTKsee is an image viewer/browser. The browser shows thumbnails, you can quickly watch a picture in large or fullscreen by simply tapping on return. Also has slideshow capabilities. Really great stuff, but, if you like this try out ``gqview'' too. 
GTK front end to the postgresql database. GtkSQL is a graphical query tool for PostgreSQL. The author states that it is unpolished, lacking several features planned for addition, but that it is stable and usable. 
Disk catalog. GTKtalog is a GTK Disk Catalog program. It means you can create a database of all your CDs or other disks, and browse it or search specific files or folders. It's really useful when you have many CDs and you want to know in which CD some thing is. 
Texas Instruments calculators emulator GtkTIemu emulates Texas Instruments calculators TI-92/92+/89. It is based on XTiger, the original TI emulator for Linux, which uses the 68k emulation core from UAE (The Ultimate Amiga Emulator). The emulation core has been split into a shared library, namely the libti68k. You need to either dump the ROM of your calculator (you can do so with TiLP), or get a ROM from Texas Instrument (see the software section concerning your calculator, then download the archive and extract the file) to use this emulator. There are *no* ROMs provided in this package, as they are copyrighted by Texas Instruments, Inc. 
The train-routing calculator with GTK interface gtktrain is a program to calculate the shortest route from a train station to another in consideration of time and distance. It tells you which line you should take and where you should transfer at. 
a VCD (Value Change Dump) file waveform viewer gtkwave is a viewer for VCD (Value Change Dump) files which are usually created by digital circuit simulators. (These files have no connection to video CDs!) 
Gunning Tranceiver Logic+ [bus] (Intel, SMP), "GTL+" 
Generic Top Level DOMAIN (Internet, ICANN), "gTLD" 
Multiple files transfer manager. GTransferManager allows the user to retrieve multiple files from the web. These files can be retrieved in multiple parts and each part retrieved on a separate session that the user is connected to the Internet. This is most useful to users with dialup connections. The program performs these tasks using wget as it's back-end. 
An HTML pre-processor GTML is an HTML pre-processor which adds some extra features specially designed for maintaining multiple web pages. HTML files generated by GTML are just like any other HTML files. Because GTML does not attempt to interpret your HTML commands in any way, it's fully compatible with all version of HTML, and does not require any specific browser or server. More information can be found at the gtml web site 
Gnome Toaster is a versatile CD creation suite. It is designed to beas user-friendly as possible, allowing you to create CD-ROMs with just a few simple mouse clicks. Audio and data CDs are both possible. Gnome Toaster is also well integrated with the GNOME and KDE filemanagers. 
Gnome Toaster, a GUI for creating CDs A cdrecord/mkisofs/cdda2wav frontend for creating data,audio and mixed mode CDs both from other CDs or from self compiled data. 
Graphical TOP variant The graphical version of top provides an easy interface to process control on a GNU/Linux system. 
GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GPRS, mobile-systems) 
GNOME SQL database client GNOME Transcript is a SQL database client that aims to provide an easy and powerful environment for SQL users. 
PO-file editor by the Gnome I18N team A 'translation-supporting' program, which makes translating programs easy even for non-programmers. You might want to subscribe to the gnome-i18n-mailing list (see for instructions) for more translation information. 
GigaTexel Shading 
GTimeTracker - a time tracker 
A simple ncurses typing tutor Displays exercise lines, measures your typing speed and accuracy, and displays the results. 
manual page for gtypist 2.5 
Guess what network is connected to an ethernet device Based on the network detecting code of laptop-netconf, guessnet tries to guess what network an ethernet device is currently connected to, using fake ARP requests. It has been written to be coupled with the debian ifupdown package to achieve automatic network detection and configuration, but it can be used stand-alone to implement smart network scripts. 
Graphical User Interface (UI) 
see graphical user interface (GUI). 
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
A design for the part of a program that interacts with the use and uses icons to represent programs features. The Apple Macintosh and Microsft Windows operating environments are popular GUIs. Having found that people recognise graphic representations faster they read word or phreases, a Xerox research team designed a user interface with graphic images called icons. GUIs typically work with moussable interfaces with pull-down menus, dialog boxes, check boxes radio buttons, drop-down list boxes, scroll bars, scroll boxes, and the like. Progams with a GUI require a computer with suffceint speed, power, and memory to display high-resolution, bit-mapped display. 
Global[ly] Unique IDentifier (COM) 
GUID (Globally-unique Identifier)
A Microsoft Windows concept, a GUID is a large, unique number. Each Windows computer has its own GUID to identify it unique. Likewise, every time a user account is created, a GUID is assigned to the user. Key point: Microsoft got in trouble in 1999 for automatically shipping up the GUIDs as part of its registration process. Key point: GUIDs are sometimes placed within hidden fields within Microsoft documents (Word, Excel), allowing the original author to be identified. This was used in order to help track down the author of the "Melissa" worm. Key point: The GUID is generated from other "unique" information on a machine, such as the MAC address of the Ethernet adapter. It isn't guaranteed to be absolutely unique, but chances of any two GUIDs in the world being identical are remote. 
Graphical User Interface Design Editor (Sun) 
A graphical PalmOS resource editor Guikachu is a resource editor for PalmOS systems. It can be used to visually create dialog boxes, menu bars and windows for Palm applications. More information is available at: 
Transforms Guikachu's XML documents to .rcp for PilRC Guikachu is a resource editor for PalmOS systems. It can be used to visually create dialog boxes, menu bars and windows for Palm applications. This package contains the command-line tool, guikachu2rcp, which can generate .rcp files from Guikachu's native XML files using XSL. More information about Guikachu is available at: 
GNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension (GNU) 
GUILE (GNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension) is a library implementation of the Scheme programming language, written in C. GUILE provides a machine-independent execution platform that canbe linked in as a library during the building of extensible programs. Install the guile package if you'd like to add extensibility to programs that you are developing. You'll also need to install the guile-devel package. 
A GTK+ archive extraction/viewing tool. guiTAR is a TAR extraction tool written in GTK+ and including GNOME support. It currently supports the tar, tar.Z, tar.gz, tar.bz2, lha, lzh, rar, arj, zip, and slp formats. 
GNOME version of uname 
compress or expand files 
let a remote site change their newsgroups subscription Gup, the Group Update Program is a Unix mail-server that lets a remote site change their newsgroups subscription without requiring the intervention of the news administrator at the feed site. Gup is suited to news administrators that find they are spending an inordinate amount of time editing the INN newsfeeds file on behalf of the remote sites. 
A GNOME-based data analysis and visualization system. 
GNOME client for the Network UPS Tools Package (nut) This package will display information about battery-status, load-status, AC-current and AC-frequency in a window. You can choose which machine to get the information from, and the rate at which it gets this information. 
gurpmi is a graphical front-end to urpmi 
Guide to the Use of Standards (SPAG) 
Graphical document reader for Gutenberg Etext documents Gutenbook aims to be a free and more intuitive, comfortable document reader, within the scope of a computer's desktop metaphor, geared specifically towards Project Gutenberg Etexts, but supporting any ASCII document. Project Gutenberg ( aims to make public domain literature available to the world in ASCII text format. 
Project Gutenberg Etext reader gutenbrowser is a reader for etexts produced by Project Gutenberg. It integrates with KDE. You only need the libraries to run it though. Project Gutenberg ( aims to make public domain literature available to the world in ASCII text format. 
German Unix User Group (org., user group, Unix) 
A PostScript and PDF viewer for X using 3d Athena Widgets `gv' is a comfortable viewer of PostScript and PDF files for the X Window System. It uses the `ghostscript' PostScript(tm) interpreter and is based on the classic X front-end for `gs', `ghostview'. It is more comfortable and more powerful than `ghostview'. 
GebaeudeVerteiler (cable, EN 50 173) 
Gv provides a user interface for the ghostscript PostScript(TM) interpreter. Derived from the ghostview program, gv can display PostScript and PDF documents using the X Window System. Install the gv package if you'd like to view PostScript and PDF documentson your system. You'll also need to have the ghostscript package installed, as well as the X Window System. 
Global Village Business Association (org., USA) 
GNU Visual Debugger GVD is able to debug Ada and C programs, and will soon be extended to cover even more. 
Gnome X video mode changer applet. This applet allows you to switch between predefined video resolutions. 
Gtk app to quickly and easily change video resolutions in X. Running gvidm will pop up a list of available modes and allows the user to select one if desired. This makes it perfect for running from an application menu or a hotkey, so you don't have to use ram for an applet constantly running. If you are running dual or multi-head displays, it will give you a list of screens so you can select the appropriate one. 
Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor 
Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor 
edit two or three versions of a file with Vim and show differences 
German Volunteer Votetakers (Usenet, DANA) 
GNOME version of w 
German Workshop on Artificial Intelligence (conference, AI) 
a waveform viewer eg for spice simulators gwave - a viewer for the output of spice-like simulators and other viewing of analog data. 
Graphics and Windows Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC, MS-DOS), "GW-Basic" 
Gesellschaft fuer Wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung Goettingen [mbH] (org.) 
Weather Applet for the GNOME panel. 
image viewer for KDE 2.X gwenview is an imageviewer for KDE 2.X. It features a folder tree window and a file list window to provide easy navigation in your file hierarchy. Image loading is done by the Qt library, so it supports all image formats your Qt installation supports. Gwenview correctly displays images with alpha channel. It uses docked windows, so you can alter the layout in any way you want. You can also browse your images in full screen. 
generic Whois Client / Server gwhois is a generic whois client / server. This means that it know for many (virtually all) TLDs, IP-Ranges and Handles out there where to ask. It queries other whois-servers as well as web-lookup forms. gwhois can be used as a client, but you can invoke it as a server (e.g. via inetd) as well for usage with a normal whois client. 
