Linux-Dictionary ( $ - A )

Table of Contents
1. Linux Dictionary
A. About the Author
B. Contributors
C. Disclaimer
D. Donations
E. Feedback
F. GNU Free Documentation License
    F.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

Chapter 1. Linux Dictionary
$BASH environment variable
Expands to the full pathname used to invoke this instance of bash. 
$BASH_VERSION environment variable
Expands to the version number of this instance of bash. 
$CDPATH environment variable
The search path for the cd command. This is a colon-separated list of directories in which the shell looks for destination directories specified by the cd command. A sample value is ``.:~:/usr''. 
$ENV environment variable
If this parameter is set when bash is executing a shell script, its value is interpreted as a filename containing commands to initialize the shell, as in .bashrc. The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being interpreted as a pathname. PATH is not used to search for the resultant pathname. 
$FIGNORE environment variable
A colon-separated list of suffixes to ignore when performing filename completion (see READLINE below). A filename whose suffix matches one of the entries in FIGNORE is excluded from the list of matched filenames. A sample value is ``.o:~''. 
$HISTCMD environment variable
The history number, or index in the history list, of the current command. If HISTCMD is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset. 
$HISTCONTROL environment variable
If set to a value of ignorespace, lines which begin with a space character are not entered on the history list. If set to a value of ignoredups, lines matching the last history line are not entered. A value of ignoreboth combines the two options. If unset, or if set to any other value than those above, all lines read by the parser are saved on the history list. 
$HISTFILE environment variable
The name of the file in which command history is saved. (See HISTORY below.) The default value is ~/.bash_history. If unset, the command history is not saved when an interactive shell exits. 
$HISTFILESIZE environment variable
The maximum number of lines contained in the history file. When this variable is assigned a value, the history file is truncated, if necessary, to contain no more than that number of lines. The default value is 500. 
$HISTSIZE environment variable
The number of commands to remember in the command history (see HISTORY below). The default value is 500. 
$HOME environment variable
The home directory of the current user; the default argument for the cd builtin command. 
Contains the name of a file in the same format as /etc/hosts that should be read when the shell needs to complete a hostname. The file may be changed interactively; the next time hostname completion is attempted bash adds the contents of the new file to the already existing database. 
Automatically set to a string that uniquely describes the type of machine on which bash is executing. The default is system-dependent. 
In UNIX, the $IFS variable separates commands. It is usually conigured to be the semicolon (;) and newline characters. However, it can be reconfigured to be other characters as well. Data-driven attacks will sometimes seek to reset the IFS variable (e.g. IFS=x), then cause execution within the data field wihtout having to insert shell metacharacters. Tidbit: On Linux, the $FF variable may also be used like $IFS. 
The Internal Field Separator that is used for word splitting after expansion and to split lines into words with the read builtin command. The default value is ``<space><tab><newline>''. 
Controls the action of the shell on receipt of an EOF character as the sole input. If set, the value is the number of consecutive EOF characters typed as the first characters on an input line before bash exits. If the variable exists but does not have a numeric value, or has no value, the default value is 10. If it does not exist, EOF signifies the end of input to the shell. This is only in effect for interactive shells. 
$INPUTRC environment variable
The filename for the readline startup file, overriding the default of ~/.inputrc (see READLINE below). 
Each time this parameter is referenced, the shell substitutes a decimal number representing the current sequential line number (starting with 1) within a script or function. When not in a script or function, the value substituted is not guaranteed to be meaningful. When in a function, the value is not the number of the source line that the command appears on (that information has been lost by the time the function is executed), but is an approximation of the number of simple commands executed in the current function. If LINENO is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset. 
If this parameter is set to a filename and the MAILPATH variable is not set, bash informs the user of the arrival of mail in the specified file. 
Specifies how often (in seconds) bash checks for mail. The default is 60 seconds. When it is time to check for mail, the shell does so before prompting. If this variable is unset, the shell disables mail checking. 
A colon-separated list of pathnames to be checked for mail. The message to be printed may be specified by separating the pathname from the message with a `?'. $_ stands for the name of the current mailfile. Example: MAILPATH='/usr/spool/mail/bfox?"You have mail":~/shell-mail?"$_ has mail!"' Bash supplies a default value for this variable, but the location of the user mail files that it uses is system dependent (e.g., /usr/spool/mail/$USER). 
If set, and a file that bash is checking for mail has been accessed since the last time it was checked, the message ``The mail in mailfile has been read'' is printed. 
The previous working directory as set by the cd command. 
Automatically set to a string that describes the operating system on which bash is executing. The default is system-dependent. 
The search path for commands. It is a colon-separated list of directories in which the shell looks for commands (see COMMAND EXECUTION below). The default path is system-dependent, and is set by the administrator who installs bash. A common value is ``/usr/gnu/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:.''. 
The shell looks for commands and programs in a list of file paths stored in the PATH environment variable. An environment variable stores information in a place where other programs and commands can access it. Environment variables store information such as the shell that you are using, your login name, and your current working directory. To see a list of all the environment variables currently defined; type 'set' at the prompt. When you type a command at the shell prompt, the shell will look for that command's program file in each directory listed in the PATH variable, in order. The first program found matching the command you typed will be run. If the command's program file is not in a directory listed in you PATH environment variable, the shell returns a "commands not found" error. By default, the shell does not look in your current working directory or your home directory for commands This is really a security mechanism so that you don't execute programs by accident. What if a malicious user put a harmful program called ls in your home directory? If you typed ls and the shell looked for the fake program in your home directory before the real program in the /bin directory, what do you think woul dhappen? If you thought bad things, you are on the right track. Since your PATH doesn't have the current directory as one of its search locations, programs in your current directory must be called with an absolute path of a relative path specified as './program-name'. To see what directories are part of your PATH enter this command: # echo $PATH /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11 From Complete-Idiot's Guide to Linux
If set, the value is executed as a command prior to issuing each primary prompt. 
The value of this parameter is expanded (see PROMPTING below) and used as the primary prompt string. The default value is ``bash\$ ''. 
The value of this parameter is expanded and used as the secondary prompt string. The default is ``> ''. 
The value of this parameter is used as the prompt for the select command (see SHELL GRAMMAR above). 
The value of this parameter is expanded and the value is printed before each command bash displays during an execution trace. The first character of PS4 is replicated multiple times, as necessary, to indicate multiple levels of indirection. The default is ``+ ''. 
The current working directory as set by the cd command. 
Each time this parameter is referenced, a random integer is generated. The sequence of random numbers may be initialized by assigning a value to RANDOM. If RANDOM is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset. 
Each time this parameter is referenced, the number of seconds since shell invocation is returned. If a value is assigned to SECONDS. the value returned upon subsequent references is the number of seconds since the assignment plus the value assigned. If SECONDS is unset, it loses its special properties, even if it is subsequently reset. 
Incremented by one each time an instance of bash is started. 
and higher A method of numbering picture files for a roll of film that has been scanned for computer presentation 
Used by OS/2 to keep track of archived files 
native format 
Data file (GEOWorks) 
Used to number old (backup) versions of files (for example, CONFIG.SYS when changed by an installation program); also used to number 
Database index files used by (Superbase) 
Backup file (Iomega Backup) 
Backup data file (Iomega Backup) 
Lotus 123 97 file 
Smartmaster file (Lotus 1-2-3 '97) 
Documenting wizard list (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
Two-dimensional drawing file (VersaCAD) ( 
and 3GR VGA Graphics driver/configuration files (Microsoft Windows) 
A file for use in an 80386 or higher microprocessor 
Three-dimensional drawing file (VersaCAD) ( 
3D NURBS modeler, (Rhino) 
A file in 3D Studio (for DOS) format 
Data file (Used by digital cameras) 
Compiled code (Informix 4GL) 
Source code (Informix 4GL) 
Music file (Quartet) 
Music mod file (Composer 669)(Unis Composer) 
Tracker module (Composer 669) 
Source file (Assembly) (Similar to Microsoft Assembler) 
Screen files used in the installation and instruction on use of such applications as Microsoft Codeview for C 
Archive. lib*.a is a static library. 
Library file (Unix) 
Object code library 
Authorware 3.x library 
Authorware MacIntosh file (unpackaged) 
Authorware Windows file (unpackaged) 
Authorware 4.x library 
Authorware MacIntosh file (unpackaged) 
Authorware file (packaged without runtime) 
Authorware Windows file (unpackaged) 
Authorware 5.x library 
Authorware Windows file (unpackaged) 
Audible audio file (commonly used for downloadable audio books) 
Authorware shocked file 
Authorware shocked packet 
Applix Builder file 
Adobe Binary Screen Font 
Backup file (PrintMaster Gold) 
Corel Draw AutoBackup 
Audio album file (HitPlayer) 
Applix Builder Turbo file 
MPEG Audio Sound file 
Sometimes used to denote an abstract (as in an abstract or summary of a scientific paper) AutoBackup 
Standard GNU compiler output file for a PC platform 
HTTP animation file (Microsoft Agent) 
Project Manager Workbench file 
ACBM Graphic image 
DR-DOS Viewmax file 
Character definiton file (Microsoft Agent) 
ACE Archiver Compression <,,sid5_gci211828,00.html> file 
HTTP character file (Microsoft Agent) 
ACI development appraisal (ACIWEB) 
Corel Draw 6 keyboard accelerator file 
Dynamic Link Library (DLL) 
Interplay compressed sound file (Fallout 1,2, Baulder's Gate) 
Windows system directory file 
Microsoft Office Assistant Preview file 
American College of Radiology file 
Character structered storage file (Microsoft Agent) 
Action Presentation 
Documenting wizard action diagram (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
FoxPro Foxdoc Action Diagram 
Microsoft Office Assistant Actor file 
Used to Compress and decompress audio data 
After Dark screensaver 
<,,sid10_gci211523,00.html> Ada source text file (non-GNAT) 
Ada source text body file (GNAT) 
HP 100LX Organizer Appointment database 
Scanstudio 16 color Bitmap Graphic file 
OS/2 adapter driver file used in the boot process 
Amiga <,,sid9_gci211557,00.html> disk file 
AutoCAD device-independent binary plotter file 
QEMM Mca adaptor description library 
After Dark MultiModule screensaver (Microsoft) 
Windows NT <,,sid1_gci213368,00.html> policy template 
Lotus 1-2-3 Add-In file 
Astound Dynamite file 
Dynamic Page file (AOLserver) 
FaxWorks Faxmodem setup file 
After Dark Randomizer screensaver 
Smart Address address book 
Ada source text specification file (GNAT) 
AdTech Fax file 
HP NewWave datafile for card applications 
Archetype Designer Document 
Dynazip Active Delivery script 
Lotus Approach dBase Index 
Packed ADF file (Extracts with WinZip) 
Author/Editor file (SoftQuad) 
ArcExplorer project file 
ABC FlowCharter 2.0 Flowchart 
ABC Flowchart 
Apple Sound file 
Truevision Bitmap graphic 
Adobe metrics 
HP NewWave Cardfile application 
Applix graphic 
Adobe Illustrator drawing 
Corel Trace drawing 
Audio Interchange File, a sound format used by Silicon Graphics and Macintosh applications 
Similar to AIF (compressed) 
<,,sid9_gci213472,00.html> Similar to AIF 
AOL Instant Messenger Launch file 
AIN Compressed archive 
APL transfer file 
ACDSee Image Sequence 
Velvet Studio Instruments file 
Xerox Arry of Intensity Samples Graphic 
HP NewWave Cardfile Application data 
Contains all A-keywords in the RoboHELP Help Project Index Designer not associated with topics 
European Telephony audio 
JASC Image Commander album 
Document file (SAP proprietary format) 
Alias Image 
X Window System font alias catalog. 
Arts & Letters Library 
WordPerfect for Windows General printer information file 
Alias Image 
WordPerfect Library Menu 
Applix SHELF Macro 
DSMIA/Asylum module music (Crusader,No Remorse,Aladdin) 
Music file (Advanced Module Format) 
ACTOR System image 
AMGC Compressed archive 
Annotation file (Cocreate SolidDesigner) 
Extreme's Tracker module 
Velvet Studio music module (MOD) file 
Text file (Sterling Software) (Groundworks COOL Business Team Model) 
Canon Computer Pattern Maker file that is a selectable list of 
Microsoft Windows Animated cursor 
DeluxPaint Animation 
Windows 3.x Help annotation 
ANSI <,,sid19_gci213776,00.html> Text file 
SimAnt for Windows saved game 
Nokia 9000 Add-on software 
Applicatio binary object template file (ZenWorks snAPPshot) 
Applix Presents file 
WHAP Compressed Amiga archive 
Compiled application file (Centura Team Developer) 
Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver 
Dynamic application library file (Centura Team Developer) 
Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver 
Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver 
Project file (Allaire) (Created by Homesite) 
Application Program Interface; used by Adobe Acrobat <,,sid19_gci211517,00.html> 
Lotus 1-2-3 Printer driver 
APL Workspace file 
Application library file (Centura Team Developer) 
dBase Application Generator Object 
DR-DOS Executable Application 
FoxPro Generated Application 
Generated application or active document (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
Normal mode application file (Centura Team Developer) 
Symphony Add-in Application 
ArcView project file 
Employee Appraiser Performance Review file 
Lotus Approach 97 View file 
Advanced patching systems with error checking, (Similar to IPS) 
Microsoft Visual C++ file 
Lotus Approach Data view file 
Text mode application file (Centura Team Developer) 
Borland C++ Appexpert database 
Lotus Approach Paradox-Specific information file 
Applix data 
LH ARC (old version) compressed archive 
SQUASH Compressed archive 
Automatic Response file 
ARI Compressed archive 
Aristotle audio file 
Robert Jung ARJ compressed archive (ARJ) 
ARC File Archiver CPM/Port archive 
AOL v4.0 organizer file 
Atari Cubase Arrangement 
AOL Image file compressed using the Johson-Grace compression algorithm 
Canon Crayola art 
Clip Art 
First Publisher Raster graphic 
Ray Tracer file 
Xara Studio drawing 
ARX Compressed Archive 
Applix Spreadsheet 
Microsoft Visual InterDev <,,sid13_gci213682,00.html> file 
ASCII <,,sid9_gci211600,00.html> text file 
PGP <,,sid14_gci214292,00.html> armored encrypted <encrypti.htm> file 
Astound Presentation 
Lotus 1-2-3 Screen driver 
Microsoft Advanced Streaming Format (ASF) description file; opens 
WinWord AutoSave file 
Velvet Studio Sample file 
Lotus 1-2-3 Screen font 
Microsoft Advanced Streaming Format 
Music file (Electronic Arts) 
StratGraphics Datafile 
TASM 3.0 Assembly language header 
Borland C++/Turbo C Assembler Include file 
Assembler <,,sid10_gci211604,00.html> Language source file 
Pro/E assembly file 
Astound Dynamite Object 
<,,sid1_gci213787,00.html> Active Server Page (an HTML file containing a Microsoft server-processed script) 
Astound Presentation 
Procomm Plus setup and connection script 
Astound multimedia file 
Claris Works "assistant" file 
DataCAD Autosave file 
Cheyenne Backup script 
Microsoft Advanced Streaming Redirector file 
Video file 
Aldus Persuasion 2.0 Auto Template 
Adobe Type Manager data/info file 
AT&T Group 4 bitmap 
AnyTime Deluxe for Windows personal information manager file from 
Audio format (original Sun Microsystems generic sound file). 
Audio U-law (pronounced mu-law) 
Sun/NeXT/DEC/UNIX sound file 
Audio file (Westwood Studios) (Kyrandia 3,C&C,RedAlert,C&C:TS) 
ChiWriter Auxilliary Dictionary file 
TeX/LaTeX Auxilliary Reference file 
Avagio Publication 
Inculan Anti-Virus virus infected file 
Microsoft Audio Video Interleaved file for Windows movie 
Video format. 
Audio Visual Research file 
Application Visualization System file 
Stardent AVS-X Image 
File Extension (ArcView) 
Applix Words file 
HP AdvanceWrite Text file 
FaxView Document image 
awk program source file. 
AWK Script/Program 
Animation Works Movie 
Telsis file for digitally stored audio 
StatGraphics Data file 
ArcIMS XML project file 
ASCII application object template (ZenWorks snAPPshot) 
ARJ compressed file from a multi-volume archive (xx = a number from 01 to 99) 
Applause Batch list 
1st Reader Mono binary screen image 
Atari/Macintosh black and white graphic 
1st Reader Mono and color binary screen image 
ABC Ventura publisher printer font 
Helix Nuts and Bolts file 
Raw graphic file (Piclab Plane II) 
Oracle bad file 
Backup file 
Ballade Music score 
dBase Application Generator Horizontal menu object 
BASIC <,,sid8_gci213805,00.html> source code 
Batch file <,,sid1_gci211642,00.html> 
Papyrus Database backup 
TeX/BibTeX Bibliographic reference file 
Deluxe Paint Bitmap image 
Bulletin Board Sytem text 
Batch Process Object (dBase Application Generator) 
Datalex Entry Point 90 Data file 
Microsoft Works Communications file 
Bitstream Outline font description file 
Borland C++ Makefile 
Borland C++ 4.5 Environment settings file 
Microsoft Works Dababase file 
Egret Datafile 
West Point Bridge Designer file 
Microsoft Publisher Border 
Bitstream Outline font description 
Bradford 2 Font 
Windows 95 Briefcase Document 
Font Metrics file (Unix/Mainframe) 
Fax document file (BitFax) 
Microsoft Backgammon Game file 
OS/2 Graphic array 
Borland Graphics Interface Driver 
Microsoft Flight Simulator Scenery file 
pcAnywhere Host file 
Binary <,,sid9_gci211661,00.html> file 
Bibliography file (ASCII) 
bibtex LATEX bibliography source file. 
TeX/BibTeX Literature Database 
GroupWise initialization file 
Image Capture Board Binary Image black & white graphic 
XLITE 3D file 
Binary <,,sid9_gci211661,00.html> file 
OS/2 Bios file 
X11 Bitmap 
Backup file (Generic) 
JetFax Faxbook file 
WordPerfect for Windows Document backup 
Backup file (Generic) 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 1 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 2 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 3 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 4 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 5 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 6 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 7 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 8 
WordPerfect for Windows Timed backup file for document window 9 
TurboVidion Dialog Designer Backup 
IBM BookManager Read bookshelf file 
Microsoft Works Spreadsheet Backup 
FontEdit Fontset mirror image 
Resource archive (DreamWorks),(Neverhood) 
BASIC Bloadable picture file 
Alias Wavefront Image 
WordPerfect for Windows Temporary file 
Windows system Bitmap 
Apogee BioMenace data 
Corel Gallery file 
Windows Help bookmark 
Microsoft Bitmap file image format. 
Windows or OS/2 bitmap 
Instrument bank file (AdLib) 
Instrument Bank file (AdLib) 
Sound effects bank file (Electronic Arts) 
Compressed archive library file (Microsoft Booasm.arc) 
Bill of materials file (Orcad Schematic Capture) 
Microsoft Booasm.arc Compressed archive 
Adobe FrameMaker Book 
Lotus Notes file 
Business Plan Toolkit Chart 
Borland Delphi 4 packed library 
Microsoft Works Document 
CorelDraw Bitmap fills file 
Truevision Targa Bitmap 
BrioQuery file 
Bridge Script 
Eagle Layout file 
Brooktrout Fax-Mail file 
Application file associated with financial institution(s) loan applications 
A file for browsing an index of multimedia options 
DbBRZ file for very large Db backup or restore 
Apogee Blake Stone data file 
BSARC Compressed archive 
Apple II Compressed archive 
Fortran Pwbrmake Object 
MS Developer Studio (MSDev) browser information 
Quake map file 
Microsoft Bookshelf Find Menu shell extension 
Batch <,,sid10_gci211641,00.html> file used by Norton Utilities 
Database file (Btrieve 5.1) 
Backup disk for Quicken 
Bugs and Problems file 
CakeWalk Audio Bundle (a MIDI <,,sid9_gci212572,00.html> program) 
Buttons! Button definition 
Movie data file 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 1 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 2 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 3 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 4 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 5 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 6 
Wordperfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 7 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 8 
WordPerfect for Windows Overflow file below insert point in document 9 
SGI Black and White image file 
Silicon Graphics Raw red,green and blue bytes file 
Visual Baler Spreadsheet application 
Kermit Beware buglist 
Business Wave file 
BYU Movie 
Bzip compressed file (Inix) 
File compressed with the bzip compression algorithm/program. These files are mostly redundant now. The vast majority of files are compressed using the superior bzip2 program. 
Bzip compressed file (Unix) (replaces Bz) 
File compressed with the bzip2 compression program. 
Atari/Macintosh black and white graphic 
C code 
C program source code. 
Site configuration for Secure Remote (CheckPoint VPN) 
Sphinx C-- Source code 
Ventura Publisher Print file 
Typhoon wave 
Computer Innovation (C86) Source code 
Telnet Server Initial cache data file 
Microsoft cabinet file (program files compressed for software distribution) 
dBase IV Executable file 
Softdesk Drafix Cad file 
Catalog file (Microsoft Clip Gallery v. 2.x,3.x,4.x) 
Calendar schedule data file 
CALS Compressed Bitmap 
SuperCalc 4/5 Spreadsheet 
Casio camera file 
Navigator Fax 
Compressed music file 
Telix Session Capture file 
Ventura Publisher Caption 
AtHome assistant file 
Comma-delimited ASCII file 
dBase Catalogue file 
Quicken IntelliCharge categorization file 
Microsoft clean boot <,,sid1_gci211696,00.html> file 
CubiCalc Fuzzy Logic System file 
Column binary file (used in IBM mainframe systems) 
Cobol Source code 
XLib Compiled Bitmap 
Generic Computer based training file 
C++ Source code 
Visual dBASE custom class file 
.cc, .cxx, .C, .cpp
C++ program source code. 
cc:mail archive file 
Visual Basic Animated Button configuration file 
Curtain Call Native bitmap graphic 
Data file (Calendar Creator Plus) 
Multimedia Viewer configuration file used in OS/2 
Symphony Communications Configuration file 
Corel Chart 
Intalk Communication Command Language 
Lotus CC:Mail "box" file (for example, INBOX.CCM) 
CyberChat data file 
XBTX Graphics 
Macromedia Director Shockwave cast file 
CD Audio Track 
CardScan Database (CardScan) 
Clipboard file 
Conceptual model backup file (PowerDesigner) 
TCU Turbo C Utilities Main database 
<,,sid26_gci213841,00.html> Microsoft Channel Definition Format 
Netcdf Graphic file 
Compact Disk filing system (WindRiver) 
Phillips Compact Disk Interactive file 
Atari Calamus Document 
Conceptual data model file (PowerDesigner Data Architect) (Sybase) 
Conceptual model file (PowerDesigner) 
Visual dBASE custom data module 
Corel Draw Vector drawing file 
Raw Audio-CD data file 
Corel Draw template 
CorelDraw Data file 
Corel Draw compressed drawing 
Microsoft's Visual Foxpro <,,sid13_gci213705,00.html> index 
The FarSide Computer Calendar Main CE file 
Tempra Show Bitmap graphic 
AutoDesk Animator Cel Image 
CIMFast Event Language file 
Certificate file (MIME x-x509-ca-cert) 
Imake Configurtion file 
.cf, .cfg
Configuration file or script. 
Comptons Multimedia file 
Configuration file 
CorelFLOW Chart 
ColdFusion <,,sid13_gci211812,00.html> template 
Corel FontMaster file 
Creative FM-Music 
Visual dBASE Windows customer form 
Atari Calamus Font data file 
TCU Turbo C Utilities C form object 
The Complete Fax Portable fax file 
Ventura Publisher Display font file 
<,,sid13_gci213846,00.html> Common gateway interface script 
Executable script that produces web page output. 
Computer Graphic Metafile 
Clipper 5 Header 
OS/2 configuration file 
Harvard Graphics 3.0 Chart 
Charisma 4.0 Presentation 
FontChameleon Font descriptor 
pcAnywhere remote control file 
ChiWriter Document 
File fragments saved by Windows Disk Defragmenter or ScanDisk 
WordPerfect for Windows Temporary file 
Configuration History Log 
Compiled HTML file 
Ethnograph Data file 
Ventura Publisher Chapter file 
Character Sets (Font file) 
ChartMaster dBase Interface file 
ChartViewer file 
Harvard Graphics Vector <,,sid9_gci528553,00.html> file 
CalTech Intermediate Graphic 
Easy CD Creator image 
pcAnywhere caller file 
Clip Gallery download package file 
Sim City 2000 file 
OS/2 change control file that tracks changes to an INI file 
TCU Turbo C Utilities Database Index 
iD/Apogee Commander Keen 1 data 
iD/Apogee Commander Keen 2 data 
iD/Apogee Commander Keen 3 data 
iD/Apogee Commander Keen 4 data 
iD/Apogee Commander Keen 5 data 
iD/Apogee Commander Keen 6 data 
Borland C++ Keyboard mapping file 
Generic LISP Source code 
Layout file (Adaptec Easy CD Creator) 
Java class 
Disk Catalog database 
Cricket Software Clicker File 
Cloe Image 
Clipper 5 Compiler Script 
Quattro Pro Clip art 
Windows Clipboard 
1st Reader Binary color screen image 
PhotStyler Color defintion 
C++ Class Definition 
Visual Basic Class Module 
Craftman Data 
Database file in plain text format (APPLIX TM1) 
1st Reader External Command Menu 
Command file for Windows NT (similar to a DOS .BAT file), OS/2 
dBase-II program file 
DOS CP/M command file 
Corel Metafile 
Chessmaster saved game 
Card Shop Plus file 
CEnvi Batch file 
Address document 
CorelDRAW 4.0 Postscript Printer Header 
JPEG <,,sid26_gci212425,00.html> Bitmap 
Microsoft Word for DOS User dictionary 
Route 66 Address Document 
MediaPlayer Movie 
Corel Move animation 
Corel Presentation Exchange image 
Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black bytes file 
CNC General Program data 
Configuration file used by Telnet, Windows, and other applications with varying internal formats 
Windows application menu options and setup file 
Compuworks Design Shop file 
Windows (or other) system content files for the help index and other purposes 
Conversion files (WS_FTP Pro) files that will be converted from (Example) "HTML-"HTM" for upload 
Word for Windows Data conversion support file 
WordPerfect for Windows Temporary file 
COBOL Source code 
trueSpace 2 object 
dBase Application Generator Template source file 
FORTRAN Compiled code 
Microsoft C compiler output as displayable machine language/assembler with original C as comments 
Video Text file 
AutoDesk Animator Color Palette 
Microsoft Multiplan Spreadsheet 
Command file (program) 
attempts to compile the source files of a Help system 
Simdir Configuration file 
.conf, .config
Configuration file. 
CP8 256 Gray Scale image 
Complaints Desk Script 
Corel PrintOffice file (drawing) 
Fax Cover document 
Fax Cover document 
The Complete Fax (Fax file) 
Image file (Corel Print House) see CPO 
ColorLab Processed Image bitmap 
Microsoft MS-DOS code page information 
CeQuadrant CD Project 
Compel Presentation 
Control Panel Module 
Corel color palette 
Image file (Corel Print Office) 
C++ Source code 
CA-Cricket Presents presentation 
Corel Presents presentation 
Central Point PC Tools Backup 
Coloured postscript 
CA-Cricket Presents Template 
Corel Photo-Paint image 
dBase Encrypted Memo 
Macintosh Compressed Archive 
Corel Presentation Exchange compressed drawing 
Data file (Copy Books) 
COMPOZ Music Text 
Check file (Win-SFV32) (Fantasia Software) 
Circular reference file (Pro/Engineer) 
Microsoft Windows 3.x Cardfile 
Zortech C++ cross-reference 
Image file (Microsoft Golf) 
Corel Presents run-time presentation 
dBase IV Encrypted database 
Visual dBASE custom report 
WordPerfect 5.1 for Windows File Conversion resource 
Certificate file 
Crontab file) 
Oracle Terminal settings information 
CRUSH Compressed archive 
Comma deliminated text 
Corel script 
Statistica/w Graph file 
C shell script files (Hamilton Labs) 
csh shell script. 
Borland C++ 4.5 Precompiled header 
Script file (Kodak Dc265 Camera) 
Customer service data and outcome file 
PC Emcee On-Screen image 
<,,sid26_gci211749,00.html> Cascading Style Sheet (MIME) 
Statistica/w Datasheet 
Stats+ Datafile 
Macromedia Director "Cast" (resource) file 
Comma-separated values file 
CompuShow Adjusted EGA/VGA Palette 
A graphic file associated with the Paint Shop Pro Graphic Editor 
Scitex CT bitmap 
PC Installer Control 
Symphony Character code translation 
dBase IV Control 
Used in general for files containing control information. FAXWorks uses it to keep information about each fax sent and received. 
Microsoft Online Course Text 
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Ciphertext file 
Visual Basic User control binary file 
Microsoft Cue Cards data 
Cursor library file (IconForge) 
Windows Cursor 
Sun Microsystems Cursor 
Dr Halo Bitmap 
Corel Versions archive 
Microsoft CodeView information screen 
Canvas drawing file 
Claris Works data 
Claris Works template 
Macromedia Director protected (not editable) "Cast" (resource) file 
C++ source code 
2D/3D object file (3-D Fassade Plus) 
Commodore 64 emulator disk image 
Windows Registry Backup 
Data access page (Microsoft Access 2000) 
A data file extension used to designate an error message in a 
Data file 
Extension used for some MPEG <,,sid9_gci212601,00.html> files 
WordPerfect Merge Data 
Borderland's Paradox 7 table database 
Database file. 
Microsoft's Visual FoxPro <,,sid13_gci213705,00.html> database container file 
A dBASE file, a format originated by Ashton-Tate, but understood by Act!, Clipper,FoxPro, Arago, Wordtech, xBase, and similar database or database-related products. 
Enable database (can be opened with Excel 97) 
Oracle 8.1.x tablespace file 
dBase Database Backup 
Schematic backup file (Orcad Schematic Capture) 
Compiled program file (dBase IV) 
Paradox Memo 
dBase Text Memo 
Memo field file (Flexfile 2) 
Microsoft Windows 9.x Database file (DataBoss) 
DataBeam image 
Microsoft's Visual FoxPro <,,sid13_gci213705,00.html> Table file 
CAD file (DesignCAD) 
CAD file (DesignCAD) 
DataCAD Drawing 
Document Content Architecture Text file (IBM DisplayWrite) 
Visual Basic Active designer cache 
Data file (Dyadic) 
Disk Image file 
Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (image and data) 
DCM module 
Data CodePage (OS/2) 
Shockwave file 
Bitmap Graphics (Quark XPress) 
Datafile (ACT! Activity file) 
Desktop Color Separation file 
Database Dictionary file (Clarion Database Developer) 
Database SpellCheck Dictionary (Harvard Graphics 3.0-Symphony) 
Microsoft's Visual FoxPro <,,sid13_gci213705,00.html> database container file 
Delphi compiled unit 
Bitmap Graphics file (Multipage PCX) 
Fax image (based on PCX) 
Macro file 
Microsoft's Visual FoxPro <,,sid13_gci213705,00.html> database container file 
Compressed Archive (Macintosh DISKDOUBLER) 
Bitmap Graphics file 
Btrieve or Xtrieve Data Definition File, which contains metadata <,,sid13_gci212555,00.html> describing a Btrieve or Xtrieve file 
Image File (DISKDUPE) 
Digital Equipment or Compaq file. Used for storing images and their 
Device Driver Profile (OS/2) 
Debian package for the Debian distribution. 
Debug Script (DOS Debug) 
Assembly Header file (Geoworks) 
C++ definition file 
Define Module file (3-D Fassade Plus) 
SmartWare II data 
Oracle 7 de-install script 
A file with USGS standards for Digital Elevation Models (Vista Pro) 
Demo file (Descent) 
Graphics file (Vista Pro) 
Visual Basic Setup Wizard Dependency file 
Certificate file 
Device Driver 
Macintosh SoundCap/SoundEdit recorded instrument file 
Encrypted zip file (DES Encryption) 
Data Flow Diagram Graphic (Prosa) 
Outline Font description (Digifont) 
Default Program Settings (Signature) 
Data Flow Diagram model (Prosa) 
Sound File (Delight) 
Printing Form value (Microsoft Word) 
Microstation95 CAD drawing 
Diagnostics Report 
Dependency Information file (Geoworks) 
Graphic file (Dr. Halo II-III PIC Format) 
Datafile (Gauss) 
Diagraph Graphics file (Computer Support Corporation) 
Device-independent bitmap 
Dictionary file (Lotus Notes, Domino) 
Dictionary file 
Digital imaging and communications in medicine file (DICOM) 
Data Interchange Format spreadsheet 
Data Interchange Output file 
Database file (VisiCalc) 
Text file (Output from Data Interchange Format) 
Output of the diff program indicating the difference between files or source trees. 
Digilink file 
Sound Designer I audio 
Graphics file 
Dialing Directory (ProComm Plus) 
Directory (VAX) (DEC) 
Macromedia Director file 
Movie (MacroMind Director 4.x) 
X Window System font/other database directory. 
Distribution file (VAX Mail) 
Ray Tracer file 
Thesaurus file (CorelDraw) 
Description file (Description in ZIP) 
Graphics file (Ray Traced DKBTrace) 
Datafile (Lotus 1-2-3) 
C++ Dialogue Script 
<,,sid1_gci213902,00.html> Dynamic-link library file 
Export/Import Filter (CorelDraw) 
Downloadable sound 
Interactive music architecture (IMA)(Microsoft),(Blood2) 
Setup file (Norton DiskLock) 
Visual dBASE data module 
Packed Amiga disk image 
X-Trakker music module (MOD) 
Demo file (Derive) 
Dump file (Screen or Memory) 
Compressed Archive (Amiga DISKMASHER) 
Visual Basic User document 
DisplayWrite document 
Document format (Interleaf) 
FrameMaker or FrameBuilder document 
Microsoft Word document 
WordPerfect document 
WordStar document 
Screen Saver file (Laughing Dog Screen Saver) 
Dependency Information file (Geoworks) 
External Command file (1st Reader) 
Network Driver file (PKT_DIS.dos) 
Text file (DOS) 
Line-Type definition (CorelDraw) 
Word Document Template (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Text file (MultiMate 4.x) 
User document binary form (Visual Basic) 
Description out of Zip (VENDINFO) 
Calendar file (Daily Planner) 
Datafile (DataPhile) 
Borland Delphi 3 packed library 
Project header (Borland C++) 
Publication file (Publish-It!) 