The generic window manager. The GWM (Generic Window Manager) is an extensible Window Manager for the X Window System Version 11. It is based upon a WOOL (Window Object Oriented Language) kernel, which is an interpreted dialect of Lisp with specific window management primitives. GWM should be able to emulate efficiently other window managers, and play the same role for window managers as EMACS does for text editors. 
Workspace Manager for GNUstep A clone of the file and application manager available on NeXTSTEP and OPENSTEP used for managing files and starting applications. 
Displays time and date in specified time zones This program displays the time and date of specified time zones using a GTK+ interface. It also allows the zones to be synchronised to a time other than the current time. The time zones may be entered by hand in TZ format or chosen from a list prepared from /usr/share/zoneinfo/ The zone list is kept in a format consistent with the shell script tzwatch. 
Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschafts- und Sozialkybernetik (org., Uni Marburg) 
Graphics WorkShop 
Web interface for interacting with Geneweb databases Gwtp is a CGI program allowing owners of data bases accomodated in a GeneWeb site to upload and download their data bases on the site and change their configuration parameters. 
The Gwydion Dylan Runtime Environment This package contains the libraries and other files needed to run programs compiled with the Gwydion Dylan compiler (d2c). At some point in the (hopefully near) future, this package will contain the Gwydion Dylan Listener, which will allow interactive exploration of the language. For more information, see the Gwydion Dylan maintainers' web page at <>. 
GTK-based text editor GXedit is a graphical text editor, featuring everything a modern text editor should have including a toolbar, multiple windows options, scripting, cvs support, language support for C, html, perl and java, and it is network aware. It can display pixmaps in the background, and can use a 'say' program (e.g., the one in the non-free rsynth package) to "speak" your files. 
GTK-based utility to show system information This utility, which was previously bundled with the gxedit package, pops up a window with information about your kernel, processor, etc. The program was previously named xproc. 
GTK based graphical frontend to the X command line tool xset(1) GTK xset is a graphical fronted to the X command line tool xset(1). It is a gtk application, designed with Glade. GTK xset can set auto repeat, key click, bell, mouse, screen saver and DPMS parameters. It also has a font path editor. Settings can be saved to a file. 
compress executable files in place 
A free compression program commonly available as a Unix command for file compression, gzip, which is also available for MS-DOS, compresses files and appends either '.z' or '.gz' to the filename. 
Reference documentation to gzip. Gzip reduces the size of the named files using Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77). Whenever possible, each file is replaced by one with the extension `.gz', while keeping the same ownership modes, access and modification times. 
The gzip package contains the popular GNU gzip data compression program. Gzipped files have a .gz extension. Gzip should be installed on your Linux system, because it is avery commonly used data compression program. 
Gzip (GNU zip)
The original file compression program for UNIX/Linux. Recent versions produce files with a .gz extension. (A .z or .Z extension indicates an older version of Gzip.) Compression is used to compact files to save storage space and reduce transfer time. (When combined with Tar, the resulting file extensions may be .tgz, .tar.gz or .tar.Z.) 
convert .h C header files to .ph Perl header files 
convert .h C header files to Perl extensions 
High Performance Parallel Processing Project (ICI) 
HA Linux
Motorola Computer Group's Advanced High Availability Software for Linux. Runs on Motorola platforms, naturally. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
[very common] 1. n. Originally, a quick job that produces what is needed, but not well. 2. n. An incredibly good, and perhaps very time-consuming, piece of work that produces exactly what is needed. 3. vt. To bear emotionally or physically. "I can't hack this heat!" 4. vt. To work on something (typically a program). In an immediate sense: "What are you doing?" "I'm hacking TECO." In a general (time-extended) sense: "What do you do around here?" "I hack TECO." More generally, "I hack `foo'" is roughly equivalent to "`foo' is my major interest (or project)". "I hack solid-state physics." See Hacking X for Y. 5. vt. To pull a prank on. See sense 2 and hacker (sense 5). 6. vi. To interact with a computer in a playful and exploratory rather than goal-directed way. "Whatcha up to?" "Oh, just hacking." 7. n. Short for hacker. 8. See nethack. 9. [MIT] v. To explore the basements, roof ledges, and steam tunnels of a large, institutional building, to the dismay of Physical Plant workers and (since this is usually performed at educational institutions) the Campus Police. This activity has been found to be eerily similar to playing adventure games such as Dungeons and Dragons and Zork. See also vadding. Constructions on this term abound. They include `happy hacking' (a farewell), `how's hacking?' (a friendly greeting among hackers) and `hack, hack' (a fairly content-free but friendly comment, often used as a temporary farewell). For more on this totipotent term see "The Meaning of Hack". See also neat hack, real hack. 
A computer user who uses clever or unorthodox techniques to solve technical problems or challenges. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
An individual who is interested in exploring technology, computers, and data/communication networks. The opposite of a hacker is a cracker, whose interests in technology are for malicious or destructive aims. 
n. [originally, someone who makes furniture with an axe] 1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. 2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming. 3. A person capable of appreciating hack value. 4. A person who is good at programming quickly. 5. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in `a Unix hacker'. (Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.) 6. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example. 7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations. 8. [deprecated] A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence `password hacker', `network hacker'. The correct term for this sense is cracker. The term `hacker' also tends to connote membership in the global community defined by the net (see the network and Internet address). For discussion of some of the basics of this culture, see the How To Become A Hacker FAQ. It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the hacker ethic (see hacker ethic). It is better to be described as a hacker by others than to describe oneself that way. Hackers consider themselves something of an elite (a meritocracy based on ability), though one to which new members are gladly welcome. There is thus a certain ego satisfaction to be had in identifying yourself as a hacker (but if you claim to be one and are not, you'll quickly be labeled bogus). See also wannabee. This term seems to have been first adopted as a badge in the 1960s by the hacker culture surrounding TMRC and the MIT AI Lab. We have a report that it was used in a sense close to this entry's by teenage radio hams and electronics tinkerers in the mid-1950s. 
hacker (hacking)
A hacker is someone who is able to manipulate the inner workings of computers, information, and technology. Consider Arthur C. Clark's Third Law: "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". Since normal people have no clue as to how computers work, they often view hackers with suspicion and awe (as magicians, sorcerers, witches, and warlocks). This suspicion leads to the word "hacker" having the connotation of someone up to no good. History: The word "hacker" started out in the 14th century to mean somebody who was inexperienced or unskilled at a particular activity (such as a golf hacker). In the 1970s, the word "hacker" was used by computer enthusiasts to refer to themselves. This reflected the way enthusiasts approach computers: they eschew formal education and play around with the computer until they can get it to work. (In much the same way, a golf hacker keeps hacking at the golf ball until they get it in the hole). Furthermore, as "experts" learn about the technology, the more they realize how much they don't know (especially about the implications of technology). When experts refer to themselves as "hackers", they are making a Socratic statement that they truly know nothing. For more information on this connotation, see ESR's computer enthusiast "Jargon File". Key point: Today if you do a quick search of "hacker" in a search engine, you will still occasional uses of the word in senses used in the 1400s and 1970s, but the overwhelming usage in the 1990s describes people who break into computers using their sorcerous ways. Likewise, the vast majority of websites with the word "hack" in their title refer to illegitimate entry into computer systems, with notable exceptions like (for golf). Controversy: The computer-enthusiast community does not like using "hacker" to describe malicious people; they prefer "cracker". The security-community restricts the use of the word "cracker" to some who breaks encryption and copy-protection schemes. Consequently, a journalist who writes about cybercriminals cannot use either word without hate mail from the opposing community claiming they are using the word incorrectly. If a journalists writes about hackers breaking into computers, they will receive hate-mail claiming that not all hackers are malicious, and the that the correct word is "cracker". Likewise, if they write about crackers breaking into computers, they will receive hate-mail claiming that crackers only break codes, but its hackers who break into systems. The best choice probably depends upon the audience; for example one should definitely talk about malicious crackers in a computer-enthusiast magazine like Linux Today. 
hacker ethic
n. 1. The belief that information-sharing is a powerful positive good, and that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing open-source and facilitating access to information and to computing resources wherever possible. 2. The belief that system-cracking for fun and exploration is ethically OK as long as the cracker commits no theft, vandalism, or breach of confidentiality. Both of these normative ethical principles are widely, but by no means universally, accepted among hackers. Most hackers subscribe to the hacker ethic in sense 1, and many act on it by writing and giving away open-source software. A few go further and assert that all information should be free and any proprietary control of it is bad; this is the philosophy behind the GNU project. Sense 2 is more controversial: some people consider the act of cracking itself to be unethical, like breaking and entering. But the belief that `ethical' cracking excludes destruction at least moderates the behavior of people who see themselves as `benign' crackers (see also samurai). On this view, it may be one of the highest forms of hackerly courtesy to (a) break into a system, and then (b) explain to the sysop, preferably by email from a superuser account, exactly how it was done and how the hole can be plugged -- acting as an unpaid (and unsolicited) tiger team. The most reliable manifestation of either version of the hacker ethic is that almost all hackers are actively willing to share technical tricks, software, and (where possible) computing resources with other hackers. Huge cooperative networks such as Usenet, FidoNet and Internet (see Internet address) can function without central control because of this trait; they both rely on and reinforce a sense of community that may be hackerdom's most valuable intangible asset. 
Host Access Class Library (HOD, API) 
High Availability Clustered Multi Processing (IBM, RS/6000, Bull), "HA/CMP" 
Hard Array Logic 
Hardware Abstraction Layer (Windows NT) 
Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer (2001) 
HAL91 -- minimalistic Linux distribution that fits on one floppy disk. The website is available in English, German and Italian. A small disk distribution. 
An asynchrous communications protocol in which communications channel can handle only one signal at a time. The two stations alternate their tranmissions. Sysnonyous with local echo. See communications protocol, echoplex, and full duplex. 