Directory file 
Acorn's object-based vector image 
Design rules check report file (Orcad Schematic Capture) 
Display Resource file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Device Driver (Required to make a device function) 
Driver <,,sid5_gci212002,00.html> 
Lotus Freelance Image 
Pro/E drawing 
Vector graphics (Micrografx) 
Micrografx Designer Image 
Vector Graphics (Micrografx) 
Discard file (Oracle) 
Database file (DataShaper) 
Micrografx Designer v7.x file 
DooM saved game 
Driver file (Novell Netware) 
Project Desktop file (Borland C++/Turbo Pascal) 
Digital Sound Module (DSI) 
Dynamic Studio music module (MOD) 
Music module file (DSIK) 
Design (Object System Designer) 
ODBC Data source 
Schematic file (Orcad Schematic Capture) 
Display parameters (Signature) 
Graphics Display driver (Dr. Halo) 
Microsoft Developer Studio project 
Corel QUERY 
Driver Resource (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Visual Basic Active designer file 
Digital Sound file (Digital Soup)) 
Screensaver file (DCC) 
Distribution file (PC-RDist, by Pyzzo) 
Embroidery machines graphic file 
Desktop settings (Borland C++ 4.5) 
Microsoft Developer Studio workspace file 
Visual Basic Active designer binary file 
Datafile (Turbo C++) 
World Bank's STARS data 
<,,sid26_gci213918,00.html> SGML Document Type Definition (DTD <,,sid26_gci213918,00.html>) file 
Digital terrain elevation data (geographic data format) 
Database file (PFS-Questions & Answers) 
Symantec Q&A relational database 
Module file (DigiTrakker) 
Desktop layout file (SecurDesk!/SecurDesk! LV) 
Template file (Pressworks) 
Text Document (Timeworks Publisher 3.x) 
Data file fork (Macintosh) 
Microsoft Dial-up Networking Export file 
Duplicate Backup 
Digital video (MIME) 
Datafile (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Graphics file associated with camcorders (DV Studio) 
Binary file (TeX) 
Device Independent Document (TeX) (LaTeX) 
Device-independent file. Formatted output of .tex LATEX file. 
Desqview Program information (DESQview) 
Device parameter file (AutoCAD) 
Drawing file (DesignCAD for Windows) 
Compressed Archive (DWC) 
DiamondWare digitized file 
Drawing Web file (Microsoft WHIP autoCAD reader) 
Vector graphic (Autodesk) 
AutoCAD Drawing 
AutoCAD drawing, or older Generic CAD drawing file 
Document file (DeScribe) 
Workspace file (Dyadic) 
Digital Electric Corporation (DEC) Data exchange file 
Data Exchange File 
Drawing Interchange (eXchange) format,a text representation of the binary DWG format 
Drawing Interchange Format (AutoCAD) 
Fax document (Fujitsu dexNet) 
Macromedia Director protected (not editable) movie file 
Datafile (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Coverage export file (ArcInfo) 
Exchange file (Arc/Info) 
Error Checking Object file (Geoworks) 
EDMICS image 
EDMICS image 
Ensoniq ASR disk image 
ROOTS3 Geneological data file 
Element Definition document (FrameMaker+SGML documents) 
Ensoniq EPS disk image 
Ensoniq KT disk image 
Ensoniq SQ1/SQ2/KS32 disk image 
Ensoniq SQ80 disk image 
Default settings (VAX Edt editor) 
Ensoniq VFX-SD disk image 
Button Bar for Equation editor (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Ensoniq ASR file 
Ensoniq EPS file 
Ensoniq KT file 
Ensoniq SQ1/SQ2/KS32 file 
Ensoniq SQ80 file 
High Resolution Screen Font (ChiWriter) 
Ensoniq VFX-SD file 
Fax document (Efax Reader) 
Fax Document (Everex EFax) 
EGA Display font (Ventura Publisher) 
Lisp program source. 
Lisp Source code (eMacs) 
eMac Lisp Source code (byte-compiled) 
Theme-Pack file for (Microsoft FrontPage) 
Event List Text file (Prosa) 
Embedded bank File (Everest) 
ABT Extended MoDule 
Enhanced Windows Metafile 
Microsoft Outlook Express mail message (MIME RFC 822) 
Enhanced Menu System Configuration file (PC Tools) 
Terminal Emulation Data file (BITCOM) 
Encoded file (UUENCODEd File, Lotus 1-2-3) 
Music file (Encore) 
Video file 
Arrow-Head Definition Table (CorelDraw) 
Neutral Format 
Chart Graphics file (EnerGraphics) 
Dictionary Engine file (Sprint) 
Enveloper Macro (WOPR) 
Environment file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Publication file (Express Publisher) 
Enhanced Perl-parsed HTML 
Document file (Express Publisher) 
Encapsulated Postscript image file 
Encapsulated Postscript Vector graphics (Adobe Illustrator) 
Printer font (Epson, Xerox, Ventura Publisher) 
Adobe Level II Encapsulated Postscript 
Encapsulated PostScript 
Adobe Encapsulated Postscript Interchange 
Equation file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
ERWin file 
Entity Relationship Diagram graphic file (Prosa) 
Entity Relationship Diagram Model file (Prosa) 
Compilation error file (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
Stores the error messages that result when the RoboHELP Help 
ERWin file 
Extended Shell Batch file (DOS) 
Distributable support library file (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
ESPS audio file 
Document file (Ethnograph 3.x) 
Structure Enhanced text (SetText) 
Ensoniq ESP family compacted disk image 
Event Log (Microsoft Windows NT, 2000) 
Document (WordPerfect for Windows Envoy) 
Text Document (Express Publisher for Windows) 
Microsoft Encarta document 
Device Driver file (Harvard Graphics 3.x) 
Exclude file for Optimize (do not process, QEMM) 
Microsoft Word Exclusion Dictionary file 
Source Code file (Rexx VM/CMS) 
Executable <,,sid9_gci212086,00.html> file (program) 
Saved chat (ICQ) 
ASCII binary transfer file (WS_FTP PRO) (IPSWITCH Software) 
Second extended file system (Linux) 
Third extended file system (Linux) 
Compressed file ( (Edify Electronic Workforce Backup Utility) 
Compressed file archive (FREEZE) 
Fax document (Perfect Fax) 
Dos screen text font (height= 6 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 7 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 8 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 9 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 10 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 11 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 12 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 13 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 14 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 15 pixels) 
Dos screen text font (height= 16 pixels) 
Linear music module (Farandole) 
Blocked music module (Farandole) 
Source code file (FORTRAN 77) 
Fax document (Frecom FAX96) 
Face graphic 
Frequently Asked Questions document 
Music module (MOD) (Farandole Composer) 
Basic module file (3-D Fassade Plus) 
Navigation bar (Microsoft Outlook) 
Type image 
Backup (Navison Financials) 
Spell Check dictionary file (Harvard Graphics) 
Virtual CD-ROM file 
Binary file patch (Forward Compression) 
Declaration file (FORTRAN) 
Field offsets for compiler (DataFlex) 
Database (Navison Financials) 
Forms Document (Adobe Acrobat) 
Document form (F3 Design and Mapping) 
Button Bar for Figure Editor (WordPerfect for Windows) 
CADRE Finite Element Mesh 
Outline Font description (AGFA CompuGraphics) 
MS find fast file 
Fax document (defFax) 
GUS PnP bank file 
Image file (PrintMaster Gold) 
MS fast find file 
MS fast find file 
Final Form Text (part of IBM's DCA) 
MS fast find file 
Aldus Freehand 3 drawing (Vector graphic) 
Aldus Freehand 4 drawing (Vector graphic) 
File Interface (FORTRAN) 
Fractal <,,sid9_gci212149,00.html> Image 
REND386/AVRIL file 
File List Object (dBase Application Generator) 
File template (Application Generator) 
Overlay (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Print formatted text (Perfect Writer) 
File index table (Microsoft Windows NT) 
Graphic (FITS) 
CCD camera image 
Flexible Image Transport System file 
Patch file (Generic) 
Macro (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Movie (Macromedia Flash) 
Format library (Papyrus) 
FLIC animation (AutoDesk) 
Field define module file (3-D Fassade Plus) 
File folder (Charisma) 
Delived form (Corel Paradox) 
Driver (OS/2) 
License (Navison Financials) 
FLIC animation (AutoDesk) 
Font library (EmTeX) 
Distributable dynamic link library (DLL) (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
Film Roll (AutoCAD) 
FlowCharter file (MicroGrafx) 
Filelist document (Farrukh Imposition Publisher) 
Filter (Corel) 
Filter (Micrografx Picture Publisher) 
Graphics filter (Microsoft) 
Graphics filter support file (Asymetrix ToolBook) 
Music module (MOD) (StarTrekker) 
Open Flight file (MulitGen) 
Compiled binary file (DataFlex) 
FrameMaker Document (Adobe) 
Spreadsheet (FileMaker Pro) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3, version 2.x) 
Device driver (Harvard Graphics, version 3.0) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3, version 3.x) 
Binary source code for form, (Oracle, v4.x and later) 
File Manager button bar (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Font or Icon (IBM LinkWay) 
MakeFile (FORTRAN PowerStation) 
Mirror list (Oracle) 
Compiled format (dBase IV) 
Document file (FileMaker Pro) 
Csreen format file (Microsoft Visual FoxPro) 
Print file (Microsoft Schedule+) 
Style sheet (Sprint) 
Text format for form file (Oracle, v4.x and later) 
Executable form, (Oracle,v4.x and later) 
Font (Harvard Graphics) 
Saved Search (Find applet) (Microsoft Explorer) 
Font group (Font Navigator) 
Module (FunkTracker) 
Font (Generic) 
Inactive font (Exact) 
Font (Borland Turbo C) 
Font (Borland Turbo C) 
Fontographer font 
Saved message folder (1st Reader) 
Call log (Procomm Plus) 
Dialing directory (Telix) 
Font (Generic) 
System font (Generic) 
Form (WindowBase) 
FORTRAN source code 
On UNIX, a user can place an e-mail address in his ".forward" file. This will cause all e-mail sent to his account to be forwarded to that e-mail address. This file a is prime target of attackers. If they can overwrite this file, they can subtly start capturing the user's e-mail. This is especially dangerous if the the account in question is the root account. Note that the user doesn't have to know any about this file or have one on his system. The mere creation of this file by the intruder will activate this feature. Furthermore, since this file starts with a 'dot', it is normally hidden from the user, so they won't even be ware that this feature exists. 
Font-related file (Generic) 
Installed TrueType font (Microsoft Windows Font Installer) 
Configuration file (FoxPro) 
FileMaker Pro file 
"Flying Pigs" screensaver datafile (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
FileMaker Pro v.3 & 4 document file 
Document file (FileMaker Pro v.5) 
Catalog file (FoxPro) 
FileMaker Pro file 
Memo fields (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Floorplan drawing (FloorPlan Plus for Windows) 
Bitmap (FlashPix) 
Renamed dBaseIII+ form (dBase IV) 
Font (FontMonger) 
Uncompiled report (dBase IV) 
Zip (compressed ) file (Macintosh) 
Document (FrameMaker or FrameBuilder) 
Executable file (Oracle,v3.0 and earlier) 
Form (Generic) 
Form (Visual Basic) 
Merge form (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Symbol Report (DataCAD) 
Compiled report (dBase IV) 
Form (PerForm PRO Plus) 
Screen Font Resource (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Report menu (FoxPro) 
Form stash file (Visual Basic) 
Report (Microsoft FoxPro) 
fPrint Audit Tool 
Form (Paradox for Windows) 
Paradox 7 form (Borderland) 
Saved form (Corel Paradox) 
Sample file (Farandoyle) 
Linkable program (dBFast) 
Data (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Full text index (Lotus Notes) 
Index file (Roots3) 
Client access data specification file (AS/400) (Client to Server) 
Help system full-text search group file (Microsoft Windows) 
Font (MicroGrafx) 
File transfer protocol (Internet Generic) 
Help system full-text search index (Windows) 
Document file (Family Tree Maker) 
Database (Framework II) 
Database (Framework II) 
Database (Framework III) 
Database (Framework IV) 
Data file backup for file splitting configuration (FileWrangler) 
Data file for file splitting configuration (FileWrangler) 
On-Line guide (FastLynx) 
Phonebook (FAXit) 
Compiled source code (FoxPro) 
Fax Transmit graphic (WinFax) 
Bank dump file (Casio FZ-1) 
Full dump file (Casio FZ-1) 
Voice dump file (Casio FZ-1) 
Data chart (APPLAUSE) 
G3 fax format image file. 
Raw CCITT G.721 //$bit ADPCM data 
Raw CCITT G.723 3 or 5bit ADPCM data 
Raw Graphics (one byte per pixel) Plane III (PicLab) 
Album (Corel Multimedia Manager) 
Fax document (GammaFax) 
Emulator ROM image file (Nintendo GameBoy) 
Color emulator ROM image file (Nintendo GameBoy) 
Global definitions (VAXTPU Editor) 
Lisp source code (Golden Common Lisp 1.1) 
Lisp source code (Golden Common Lisp 1.1) 
Generic (TM) CADD drawing (later versions) 
Image processing file (Ground Control Point) 
Database file (InterBase) 
Dictionary file (GEOS) 
Bells, whistles, and sound boards module 
Genealogical data (GEDCOM) 
Graphic Environment Document (drawing) 
Graphics editor file (EnerGraphics) 
Graphics editor native format (Arts & Letters) 
Metafile (GEM) 
Vector graphics (Ventura Publisher) 
Compiled template (dBase Application Generator) 
Generated text (Ventura Publisher) 
Geode (Geoworks) 
Unfinished-Download (GetRight) 
Compressed gif image (GIFBLAST) 
Patton&Patton Flowcharting 4 flowchart 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Font (NeoPaint) 
Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation 
Chart (Graph-in-the-Box) 
<,,sid1_gci212189,00.html> Windows 95 global index (containing help status) 
<,,sid26_gci213984,00.html> Bitmap (CompuServe) 
.gif, .giff
GIF image file. 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Presentation (Graph-in-the-Box for Windows) 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Ensoniq EPS family disk image 
GripKey document (Gravis) 
Animation file (GRASP graphical System for Presentation) 
Datafile (Glim) 
Datafile (Across) 
Glossary (Microsoft Word) 
CGM Graphics (APPLAUSE) 
Tile map (Geomorph) (SPX) 
Graphical monitor record (Schlafhorst Automation) 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Genealogy document file (Genopro) 
Generated executable code (Micro Focus) 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Goc sorce code (Geoworks) 
Goc header (Geoworks) 
Geode parameter file (Geoworks Glue) 
Graph (Lotus 1-2-3/G) 
Program package (Omnigo) 
Graph paper application file (GraphPap) (Generates graph paper) 
Screen driver (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Datafile (SigmaPlot) 
Graph (Microsoft) 
Shell Monitor (MS-DOS v5.0) 
Image processing grid (CHIPS) 
Graph (Charisma Graph Plus) 
Grapher (Golden Software) graph 
Pictures group (PixBase) 
Program Manager Group (Microsoft) 
Raw graphic (GREY) 
Presentation (GraphShow) 
Vector graphic (Professional Draw) 
Audio stream Raw 'byte aligned (GSM 6.10 audio stream) 
Audio stream Raw GSM (6.10 audio stream) 
GSM w. header/QuickLink file (US Robotics voice modems) 
GSM w.o. header/VoiceGuide/RapidComm file (US Robotics voice modems) 
Sketch pad file (GeoMeter Sketch Pad) 
Zip file (Gnuzip) (Allows for output to html) 
Worksheet (GraphShow) 
Music module (Graoumftracker) (new) (MOD) 
Music module (Graoumftracker) (old) (MOD) 
Data (PopMail) 
Greetings WorkShop file 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Graphics Link presentation (Genigraphics) 
Graphics library (Genus) 
Compressed file (Unix gzip) 
File compressed with the gzip compression program. 
C/C++ program header file. 
Program header (C) 
On-line Help (Flambeaux Help!) 
Header file (C++) 
Header file (Sphinx C--) 
Compressed archive (HA) 
Driver file (Novell Netware) 
Vector graphics saved file (Amiga) 
Compressed archive (HA) 
Accounting data file (Humanic Software) 
Handbook (MathCad) 
Configuration file (IBM HCM) 
Sound Tools file (HCOM) 
Production configuration file (IBM HCD/HCM) 
Help file (Help development kit) 
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) Geospatial Hierarchical Data 
Alternate download listing (ProComm Plus) 
Database header (Pc-File+) 
Datafile (Egret) 
Message header text (1st Reader) 
Message header text (ProComm Plus) 
Vector graphics (Harvard Draw) 
Help index (AutoCAD) 
Help index (Zortech C++) 
Document (HighEdit) 
Hellbender saved game (Microsoft) 
Macintosh BinHex <,,sid9_gci211663,00.html> 2.0 file 
HP font info (GEM) 
Drawing file (HP Graphics Language) 
Header file (C++) 
Help system map (Generic) 
Precompiled header (Power C) 
Help information for remote users (ProComm Plus) 
Audio file (HitPlayer) 
Help library (VAX) 
Help file (Generic) 
Windows Help file (DataCAD) 
Human machine interfaces MIDI music file (Descent) 
Alternate mail read option menu (ProComm Plus) 
Human machine interfaces MIDI music file (Descent) 
Program files (CNC) 
Lucas Arts Dark Forces WAD <,,sid9_gci213332,00.html> file 
Main data package file (Descent3) 
Mission file (Descent 1-2) 
Document file (HotSend) 
Ascii text Roman8 character set (NewWave Write) 
Font language file (Hewlett-Packard) 
HP LaserJet font (Adobe Pagemaker) 
Partial download file (HotLine) 
HPGL Plotter vector graphics (AutoCAD) 
HPGL Plotter vector graphics (Harvard Graphics) 
Font information (GEM) 
Help Project file (Visual Basic) 
Compressed archive (HPACK) 
Alternative menu for privileged users (ProComm Plus) 
Emm text (HP NewWave) 
Header file (Zortech C++) 
Program header (C++) 
BinHex (Macintosh 4.0) 
Rastor graphic (Hitachi) 
Alternate menu for limited users (ProComm Plus) 
Monochrome image (Postering) 
FM synthesized music file (Used by many old games, e.g.:FINTRIS, ROL) 
Graphic (Handmade Software, Inc.) 
History file (Generic) 
History file (ProComm Plus) 
HyperTerminal file 
A HTML file that has been used to by viruses to update the system registry 
A Web page (a file containing Hypertext Markup Language - HTML - markup) 
.htm, .html, .shtm, .html
Hypertext Markup Language. A web page of some sort. 
<,,sid26_gci212286,00.html> A Web page (a file containing Hypertext Markup Language - HTML - markup) 
Hypertext template (Microsoft) 
Template (Extended HTML) 
Presentation (Hollywood) 
Korean word processor document format (HanGul) 
Alternate protocal selection menu (ProComm Plus) 
HAM extension (Descent2) 
Header file (C++) 
Hyphenation algorythm (Ventura Publisher) 
Hyphenation algorythm (Ventura Publisher) 
Datafile (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Hyphenation dictionary (WordPerfect for Windows) 
3D Image binary file (Hymarc Scandata Scanner) 
Compressed archive (HYPER) 
Intermediate file (Borland C++) 
SWIG source, or C preprocessor output. 
Text file (Sterling Software) (Groundworks COOL Business Team Model) 
Bitmap (IBM Image Acess eXecutive) 
Compressed archive (ARCHDOS, IBM Internal only) 
Bitmap graphic (Image Object Content Architecture) 
Citrix file 
Targa bitmap 
Catalog file (IronClad) 
Printer file (Kodak) 
Drawing file (IronClad) 
Icon Library (Generic industry standard) 
Image Color Matching profile 
Icon source code 
Icon (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Scene file (IronClad) 
Disk identification file (Generic) 
Intermediate file (Microsoft Developer) 
MIDI <,,sid9_gci212572,00.html> Instrument Definition 
Project file (Borland C++ v4.5) 
MIDI Instrument Definition (Windows 95 required file) 
Identification file (Netscape saved address book) 
Data Query (Internet) 
Vector graphic (IntelliDraw) 
Index file (Microsoft Clip Gallery v. 1.x) 
Index file (Pro/Engineer) 
Microsoft Outlook Express file 
Relational database index (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Relational database index (Symantec Q&A) 
Form (JetForm Design) 
Image (Sun TAAC/SDSC Image Tool) 
Interchange file, (general purpose data storage format)) 
Digital Video Disk (DVD) datafile 
Graphic object layer data (ImageForge Pro) 
Script file (KnowledgeMan) 
Compressed fractal image (Yuvpak) 
Create executable library (ImageForge/ImageForge Pro) 
System file (OS/2) 
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (Generic) 
Metafile (Inset Systems) 
Interchange file (QuickBooks for Windows) 
Music module 
Datafile (Scream Tracker) 
Bitmap (graphic image) 
Program outline (Microsoft ILink incremental linker) 
Raster graphic (Sun Microsystems) 
Image (WinImage) 
Vector graphic (EGO,Chart) 
MIDI music file (Corridor 7, Blake Stone, Wolfenstein 3D, Spear of Destiny) 
Bitmap graphic (Ventura Publisher) 
Image (GEM) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus Improv) 
Image presentation (ImageQ) 
Create executable library data (IconForge) 
configure input file. 
Installation file (HP NewWave) 
Input device driver (Harvard Graphics v3.0) 
Test script (Vermont High Test) 
internet email message (Microsoft Exchange Server v 5.0) 
Include file (Assembler language or Active Server) 
Index (dBase IV) 
Shared Database file (Specifically in Microsoft Windows) 
Software MultiModule screensaver 
Information file (Generic) 
Install script (Generic) 
Type I LaserJet font information file 
Info pages read with the info command. 
Bank setup file (Gravis UltraSound) 
Initialization file (Generic) 
Setup file (MWave DSP synth's mwsynth.ini GM) 
Pantone reference fills file (CorelDRAW) 
Inline function file (Microsoft Visual C++) 
Source code for form, (Oracle,version 3.0 and earlier) 
INRS-Telecommunications audio 
Datafile (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Install script (InstallShield) 
Installation script (1st Reader) 
Instrument file (Ensoniq EPS Family) 
Instrument music file (Adlib) 
Sample (Cell/II MAC/PC instruments) 
Sign-up file (X-Internet) 
Interfaced units (Borland) 
Intermediate executable code (Produced when a source program is syntax-checked) 
Index file (Foxbase) 
Compressed archive (CPIO) 
3D graphics database (TDDD format) 
Organizational chart (Instant ORGcharting!) 
Findit document (Microsoft Findit) 
File description (4dos descript.ion) 
Pantone Spot reference pallette (CorelDRAW) 
International patching system binary patch file 
Internet inquiry (Microsoft) 
Resource file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Spell checker dictionary (RapidFile) 
Compressed archive (ISH) 
<,,sid19_gci214046,00.html> Lists the files on a CD-ROM; based on the ISO 9660 CD-ROM file system standard 
ISO (International Standards Organization table, aka: ISO) 
Sign-up file(X-Internet) 
Instrument file (Digitaltracker) 
Uninstall script (InstallShield) 
Music module (MOD) (Impulse Tracker) 
Settings file (intalk) 
Interface file (JPI Pascal TopSpeed) 
Instrument file (Impulse Tracker) 
Internet document set (possibly a Microsoft file) 
Sample file (Impulse Tracker) 
Open Inventor file 
Microdata dimension or variable-level file (Beyond 20/20) 
User subset profile (Beyond 20/20) 
Table or aggregate data (Beyond 20/20) 
Microdata directory (Beyond 20/20) 
Presentation flowchart (IconAuthor-HSC Interactive) 
Screensaver (Idlewild) 
Text file (IBM Writing Assistant) 
Install Watch document 
Start file (IconAuthor) 
Text file (Wang) 
Binary token file (IZT) 
Ricoh camera file 
Java ARchive (a compressed file for applets and related files) 
Graphic (Generic) 
Source code (Java) 
Datafile (SigmaScan) 
Image browser file (Paint Shop Pro) 
Project file (Project Scheduler 4.0) 
JPEG <,,sid26_gci212425,00.html> image 
JPEG <,,sid26_gci212425,00.html> image 
JPEG <,,sid26_gci212425,00.html> image 
Discovery chart-to-statistics (SAS JMP) 
Jill of the Jungle data (Epic MegaGames) 
Workbook file (Sigma Plot 5) 
Vector graphics file created by conversion of a IMG file (QuestVision) 
Journal (Microsoft SQL Server) 
Journal backup (VAX Edt editor) 
Graphic (Japan PIC) 
JPEG <,,sid26_gci212425,00.html> image 
compressed bitmap 
JPEG bitmap 
.jpg, .jpeg
JPEG image file. 
JavaScript source code 
Jet Suite document (eFAX) 
A HTML page containing a reference to a Java servlet 
Bitmap graphic (JPEG Tagged Interchange Format) 
Fax document (Hayes JT Fax) 
JPEG bitmap 
Java ToolKit file (Sun Microsystems) 
Text document (JustWrite) 
Library (JustWrite) 
Spreadsheet (Jazz) 
Sample file (Kurzweil 2500) 
MIDI file (text+MIDI) (Karaoke) 
Keyboard script (Borland C++ 4.5) 
Program source code (Knowledge Pro) 
Keyboard mapping script (Procomm Plus, LocoScript, Signature) 
Keyboard mapping script (Reflection 4.0) 
Lisp source code (Kyoto Common Lisp) 
Image (Kodak Photo-Enhancer) 
Macro (KEDIT) 
Datafile (Forecast Pro) 
Icon toolbar (DataCAD) 
Keyboard Macro 
Security file (Such as a software registration number) 
Image (KoFax Group 4) 
Digital postcard (Kodak) 
Contains all K-keywords in the RoboHELP Help project Index Designer not associated with topics 
KeyMaP (Korg Trinity) 
Toolpad (SmartPad) 
Bitmap graphic (IBM KIPS) 
Native Camera file (Konica) 
Sample (multi-floppy) file (Kurzweil 2000) 
Sample file (Kurzweil 2000) 
Sample File (Korg Trinity) 
Keyboard mapping (FTP) 
Game data (Kye) 
Linker directive file (WATCOM wlink) 
Source code (Lex) 
Source code (Lisp) 
Datafile (NCSS-SOLO) 
Label file (Visual dBase) 
Mailing labels (Microsoft Excel) 
Loadable module (LAN DLL) (NetWare) 
Clipart file (Printmaster Gold) 
Word Chart layout (APPLAUSE) 
Label generator data (dBase IV) 
Label (Clipper 5) 
Label (dBase IV) 
Label (dBFast) 
Bitmap (DeluxePaint) 
Linear Bitmap graphics (XLib) 
Compiled label (dBase IV) 
Compressed archive (LU) 
Display driver (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Labels (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Labels (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Linker control file (Norton Guides compiler) 
Used in a program (unknown) that monitors a network's response time 
Lockfile (Paradox) 
Datafile (FTP) 
Lection document (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Data History file (ACT!) 
Spreadsheet (Lucid 3-D) 
Long distance area codes file (Telix) 
Overlay file (dBase) 
Lock file (Microsoft Access) 
Library definition file (Geoworks Glue) 
Structured text file used for sharing information between E-Mail clients (Microsoft, Netscape and others) 
Library (Corel Paradox) 
Legacy document 
System game profiles (same as REG file) (Logitec Entertainment) 
Level file (NetHack 3.x) 
Dictionary file (Generic) 
Data resource file (LucasArts Dark Forces) 
LaserForms Plus file (Evergreen) 
Laser printer font (ChiWriter) 
Loft file (3-D Studios) (DOS) 
Logo procedure definition (LSRHS Logo) 
Application log file 
Application log file 
Header and footer logo (SuperFax) 
Logo file (PaintBrush) 
Startup logo (Microsoft Windows 3.x-9.x) 
Alternate file suffix for LZH 
Compressed Archive (LHA/LHARC) 
Compressed Amiga archive (LHWARP) 
Library file (Generic) 
Compressed archive (Generic) 
Logical Interchange data (Hewlett-Packard) 
Compressed archive (LIMIT) 
Interactive music sequencing data file (Electronic Arts) 
Line type file (DataCad) 
Listing (VAX) 
Output file produced by a Structured Query Reporting (SQR) program 
Logos library system file 
LaserJet file. Suitable input to a HP LaserJet printer. 
Text file (Hewlett-Packard LaseJet II printer) 
Database file (OpenSight-16 bit) 
Linked object (Microsoft Outlook Express Junkmail file) 
Document file (LapLink III) 
Exchange agent (Laplink) 
Datafile (Revelation) 
Linker response file (RTLink) 
Shortcut file (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Load file (Generic) 
Log file (Generic) 
Log file of a system service. This file grows with status messages of some system program. 
Compressed file (FileWrangler) 
A document reader used for downloading mortgage closing information (DesertDocs) 
Printer driver (TEKO) 
Helix Nuts and Bolts file 
Information file for laser printers (common with some scanning sofware) 
Video phone file (Intel) 
Linker response file (Microsoft C/C++) 
Language resource file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Logos library system file 
Saved library (Corel Paradox) 
Script library (Lotus) 
LINUX Software Map entry. 
AutoLISP, CommonLISP, and other LISP language files 
Spreadsheet (Legato) 
Keyboard macro (1st Reader) 
List file (Generic) 
Spool file (Oracle) 
Form (Lotus Forms) 
Library unit file (ThoughtWing) 
Miner Descent/D2 Level extension (Parallax Software) 
Text document (LotusWorks) 
Wavelet graphics file (Luratech) 
Layered Object file (Lightwave) 
Object file (Lightwave) 
Wordpro 96/97 file (Lotus) 
Scene file (Lightwave) 
Linguistically enhanced sound file (Microsoft) 
Layer file (DataCAD) 
LyX word processor document. 
Difference file for binaries (Ldiff 1.20) 
Compressed archive (LH ARC) 
Compressed archive (LARC) 
Data file (Skyroads) 
Compressed Amiga archive (LHWARP) 
Compressed archive (Generic) 
Macro module (Brief) 
Program file (Matlab) 
Standard package (Mathematica) 
Text file (MASS11) 
MPEG-related file (MIME type 'mpeg') 
source code file (Modula 3) 
3D animation (Corel Motion) 
MPEG URL (MIME audio file) (MP3 Playlist) 
M4 Preprocessor file (Unix) 
Macro (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Image (MacPaint) 
Macro (Generic) 
Module (Microsoft Access) 
Form (Microsoft Access) 
A graphics format found in some Japanese files 
MAG graphics format created by Woody Lynn (MPS Magro Paint System) 
Configuration file (Magic Mail Monitor) 
Mail (VAX) 
Makefile (Generic) 
Project (Visual Basic or Microsoft C++) 
Macro (Microsoft Access) 
Command module (Unix) 
Man page. 
Manual page output (Unix) 
Color pallette (Generic) 
Format data (Micrografx Picture Publisher) 
Linker map file 
Map file (Atlas MapMaker) 
Map file (Generic) 
Map file used for color choices (Pro/Engineer) 
Network map (AccView) 
WAD <,,sid9_gci213332,00.html> game file (Duke Nukem 3D) 
Query (Microsoft Access) 
Assembly program (VAX Macro) 
Report (Microsoft Access) 
Graphics file (Lotus Freelance Smartmaster) 
Binary file (Matlab) 
Table (Microsoft Access) 
Sample format (Maud) 
3D scene (Kinetix 3D Studio Max) 
Document (Paperport) 
Layout file (OrCad) 
Source code (MAX) 
A format use by Division's dVS/dVISE 
Maze data file (Hover) 
Memo field values for database (Paradox) 
Data file (Apogee Monster Bash) 
Multiple index archive (dBase IV) 
Mailbox file (Berkeley Unix) 
Extension Microsoft Outlook adds to saved email, Eudora mailboxes 
Calling card (Dialer10) 
Configuration file (MathCad) 
Document (MathCad) 
Font file (MathCad) 
Magic control file 
Command script (Media Control Interface) 
Application script (Capsule) 
Printer driver (MathCad) 
Project file (Metrowerks CodeWarrior) 
Keyboard macro file (DataCad) 
Document (Microsoft Word for Macintosh) 
Text document (MacWrite II) 
Compressed archive (MDCD) 
Add-in file (Microsoft Access) 
Workgroup (Microsoft Access version 2) 
Database (Microsoft Access) 
MDE file (Microsoft Access) 
Model (3D Design Plus) 
Model file (Quake) 
Model file element (Rational Rose) 
Music module (MOD) (Digital Trakker) 
Spreadsheet (CA-Compete!) 
Modem definition (Telix) 
Blank database template (Microsoft Access) 
Add-in file (Data) (Microsoft Access) 
Data table (Microsoft ILink incremental linker) 
Workgroup (Microsoft Access) 
Multiple index file (dBase IV) 
Wizard template (Microsoft Access) 
ASCII text document (Generic) 
Macro editor bottom overflow library (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Macro editor delete save file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Music module (MOD) (OctaMed Music Editor) 
Macro editor macro (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Memory variable save file (Clipper) 
Memory variable save file (dBase IV) 
Memory variable save file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Macro editor print queue file (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Format for interchanging spreadsheet/database data; recognized by Filemaker, Excel, and others 
Macro editor resident area (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Macro editor workspace file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Message file (Generic) 
Document file (OmniPage Pro) 
Macro editor top overflow file (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Presentation Manager metafile 
Menu group (DOS Shell) 
Executable command (Matlab) 
Macro editor expound file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Meta-Font font program source file. 
Metafont text file 
Manufacturing file (Pro/ENGINEER) 
A file in a Materials and Geometry Format 
Font file (MicroGrafx) 
MHTML document (Microsoft) 
MHTML document (MIME) 
MHTML document (MIME) 
Data file (Cocreate ME10) 
Miscellaneous file (Generic) 
Image Composer file (Microsoft) 
MIDI <,,sid9_gci212572,00.html> music 
Interchange format (Adobe FramMaker) 
Machine Independent File (Generic) 
Datafile (MicroStat-II) 
<,,sid26_gci212575,00.html> A multipart file in the Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME <,,sid26_gci212576,00.html>) format; often created as the result of sending e-mail with attachments in AOL. The files in a multipart MIM file can be "opened" (unarchived and separated into individual files) using Winzip or a similar program. 
Object file (Power C) 
Package file (Command & Conquer) 
Picture file (Microsoft PhotoDraw 2000) 
Picture file (Microsoft Picture-It!) 
Resource archive (Westwood Studios) 
Audio file similar to MP3 (Mjuice) (Opens with WinAmp) 
Makefile (Generic) 
Makefile (Microsoft Windows SDK) 
Graphic Image (MagView 5.0) (Japanese) 
Datafile (TACT) 
Project file (Milestones 3.x) 
Macro library (Symphony) 
A file in 3D Studio's Material-Library format 
Muliple link interface driver file (Generic) 
Groupwise email file (Novell Groupwise) 
Text file (MultiMate Advantage II) 
Catalog file (Microsoft Clip Gallery 5.x) 
<mim.htm> A multipart file in the Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME <,,sid26_gci212576,00.html>) format; often created as the result of sending e-mail with attachments in AOL. The files in a multipart MME file can be "opened" (unarchived and separated into individual files) using Winzip or a similar program. 