Hall, Jon "Maddog"
Jon is famous for his vocal attendance of important Linux events. He is executive director of Linux International, formerly of DEC (Compaq). 
Halloween Linux
Halloween Linux is a German localized version of Red Hat. 
Houston Area League of PC-Users, "HAL-PC" 
stop the system. 
To stop all running processes on a system cleanly. Once the system is halted, you may need to manually turn off your system to complete a system power off. 
Receive/send radio facsimile transmissions with Soundcard/PTC-II With this package you can send or receive radio facsimile transmissions using either a Linux-supported soundcard or an SCS PTC-II data controller. Radio facsimile transmission are used most commonly by meteorological bureaus to provide weather maps to aircraft and shipping. 
Host AUTODIN Message Processing System (AUTODIN, mil.) 
Reader for new hamradio linux software at Hamsoft is a reader for new hamradio linux software at, the linux hamradio software database. When you select an entry in the list and click on read, the link will be opened in a mozilla window. Mozilla has to be running. 
Have A Nice Day (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
A driver, utility program, or subroutine that takes care of a task. The A20 handler, for example, is a routine that controls access to extended memory. 
Highly Available Network File System 
A situation where a computer system has ceased interactivity due to resource limitation or software/hardware failure. A hung system usually requires user intervention such as stopping offending processes or physical system reboot. 
v. 1. [very common] To wait for an event that will never occur. "The system is hanging because it can't read from the crashed drive". See wedged, hung. 2. To wait for some event to occur; to hang around until something happens. "The program displays a menu and then hangs until you type a character." Compare block. 3. To attach a peripheral device, esp. in the construction `hang off': "We're going to hang another tape drive off the file server." Implies a device attached with cables, rather than something that is strictly inside the machine's chassis. 
Another X terminal emulator with Hangul support Hanterm is a replacement for xterm that supports Hangul input and output; It is a modified of the xterm program from XFree86. Hanterm uses it own native input system and does not require an X input method server. This package contains `original hanterm' made by Jake Song, and hanterm package contains hanterm-xf made by ChiDeok Hwang. 
X terminal emulator with Hangul support Hanterm is a replacement for xterm that supports Hangul input and output; It is a modified of the xterm program from XFree86. Hanterm uses it own native input system and does not require an X input method server. For hanterm to work properly, a Hangul-encoded font must be available; xfonts-bakemuk are all appropriate for this purpose. 
Chinese character learning aid Hanzim is a program designed to help you memorize characters by helping you internalize their various systematicities. It displays lists of characters with the same radicals, same remaining parts, and same pronunciations. Along with the characters it displays pinyin pronunciations and lists of compounds. The program is also useful simply as a convenient dictionary. You can look up characters and compounds by radical or pinyin. More information available at: 
Host Access Protocol (RFC 907/1221) 
The Parser generator for Haskell. This is the nth public release of our parser generator system for Haskell, called Happy (a dyslexic acronym for 'A Yacc-like Haskell Parser generator'). 
Happy Linux
A Chinese Linux distribution. 
hard boot
A boot initiated by hardware. This could be a computer power-up, a press of its reset button, or even a hardware glitch. 
hard drive
Shorthand for hard disk drive, a hard drive is a device that stores, retrieves, and executes computer data and software. 
hard link
One of several directory entries which refer to the same Unix file. A hard link is created with the "ln" (link) command. 
Hard Links
UNIX allows the data of a file to have more than one name in separate places in the same file system. Such a file with more than one name for the same data is called a hard-linked file and is similar to a symbolic link. Try touch mydata; ln mydata mydataB; ls -al. The files mydata and mydataB are indistinguishable. They share the same data, and have a 2 in second column of the ls -al listing. This means that they are hard-linked twice (that there are two names for this file). The reason why hard links are sometimes used in preference to symbolic links is that some programs are not fooled by a symbolic link: If you have, say, a script that uses cp to copy a file, it will copy the symbolic link instead of the file it points to. [ cp actually has an option to override this behavior.] A hard link, however, will always be seen as a real file. On the other hand, hard links cannot be made between files on different file systems nor can they be made between directories. 
A directory entry, which maps a filename to an inode, number. A file may have multiple names or hard links. The link count gives the number of names by which a file is accessible. Hard links do not allow multiple names for directories and do not allow multiple names in different filesystems. From Linux Administrator's Guide
A processing function built in to the computer's electronic circuits instead of facilitated by program instructions. To improve computer performance, computer designers include circuits that perform specific functions, such as multiplication or division, at higher speeds. These functions are hard-wired. The term hard-wried also refers to the prorgam instructions contained in the computer's read-only memory (ROM) or firmware. 
adj. 1. [common] Said of data inserted directly into a program, where it cannot be easily modified, as opposed to data in some profile, resource (see de-rezz sense 2), or environment variable that a user or hacker can easily modify. 2. In C, this is esp. applied to use of a literal instead of a #define macro (see magic number). 
The harddrake service is a hardware probing tool run at system boot time to determine what hardware has been added or removed from the system.It then offer to run needed config tool to update the OS configuration. 
This is the main configuration tool for hardware that calls all the other configuration tools. It offers a nice GUI that show the hardware configuration splitted by hardware classes. 
Makes your system hardened. This package is intended to help the administrator to improve the security of the system, or at least make the host less susceptible. NOTE! This package will not make your system uncrackable, and it is not intended to do so. Making your system secure involves a LOT more than just installing a package. You are recommended to read at least some documents in addition to installing this package. The documents can be found in the harden-doc package. This is of course just a start because there are LOT of information on how to make your system more secure. For more information on how to secure your system see: 
The word "harden" implies putting a shell around a computer in order to protect it from intruders. In order to harden a system, you should consider the following techniques: Patch the OS with the latest security fixes. For example, when the "ping-of-death" DoS attack came out, many people needed to patch their TCP/IP stacks to defend against it. Patch the exposed services with the latest security fixes. For example, many third-party mail servers have been vulnerable to buffer overflow exploits. These are normally fixed a few weeks after being published in the hacker community. Therefore, you need to regularly check with the software vendor for the latest patch. Remove all defaults. In order to make their software easy-to-use, vendors include default accounts, default passwords, and samples. However, these can generally be exploited by hackers. You MUST read security guidelines for the particular OS or software package (especially web-server) and carefully remove these defaults/samples, or your box WILL be hacked. For example, most Microsoft IIS 4 web-servers can be compromised with either the .htr buffer overflow or RDO exploits, because webmasters forget (or don't know) to turn them off. Remove all unnecessary services. For example, most Sun Solaris based systems can be hacked through the RPC services. Install packet filtering software. 
Avoid packages with security problems. Harden-3rdflaws is intended to help the administrator to avoid packages that are known to give 3rd parties (like connected web browsers or similar) problems in form of insecure code. If you want to avoid packages that remote users can use to compromise the system you should look at the harden-remoteflaws instead. If you want to avoid packages that local users can use to compromise the system you should look at the harden-localflaws instead. NOTE! This package will not make the 3rd party host uncrackable, and it is not inteded to do so. 
Hardened system environment. Harden-environment provides a hardened system environment, or at least helps the administrator to configure such an environment. Right now this include packages for local intrusion detection. NOTE! This package will not make your system uncrackable, and it is not intended to do so. Making your system secure involves a LOT more than just installing a package. For more information on how to secure your system see: 
hardware compatibility
The condition wherein a computer component or peripheral is capable of functioning with software or operating systems. 
Hardware error control
Encoding an error-control protocol such as MNP4 or V.42, in the modem rather than in a comunications program. Hardware error control frees the central procssing unit (CPU) from the responsisbility of catching and correcting erros. 
Hardware reset
Restarting the system by pushing the computeer's reset button or programmer's switch. A hardware reset might be necessary after a system crash so severe that you can't use the keyboard restart commnd (Ctrl+Alt+Del) to restart the computer. 
adj. 1. In software, syn. for hardcoded. 2. By extension, anything that is not modifiable, especially in the sense of customizable to one's particular needs or tastes. 
Harrison, Geoff "Mandrake"
a senior software engineer for VA Research. He's most commonly known as Mandrake, author of the "Current News" diary and the major contributor to the Enlightenment window manager. 
High Availability Subsystem (Bull) 
ascii for the masses Hasciicam makes it possible to have live ASCII video on the web. It captures video from a tv card and renders it into ascii, formatting the output into an html page with a refresh tag or in a live ASCII window or in a simple text file as well, giving the possibility to anybody that has a bttv card. a linux box and a cheap modem line to show a live ASCII video feed that can be browsable without any need for plugin, java etc. 
hash (one-way hash, message digest, cryptographic checksum)
A crytographic operation where an entire message is run through some mathematical operations resulting in a fixed-length (e.g. 128-bit) string that is probably unique. This "hash" has two important properties: It is "one-way"; given a hash, somebody cannot figure out what input message generated the output hash. It is unique; there is more chance of an asteroid hitting the earth and wiping out all life than two messages accidentally hashing to the same value. No two messages should produce the same Example: Some common uses of hashes are: Creating an encryption key from a text password. Creating a unique "fingerprint" of a message that is then encrypted with a private key in order to sign a message. Create unique fingerprints of files in order to detect when they have changed. Example: The program "tripwire" detects intrusions by calculating a hash of all programs/binaries. On a regular basis, it recalculates the hash. If a file has changed, then the hash will also have changed. Tripwire then "trips" whenever the latest calculated hash of the file does not match the one stored in its database. Example: Some common hash algorithms are: SHA-1 If you need to choose a hash algorithm, this is probably the best one to choose (unless speed is the paramount concern). Of the most popular hash algorithms, this is currently (year 2001) considered to be the most secure. MD5 In the year 2001, more data is probably being hashed by MD5 than any other algorithm. However, a lot of people recommend moving to SHA-1 because of weaknesses discovered in MD5. RIPEMD MD4 A historically significant hash algorithm, but useless by today's standards. See also: integrity 
Hashed Address Table 
Customizable high-resolution Pacman clone You have three lives, and you lose a life if you get eaten by a ghost. If you eat all the little dots on a level, you go onto the next level (if we've bothered including any). At the edge of the screen there may be passageways apparently going nowhere - if you follow one you will wrap all the way around and appear at the other side of the screen, yes - really, as if by magic you have been transported from one side of the screen to the other, and the ghosts won't know what's hit 'em. Also, every now and then some fruit might appear at the edge of the screen. Being a healthy-eating sort of guy, hatman loves fruit, so you should go and eat it - it's extra points, you know. But the icing on the cake is the power-pellets. Eat one of these and the tables are turned. The ghosts turn gray (as one does, when one is scared) and now it's your turn to do some serious getting. Whilst the ghosts remain gray you can eat them - getting more points for each one you eat, once you eat them their eyes (hatman doesn't like the eyes - they give him indigestion) run back to the ghost's base and gets a new body. Don't worry about them turning back too suddenly - you will get a bit of a warning first. It's easy, and it's great fun. 