Mail file (Microsoft) 
Mail message file (Microsoft Mail) 
Meal Master Format, a recipe catologing format 
Beyond 20/20 table or aggregate data file 
Bulk mail file (Created by MyMailList) 
Multimedia movie (MacroMind Director 3.x) 
Multimedia movie (Microsoft) 
Memo Writer file (RapidFile) 
MindManager file (MindMapor) 
Output video (Bravado) 
Mission file (Descent2) 
Mission file (Descent3) 
Menu source (AutoCAD Menu Compiler) 
MNI Mandelbrot for Windows 
Map (DeLorme Map'n'Go) 
Multi-image Network Graphics 
Menu file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Advanced macro (HP NewWave) 
Interact menu (Intertal Systems) 
Menu (AutoCAD Menu Compiler) 
Menu (Norton Commander) 
Menu file (Visual dBase) 
Compiled menu (AutoCAD) 
Menu (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Account book (Microsoft Money) 
Device definition (PEN for Windows) 
Amiga/PC tracker module 
FastTracker, StarTrekker, Noise Tracker (etc.) music module file 
Kernel module (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Modula-2 source code file (Clarion Modula-2) 
Spreadsheet (Microsoft Multiplan) 
Monitor description (ReadMail) 
Movie (AutoCAD/AutoFlix) 
Movie (QuickTime for Microsoft Windows) 
Zipped (Compressed) mod file 
MPEG Audio Layer 2 file (MIME video file) 
MPEG Audio Layer 2 
MPEG Audio Layer 3 (AC3) file 
MPEG Audio Layer 3 (AC3) 
MPEG-related file (MIME type 'mpeg') 
Calendar file (Microsoft Project) 
Database file (Microsoft Project) 
MPEG animation 
MPEG animation 
Mathplan Macro library (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Drawing file (CAD) 
Project file (Microsoft Project) 
Menus (compiled) (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Bitmap graphics (Multipage TIFF) 
View file (Microsoft Project) 
Compiled menu program (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Exchange file (Microsoft Project) used for exporting data 
Multiple resolution bitmap graphics (Microsoft C/C++) 
MRI Scan 
Macro resource file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Archive (Magic Shadow) 
Common console document (Microsoft Windows 2000) 
Makefile (Microsoft C) 
Diagnostics report file (Microsoft MSD) (Diagnostics) 
Scene Description Language (Manchester) 
Mail message (Microsoft) 
Installer package (Microsoft Windows) 
Mission File (Descent) 
Network document (Microsoft) 
Paint bitmap (Microsoft) 
Windows Installer patch file 
Manuscript text file (Jove) 
Manuscript text file (MINCE) 
Manuscript text file (Perfect Writer) 
Manuscript text file (Scribble) 
Minispecification file (Prosa) 
Setup script (Microsoft SDK) 
Windows Installer transform 
Text file (Microsoft Word) 
Compressed CP/M archive (MSX) 
Math file (Derive) 
Music module (MOD) (Multitracker) 
Datafile (Minitab) 
Twain device driver (32 bit)(UMax) 
Menu (Quattro Pro) 
Online game called Ultima online 
Interactive music audio data file (Electronic Arts) 
Music (Generic) 
Music (MusicTime) 
Audio (Mus10) 
Server-side script file (Miva) 
Video accelerator file (Matrox) 
Multimedia Viewer file (Microsoft) 
Image file (Sony Digital Mavica) 
Interplay video file (Descent2, Fallout2) 
Stop frame file (AutoCAD-AutoFlix) 
Movie command file (AutoCAD-AutoFlix) 
Log file (Saber LAN) 
Animation (ProMotion) 
Smartmaster file (Lotus WordPro 97) 
Map file (ArcInfo) 
Datafile (Microsoft C) 
Presentation file (Make Your Point) 
Hard Drive Boot sector backup (MazeGold) 
Nanoscope files (Raw Grayscale) 
Metafile (NAP) 
Video file (EnerGraphics) 
Text file (Nota Bene) 
Instructions for numerical control machine (CAMS) 
Developer Studio file (Microsoft) 
CNC (Computer Numeric Control) file (CamView 3D) 
Change directory (Norton) 
Command File (Netware) 
Internal clipboard (Lotus Notes) 
Network database (Intellicom) 
3D low-polygon modeler (Nendo) 
Database file (1ACT! for Microsoft Windows) 
Index file (Cindex) 
Index file (dBase II-III-IV) 
Raster graphics (Atari Neochrome) 
Emulator ROMS for game console (Nintendo) 
Netlist output file (Orcad Schematic Capture) 
Network configuration file 
Network Common Data Form 
New info 
Emulator file used for game consoles (NES) 
Neutral File Format 
Info file database text 
Infobase file (Folio) 
Template file (Netobject Fusion) 
Online documentation database (Norton Guide) 
Icon Library file (EasyIcons-compatible) (Norton) 
Audio (NIST Sphere) 
Data (Oracle 7) 
Loadable Module (Netware) 
National Language Support file used for localization <,,sid19_gci212496,00.html> (for example, by Uniscape <>) 
E-Mail Trigger file (Norton LiveUpdate) 
Form (FormWorx 3.0) 
File (Netobject Fusion) 
Project schedule (Nokia Planner) 
Project schedule (Visual Planner 3.x) 
Source for interpreter (dBase Application Generator) 
Data file (NICOLET) 
Image file (Nero) 
Database (Lotus Notes version 2) 
Database (Lotus Notes version 3) 
Database (Lotus Notes version 4) 
Database (Lotus Notes) 
Document file (NetObject Fusion) 
Music module (MOD) (Noise Tracker) 
Startup files (Microsoft Windows NT) 
Database template (Lotus Notes) 
Executable ASCII text file 
Executable ASCII text file 
Tutorial (Norton) 
Index file (CA-Clipper) 
Message for new users (1st call) (Procomm Plus) 
Song file (Noteworthy Composer) 
News message (MIME RFC822) (Microsoft Outlook Express) 
Sound file (NeXT) 
Object file (Atari) 
Object file (GCC) 
Object file (Unix) 
Outfile (Sprint) 
Word processor document (Fujitsu OAS)(Japanese) 
Fax (NetFax Manager) 
Object cut/paste file (IBM LinkWay) 
Binder (Microsoft Office) 
Binder template (Microsoft Office) 
Object file 
Object browser data file (Borland C++) 
Script (ObjectScript) 
Visual interface (ObjectScript) 
Binder Wizard (Microsoft Office) 
Object craft file (Object Craft) 
Transcribed fax-to-text file (FAXGrabber) 
Type library source (Visual C++) 
Mailbox file (Microsoft Outlook Express) 
Form definition (ObjectView) 
Object File (3D Mesh) 
FileNew file (Microsoft Office) 
Template (Microsoft Outlook) 
Feldeinteilung module file (3-D Fassade Plus) 
Music module (MOD) (Oktalyzer) 
Object Library (OLE) (Microsoft) 
Object library (VAX) 
Backup file (Generic) 
<,,sid1_gci214126,00.html> Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) custom control (Microsoft) 
<,,sid1_gci214126,00.html> OLE object 
Text file (Olivetti) 
Voice file (Typhoon) 
Object Oriented Graphics Library 
Swap file (Shroom) 
Project file (Orcad Schematic Capture) 
Organiser Programming Language source file (Psion/Symbian) 
Active options (Exact) 
Output executable file (OPL) 
Developer Studio file (Microsoft) 
Optimize support file (QEMM) 
Organization chart (Org Plus for Windows) 
Extension DLL (OPL) 
Inactive options (Exact) 
Calendar file (Lotus Organizer 2) 
Lotus Organizer 97 file 
Configuration file (Oracle 7) 
Parameter file (Oracle) 
Script (Oracle 7) 
Calendar file (Lotus Organizer) 
Search file (Microsoft Office) 
Offline file (Microsoft Exchange/Outlook) 
Outline font description (Z-Soft Type Foundry) 
Template file (PrintMaster Gold) 
Template file (Super NoteTab) (Fookes) 
Text file (Olivetti Olitext Plus) 
Output file (Microsoft C) 
Database file (Revelation-DOS) 
Overlay file 
Overlay file 
Datafile (ObjectVision) 
Overlay file 
Overlay file 
Application parameter file (ReaGeniX code generator) 
Picture file (APPLAUSE) 
Source code (Pascal) 
Plot 10 drawing (Tektronics) 
16 Channel Music file (ProTracker 16) 
Patch file (Patch 22) 
Project Planner file (Primavera) 
Document file (PageMaker 6.0) 
Digital ID file (MIME) 
Worktable (PageAhead) 
Personal Address Book (Microsoft) 
Image (Stad) 
Package file (Sound Blaster Studio II) 
Keypad definition (Telemate) 
Compressed archive (PAK) 
WAD <,,sid9_gci213332,00.html> file (Quake) 
A compressed file (Generic) 
Color palette (Microsoft) 
Printer specific file (CorelDRAW) 
Password encrypted zip file (Hewlett-Packard) 
Parameter file (Fractint) 
Parts application (Digitalk PARTS) 
Permanent output file (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Source code file (Borland Pascal) 
exePatch utility used for Warcraft2 (WarHack) 
Hatch pattern file (DataCAD) 
Patch file (Advanced Gravis Ultrasound/Forte Technologies) 
Pattern file (CorelDRAW) 
Fax (FAXability Plus) 
Phone book (WinFax Pro) 
Setup file (PixBase) 
Document (First Publisher for Windows) 
Source code file (Powerbasic BASIC) (Genus) 
Dynamic library, an alternative to a native <,,sid8_gci212624,00.html> DLL <,,sid1_gci213902,00.html> (PowerBuilder) 
Phone book (FaxNOW!-Faxit) 
Turtle Beach Pinnacle Bank File 
Include file (PowerBasic) (Genus) 
Profiler binary input file (Microsoft Source Profiler) 
Microsoft Phonebook 
Library file used in a development environment (PowerBuilder) 
PowerBasic library (Genus) 
PBM image file format. 
Planar bitmap graphic (XLib) 
Portable bitmap graphic 
Profiler binary output (Microsoft Source Profiler) 
Resource file (PowerBuilder) 
Profiler binary table (Microsoft Source Profiler) 
Text file (IBM) 
Custom palette (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Ascii text IBM8 character set (NewWave Write) 
Application data file (Microsoft Powerpoint) 
Cutout picture vector graphics (PC Paintbrush) 
Image (Kodak Photo-CD) 
P-Code compiled test scripts as in Microsoft Test and Microsoft Visual Test 
Maps Eudora mailbox names to DOS filenames 
PCF image file--intermediate representation for fonts. X Window System font. 
Profiler command file (Microsoft Source Profiler) 
Patch file (Generic) 
Precompiled header file (Microsoft C/C++) 
PCI Miniport file (Microsoft Windows System file) 
Multimedia authoring tool graphics (IBM Linkaway-Live) 
Pickfile (Turbo Pascal) 
Audio file 
PCM file (OKI MSM6376 Sythesizer Chip) 
Live Update Pro file (Symantec) 
Animation (PICS) 
Picture storage file (Microsoft) 
PICT drawing (Macintosh) 
Text file (PC Write) 
PC Paintbrush bitmap (ZSoft) 
PCX image file. 
Bitmap graphics 
Data file (TACT) 
Database file (3Com PalmPilot) 
Physical model backup file (PowerDesigner) 
Graphic image that can be opened with Paint Shop Pro and Adobe PhotoDeluxe 
<,,sid40_gci214288,00.html> Portable Document file (Adobe Acrobat) (displayable with a Web browser) 
Definition File 
Formatted document similar to PostScript or dvi. 
Graphics file (ED-SCAN 24bit) 
Printer Definition File (Netware) 
Project description language file (Borland C/C++) 
Physical model file (PowerDesigner) 
Print Shop Deluxe file (Broderbund) 
Flowcharting PDQ Lite file (Patton&Patton) 
Hardware assembly source code file (Pldasm) 
Photographic image file (origin not yet identified) 
Database file (ProCite) 
Printer driver (Paintbrush) 
Document (Professional Draw) 
Database index file (ProCite) 
Image archive file (QuickViewer) 
Image archive file (Ulead PhotoImpact) 
Image archive file (Ulead PhotoImpact v.4.0) 
Program Editor bottom overflow file (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Program Editor delete save file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Program Editor macro (WordPerfect for Windows library) 
Program Editor print queue file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Program Editor resident area file (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Program Editor work space file (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Program Editor top overflow file (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Encrypted file (Alladin Systems) 
Type 3 font (ASCII) 
Type 1 font (binary) 
X Window System font file. 
Personal filing cabinet file (AOL) 
PF Component file 
Text file (First Choice) 
Paraform file for 3D modeling (Scandata) 
Programmable function keys (XTreePro) 
Printer Font Metrics (Microsoft) 
Database text file (PFS:Write) 
Printer font (ChiWriter) 
Page cut/paste file (IBM LinkWay) 
Printer graphics file device driver (PGRAPH Library) 
Plotter drawing (Hewlett-Packard) 
Portable Graymap (bitmap) 
Program file (Signature) 
Portable game notation file (ChessMaster and others) 
PGP encrypted file 
Manual page (man4dos) 
Optimized .goh file (Geoworks) 
Perl header file 
Phrase-table (Microsoft C/C++) 
Temporary file generated by Microsoft Help Compiler 
Phone list (QmodemPro) 
Phone list (UltraFax) 
Phone database (Metz Phone for Windows) 
<,,sid39_gci334246,00.html> HTML page that includes a PHP <,,sid39_gci334246,00.html> script 
PHP program source code (used for web page design). 
HTML page that includes a PHP <,,sid39_gci334246,00.html> script 
Phrases (LocoScript) 
HTML page that includes a PHP <,,sid39_gci334246,00.html> script 
perl <,,sid39_gci214291,00.html>-parsed HTML 
Low resolution picture file (Dages Elite) 
Medium resolution picture file (Dages Elite) 
High resolution picture file (Dages Elite) 
3D Image file (SoftImage) 
Bitmap (PC Paint) 
PICT drawing (Macintosh) 
Picture file (Lotus) 
Pixar picture file (SDSC Image Tool) 
PICT image file (Macintosh) 
Compressed archive (Macintosh) 
PIF drawing (IBM) 
Program Information File 
Vector graphics GDF file (IBM Mainframe) 
WAD file (Lucas Arts Dark Forces <,,sid9_gci213332,00.html>) 
Data file (Epic Pinball) 
Data file (Epic Pinball) 
Alias image file (SDSC Image Tool) 
Bitmap (Inset Systems) 
Project file (CA-SuperProject) 
Source Integrity file (MKS) 
Visual FoxPro memo file (Microsoft) 
Visual Foxpro Project (Microsoft) 
Visual FoxPro project file (Microsoft) 
Packed bitmap font file (TeX DVI) 
Compressed file archive (PKARC) 
Developer Studio application extension (similar to a DLL file) (Microsoft) 
Installer script (NEXT) 
Public Keyring (PGP) 
Packet file (Fidonet) 
Interleaf printerleaf (or WorldView) format 
Palette (Harvard Graphics) 
Perl or Prolog program source code. 
Property list font metric file (TeX) 
Source code file (Perl) 
Source code file (Prolog) 
Room plan (3D Home Architect) 
Chart palette (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Library file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Add-in file (Lotus 1-2-3) 
A format use by REND386/AVRIL 
Data description file (Oracle 7) 
Pre-linked library file (Clipper 5) 
Module (DisorderTracker2) 
Spreadsheet (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Pilot file (Descent 1-3) 
MPEG PLayList file (used by WinAmp) 
Sample file (DisorderTracker2) 
Drawing (HPGL Plotter) 
Palette (Generic) 
Plot drawing (AutoCAD) 
Pre-linked transfer file (Clipper 5) 
Sign-making software (Gerber Optical) 
Data file (PopMail) 
Presentation screen (Harvard Spotlight) 
Bitmap graphics (Presentation Manager) 
Module (Perl) 
Document (PageMaker 3.0) 
Document (PageMaker 4.0) 
Document (PageMaker 5.0) 
Document (PageMaker 6.0) 
Graphics (A4TECH Scanner) 
Program file (Amaris BTX/2) 
Printer device driver (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
<,,sid26_gci214307,00.html> Bitmap (Portable Network Graphics) 
Bitmap file (MacroMedia FireWorks) 
Browser catalogue (Paint Shop Pro) 
Portable aNY Map graphics (PBM) 
Graphic file (MacPaint) 
Pen Table plotting file (Pro/Engineer) 
QWK reader pointer file (MarkMail 2.x) 
Same as PNT file 
PIG file extension (Descent2) 
Optimized .goh file (Geoworks) 
3D polygonal modeling file (Innovmetric) 
Windows NT <,,sid1_gci213368,00.html> Policy file 
Message index (PopMail) 
Popup file (Visual dBase) 
PowerPoint template (Microsoft) 
Persistence of Vision file (Ray-Tracer) 
Chord chart (PowerChords) 
Compressed Amiga archive (POWERPACKER) 
Bitmap (Picture Publisher 4) 
PowerPoint Add-in (Microsoft) 
Button bar for print preview (WordPerfect for Windows) 
PostScript Printer definition file specification (Adobe Acrobat v.4.0) 
Pinnacle Program File (Turtle Beach) 
Graphics file (Microsoft PowerPoint) 
PolaroidPalettePlus ColorKey device driver (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Portable Pixelmap bitmap 
Pre-processed output file (Clipper 5) 
Desktop publishing default output file (Serif PagePlus) 
Document or finished project (Parson Power Publisher) 
PowerPoint slide show (Microsoft) 
Storyboard (Personal Producer) 
PowerPoint presentation (Microsoft) 
Master boot backup file (PowerQuest BootMagic) 
Drive image file (PowerQuest) 
Presentation (Aldus Persuasion 2.x) 
Printer driver (dBase IV) 
Postscript printer driver (dBase IV) 
Presentation (Aldus Persuasion 3.x) 
Resource (text or program) file (3com PalmPilot) 
Printer driver (Generic) 
Presentation (Lotus Freelance) 
Settings (Microsoft C/C++) 
Settings (Programmer's WorkBench) 
Output file (Profiler) 
Pixel Run Format graphics (Improces-Fastgraph) 
Printer driver (dBase IV) 
Settings file (Macromedia Director) 
System file (Microsoft Windows) 
Program file (WAVmaker) 
Program source files (Atari) 
Program source files (dBase IV, Clipper 5, and Microsoft FoxPro) 
Printer definitions (LocoScript) 
Control Language file (printer-ready bitmap) (Hewlett-Packard) 
Project file (3D Studio) (DOS) 
Parameter file (Generic) 
Print Table (space delimited text) 
Printer driver (Signature) 
Text file (Lotus 1-2-3-Symphony) 
Windows Printer file (DataCAD) 
Configuration file (Pro/Engineer) 
Graphics profile file (DOS) 
Project file (Terramodel) 
Source code file (Prolog) 
Data conversion saved project file (Oberon Prospero) 
Presentation file (Harvard Graphics for Windows) 
Printer resource font file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Procedure file (dBase IV) 
A print-formatted file 
Part file (CADkey) 
Part file (Pro/Engineer) 
Printer driver (Dr. Halo) 
Internet provider template file (psiMail) 
Compiled program (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Graphics file (Lotus Freelance 97) 
Postscript <,,sid9_gci212814,00.html>-formatted file (a Postscript printer-ready file) 
PostScript file, for printing or viewing. 
Sound Bank file (Pinnacle) 
Bitmap (Adobe Photoshop) 
Bitmap graphics (IBM printer Page SEgment) 
Outline PostScript printer font (ChiWriter) 
A-law audio file (psion) 
Sound data file (Epic Pinball) 
Studio module (ProTracker) 
Symbol table of IDE (Turbo Pascal) 
Image file (PaintShop Pro) 
Procedure (Prodea Synergy) 
Report file (PowerSoft) 
Personal Folder File (Microsoft Outlook) 
Device driver (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Template (PageMaker 3.0) 
Template (PageMaker 4.0) 
Script file (PubTech BatchWorks) 
Table file (Pro/Engineer) 
Table file (Pro/ENGINEER) 
Petal file (ASCII version of Microsoft Visual Modeler) 
Macro (PubTech BatchWorks) 
Music module (MOD) (Polytracker) 
QWK reader pointer file (QMail) 
Document (Microsoft Publisher) 
Public key ring file (PGP) 
Publication (Ventura Publisher) 
Map file (WarCraftII) 
Compressed archive (PUT) 
Script file (Instalit) 
Library file (Instalit) 
Local pointlist (Fidonet) 
Text file (Professional Write) 
Word document (Microsoft Pocket) 
Password list file (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Image file (a roll of film viewed using Photoworks) 
Text document (Professional WritePlus) 
PowerPoint wizard (Microsoft) 
Primary database index (Paradox) 
Pocket Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft) 
python <,,sid39_gci213538,00.html> Script file 
Python program source code. 
Saved emessages (YAHOO) 
python <,,sid39_gci213538,00.html> Compiled script file 
Default settings (Pizazz Plus) 
Overlay file (Pizazz Plus) 
Palette (Pizazz Plus) 
Settings (Pizazz Plus) 
Transfer file (Pizazz Plus) 
Swap file (Pizazz Plus) 
Document (PF QuickArt) 
Quick Access Group data file (Norton Desktop) 
Application file (Omnis Quartz) 
Saved query (dBase IV) 
Saved Query (Quattro Pro) 
Compiled query (dBase IV) 
Program file (Microsoft QuickBasic) 
Spreadsheet data (QuickBooks for Windows) 
Voice file (Qualcomm Pure Voice) 
Data file-segment 10 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 1 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 2 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 3 (Omnis Quartz) 
QuickDraw 3D Metafile (Apple) 
Data file segment 4 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 5 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 6 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segmnet 7 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 8 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file segment 9 (Omnis Quartz) 
Data file (Quicken) 
Backup of startup files (QEMM) 
Data file from the Quicken UK Accountancy/Tax/Invoice program (QuickBooks) 
Graphics file (Steve Blackstock Giffer) 
Query file (Microsoft Excel) 
Electronic library file (Quicken) 
Fax (QuickLink) 
Backup file (Microsoft) 
Image (MIME)(QuickTime) 
Import file (Quicken) 
Library file (Microsoft C/C++) 
Library file (Quick) 
Data (PostScript help file) 
Printer driver (QuickLink) 
Motion file (Quality) 
Option or services file (QMail 4.x Mail Door) 
Generated query program (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Print queue device driver (OS/2) 
Compiled query program (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Qardware definition file (Quick Qard Technology) 
Report builder file (Centura) 
Report file (Liberty for Windows 2.0) 
Equation Editor support file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
QRT graphics file (Ray Tracer) 
Query (dBase IV) 
Query (Microsoft) 
Datafile (Quicken) 
Tab file (Quake Spy) 
Movie file (QuickTime) 
Image file (QuickTime) 
Image file (QuickTime) 
Movie file (QuickTime) 
Preferences file (QuickTime) 
Image file (QuickTime) 
PICT image file (Macintosh) 
Image file (QuickTime) 
Write program file (Symantec Q&A) 
Message file (QWK Reader) 
Data file (Quark Xpress) 
Element library (Quark Xpress) 
Template file (Quark Xpress) 
Ratfor file (FORTRAN Preprocessor) 
Resource file (Pegasus Mail) 
Raw graphics (One byte per pixel) plane one (PicLab) 
Pcl 4 bitmap font (Intellifont) 
Sound file (RealAudio) 
Radar data file (Radar ViewPoint) 
Metafile (RealAudio) 
ReadAllOver (YOUniverse) 
RAR compressed archive (Eugene Roshall's format) 
Bitmap (Sun Raster Images) 
Datafile (RATS) 
Raw File Format (bitmap) 
Raw signed PCM data 
Raw signed PCM data 
Datafile (Rbase) 
Maintained by RoboHELP, the RBH file adds to the information contained in the Help project file 
Configuration file (emacs) 
Resource script (Borland C++) 
Resource script (Micosoft C/C++) 
Newsgroup file (Netscape) 
Registered level file (Descent1) 
Compiled UIC source code (Geoworks UI Compiler) 
Research document information format 
Resource Description Framework file (related to XML <,,sid26_gci213404,00.html> and metadata <,,sid13_gci212555,00.html>) 
Device-independent bitmap file 
Registered Level file (Descent) 
Datafile (Reflex) 
Datafile (EpiInfo) 
Record file (Sprint) 
Recorded macro (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Voice file (RapidComm) 
Path information file (Clarion Modula-2) 
Reference file (Generic) 
OLE registration file (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Registration file (Corel) 
Registration file 
data files for multiple users of a small-scale PC application 
Remarks file (Generic) 
Reply file (QWK Reader) 
Report file (CodeReporter) 
Report file (DataBoss) 
Report file (Report Designer) 
Report file (Visual dBase) 
Request file (Generic) 
Compiled resource file (Borland C++) 
Resource file (dBase IV) 
Resource file (Microsoft Visual C++) 
Revision file (GeoWorks) 
Report definition (Oracle) 
Source code file (REXX) 
Resource file (Generic) 
Raster graphics file (Sun) 
Revisable Form Text (part of IBM's DCA or Document Content Architecture) 
RGB files (Silicon Graphics) 
Symbol tables (ReaGeniX code generator) 
Resource header file (Borland C++ 4.5) 
Data file (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Graphics in Renderman format (3DReality) 
Fax document (Ricoh) 
Image file (Metacreations Painter 5) 
RIFF bitmap graphics (Fractal Design Painter) 
Graphics (remote access) 
Bitmap graphics (ColorRIX VGA Paint) 
Regestered level file (Descent1) 
Registered level file (Descent2) 
Bitmap graphics file 
Bitmap graphics file 
Wavefront raster image (SDSC Image Tool) 
Data file (Harvard Graphics Win 9.x) 
Graphics file (1 bit per pixel scanner output file) 
Run-Length Encoded bitmap (SDSC Image Tool) 
Realizer source code file (CA-Realizer) 
Video file (RealAudio) 
Document (Microsoft RegMaid) 
Rich Map Format (used by 3-D game editors to store a map) 
Rich music format (Beatnik) 
MIDI music 
Makefile (Clipper RMake) 
Xpl Program file (Nota Bene) 
Rendering slide (AutoCAD-AutoShade) 
Runoff file (VAX) 
FM music Adlib Music file (Roland) 
Cartridge-based home video game emulator file (exact copy of ROM contents in cartridges from Atari 2600, Colecovision, Sega, Nintendo, etc.; not interchangeable between emulators) 
Data file (Rescue Rover) 
Database (RapidFire) 
Text document (Replica) 
Video file (Tomb Raider) 
Package Manager (RedHat Linux) 
RedHat Package Manager rpm file. 
Crystal Reports file ( and a sub-set of Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Saved game file (Ace Road Rash) 
Datafile (Amiga Resource Reassembler) 
Red Storm bitmap (Rainbow 6 (Game) and several image editing programs) 
Resource file (Generic) 
Paradox 7 reports (Broderland) 
Resume file (WinWay Resume Writer) 
Response file (Generic) 
Resourse fork file (Macintosh Mac-ette) 
<,,sid43_gci214276,00.html> Rich Text Format document 
Help file script (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Used by RoboHELP to simulate the search feature of Windows help 
Run Time library (NU 7.0) 
Text file (Generic) 
Music module (MOD) (Real Tracker) 
Software update package data file (RTpatch) 
RoboHELP to speed complex operations 
RTSL document (RealAudio) 
Runtime library file (CA-Realizer) 
Extension used in InstallShield 
Compiled output p-code file (Softworks basic compiler) (SoftworksLtd) 
Scan Configuration file (MIME) (Microsoft) 
Review file (Generic) 
Resource Workshop data file (Borland C++) 
Script file (RenderWare) 
RAR compressed files from a multi-volume archive (xx = a number from 01 to 99) 
Assembler source code (Unix) 
Source code file (Scheme) 
Temporary sort file (Sprint) 
Instrument file (Scream Tracker v 3.0) 
16 channel music file (Scream Tracker v 3.0) 
Encrypted video file (Integrated Sensors) 
Datafile (SORITEC) 
Document (AMI Professional) 
Signed 8bit sample data file 
Compressed archive (SAR) 
Backup file (Generic) 
Configuration file (Generic) 
Saved game file (Generic) 
Raw Signed Byte (8bit) audio data 
Locking file (Superbase) 
Data definition file (Superbase) 
Storyboard data file (Storyboard Editor) 
File data (Superbase) 
Instrument file (Creative Labs SoundBlaster) 
Bank file (Soundblaster)/EMU SoundFont v1.x (Creative Labs Soundfont 1.0) 
Flash object (ShockWave) 
Dml program file (Superbase 4) 
Program file (Superbase) 
Query definition file (Superbase) 
Support file (Source Browser) 
Notes related to record data (Superbase 4 for Windows) 
Form definition file (Superbase) 
Display driver (Framework II) 
Pal script (Paradox) 
SAS catalog (Windows 95/NT, OS/2, Mac) 
Schedule+ 7.0 file (Microsoft) 
Renamed dBase III screen mask file (dBase IV) 
Saved game file (SIMM City 3000) 
Screen device driver (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Level file (Roller Coaster Tycoon) 
Datafile (SCA) 
Source Safe file (Microsoft) 
Text file (Generic) 
Datafile (Microsoft Schedule+ 7.0) 
Object description language graphics (Scodl Scan Conversion) 
Slide image (Matrix/Imapro SCODL) 
Command file (Microsoft Windows Explorer) 
Multimedia show (ScoreMaker) 
Spell checker configuration file (Symphony) 
Datafile (Microsoft Schedule+ 7.0) 
Schematics file (ORCAD) 
Fax document (SciFAX) 
Inspire native format (ScanVec) 
System configuration information file (Generic) 
Scheme source code file (Generic) 
Video game console ROM emulater file 
Scene data file (TrueSpace2) 
Screen file (Kermit) 
High score file (Generic game file) 
Dial-Up Networking Script 
Script file (BITCOM) 
Debug source code (DOS Debug) 
Fax image (Generic) 
Screen font file (LocoScript) 
Screen snapshot file (dBase IV) 
Screen snapshot file (Procomm Plus) 
Screensaver file (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
CT bitmap (Scitex) 
FoxPro forms (Microsoft) 
SAS catalog (Dos) 
SAS catalog (Unix) 
CASmate Native format (ScanVec) 
Bitmap graphics (ColorRIX) 
Chart (Stanford Chart) 
FoxPro forms (Microsoft) 
Screen file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Security file (ReaGeniX) 
Audio (Sound Designer I) 
Flattened file/data fork (Sound Designer II) 
SAS database (Windows 95/NT OS/2, Mac) 
File archive description (Fidonet Software Distribution Network) 
Spreadsheet (Staroffice)(StarCalc) 
Presentation file (Staroffice)(Starimpress) 
System Data File Format - legacy Unisys (Sperry) format 
Software distribution network information file 
Floppy disk image (Roland) 
Library file (SmartDraw) 
Software distribution network compressed archive 
Datafile (Cocreate SolidDesigner) 
Datafile (Cocreate SolidDesigner) 
Drawing (SmartDraw) 
Raw Midi Sample Dump Standard file 
Template (SmartDraw) 
Semicolon Divided Values file 
Graphic file (Lotus WordPro) 
Raw Signed DWord (32bit) data 
Midi Sample Dump Standard files compacted by SDX 
Self-expanding archive (used by Stuffit for Mac files and possibly by others) 
Secret key ring file (PGP) 
Secured animation file (Disney Animation Studio) 
Screen editor script files (SED) 
Data file (Copy Books) 
Printer seperator page (Generic) 
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) bitmap 
Animation file (Atari) 
Sequential instruction file (Bubble Chamber) 
Session file (Cool Edit) (common digital audio editor file ) 
Session information file (Clarion Modula-2) 
Internet Security Scanner file (ISS) 
Configuration file (1st Reader) 
Install driver sets (Symphony) 
Setup option file (Generic) 
Voice set files (Quartet) 
Sewing program file (Generic) 
SoundFile format (IrCam) 
Wps attribute storage file (OS/2 WorkPlace Shell) 
Bank file (Creative Labs Soundfont 2.0)(Soundblaster) 
SoundFont file (EMU version 2.0) 
Sound File Data (SoundStage) 
Graphics file (SIS Framegrabber) 
Printer font file (Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet Landscape) 
Printer font file (Ventura Publisher) 
Sound File Info (SoundStage) 
Sound file (Sonic Foundry) 
Pcl 4 bitmap font (Intellifont) 
Pcl 4 bitmap font (LandScape) 
Pcl 4 bitmap font (Ventura Publisher) 
Font file (SPX) 
Pcl bitmap font (Intellifont) 
Pcl bitmap font (Portrait) 
Pcl bitmap font (Ventura Publisher) 
Sample Resource (Sonic Foundry) 
Pcl 5 scalable font file (Intellifont) 
Screen font (ChiWriter) 
Mangled JPEG (Seattle Filmworks) 
Self-extracting archive (RAR) 
Image file (SnapGraphix) 
Graphics file (Stanford Graphics) 
Document w/graphics (StarWriter) 
Graphics file (Sonique) 
Graphics file (IRIS) 
Graphics file (Silicon Graphics) 
Standard Generalized Markup Language 
Standard Generalized Markup Language. Used to create documents to be converted to many different formats. 
Statistics file (STATGRAPHICS Plus) 
Save/Get keyboard macro (Signature) 
ASCii archive (Unix/SHAR) 
sh shell script.  It can be interpreted by any Bourne compatible shell.
Shell script (Unix) 
Presentaion file (Harvard Graphics) 
Document shortcut file 
Presentation (Corel Show) 
Bitmap (HotSpot) 
Compressed Apple archive (SHRINKIT) 
Compressed archive (Arthurian Shrink Archiver) 
Shell macro (WordPerfect for Windows Library) 
Audio compression file (Shorten) 
DOS shapes file (3D Studios) 
File format used by some programs for 3D modeling of multipart interactive triangle models 
Shapefile spatial data format (used by many GIS programs) 
Source code and shape file for text fonts (AutoCAD) 
File archive (Unix ASCii) (SHAR) 
Shell scrap file; reportedly used to send "password stealers" 
HTML file containing Server Side Includes (SSI) 
Presentation (Corel Show) 
Presentation (Harvard Graphics 2.0) 
Slide Show (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Shape entities (AutoCAD) 
Shapefile spatial index file (ArcView) 
Setup installation files (Microsoft Windows NT) 
Current program settings (Signature) 
Signature file (PopMail) 
Backup files (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Backup files (Sicherungskopie) 
Compressed archive of Mac files (Stuffit) 
Configuration file (Oracle 7) 
Secret Keyring file (PGP) 
Drawing file (AutoSketch) 
Resource file (Macromedia Director) 
Save Layout extension (PACT) 
Source code file (S-Lang) 
Slide Library File (AutoCAD) 
Compiled SALT script (Telix) 
Slide File (AutoCAD) 
Slide file (MAGICorp Slide Service) 
Symbolic link spreadsheet (SLYK) 
Sound data file (Generic) 
Script application language (SALT) (Telix script source) 
Maillist (SoftSpoken Mailer) 
Script file (ScriptMaker) 
Source code file (Smalltalk) 
Text file (Samna Word) 
Symbol file (DataCAD) 
Video game console ROM emulator file 
Fax document (SMARTFAX) 
Image file (Deer's Revenge) 
Image file (Nascar Racing '99) 
Image file (Smack Player) 
Macro (AMI Pro) 
Sample file (AdLib Gold) 
Samplevision format 
Emulator ROM image file (8-bit Sega Master System) 
SmartObject file (IconAuthor) 
Text file (Smart Ware II) 
Raw unsigned PCM data 
Sample (AKAI MPC) 
Sound file (NeXt) 
Sound resource (Macintosh) 
Sound file (Sounder) 
Sound file (SndTool) 
Midi song file (Midisoft Studio) 
Midi song file (Prism) 
Mailbox (mail folder) index (Netscape) 
Source code file (Snobol4) 
Output video file (Computer Eyes) 
Shared library file (Unix)(equivalent to a Windows DLL) 
Shared object file. lib*.so is a Dynamically Linked Library. [Executable program code shared by more than one program to save disk space and memory.] 