Home Audio Video Interoperability (org., Grundig, Hitachi, Matsushita, Philips, Sharp, Sony, Thomson, Toshiba) 
Haydar Linux
This distribution will be available in Arabic, Dutch and English with more languages to follow. The Arabic support appears to be very comprehensive. The first beta release of Haydar was announced May 4, 2002. Beta 2 was released November 4, 2002. 
Hayes command set
A standardised set of instructions used to control modems. Common Hayes commands include the following: AT (Attention, used to start all other commmands), ATDT (Attention, dial in tone mode), ATDP (Attention, dial in pulse mode), +++ (Enter the commnad mode during the commnication seesion), ATH (Attention, hangup). 
Hayes compatible modem
A modem that reconises the Hayes command set. 
Host Bus Adapter (SCSI) 
HomeBanking Computer Interface Internet, banking, Germany, HBCI 
Hetero Bipolar Transistor (IBM, IC) 
Human Computer Interaction (BCS, conference) 
Hardware Compatibility List (MS, Windows) 
Host Control Links 
High Capacity Satellite Digital Service 
High Capacity Storage System (Novell, Netware) 
Hamburger ComputerTage (fair) 
High-speed CMOS [logic] with TTT-compatible [logic] levels (IC, MOS) 
High-Capacity Terrestrial Digital Service 
High Density 
Hierarchical Direct Access Method (DAM) 
Prints Hijra (Islamic lunar) dates, calendar, Islamic prayer times Generates Hijra date(s) and Hijra calendar for given AD date and computes daily, monthly, yearly Islamic prayer times for given location. 
HoneyDanBer [standard] (Unix) 
High Density Bipolar 3 
Hierarchical DataBase Management System (DBMS, DB) 
Hard Disk Controller 
High Density Compact Disk (CD, Sony, Phillips) 
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) 
Highly Doped Drain (IC, MOSFET) 
Hierarchical Data Format (NCSA) 
HDLC Distant Host 
HOOPS Device Interface (VAGI) 
High Bandwidth Differential Interconnect Technology [bus] (VIA) 
Hardware Description Language (ASIC) 
High-level Data Link Control (ISO) 
Hardware Device Module (I2O) 
Handheld Device Markup Language (mobile-systems, HDTP) 
Heath Disk Operating System (OS, Heath) 
Hdparm is a useful system utility for setting (E)IDE hard drive parameters. For example, hdparm can be used to tweak hard drive performance and to spin down hard drives for power conservation. 
Tune hard disk parameters for high performance. get/set hard disk parameters for Linux IDE drives. Primary use is for enabling irq-unmasking and IDE multiplemode. 
High availability Data Replication (Informix, DB) 
High Dynamic Range 
High data / bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (BELLCORE, AT&T, DSL) 
High-level Data Specification Language 
Handheld Device Transport Protocol (mobile-systems) 
Half DupleX 
HoehenEinheit [1HE = 19"] 
Hyundai Electronics of America (manufacturer) 
output the first part of files 
The mechanism that reads data from or writes data to a magnetic disk or tape. 
Repeated text such as a page number and a short version of a document's title, that appears at the top of the pages in a document. Also the beginning of a Usenet of email message. The header contains important information about the sender's address the subject of the message, and other information. 
n. 1. The signal emitted by a Level 2 Ethernet transceiver at the end of every packet to show that the collision-detection circuit is still connected. 2. A periodic synchronization signal used by software or hardware, such as a bus clock or a periodic interrupt. 3. The `natural' oscillation frequency of a computer's clock crystal, before frequency division down to the machine's clock rate. 4. A signal emitted at regular intervals by software to demonstrate that it is still alive. Sometimes hardware is designed to reboot the machine if it stops hearing a heartbeat. See also breath-of-life packet. 
Subsystem for High-Availability Linux heartbeat is a basic heartbeat subsystem for Linux-HA. It will run scripts at initialisation, and when machines go up or down. This version will also perform IP address takeover using gratuitous ARPs. It works correctly for a 2-node configuration, and is extensible to larger configurations. It implements the following kinds of heartbeats: * Bidirectional Serial Rings ("raw" serial ports) * UDP/IP broadcast (ethernet, etc) 
Header Error Check 
Header Error Control (ATM) 
HEterogeneous Computer TOgetheR (IBM, Uni Karlsruhe, Germany) 
Heimdal is a free implementation of Kerberos 5, that aims to be compatible with MIT Kerberos. This package includes servers like telnetd and ftpd that have been compiled with Heimdal support. 
KDC for Heimdal Kerberos Heimdal is a free implementation of Kerberos 5, that aims to be compatible with MIT Kerberos. This package includes the KDC (key distribution centre) server, which is designed to run on a secure computer and keeps track of users passwords. This is done using the Kerberos protocol in such a way that the server computers do not need to know user's passwords. 
register of the magazines c't, iX, Elrad and Gateway This package installs an online register of the famous German computer and electronic magazines published by Heise: * c't - magazin f|r computer technik (12/1983 - 20/2001) * iX (11/1988 - 10/2001) * Elrad (1994 - 1997) * Gateway (1/1993 - 6/1997) 
Hardware Emulation Layer 
Header Extension Length 
The classic greeting, and a good example The GNU hello program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It allows nonprogrammers to use a classic computer science tool which would otherwise be unavailable to them. Seriously, though: this is an example of how to do a Debian package. It is the Debian version of the GNU Project's `hello world' program (which is itself an example for the GNU Project). 
Automatic manpage generator Program to create simple man pages from the --help and --version output of other programs. Since most GNU documentation is now in info format, this provides a way to generate a placeholder man page pointing to that resource while still providing some useful information. 
High Electron Mobility Transistor 
High Energy Physics NETwork (network) 
Herbix is a Linux server that fits on a floppy. It supports ipchains and can serve FTP, HTTP, IRC, DHCP, SMTP, and IDENT. Version 1.0-25 was released April 1, 2002. Version 1.0-67 was released January 4, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
System/370, ESA/390 and z/Architecture Emulator Hercules is an open source software implementation of the mainframe System/370 and ESA/390 architectures, in addition to the new 64-bit z/Architecture. This means that your PC can emulate an IBM mainframe processor. The mainframe can range from a 360 to a z900 - running in "System/370" mode, "ESA/390" mode, or "z/Architecture" mode. Hercules executes S/370, ESA/390, and z/Architecture instructions and channel programs. It emulates mainframe I/O devices by using PC devices. For example, 3390 DASD devices are emulated by large files on your hard disk, and local 3270 screens are emulated by tn3270 sessions. Hercules implements only the raw S/370, ESA/390, and z/Architecture instruction set; it does not provide any operating system facilities. This means that you need to provide an operating system or standalone program which Hercules can load from an emulated disk or tape device. You will have to use a free software operating system such as Linux, write the operating system or standalone program yourself, obtain a license from IBM to run one of their operating systems on your PC, or use IBM programs and operating systems which have been placed in the public domain. Virtual networking can be accomplished using the TUN/TAP driver in 2.2 and 2.4 kernels. For older kernels, try the vmnet package. Hercules was created by Roger Bowler and is maintained by Jay Maynard. Jan Jaeger designed and implemented many of the advanced features of Hercules. 
Heuristic Emergency Response Management Expert System (XPS) 
The Hermes pixel-format library Hermes is a library that does the dirty work of a graphics library or application that nobody else wants to do, and it does it fast because the effort is concentrated on just that. The thing nobody wants to do is conversion between pixel formats - between all pixel formats that is, not between any two. There are handwritten assembler routines in Hermes that should make anything look fast. An application or library that uses Hermes will for example be able to render into one buffer and convert it to whatever pixel format is available on the target platform at the time. Other services provided by Hermes include palette handling including caching of lookup tables, and surface clearing to a specific colour value. See for more info 
Handling the Electronic Representation of mixed text - image Office Documents based on ECMA standard 101 (ESPRIT, SNI, TITN, ECMA, ODA) 
Collect powerups and avoid your opponents' trails Heroes is similar to the "Tron" and "Nibbles" games of yore, but includes many graphical improvements and new game features. In it, you must maneuver a small vehicle around a world and collect powerups while avoiding obstacles, your opponents' trails, and even your own trail. Several styles of play are available, including "get-all-the-bonuses", deathmatch, and "squish-the-pedestrians". All game styles can be played in both single-player and two-player (split-screen) modes. You should install the heroes-sound-effects package if you want sound effects, and the heroes-sound-tracks package if you want background music in the game. These packages are quite large (especially heroes-sound-tracks), so you might want to try the game out before installing them. This package contains a small number of common files for the GGI and SDL versions of heroes. 
Home Electronic System (SNI) 
Honeywell Executive System (OS, Honeywell 800) 
Hesiod is a system which uses existing DNS functionality to provide access to databases of information that changes infrequently. It is often used to distribute information kept in the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/printcapfiles, among others. 