Solution file (Common used with game examples,tutorials) 
Network serial numbers (Quattro Pro) 
Sort information files (Paradox) 
Song file (Creative Labs SoundBlaster Studio II) 
Sound file (Creative Labs SoundBlaster Studio) 
Compressed archive for Unix (Sprint) 
Saved game (Roller Coaster Tycoon) 
Program file (Microsoft MultiPlan) 
Temporary file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Data file (Speech) 
Scalable font (Harvard Graphics 3.0) 
Scalable font (Speedo) 
Speedo X Window System font file. 
Slide presentation file (EnerGraphics) 
Glossary file (Sprint) 
Graphics file (Phillips Scanner) 
Graphics file (Siemens Scanner) 
Compressed archive (SPLINT) 
Customized printer driver (Sprint) 
Object file (ShockWave Flash) 
Personal spell dictionary (Signature) 
Printer spool file (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Sample file (DigiTracker) 
Sample file (Generic) 
Data file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Printer file (Sprint) 
Sound sample (SP Pack) 
Document letter (Sprint) 
Generated screen program (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Sprite (Image layering and resizing) 
Bitmap file (Acorn) 
Screen driver (Sprint) 
Spssx source code file (VAX/VMS) 
Source code file (Spitbol) 
Support file (MITAC disk/system management utility package) 
Picture file (Spectrum 512) 
Worksheet (SigmaPlot) 
Compiled screen program (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Structured Query Language (SQL) common code file 
Generally used by database products as an extension for SQL queries (scripts, text, or binary) 
SQL queries (Informix) 
Query result of audio search (Sonique) 
Structured Query Language (SQL) program file 
Compressed archive (SQUEEZE) 
Source RPM file. A 'tarball' that can be recompiled and installed which also allows RPM based systems to manage them. From Binh
Undefined file (Motorola) 
Raster graphics file (Sun) 
Video game console ROM emulator file 
SCript file (QuickLink) 
Source file (DataFlex) 
Bitmap graphics (Splash) 
Video file (Sub Station Alpha) 
Datafile (SAS/PC) 
SAS database (Dos) 
SAS data sets (Unix) 
Spreadsheet file (Enable) 
Datafile (SAS Transport) 
Disk Image file (Atari) 
Instrument library (Scream Tracker) 
Source code file (Little SmallTalk) 
Stamp file (NeoPaint) 
Saved state (Reflection 4.0) 
Stack file (SpinMaker Plus) 
Stub library (Genus GX Kernel) 
Standard script file (LocoScript) 
State transition diagram graphic file (Prosa) 
Compressed archive (SHRINKTOFIT) 
Stereolithography file 
Music file (Scream Tracker) 
Music module (MOD) (Scream Tracker 2) 
Shorter suffix for .shtml, an HTML file containing a server side include (SSI <,,sid9_gci214225,00.html>) 
State transition diagram model file (Prosa) 
Pascal stub OBJ file (Genus GX Kernel) 
Text file (Statistica) (StatSoft Software) 
Screensaver file 
Structure list OBJ file (dBase IV Application Generator) 
Project status information file (Microsoft C/C++) 
Song file (Music) (Scream Tracker) 
Data file (SmartTerm for Windows) 
Electronic book file (SmarText) 
Tax form (CA-Simply Tax) 
Style sheet (Generic text and graphics programs0 
Style sheet (Ventura Publisher) 
Suit library (Simple User Interface Toolkit) 
Summary file (Generic) 
Rasterfile graphics (Sun) 
Supplementary dictionary files (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Autosave file for document (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Simple Vector Format 2D image (Microstation) 
Autosave file for glossary (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Scalable vector graphics file (Adobe) 
Graphics file (Sonique) 
Autosave file for style sheet (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Interchange file format, 8SVX/16SV 
Sound file (Amiga 8SVX) 
Database file (SAVVY/PC) 
Raw signed Word (16bit) data 
Shockwave audio file in Macromedia Director (an MP3 file) 
Object (ShockWave Flash) 
Swag Packet file (SWAG Reader) 
Document backup file (Sprint) 
Swap file (DataCAD) 
Swap file (DOS) 
Smartpix symbol library (Ami Pro) 
Symbol file (Harvard Graphics 2.0) 
Backup of startup files (QEMM) 
Precompiled header file (Borland C++) 
Program symbol table (Generic to compilers) 
Symbol file (Harvard Graphics 2.0) 
SDSC Synu image file (SDSC Image Tool) 
Synonym file (Microsoft Word 5.0) 
Datafile (SPSS/PC) 
Datafile (SYGRAPH) 
Datafile (SYSTAT) 
System file (Generic) 
System file Device driver or hardware configuration file 
Graphics symbols (Harvard Graphics) 
Wave file (Yamaha SV-series) 
Source file (TADS) 
Tape archive (TAR) (Without compression) 
Tester symbol file (ReaGeniX code generator) 
Modeling software file (Sonata CAD) 
Temporary file for sorting index (dBase IV) 
Emulator tape image file (Commodore 64) 
Guitar Tablature file 
Table file (MapInfo GIS) 
image bitmap file (TIFF) 
Query tag name file (DataFlex) 
Turbo assembler help file (Borland C++) 
Text illustration file (TypeAlign) 
<,,sid39_gci213093,00.html> Tape Archive 
Compressed archive (TAR) 
tarred directory tree. 
See tarball. From Binh
Compressed ASCII archive (COMPRESS) 
Compressed ASCII archive (TAR) 
Gzip/Tape archive (Unix) 
Font file (Borland Turbo C) 
Font file (Borland Turbo C) 
Fax document (Imavox TurboFax) 
Interactive multimedia files (Asymetrix Toolbook) 
Memo backup file (dBase IV) 
Memo backup file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Toolbook file (Asymetrix Toolbook) 
Graphics (Native format) (Pagemaker TableEditor) 
Table of values (OS/2) 
Text elements (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Table (Project Scheduler 4) 
Configuration file (Borland C++) 
Configuration file (Turbo C) 
Turbo C Help file (Borland C++) 
Script in the TCL/TK Language 
Tcl/Tk source code (programming language). 
Drawing file (TurboCAD for Windows) 
Configuration file (Turbo Debugger for DOS) 
Disk image file (Teledisk) 
Configuration file (Turbo Debugger for WIN32) 
Saved track design (Roller Coaster Tycoon) 
Database file (TACT) 
Database file (Thumbs Plus) 
A file format use by the Imagine & Turbo Silver ray-tracers 
Font file (TheDraw) 
Typeface definition file (Speedo) 
Help file (Turbo Debugger0 
Keystroke recording file (Turbo Debugger) 
Symbol table (Turbo Debugger) 
Configuration file (Turbo Debugger for Windows) 
Fax document (Relisys TEFAX) 
Hostfile (Telnet) 
Input template (IconAuthor) 
Turbo Editor Macro Language script (Borland C++) 
Datasheet file (Idealist) 
TEX or LATEX document. LATEX is for document processing and typesetting. 
TEX text file (Scientific Word) 
Texture file 
.texi, .texinfo
Texinfo source. Info pages are compiled from these. 
Configuration file (Turbo Profiler) 
Area file (Turbo Profiler) 
Catalogue file (Tobi's Floppy Disk Cataloguer) 
Help file (Turbo Profiler) 
Form file (Form Tool Gold) 
LATEX font metric file. 
Tagged font metric file (TeX) 
TeX font metrics file (TeX) 
Statistics file (Turbo Profiler) 
Project file (On Target) 
Targa bitmap (Adobe Acrobat,TrueVision) 
Targa bitmap (Countour Mortgage Loan Format) 
TARGA image file. 
Winpoint Loan file (Microsoft Excel) 
Movie file (Dungeon Keeper 2) (Bullfrog Software) 
Video file (Electronic Arts) (Need for Speed I/II/III, NBA '96) 
Directory tree that has been archived with tar, and then compressed with gzip. Also a package for the Slackware distribution. 
Gzip/Tape archive (Unix) 
Desktop theme (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Thumbnail image file (Microsoft Clip Gallery v.1.x) 
Thumbnail (Graphics Workshop for Windows) 
Thesaurus dictionary (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Tag image bitmap file (TIFF) 
TIFF image file. 
Map file (Tiger) (Used by the US Government to distribute Map files) 
Fuzzy Logic knowledge base file (Togai InfraLogic Fuzzy-C Compiler) 
Texture/Image file (Playstation) 
Tile set (MahJongg 3.0) 
backup files (VAXTPU Editor) 
OLE type library files (Microsoft) 
Reference table (Bubble Editor) 
Text library (VAX) 
Type library (Visual C++) 
Compiled tool command language source code file (Swat) 
Two-Line element set (NASA) 
Project timeline file (Microsoft Project) 
Data file (Trellix) 
Tagged font metric file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Ztg global optimizer default optimizer file (Zortech C++) 
Temporary file (Microsoft Windows) (ALL) 
Script file (Telemate) 
Data file (BitWare) 
Table of contents file (Eudora Mailbox) 
Image file (Kodak Photo Enhancer) 
Self-Extracting archive (Atari ST) 
The Operation System for Atari line of 16/32 and 32/32 computers 
Configuration file (Turbo Pascal) 
Sesson-state file (Turbo Profiler) 
Template file (Harvard Graphics) 
Saved picture file (Roller Coaster Tycoon) 
Downloadable PCL Soft font file backup (HiJaak) 
Downloadable PCL Soft font file (HiJaak) 
Help file (Turbo Pascal) 
Encrypted lesson file (TutorPro) 
Residents units library (Turbo Pascal) 
Template file ( Cakewalk Audio) 
Template file (DataCAD) 
Template file (Harvard Graphics 2.0) 
Project file (Teleport Pro) 
Protected mode units (Borland Pascal 7.0) 
Command file (VAXTPU Editor) 
Turbo Pascal Unit (Turbo Pascal)(BGI) 
Packed graphics file (TutorPro) 
Packed wave files (TutorPro) 
Session-state file (Turbo Profiler for Microsoft Windows) 
Turbo Pascal Unit (BGI) (Turbo Pascal for Windows 9.x) 
Image file (ULead Photo Express) 
Compressed archive (GNUzip) 
Compressed archive (TAR) 
Session-state settings (Turbo Charge Debugger for DOS) 
Session-state settings (Turbo Charge Debugger for Win32) 
Saved game file (Coaster) 
Debug support file (Power CTrace) 
Directory tree file (PC-Tools) 
Script file (Kermit) 
Terminal file (Generic) 
Terminal settings file (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Project usage log (MKS Source Integrity) 
Translation support file (Quattro Pro) 
Executable file (MicroGraphix) 
Session-state settings (Turbo Debugger for Windows) 
Printer test file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
TrueType font (Generic) 
Truetype font. 
Translation tool kit file (Corel Catalyst) 
Client access data specification file (AS/400) (Server to Client) 
Tutorial file (Many programs use this suffix for their tutorials) (Generic) 
Table view settings (Paradox) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 1 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 2 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 3 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 4 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 5 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 6 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 7 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 8 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Overflow file above insert point in document 9 (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Table view settings (dBase IV) 
Data file (TABWorks) 
Template file (TagWrite) 
MS-DOS text 
Encoded briefing file (Descent/D2) 
Compressed archive (FREEZE) 
Compressed archive (TAR) 
Tax exchange format (Quicken and others) 
Support file (TeX) 
ASCII <,,sid9_gci211600,00.html> text-formatted data 
Plain English text file. 
Wave file (Yamaha TX16W) 
Time Stamp files (PageMaker 4.0) 
Old compression file (TAR), (COMPRESS) 
Compressed archive (Tar) 
User agent profile (Used by wireless telephony applications) 
Raw unsigned byte (8-bit) data 
Compressed archive (UltraCompressor II) 
New compressed archive (UltraCompressor II) 
Image filter (Photostyler) 
Unique Database (Microsoft Windows NT) 
Raw unsigned doubleword (32-bit) data 
Encrypted archive (UltraCompressor II) 
Object file (Ulead) 
Drawing file (AutoCAD and others) 
Binary file (Universal Hint System) 
Espire source code (Geoworks UI Compiler) 
User interface file (Sprint) 
Long prompts for Microsoft Windows (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Espire header file (Geoworks UI Compiler) 
Audio file (ULAW) 
(CCITT G.711) audio (US Telephony) 
Uploaded file information (Procomm Plus) 
Music module (MOD) (UltraTracker) 
Backup file (archive) (MemMaker) 
Datafile (Forcast Pro) 
UniMod music module (MOD) (MikMod) 
Text file (Unix specific information) 
Updated program data (dBase) 
Updated program data (Generic) 
Program file (ULead Photo Impact) 
Compiled updated datafile (dBase) 
Saved Image file (ULead Photo Express) 
Universal radar format (Radar ViewPoint) 
Internet shortcut file (Universal Resource Locator) 
Source Integrity file (MKS) 
Printer font w/updated USACII extended character set (Pagemaker) 
Audit trail file (Pro/Engineer) 
User database file (Procomm Plus) 
User database file (Tour) 
User database file (Turbo C++) 
Compressed ASCII archive (UUDE/ENCODE) 
UU-encoded file 
Executable compressed ASCII archive (UUDE/ENCODE) 
UU-encoded file 
Raw unsigned 16-bit) datafile (Word) 
Wave file (UltraTracker) 
Consistency check support file (ReaGeniX Code Generator) 
Main image input file (Vivid 2.0) 
8-bit audio file (CoVox) 
Asset management document (Milliplex OmniValue) 
Validity checks/referential integrity checks (Paradox for Windows) 
Values list object file (dBase Application Generator) 
Animation file (VistaPro) 
Annotated speech file (Generic) 
ASCII text file for data dictionary (Sterling Software Groundworks, COOL Business Team Enterprise Model) 
Variable file (IconAuthor) 
VBase file 
Project file (Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Remote automated registration file (Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Script file (Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Workspace file (Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Custom control file (Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Visual basic extension (Microsoft Visual Basic) 
Include file with color definitions (Vivid 2.0) 
Spreadsheet (VisaCalc) 
Unformatted voice file (Natural Microsystems) (NMS) 
Unformatted voice file (used by Cool Edit) 
Configuration file; defines objects for use with Sense8's WorldToolKit (Vevi) 
Virtual card file (Many programs use this extension) 
Virtual card file (Netscape) 
Class library (Microsoft FoxPro) (MFC) 
Visual workbench information file (Microsoft Visual C++) 
Class library (Microsoft FoxPro)(MFC) 
Graphics image (Generic) 
Targa bitmap 
Drawing file (ComputerEasy Draw) 
3D drawing file (CAD( (Ashlar) 
View file (Clipper 5) 
View file (Lotus Approach) 
Clip art file (PrintMaster Gold) 
Voting form (Voter) 
Voting form for customers (VFN) 
Video graphics array (Font type for display on a VGA Monitor) 
Video graphics array (Monitor type, also defines if your monitor is compliant with the new (1994) SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array) (SVGA) 
Visual display driver ( Generic CADD) 
Graphics file (Ventura Publisher) 
Graphics file (Jovian Logic VI) 
Virtual Instrument file (National Instruments LABView) 
Graphics file (Vicar) 
Bethesda video files (Terminator, Future Shock) 
Bitmap graphics (YUV12C M-Motion Frame Buffer) 
Screen device driver (Microsoft Word) 
Shell monitor file (Microsoft DOS v.5) 
Khoros Visualisation image (SDSC Image Tool) 
Khoros Visualisation image (SDSC Image Tool) 
Graphics Image (Viking) 
File identified as a virus-infected file by Norton AntiVirus and possibly others 
Graphics image file (VIS) 
Streaming video file (VivoActive) 
dVS/dVISE file (Division) 
Library file (Corel Ventura) 
Drafting program file (Vellum, by Ashler) 
Virtual memory file (Geoworks) 
Virtual memory configuration file (Adobe Acrobat Reader) 
On-line video file (Sierra) (Torin's Passage) 
Audio file (FaxWorks) 
Font characteristics file (Ventura Publishing) 
Vector markup language (used by Microsoft Office 2000) 
Text file with vms specific information 
Include file with object definiton (Vivid 2.0) 
Encrypted video and audio files used on current DVD's (Digital Video Disk) 
Audio file (Creative Labs Sound Blaster) 
Audio file (Quartet) 
Audio format (Soundblaster's own format). 