Name service for network authentication and access. Replaces local authentication files such as /etc/passwd and /etc/group. 
Utilities for Project Athena's service name resolution protocol Hesiod is a name service library that can provide general name service for a variety of applications. It is derived from BIND, the Berkeley Internet Name Daemon, and leverages the existing DNS infrastructure of a network. It is used on a number of university networks, including MIT and Iowa State University. If you will not be using this system on a network that already uses Hesiod, you probably do not need this package. 
A fast and powerful LaTeX to HTML translator HeVeA is a LaTeX to HTML translator. Its remarkable features are - It produces good output. By default (can be turned off) it uses the symbol face for math symbols. Either way it usually avoids generating zillions of picture files. - It is highly configurable through (La)TeX macros. Though aimed at LaTeX input it understands a fair subset of TeX' macro language. - It runs fast. This version of HeVeA is patched to generate by default PNG picture files instead of GIF. See also 
hexadecimal dumping tool for Japanese hexdump program that distinguish Japanese 2bytes code character. 
hex (hexadecimal)
In computer science, the word hexadecimal means base-16 numbers. These are numbers that use digits in the range: 0123456789ABCDEF. In the C programming language (as well as Java, JavaScript, C++, and other places), hexadecimal numbers are prefixed by a 0x. In this manner, one can tell that the number 0x80 is equivalent to 128 decimal, not 80 decimal. Key point: Hex is so important because 4-bits have 16-possible combinations. Therefore, a 4-bit value can be represented by a single hex digit. In this manner, every byte (8-bits) can be represented by two hex digits. Key point: Script kiddies tend to dismiss hexadecimal as one of those "unnecessary details". In reality, you must be able to comfortably do hex math in your head, and freely convert with binary. You should also be able to interpret hexdumps, where a block of data is dumped out into columns of hex numbers. A tutorial for this is at Key point: My mother, an otherwise avowed computerphobe, calculates her age in hex. She is in her early 0x30s. (For those who cannot do the math as well as my mom, 0x30 == 3*16 == 48). 
n. Base 16. Coined in the early 1960s to replace earlier `sexadecimal', which was too racy and amusing for stuffy IBM, and later adopted by the rest of the industry. Actually, neither term is etymologically pure. If we take `binary' to be paradigmatic, the most etymologically correct term for base 10, for example, is `denary', which comes from `deni' (ten at a time, ten each), a Latin `distributive' number; the corresponding term for base-16 would be something like `sendenary'. "Decimal" comes from the combining root of `decem', Latin for 10. If wish to create a truly analogous word for base 16, we should start with `sedecim', Latin for 16. Ergo, `sedecimal' is the word that would have been created by a Latin scholar. The `sexa-' prefix is Latin but incorrect in this context, and `hexa-' is Greek. The word `octal' is similarly incorrect; a correct form would be `octaval' (to go with decimal), or `octonary' (to go with binary). If anyone ever implements a base-3 computer, computer scientists will be faced with the unprecedented dilemma of a choice between two correct forms; both `ternary' and `trinary' have a claim to this throne. 
A ncurses-based hex editor with many features HexCurse is a versatile ncurses-based hex editor written in C that provides the user with many features. It currently supports searching, hex, and decimal address output, jumping to specified locations in a file, and quick keyboard shortcuts to commands. 
ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump 
view and edit files in hexadecimal or in ASCII. hexedit shows a file both in ASCII and in hexadecimal. The file can be a device as the file is not whole read. You can modify the file and search through it. You have also copy&paste and save to file functions. Truncating or appending to the file. Modifications are shown in bold. 
Hexdump according to DOS Debug output format The output consists of 3 columns. Each row contains up to 16 characters. The first column contains the address of the row (in 16-byte words). In the second column each byte is represented by its hexadecimal value (00 to FF), and in the third are the bytes as printable characters. Unlike od -c, hextype does not print unprintable chars with a two-character escape sequence. They are replaced by a dot. 
Hexagonal Ataxx clone for GTK The goal of the game is to conquer as much of the board as possible. This is done by capturing the opponent's pieces or by cloning your own. The board is a hexagon built from smaller hexagons. Hexxagon is just like Ataxx apart from the board design. The Ataxx board is square and the Hexxagon board is hexagonal. This is the GTK xivVersion 
heyu - 2 way x10 communications for the CM11A heyu' is similar to the package 'x10', differing mainly in the controller supported (this package supports CM11A, 'x10' supports the CP290) X-10 modules are devices that plug into an electrical outlet and allow you to remotely control the power to a lamp or an appliance that is plugged into them. There are also X-10 modules that install in place of wall switches to control lights, fans, and many other appliances. This package supports the CM11A Interface (from Radio Shack), which supports two-way communication. This allows for devices such as motion detectors to trigger scripts on your system, turning lights on, updating web pages, or send you e-mail. See: For more information 
Have Fun (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Hybrid Fiber Coax [network] 
Hauptanschluss fuer Direktruf / Datenleitung (Telekom), "HfD" 
Highly Functional Distributed System (MTRON) 
Hierachical File System (Apple, CD) 
tools to access HFS+ formatted volumes HFS+ is a modernized version of Apple Computer's HFS Filesystem. Nowadays, it is widely used with more recent versions of MacOS. Unfortunately, it is not yet supported by the Linux kernel. hfsplus consists of a library and set of tools that allow access to HFS+ volumes. This package contains the tools themselves. 
Tools for reading and writing Macintosh volumes. HFS is the native Macintosh filesystem format. This package contains several command-line utilities for reading and writing Macintosh HFS-formatted media such as floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and hard disks. 
High Function Terminal (AIX, IBM) 
Hercules Graphics Adapter 
Hercules Graphics Card 
Heinrich Hertz Institut Org., Germany 
Hochschulverband Informationswissenschaften (org.) 
Human Interaction Component 
Hybrid Integrated Circuit 
Human Interface Device (MS) 
Hierarchical Indexed Direct Access Method (DAM) 
hidden file
A file with a name that begins with a period (.) on UNIX and Linux systems. They are called hidden because they are not shown by default during a directory listing or in a file manager. For example, user configuration files are often hidden to prevent accidental deletion or modification. 
hidden flag
n. [scientific computation] An extra option added to a routine without changing the calling sequence. For example, instead of adding an explicit input variable to instruct a routine to give extra diagnostic output, the programmer might just add a test for some otherwise meaningless feature of the existing inputs, such as a negative mass. The use of hidden flags can make a program very hard to debug and understand, but is all too common wherever programs are hacked on in a hurry. 
HIgh capacity Floppy Disk (Sony, Fuji), "HiFD" 
Hypertext Interface For Information (ESPRIT) 
HIgh Fidelity Interactive Visual Environment (DEC), "Hi-FIVE" 
Hardware Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) 
Human Interface Graphical GENeration System (Uni Colorado) 
high bit
n. [from `high-order bit'] 1. The most significant bit in a byte. 2. [common] By extension, the most significant part of something other than a data byte: "Spare me the whole saga, just give me the high bit." See also meta bit, hobbit, dread high-bit disease, and compare the mainstream slang `bottom line'. 
High Siera
An obsolete standard for encoding data onto CD-ROMs. Although similar to High Sierra, the widely used ISO 9660 standard is incompatible. 
high-level language
computer language that can be used on many different computer systems. By contrast, a low-level language refers to specific hardware locations and is inseparable from a specific hardware architecture. Another name for low-level language is assembly language. 
Reformats HTML code This utility reformats HTML code to be properly indented/nested for improved readability. You can indent the existing lines as-is, or totally reformat the code to have one tag per line. Hindent is useful in deciphering software-generated HTML code when it's all just one huge line, or help you find find that last missing end-tag, or deal with code victimized by creeping featurism. Written in Perl for Unix. Understands all HTML 3.2 nestable tags. 
Hierarchical INTegration [benchmark] 
HIgh PErformance Radio Local Area Network (LAN, ETSI, EN 300 652) 
HIgh Performance Parallel Interface 
High Performance Peripheral Interface 
HURD of Interface Representing Depth (GNU, HURD) 
Hierarchical Indexed Sequential Acess Method (SAM) 
HIgh SPeed channel connector (Cray, I/O) 
HispaFuentes is a Red Hat compatible distribution. Version 8.0 contains Ximian 1.4, KDE 2.1, CUPS and much more. Spanish distribution. 
The two or three characters which control history expansion and tokenization (see HISTORY EXPANSION below). The first character is the history expansion character, that is, the character which signals the start of a history expansion, normally `!'. The second character is the quick substitution character, which is used as shorthand for re-running the previous command entered, substituting one string for another in the command. The default is `^'. The optional third character is the character which signifies that the remainder of the line is a comment, when found as the first character of a word, normally `#'. The history comment character causes history substitution to be skipped for the remaining words on the line. It does not necessarily cause the shell parser to treat the rest of the line as a comment. 
In the C shell and the Korn shell, a list of command lines (or events) previously executed by a user. 
As used in reference to the World Wide Web, ?hit? means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 ?hits? would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics. 
A high-level website description language Hitop is an HTML preprocessor and website design tool. It helps you to produce consistent, accessible, attractive, navigable and maintainable websites. 
LaTeX Korean support HLaTeX is a LaTeX package use Hangul with LaTeX. With this package, you can run latex on KS X 1001 based Korean LaTeX file to produce a professionally looking Korean documents. You can typeset all Korean characters defined in KS X 1001, including Korean Symbol, Hangul and Hanja. 
High Level Firewall Language HLFL translates your high level language firewalling rules into usable rules for ipfw, IPFilter, ipfwadm, IPChains, Netfilter, and Cisco. 
Insert URLs into html documents Hlins is a tool to insert hypertext links into HTML documents, using a database with entries of the form "name = url". It is designed for inserting URLs of real persons: it knows about abbreviations of first and middle names and tolerates dropping the second part of a composite last name. 
High Level Language 
High Level Language Application Programming Interface (IBM, API) 
Higher Layer Protocol Identifier 
Home Location Register (LR, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Hue, Luminance, Saturation (color system, DTP) 
High Memory Area 
keyed-Hashing for Message AuthentiCation (cryptography, RFC 2104) 
Highspeed Memory Controller (Apple) 
Head Mounted Display (VR) 
Human-Machine Interface 
models protein or nucleic acid sequences. Hmmer is a suite of programs which use profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) to model the primary structure consensus of a family of protein or nucleic acid sequences. Homepage: 
HyperMedia Management Protocol (MS, Intel, Cisco, WWW, HMMS) 
HyperMedia Management Schema (MS, Intel, Cisco, WWW) 
High performance Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Host Monitoring Protocol (RFC 869) 
Hybrid MUltipleXer (FDDI), "H-MUX" 
Hierarchical notebook Hnb is an ncurses program to organize many kinds of data in one place, for example addresses, todo lists, ideas, book reviews or to store snippets of brainstorming, to make a structured packing list or just to take random notes. It can export ascii, html and xml, supports todo checkboxes, checkbox trees with percentages, priorities, preferences, searching and more. 
Heinz Nixdorf Museumsforum (org., Paderborn, Germany) 
Heinz Nixdorf Institut (org., ZIT) 
Hyper Nikki System (CGI) HNS(Hyper Nikki System, Nikki means "Diary" in Japanese) is a set of CGI scripts which can generate HTML-based web diary a la Slashdot/Advogato from its own very simple meta files (hnf). HNS takes care of complicated, diary-specific operations such as date handling, URL anchor, etc. so keeping your diary with HNS is much easier than writing HTML by hand. This package provides main cgi scripts. 
Hyper Nikki System tools for editing diary. HNS(Hyper Nikki System, Nikki means "Diary" in Japanese) is a set of CGI scripts which can generate HTML-based web diary a la Slashdot/Advogato from its own very simple meta files (hnf). HNS takes care of complicated, diary-specific operations such as date handling, URL anchor, etc. so keeping your diary with HNS is much easier than writing HTML by hand. This package provides tools for editing diary. todayhns, edit the diary of today wrapper script. hnf-mode, major mode for emacsen to edit hnf file. 
Host On Demand (IBM, HOD) 
prints the date in latin hodie has the same functionality as the date (1) program, only it prints it in grammatically correct latin 
Head Of Line 
Hybrid OnLine Analytical Processing (OLAP, DB) 
n. A region in an otherwise flat entity which is not actually present. For example, some Unix filesystems can store large files with holes so that unused regions of the file are never actually stored on disk. (In techspeak, these are referred to as `sparse' files.) As another example, the region of memory in IBM PCs reserved for memory-mapped I/O devices which may not actually be present is called `the I/O hole', since memory-management systems must skip over this area when filling user requests for memory. 
HOLON Linux is aimed at mass consumers. It is developed by HOLON Inc. (in Japan). They did a TV commercial, which was (and is) an unprecedented promotion in Japan. Their server version received a "Good Design Award" by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. Their desktop version product includes 2.8GB of commercial and multimedia applications. 
A directory or WWW page that is 'owned' by a user is often referred to as their 'home directory' or 'home page'. 
Home Directory
The directory the user is placed in after logging on. 
home directory
the directory you are placed in immediately after you log in to the system. 
Home Page (or Homepage)
Several meanings. Originally, the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organization, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. "Check out so-and-so's new Home Page." 
Home Page or Homepage
the top level hypertext document in a collection of pages or web site. Often uses index.html as file name. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Home Radio Frequency (WLAN), "HomeRF" 
A feature included in a software or hardware product to enable hobbyists and programmers to add their own custom features. 
n. A software or hardware feature included in order to simplify later additions or changes by a user. For example, a simple program that prints numbers might always print them in base 10, but a more flexible version would let a variable determine what base to use; setting the variable to 5 would make the program print numbers in base 5. The variable is a simple hook. An even more flexible program might examine the variable and treat a value of 16 or less as the base to use, but treat any other number as the address of a user-supplied routine for printing a number. This is a hairy but powerful hook; one can then write a routine to print numbers as Roman numerals, say, or as Hebrew characters, and plug it into the program through the hook. Often the difference between a good program and a superb one is that the latter has useful hooks in judiciously chosen places. Both may do the original job about equally well, but the one with the hooks is much more flexible for future expansion of capabilities (EMACS, for example, is all hooks). The term `user exit' is synonymous but much more formal and less hackish. 
The technique of inserting code into a system call in order to alter it. The typical hook works by replacing the function pointer to the call with its own, then once it is done doing its processing, it will then call the original function pointer. 
Hierarchical Object Orientated Picture System (Ithaca, Autodesk, OOP) 
Homecast Open Protocol (WLAN, Alation Systems) 
Core elements for the Horde Web Application Suite A set of PHP3 scripts that implement an web based application suite. This package is required to run other programs such as IMP which is a web based IMAP client. Other applications will follow as soon as they are functional. PLEASE NOTE, you must have either a database setup locally or remotely prior to installing this package otherwise the install could fail. 
A computer system that is connected to a network and communicates with other systems. Hosts are usually assigned unique addresses or names to distinguish one host from another. 
A physical or virtual device with a "host" internet address, like That is, not a network address like . Typically, the device is a network interface device like an Ethernet card or a PPP controlled serial interface. Often, a computer is connected via only one such device, and it is thus natural to speak of "host" and "computer" synonymously and it is often done. 
Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as SMTP (email) and HTTP (web). 
DNS lookup utility 
In the Internet, any computer that can function as the beginning and end porint of data transfers. An Internet host has a unique Internet address (called an IP address) and a unique domain name. In networks and telecommunications generaly, the coputer that performs centralised functions such as making program or data files available to other computers. 
Utility for Querying DNS Servers 'host' is a utility, similar to 'nslookup' (deprecated) or 'dig', used to query DNS servers for domain names and zones. This package provides the original version of 'host', originally in the package 'dnsutils'. BIND9 provides a similar utility, in 'bind9-host'. 
print the numeric identifier for the current host 
A name assigned or configured to a host on a network. 
A utility to set/show the host name or domain name The hostname command can be used to either set or display the current host or domain name of the system. This name is used by many of the networking programs to identify the machine. The domain name is also used by NIS/YP. 
show or set the system's host name 
A hotkeys daemon for your Internet/multimedia keyboard in X This program sits at the back and listens for the "special" hotkeys that you won't normally use on your Internet/Multimedia keyboards. The buttons perform their intended behaviors, such as volume up and down, mute the speaker, launch applications, etc. It has On-screen display (OSD) to show the volume, program that's being started, etc. It features an XML-based keycode configuration file format, which makes it possible to define the hotkeys to launch any programs you want. 
Linux Hotplug Scripts This package contains the scripts necessary for hotplug Linux support, and lets you plug in new devices and use them immediately. Initially, it includes support for USB and PCI (Cardbus) devices, and can automatically configure network interfaces. 
The term "hotplugging" refers to the dynamic reconfiguration performed after a device has been attached to a running system. This package contains the application which is called by the kernel when a USB device is added; hotplug then loads the required modules for that device. 
This package contains the scripts necessary for hotplug Linux support, and lets you plug in new devices and use them immediately. Initially, it includes support for USB and PCI (Cardbus) devices, and can automatically configure network interfaces. 
Linux Hotplug utility programs This package contains some utilities for hotplug Linux support, fxload hotplug demon. This program is conveniently able to download firmware into FX and FX2 ez-usb devices. It is intended to be invoked by hotplug scripts when the unprogrammed device appears on the bus. 
To place the mouse cursor over the panel or desktop object. 
A freely distributable document that describes in detail how to set up or configure a Linux component. It is often the best starting point for a beginner. 
Linux HOWTOs are detailed documents which describe a specific aspect ofconfiguring or using Linux. Linux HOWTOs are a great source of practical information about your system. The latest versions of these documents are located at 
Linux HOWTOs are parts of the Linux Documentation Project. They are detailed documents which describe a specific aspect of configuring or using Linux. Linux HOWTOs are a great source of practical information about your system. The latest versions of these documents are located at Currently, available tools are :- makehowtoindex is an index generator for html formatted HOWTO documents- mirror_howtos mirror howtos and mini-howtos- untar_howtos process a howto mirror (obtained by mirror_howtos) 
Hewlett Packard (manufacturer) 
HP Postscript Printer Definition (PPD) files Because PostScript is a device independent page description language, there is a need to provide a mechanism for a print spooler to customize the PostScript Job to the actual device. PPD, PostScript Printer Definitions, specify the device specific PostScript commands to access device specific features. 
A HPGL converter into some vector- and raster formats HP2XX reads HPGL ASCII source files, interprets them, and converts them into either another vector-oriented format or one of several rasterfile formats. Currently, its HPGL parser recognizes a subset of the HP 7550A command set. Some high-level functions are missing. Also, only some of the fixed space vector fonts and none of the variable space arc fonts are supported. Beside these limitations, hp2xx has proven to work with many HP-GL sources without any trouble. 
C-like compiler which produces HP48 RPN `hp48cc' is a C-like compiler that translates the input code into the HP48 RPN language. The language recognized by the compiler is only a small subset of the C language, with some non-standard extensions, but powerful enough to write complex programs simply. 
High Performance Architecture (HP) 
Hewlett Packard Broadband Internet Delivery System (HP, Internet), "HP BIDS" 
Handheld Personal Computer (PC), "H/PC" 
High Performance Computing 
High Performance Computing and Communication 
High Performance Communication Server (Tobit, NLM, Netware) 
High Performance FORTRAN (FORTRAN) 
High Performance FileSystem (OS/2) 
Hewlett Packard Graphics Language (CAD, CAM, HP) 
Hewlett Packard Interface Bus (GPIB) 
HP Inkjet Server - Ghostscript driver for HP inkjets This package contains the hpijs binary which provides Ghostscript with a driver for most inkjet manufactured by Hewlett Packard using the ijs interface. 
hpijs is a collection of optimized drivers for HP printers. hpijs supports the DeskJet 350C, 600C, 600C Photo, 630C, Apollo 2000,Apollo 2100, Apollo 2560, DeskJet 800C, DeskJet 825, DeskJet 900,PhotoSmart, DeskJet 990C, and PhotoSmart 100 series. 
Active Network Smashing Tool hping2 is a network tool able to send custom ICMP/UDP/TCP packets and to display target replies like ping does with ICMP replies. It handles fragmentation and arbitrary packet body and size, and can be used to transfer files under supported protocols. Using hping2, you can: Test firewall rules, Perform [spoofed] port scanning, Test net performance using different protocols, Packet size, TOS (type of service), and Fragmentation, Do path MTU discovery, Transfer files (even between really Fascist firewall rules), Perform traceroute-like actions under different protocols, Fingerprint remote OSs, Audit a TCP/IP stack, etc. hping2 is a good tool for learning TCP/IP. 
Hyper Page Mode 
??? [Schnittstelle] (CAD), "HP-MI" 
High Performance Optical File System (IBM, OS/2, MOD) 
HP OfficeJet Linux driver (hpoj) This software provides Linux support for most "multi-function" (or "all-in-one") peripherals from Hewlett-Packard, including OfficeJet, LaserJet, and Printer/Scanner/Copier ("PSC") products. It consists of: - Low-level drivers and libraries to communicate with the device. Depending on your hardware and operating system configuration, you may connect devices directly to your workstation with a parallel port or USB (Universal Serial Bus), or to a LAN (Local Area Network) using certain models of HP JetDirect print servers. - An application programming interface (API) known as "PTAL" (Peripheral Transport Abstraction Library) that hides the differences in accessing devices connected via parallel, USB, or JetDirect. - Printing support, largely powered by ghostscript, the HP inkjet driver (for selected models), and one of various print spoolers (Berkeley lpd, gnulpr, LPRng, CUPS, PDQ, etc.) that may already be installed on your computer. - Scanning support, powered either by Scanner Access Now Easy (SANE) or by "ptal-hp scan", a command-line application provided with the hpoj package. - Graphical and command-line applications to access various features of the peripheral, such as displaying status of the device and setting the clock. 
Hewlett Packard Precision Architecture (HP, RISC) 
Hewlett Packard Printer Control Language 
High Performance Routing 
High Priority Request (VUMA) 
HP ScanJet scanning utility This program controls Hewlett-Packard ScanJet series scanners. It captures the image based on command-line parameters, and provides it as a thresholded, dithered, grayscale, or full-color Portable Pixmap. This is not a device driver; your ScanJet should be connected to a SCSI adapter that is supported by Linux (which does not include the card that came with the ScanJet). This program uses the generic SCSI interface, so this feature must be available in the kernel. 
HP SOCKS server. Provides a SOCKS v5 server, with v4 support. 
High Performance Transaction Systems 
Hewlett Packard / UniX (Unix), "HP/UX" 
Hewlett-Packard Visual Engineering Environment (HP, GUI), "HP VEE" 
Hewlett Packard - Visual User Environment (HP, GUI), "HP-VUE" 
A popular program for the Macintosh used to convert binary files so they can be sent as text, similar to (but incompatible with) uuencode. 
High Rate (IEEE 802.11) 
Hybrid Ring Control (FDDI) 
Home Radio Frequency Working Group (WLAN, HOMERF) 
High Speed (MODEM) 
High Speed Access 
Hue Saturation Brightness (DTP) 
Hierarchical Storage Controller 
HTML Sucks Completely (HTML, Amiga) 
High Speed Cable Data Services 
High Speed Circuit Switched Data (GSM, mobile-systems) 
??? Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
High Sierra File System 
FTP emulator which uses ssh as end-to-end transport hsftp is an ftp emulator that provides the look-and-feel of an ftp session, but uses ssh to transport commands and data. No dedicated daemon (apart from sshd) is required. 
High Speed Interface 
Hue, Saturation, Intensity (DTP) 
??? High Speed Interface / SNA, "HSI/S" 
High Speed Local Area Network, "HS-LAN" 
??? [hardware description language] (HDL, NTT, LSI), "HSL-FX" 
High Speed Local Network 
Hardware Specific Module (ODI) 
Hierarchical Storage Management 
Hierarchisches SpeicherManagement 
High Speed Mobile Data HSCSD, Germany, E-Plus 
Host Signal Processing (DFUe, WinModem) 
[UUNet] HighSpeed Peering 
Hot Standby Router Protocol (Cisco, IOS) 
High-Speed Switched Digital Service 
High Speed Serial Interface 
HighSpeed Switching Network (Cray, ATM) 
Hawaiian Standard Time [-1030] (TZ) 
High Soft Tech (manufacturer, ISDN) 
High Speed Technology (US Robotics) 
Horizontal Tab 
Viewer/editor/analyser (mostly) for executables This is HT, including HT-analyser; please note that this is a BETA version of the program. Therefore HT is incomplete and sometimes buggy. For more info (e.g. keybindings) see the README file! 1. Supported file formats - common object file format (COFF) - executable and linkable format (ELF) - linear executables (LE) - standard DO$ executables (MZ) - new executables (NE) - portable executables (PE) 2. Code & Data Analyser - finds branch sources and destinations recursively - finds procedure entries - creates labels based on this information - creates xref information - allows to interactively analyse unexplored code - allows to create/rename/delete labels 3. Target systems - GNU/Linux - FreeBSD - DJGPP - Win32 
A tagline adder for email, news and FidoNet messages. htag is a tagline adder but it has now been so over engineered that it will also do anything you want it to[0], do lots of stuff I want it to, and do stuff it wants to. [0] Or at least it will if you write the appropriate plugin. 
Utility for checking web site for dead/external links ht://Check is more than a link checker. It's a console application written for Linux systems in C++ and derived from the best search engine available on the Internet for free (GNU GPL): ht://Dig. It can retrieve information through HTTP/1.1 and store them in a MySQL database, and it's particularly suitable for small Internet domains or Intranet. Its purpose is to help a webmaster managing one or more related sites: after a "crawl", ht://Check gives back very useful summaries and reports, including broken links, anchors not found, content-types and HTTP status codes summaries, etc. 
The ht://Dig system is a Web search and indexing system for a small domain or intranet. This system is not meant to replace the need for powerful Internet-wide search systems; instead it is meant to cover the search needs for a single company, campus, or even a particular subsection of a website. 
WWW search system for an intranet or small internet The ht://Dig system is a complete world wide web indexing and searching system for a small domain or intranet. This system is not meant to replace the need for powerful internet-wide search systems like Lycos, Infoseek, Webcrawler and AltaVista. Instead it is meant to cover the search needs for a single company, campus, or even a particular sub section of a web site. As opposed to some WAIS-based or web-server based search engines, ht://Dig can span several web servers at a site. The type of these different web servers doesn't matter as long as they understand the HTTP 1.0 protocol. Features: * Intranet searching * It is free * Robot exclusion is supported * Boolean expression searching * Configurable search results * Fuzzy searching * Searching of HTML and text files * Keywords can be added to HTML documents * Email notification of expired documents * A Protected server can be indexed * Searches on subsections of the database * Full source code included * The depth of the search can be limited * Full support for the ISO-Latin-1 character set 
Hybrid Time Division Multiplexing [protocol] 
Hyper-g Text Format (Hyper-G) 
a file grabber that will get files from HTTP servers HTGET is a file grabber that will get files from HTTP servers. The aim behind this program is to create a downloader that you can leave running in the background - one that's totally reliable and can cope with just about any problem, and won't stop downloading unless it's forced to. 
Hope This Helps (slang) 
HyperText Markup Language (Internet, WWW, SGML, RFC 1866/1942, HTML) 
See hypertext markup language (HTML). 
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
A set of conventions for marking the portions of a document so that, when accessed by a program called a parser, each portion appears with a distinctive format. HTML is the markup language behind the appearance of documents on the WWW (World Wide Web), and the parser programs for accessing thes documents are called Webbrowsers. A subset of the SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language), HTML includes capabilities that enable authors to insert hyperlinks, which when clicked display another HTML document. The process of composing HTML text is called authoring. You can author HTML text by editing a plain-text document with a stand alone HTML editor, such as HTML assistant. In adddition, add-on programs are available that provide HTML editing capaibilities such as Bluefish. Unlike a word processing program's formatting codes, HTML codes - called tags - do not specify just how the tagged text is a certain portion of a document, such as a title, heading, or body text. The parser decides how to format the text. 
HTML to PostScript converter This program converts HTML directly to PostScript. The HTML code can be retrieved from one or more URLs or local files, specified as parameters on the command line. A comprehensive level of HTML is supported, including inline images, CSS1, and some features of HTML 4.0. 
An advanced HTML to text converter. html2text was written because the author wasn't happy with the output of "lynx -dump" and so he wrote something better. 
converts HTML pages to WML (WAP) pages Html2Wml converts HTML pages to WML pages, suitable for being viewed on a Wap device. The conversion can be done either on the command line to create static WML pages or on-the-fly by calling this program as a CGI. 
HTML processor that generates indexed HTML, PS, and PDF. HTMLDOC is a program for writing documentation in HTML and producing indexed HTML, PostScript, or PDF output (with tables of contents). It supports most HTML 3.2 and some HTML 4.0 syntax, as well as GIF, JPEG, and PNG images. 
Generation of HTML documents with Python scripts. HTMLgen is a class library for the generation of HTML documents with Python scripts. It's used when you want to create HTML pages containing information which changes from time to time. For example you might want to have a page which provides an overall system summary of data collected nightly. Or maybe you have a catalog of data and images that you would like formed into a spiffy set of web pages for the world to browse. Python is a great scripting language for these tasks and with HTMLgen it's very straightforward to construct objects which are rendered into consistently structured web pages. Of course, CGI scripts written in Python can take advantage of these classes as well. 
script that automatically fetches news headlines, and browses on Browser is a script that automatically fetches news headlines. Basic features: One shell only. Title, Link, Description, HP, ChangeLog, DL of headline on netscape. 'Desc_' means Description show/hide on mouse. It is easy to modify if you know awk. 
add table of contents to HTML document 
The htmlview utility uses an installed and preferred HTML viewer to display a local HTML page. It is used by several configuration tools to display their help pages. 
An HTML pre-processor htp is an HTML pre-processor. It is designed to be a flexible authoring tool that can easily be integrated into the HTML design process. 
High Temperature PolySilicon 
Host Transport Service Interface (ICC, CT-API) 
HyperText Transfer Protocol (WWW, RFC 2068) 
See hypertext transfer protocol (http). 
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The Internet standard that supports the exchange of information on the World Wide Web (WWW). By defining Universal Resource Locators (URLs) and how they can be used to retrieve resources (including not only Web documents but also File Transport Protocol (FTP)-accessible files, Usenet newsgroups, and Gopher menus) anywhere on the Internet, HTTP enables Web authors to embed hyperlinks in Web documents. When clicked, a hyperlink initiates a data transfer process that accesses and retrieves document, without any further intervention from the use (or, indeed, without any knowledge of where the document is coming from or how it was accessed). In short, HTTP lays the foundation for transparent access to the Internet. 
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The protocol used to provide hypertext links between pages. It is the standard way of transfering HTML documents between Web servers and browsers. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology 

Apache is a powerful, full-featured, efficient, and freely-available Web server. Apache is also the most popular Web server on the Internet. 
HyperText Transfer Protocol DAEMON (WWW, HTTP) 
Httpd (Hypertext Transer Protocol Deamon)
A web server originally developed at the Swiss Center for Particle Research (CERN) and originally called CERN htpd. Subsequently, httpd was developed independently at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) for UNIX systems. An important innovation in the history of Web servers, NASA httpd introduced forms, clickable imagemaps, authenticationm and key word searches. Most of these features are now taken for granted in other Web servers. 
An HTTP server performance tester. httperf is a tool to measure web server performance. It speaks the HTTP protocol both in its HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1 flavors and offers a variety of workload generators. While running, it keeps track of a number of performance metrics that are summarized in the form of statistics that are printed at the end of a test run. 
HyperText Transfer Protocol - Next Generation (WWW), "HTTP-NG" 
HyperText Transfer Protocol [SSL] Secured (HTTP, SSL, WWW) 
Tunnels a data stream in HTTP requests. Creates a bidirectional virtual data stream tunnelled in HTTP requests. The requests can be sent via a HTTP proxy if so desired. 
Central connectivity device for resources on a network. Computer systems, servers, network storage, printers, and more connect to hubs to communicate with each other. A switch and a router are two types of hubs. 
USB Hub muscot - utility "Hubcot" is the USB Hub with cute muscot(Toro and Hello Kitty). The muscot moves his arm and head by receiving a signal from USB. This package contains the utility for hubcot. "Hubcot" is trademarked by Dreams come true co.,Ltd. 
USB Hub muscot - source of module "Hubcot" is the USB Hub with cute muscot(Toro and Hello Kitty). The muscot moves his arm and head by receiving a signal from USB. This package contains the source code for hubcot module. Please note that the kernel sources must be installed to compile this module. "Hubcot" is trademarked by Dreams come true co.,Ltd. 
Holland User Group for OS/2 (org., user group, OS/2, Netherlands) 
A Haskell 98 interpreter Hugs is an interpreter for the non-strict, purely functional programming language Haskell. This version of Hugs, Hugs 98, supports nearly all of the new Haskell 98 specification. Documentation is available in the hugs-doc package. The Haskell language is described by documents in the haskell-doc package. 
adj. [from `hung up'; common] Equivalent to wedged, but more common at Unix/C sites. Not generally used of people. Syn. with locked up, wedged; compare hosed. See also hang. A hung state is distinguished from crashed or down, where the program or system is also unusable but because it is not running rather than because it is waiting for something. However, the recovery from both situations is often the same. It is also distinguished from the similar but more drastic state wedged - hung software can be woken up with easy things like interrupt keys, but wedged will need a kill -9 or even reboot. 
Hung system
A computer that has experienced a system failure and is no longer processing data, even though cursor might still be blinking on-screen. The only option in most cases is to restart the system, which means losing any unsaved work. 
A consistent English-Hungarian keyboard layout Hunglish provides an English-Hungarian dual keyboard layout. The layout is the same both on the linux console and under X. The package provides full support for all Hungarian letters on all common keyboards, including US 101-key layouts. In Hunglish, you can switch modes by pressing the Print Screen key. The Windows keys work as mode shift. Please read /usr/share/doc/hunglish/README for more information. (All documentation is in Hungarian.) 
Advanced packet sniffer and connection intrusion. Hunt is a program for intruding into a connection, watching it and resetting it. Note that hunt is operating on Ethernet and is best used for connections which can be watched through it. However, it is possible to do something even for hosts on another segments or hosts that are on switched ports. 
hunt daemon, back-end for hunt game 
HIRD of Unix-Replacing DAEMONs (GNU, HIRD) 
The Hurd will be the foundation of the whole GNU system. It is built on top of the Mach 3.0 kernel, a free message-passing kernel developed by CMU. Mach's virtual memory management and message-passing facilities are extensively used by the Hurd. The GNU C Library will provide the Unix system call interface, and will call the Hurd for needed services it can't provide itself. 
A graphical browser for your current hardware configuration. 
query and set the hardware clock (RTC) 
hardware identification / configuration data This package contains various hardware identification and configuration data, such as the pci.ids database, or the XFree86 Cards database. Its needed for the kudzu hardware detection. 
Collection of tools for low-level hardware management This package is a collection of tools useful for hardware troubleshooting and optimization (for ix86 machines): irqtune: adjusts priority of interrupts (improves serial performance), scanport: scans for hardware not already handled by Linux drivers, memmxtest: a real mode memory test, with MMX support. You may want to look at package memtest86 as well. Be aware that these tools require some knowledge of what are they doing to be used properly, not causing damage to your system. Some programs that were previously part of this package have been moved to their own packages (hdparm, scsitools, memtest86) 
The Unix client for Hotline Hx is the Unix client for Hotline. Hotline is kind of like IRC, kind of like an FTP server, all put together. It let's people chat on a server, and upload and download files. It works on the concept of servers, using trackers to keep track of which servers are available. 
Hope You Can Help (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Flexible client/server fax software - client utilities The HylaFAX client software communicates with a HylaFAX server via TCP/IP. HylaFAX support the sending and receiving of facsimiles, the polled retrieval of facsimiles and the send of alphanumeric pages. 
Flexible client/server fax software - server daemons This package support the sending and receiving of facsimiles, the polled retrieval of facsimiles and the send of alphanumeric pages. The host running the server must have either a Class 1, Class 2, or a Class 2.0 fax modem attached to one of its serial ports. End-user applications to manage the transmission of documents via facsimile are provided separately by the hylafax-client package. 
Creating HTML using LaTeX documents. Hyperlatex allows you to use a LaTeX-like language to prepare documents in HTML (the hypertext markup language used by the world wide web), and, at the same time, to produce a fine printed document from your input. You can use all of LaTeX's power for the printed output, and you don't have to learn a new language for creating hypertext documents. Note that Hyperlatex is not meant to translate arbitrary Latex files into HTML. Rather, it provides an authoring environment for writing printed documents and HTML documents at the same time, using an extended subset of Latex (excluding concepts that have no HTML counterpart and adding commands for new HTML concepts such as hyperlinks or included images). 
Create HTML archives of mailing lists Creates crosslinked and threaded HTML archives of mailboxes or mailing lists. Can be configured to automagically update the archives when new messages arrive. 
The Common Lisp ANSI-standard Hyperspec This is a installer package for the html-ed version of the ANSI standard for Common Lisp. Note that these pages are only FYI and are not valid as a reference. But for all intents and purposes this is a good enough reference for daily work. 
A document which has been marked up to allow a user to select words or pictures within the document, click on them, and connect to further information. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed. See also: HTML, HTTP 
hypertext markup language (HTML)
A standardized language for the formatting of interactive text on the World Wide Web. HTML uses tags and scripting and is typically rendered on Web browsers. 
hypertext transfer protocol (http)
The protocol used to transfer information from Web servers to web browsers. Website addresses begin with http:// and is rendered on browsers using hypertext markup language (HTML). 
Show hyphenations in DVI-files hyphen_show scans a DVI-file, tries to find all hyhenations and writes them to stdout. It is useful to check whether TeX's hyphenation algorithm really did the good job it is supposed to do. 
HYperText Environment for Authoring (ESPRIT) 
Hypermedia/Time-based structuring language (SGML, ISO, IEC, IS 10744), "HyTime" 
Translates GB, Big5, zW/HZ Chinese encodings in a tty session This program turns a tty session from one Chinese encoding to another. For example, running hztty on cxterm can allow you to read/write Chinese in HZ format, which was not supported by cxterm. If you have many applications in different encodings but your favor terminal program only supports one, hztty can make life easy. For example, hztty can your GB cxterm into a HZ terminal, a Unicode (16bit, or UTF8, or UTF7) terminal, or a Big5 terminal. Author: Yongguang Zhang <>

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