Object folder (VZ Programmer) 
Audio file (Talking Technology) 
Dialogic audio file coded using ADPCM <,,sid9_gci213763,00.html> 
Formatted voice file (Natural Microsystems) (NMS) 
Publication (Ventura Publisher) 
Graphics image file (VPGraphics) 
Video files (Westwood Studios) 
VQ Locator file (Yamaha Sound) 
VQ file (Yamaha Sound) (possible emerging standard) 
VQ Locator file (Yamaha Sound) 
Configuration file (Oracle 7) 
Overlay file (Quattro Pro) 
A VRML file 
Project file (VXRexx) 
Video device driver (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Include file w/surface definition (Vivid 2.0) 
Drawing file (flow chart or schematic)(Shapeware Visio) 
Download List file (GetRight) 
Simulation model (VisSim) 
A Windows 9x/NT ViruSafe version file; used to keep information about all the files in a directory; when a file is accessed, information is compared with the VSN information to ensure that they match 
Data print file (Schedule Soft) 
Image sprite (SPX) 
Smartshapes image file (Shapeware Visio) 
Stencil file (Shapeware Visio) 
Bitmap graphic file (TrueVison Vista) 
Targa bitmap (Generic) 
Workspace file (Shapeware Visio) 
Animation file (3D Studio) 
View file (dBase IV) 
View file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Text file (Volkswriter) 
Audio MetaSound plug-in (VoxWare Audio Compression Toolkit version 2.02.61) 
Audio plug-in (Voxware MetaVoice Toolkit) 
File viewer (PC Tools) 
Virtual device driver (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Word chart file (APPLAUSE) 
Printer font (AST TurboLaser) 
Printer font (Ventura Publisher) 
Startup file (Microsoft Windows 3.1) 
W3Launch file 
Temporary file for Sort or Index (dBase) 
Outlook file (Microsoft Outlook, Outlook Express) 
<,,sid9_gci213332,00.html> Large file for Doom game containing video, player level, and other information 
Texture file (Quake 2) 
Script source code file (Procomm Plus Aspect) 
<,,sid9_gci213473,00.html> Waveform sound (Microsoft Windows) 
Audio format (sound files common to Microsoft Windows). 
Compiled script file (Procomm Plus Aspect) 
Notebook (QuattroPro for Windows) 
Spreadsheet (QuattroPro for Windows) 
Text file (QuattroPro for Windows) 
Image file (Webshots) 
Batch file (Microsoft Windows 9.x) 
Backup file (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Upload file (Argo Webload II) 
WordBar File (Crick Software) 
Batch file (WinBatch) 
Wordbar template (Crick Software) 
Macro token list file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Data transmission file (Microsoft Works) 
Macro (WordPerfect fdor Windows) 
Product information description file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Database file (Info Select) by (Micro Logic) 
Database file (Microsoft Works) 
WebArt data file (database file that can be converted for use in many programs) 
Warftpd remote daemon <,,sid26_gci211888,00.html> file 
Web document (Corel Zara) 
Web source code file 
Bank file (Maui/Rio/Monterey) (Turtle Beack WaveFront) 
Audio waveform (WaveForm Manager Pro) 
Drum set (Maui/Rio/Monterey)(Turtle Beach WaveFront) 
Flowchart file (Winflow) 
Windows form (Virtual dBase) 
Symbol (Corel Draw) 
Program file (Turtle Beach WaveFront)(Maui/Rio/Monterey) 
Data file (NICOLET (Old Format), see NRF) 
Data file (WinFax) 
Worksheet (Lotus 1-2-3/G) 
Worksheet (Lotus 1-2-3 for O/S2) 
Data file (Wild Board Games) 
Wavelet compressed bitmap (Corel) 
Width table (Ventura Publisher) 
Wavelet image file (see WI) 
WinImage file 
Wireless identity module (Used by wireless application protocols) 
Window file (dBase) 
Window file (Microsoft FoxPro) 
Window preference file (Pro/Engineer) 
Script file (Reynolds & Reynolds) (Stores the results of a database query) 
Page wizard (Microsoft Publisher) 
Wizard file (Microsoft Word) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3 v. 1 and 2) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3 v. 3) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3 v. 4) 
Document file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3 Educational version) 
Spreadsheet (Quattro Pro) 
Document (Microsoft Works) 
Spreadsheet (Symphony 1.0) 
Worksheet spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Workspace file (Xlisp) 
REND386/AVRIL file 
Upload file (Argo Upload I) 
Graphics file (Virtus Walkthrough) 
Add-In file (Microsoft) 
Audio file in Microsoft Windows Media format (Can be changed to ASF) Siren (Sonic Foundry) 
Backup files for startup (MathCAD for Windows) 
Macro file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Text file (WordMARC) 
Metafile (Microsoft Windows) 
Text file (NeXT WriteNow) 
Outline font description file (CorelDRAW) 
Swap file (Microsoft Windows 3.x) 
Organization chart (Microsoft Windows OrgChart) 
processing documents 
Music module (MOD) (Grave Composer) 
Document file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Document (WordPerfect for Windows 4.0) 
Document (WordPerfect for Windows 5.0) 
Document (WordPerfect for Windows 6.0) 
Word processor document (ACT!) 
Demo file (WordPerfect for Windows) (ALL) 
Document (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Document (Enable) 
Fax document (WorldPort) 
Form file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Graphics file (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Microsoft Word for Windows vector graphics (DrawPerfect) 
Macro (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Macro (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Text document (Microsoft Works) 
Template (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
PerfectWorks document (Novell) 
Compressed spreadsheet (QuattroPro) 
Spreadsheet (QuattroPro/DOS) 
Spreadsheet (QuattroPro version 5) 
Spreadsheet (Symphony 1.1-2) 
Symphony file (Lotus) 
Template (Charisma) 
ReGet document 
Write document (Windows Write) 
Project file (CakeWalk Music Audio) 
Spreadsheet (Symphony 1.0) 
Virtual Reality model 
3D modeling file (Raindrop Geomagic) (Scandata) 
Compressed Amiga archive (WARP) 
Resource file (Microsoft Word for Windows) 
Another VRML <,,sid9_gci214153,00.html> fileject 
Text file (WordStar) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 1) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 2) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 3) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 4) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 5) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 6) 
Document (WordStar for Windows version 7) 
Document (WordStar for Windows 2000) 
WorkSpace file (Fortran PowerStation) 
Document (WordStar for Windows) 
Skin (WinAmp) 
Used by wireless telephony applications 
Wavelet Compressed Bitmap 
Interleaf WorldView format (a PDF format) 
Button bar for document window (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Keyboard layout file (WordPerfect for Windows) 
Add-in file (Microsoft Word) 
Music resource file (Relic Entertainment)(Home World) 
Document file (EXP for Microsoft Windows) 
AVS image (SDSC Image Tool) 
Source code file (Lex) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Macromedia Extra (program extension), 16 bit 
Macromedia Extra (program extension), 32 bit 
Corel Xara drawing 
A MIME 'X11" bitmap image 
XML Schema file 
Printer font file (Ventura Publisher) 
Printer font file (Xerox) 
Printer font file (24 Pin) (ChiWriter) 
Fax Document (Various) 
eXtensible hypertext markup language 
Instrument file (FastTracker II) 
Instrument sample file (ScreamTracker) 
Image file (Pagis) 
Image file (Xerox) (same as TIF) 
Image file eXtended (ScanSoft) the file is similar to TIFF and is a 
Wang imaging file (Included with Windows 95) 
Add-in file (Microsoft Excel) 
Archive (Xlib) 
Datafile (Microsoft Excel) 
Toolbar file (Microsoft Excel) 
Chart file (Microsoft Excel) 
Dialogue file (Microsoft Excel) 
Backup file (Microsoft Excel) 
Add-in file (Microsoft Excel) 
Dynamic link library (Microsoft Excel) 
Macro file (Microsoft Excel) 
Worksheet file (Microsoft Excel) 
Template file (Microsoft Excel) 
Translation table (Lotus 1-2-3) 
Translation table (Procomm Plus) 
Translation table (Symphony) 
VBA module (Microsoft Excel) 
Workbook (Microsoft Excel) 
Music module (MOD) (Fast Tracker 2) 
Compressed midi music (eXtended) 
eXtensible markup language 
XML source file. See XML. From Binh
Network file (Standard) 
Shortcut file (Microsoft Exchange) 
Datafile (Axon) 
X BitMap format 
XPM image file. 
Executable file (Waffle) 
Macro file (SuperCalc) 
Data file (Epic Megagames Xargon) 
Cross-reference file (Generic) 
External translation table (LocoScript) 
Data file (Xtree) 
X Window Dump format (SDSC Image Tool) 
Works file (Yamaha XG) (MIDI <,,sid9_gci212572,00.html> sequencing) 
Keyboard mapping file (Crosstalk) 
Session file (Crosstalk) 
Text file (Xerox Writer) 
Compressed ASCII archive (XXENCODE) 
Compressed ASCII archive (XXENCODE) 
Text file (XYWrite) 
Document file (XYWrite III) 
Document file (XYWrite IV) 
Document file (XYWrite III Plus) 
Document file (XYWrite for Windows 4.x) 
Compressed Amiga archive (YABBA) 
Grammar file (Yaac) 
yacc source file. 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Secondary index file (Paradox) 
Clipart library (Arts & Letters) 
Yearbook file (Microsoft Encarta) 
Graphics file (YUV) 
Compressed file archive (YAC) 
Compressed ASCII archive (COMPRESS) 
File compressed with the compress compression program.  Can be deflated using the 'uncompress' utility.
Unix file Compressed 
Game module (Infocom) 
Compressed file (FileWrangler) 
Software installation settings file (Microsoft Windows) 
Compressed text document (Zview) 
Data file (Zerberus) 
Graphics file (ZenoGraphics) 
File compressed with the pkzip (or PKZIP.EXE for DOS) compression program. 
Zip file Compressed archive 
Compressed Amiga archive (ZOOM) 
An early compressed file format 
Voice file (Zyxel Z-Fax) 
Temporary file (1ST Reader) 
AppExpert project database file (Borland C++ 4.5) 
Project backup file (Borland C++ 4.5) 
Menu backup (Norton Commander) 
Project backup file (Terramodel) 
A directory containing executable programs, primarily binary files. 
A directory that contains executable programs, the majority of which are stored in binary files. Most programs are found in directories /bin and /usr/bin; however, users often keep additional programs in private bin directories, such as /home/linux/bin. 
On UNIX, this is a virtual-file that can be written to. Data written to this file gets discarded. It is similar to the file call NUL on Windows machines. Key point: When rooting a machine, intruders will often redirect logging to /dev/null For example, the command ln -s /dev/null .bash_history will cause the system to stop logging bash commands. Culture: In the vernacular, means much the same thing as black hole. Typical usage: if you don't like what I have to say, please direct your comments to /dev/null. 
The directory on UNIX where the majority of the configuration information is kept. It is roughly analogous to the Windows registry. Of particular interest is /etc/passwd file that stores all the passwords. Key point: If an intruder can read files from this directory, then they can likely use the information to attack the machine. 
The file that contains a list of hostname to IP address mappings. In the old days of the Internet, this is how machines contacted each other. A master hosts file was maintained and downloaded to machines on a regular basis. Then DNS came along. Like the vestigial appendix. On Windows, this file is stored in %SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc. Hack: If you can write files to a user's machine, then you can add entries to his/her hosts files to point to your own machine instead. For example, put an entry for to point to your machine, then proxy all the connections for the user. This will allow you to perform a man in the middle attack. 
On UNIX, the "hosts.equiv" file lists other hosts that can be thought of as "equivalent" to this one. This machine will therefore "trust" these other machines. Users connecting to this machine from the listed machines will not have to present a password, it is assumed that these other machines have already verified the password. Analogy: The European Union (EU) doesn't have passport control between countries. You only have to present your passport when entering the first European country, then you can roam freely once inside the union. The "hosts.equiv" file creates a similar union of machines. Hack: Hackers will target this file. If their target is machine A, they may instead find that A trusts B, and B may be easier to break into first. At that point, the hacker can hop back to A using an account on B. Likewise, if a hacker can write to this file, they can tell the system to trust any other system on the network (including the hackers own machine). Hack: Older software would do a reverse DNS lookup on a connecting IP address. If the hacker controlled the DNS server, s/he could return a trusted domain name, and therefore be allowed into the system. Another older hack is the default "+" entry. 
The UNIX file that contains the account information, such as username, password, login directory, and default shell. All normal users on the system can read this file. Key point: The passwords are encrypted, so even though everyone can read the file, it doesn't automatically guarantee access to the system. However, programs like crack are very effective at decrypting the passwords. On any system with many accounts, there is a good chance the hacker will be able to crack some of the accounts if they get hold of this file. Key point: Modern UNIX systems allow for shadowed password files, stored in locations like /etc/shadow that only root has access to. The normal password file still exists, minus the password information. This provides backwards compatibility for programs that still must access the password file for account information, but which have no interest in the passwords themselves. Key point: The chief goal of most hacks against UNIX systems is to retrieve the password file. Many attacks do not compromise the machine directly, but are able to read files from the machine, such as this file. 
On UNIX, the configuration file /etc/services maps port numbers to named services. Key point: Its role in life is so that programs can do a getportbyname() sockets call in their code in order to get what port they should use. For example, a POP3 email daemon would do a getportbyname("pop3") in order to retrieve the number 110 that pop3 runs at. The idea is that if all POP3 daemons use getportbyname(), then no matter what POP3 daemon you run, you can always reconfigure its port number by editing /etc/services. Misunderstanding: This file is bad in order to figure out what port numbers mean. If you want to find out what ports programs are using, you should instead use the program lsof to find out exactly which ports are bound to which processes. If running lsof is not appropriate, then you should lookup the ports in a more generic reference. 
0-day (zero-day)
The term 0-day exploit describes an exploit that is not publicly known. It describe tools by elite hackers who have discovered a new bug and shared it only with close friends. It also describes some new exploit for compromising popular services (the usual suspects: BIND, FTP services, Linux distros, Microsoft IIS, Solaris servers). Many 0-day exploits are discovered by the victims when hackers use them, or by honeypots. The term "0-day" describes the fact that the value of exploits quickly goes down as soon as they are announced. The next day they are half as valuable. The 2nd day they are a 1/4 as valuable. Ten days later they are 1/1000 as valuable as on day 0. This is because script-kiddies quickly use the exploits on computers throughout the Internet, compromising systems before anybody else can get to them. Contrast: The term 0-day exploit describe the hard-to-use exploits by the discoverer himself (or close friends), in contrast to the easy-to-use scripts employed by script kiddies. For example, a buffer-overflow script will go through many phases as people try to find the right offsets for the target platforms, but will eventually end up as a broad-spectrum aim-and-shoot script that anybody could use. Key point: One of the dangers of 0-day exploits is BUGTRAQ camping. A hacker discovers all the services running on the target victim and waits for day-0 when the exploit is announced. At that time, the hacker attacks the systems with the new exploit. Key point: The term "0-day" describes any bit of information in the community, whether it is serial numbers, lists of proxies, or passwords to porn sites. As soon as such information becomes well-known and exploited by large numbers of people, it is then fixed by the victim. Information has a "half-life": the older it is, the less value it has. 
100 Voice Grade [technology] 
2-Disk Xwindow embedded Linux
Mungkie Associates Inc. provides 2-Disk Xwindow embedded Linux. The distribution is intended to be a demonstration of Mungkie Associates' embedded appliance development environment, showing the sort of environment that can be created for small appliance GUI systems. It is further intended to give a minimal Linux base system on 1 disk and a fully expandable X system implementation on a second disk. The two disks can be used together for a minimal system or the X disk can be used seperately on any libc2.1 linux system. The source tree is compiled on Debian and the /lib/ files taken directly from the Debian-2.2.3 distribution. The 2-disk system is free for personal use, but restrictions apply to commercial usage. Version 1.4rc802 was released November 6, 2002. Version 1disk1.0 final was released January 18, 2003. A 1disk 1.0 update was released February 5, 2003. Version 1.0.8 (Source code) was released May 30, 2003. 
Double Sided - Double Density (FDD) 
3D chess for X11 3 dimensional Chess for X11R6. Three boards, 96 pieces and 26 directions.  3Dwm is a 3D window manager for Linux From Binh
3D Device Dependent Interface (MS), "3D DDI" 
3 Dimensional Random Access Memory (RAM) 
The 3dwm project is working with the creation of a three-dimensional worspace manager that can run in the 3D Cube as well as on desktop computers. Note that wm does not stand for the term window manager. It is a bit misleading; 3dwm is not a window manager in the true sense of the word, but rather more of a gerneral user environment. The window manager functionality of the system is merely the tip of the iceberg; 3Dwm contains general primitives for building applications with three-dimensional interfaces. From 3dwm
A 3Dwm apps The 3Dwm clock application (tdwm-clock) is the first real application that is even remotely useful. It makes use of the 3Dwm Nobel API, including the new solid modeling support, to create a three-dimensional analog clock displaying the current time. 
A 3Dwm client A simple client which is builded using new libsolid. This is only an example on how libsolid work. 
A 3Dwm client This is a very simple 3Dwm client that connects to the exported GeometryKit in the server, creates a Geometry, loads a 3D file from the local system (in this case a simple model of an office, which also happens to be Rob's room), and passes it to the 3Dwm server. The 3Dwm server will happily render any geometry that is created, so running geoclient several times will add more geometries to the graphical output. Please note that you may need to zoom out (using the 'X' key) to see graphical output. The geoclient is able to open native .raw files as well as standard 3ds files (using MeshIO). In other words, you may experiment by loading other files than the supplied office model to the 3Dwm server. 
A 3Dwm client This is an example showing how libzorn work. 
Binary server daemon This package contains display binary server daemon. 
A 3Dwm client This is a simple client used for testing the 3Dwm texture capabilities. 
A 3Dwm client This will open a connection to the VNC server from the 3Dwm server, and the graphical output will be displayed on a single quad in the 3Dwm world (you may need to zoom out to see it). Currently, vncclient supports no interaction with the VNC window (the bindings and the actual communication code has been implemented, only the 3Dwm side is missing). 
3rd Generation . Internet Protocol (org., IP, GPRS, WLAN, mobile-systems), "3G.IP" 
3rd Generation Language 
Third Generation Partnerships Projects (org.) 
/for' poynt too'/ n. Without a prefix, this almost invariably refers to BSD Unix release 4.2. Note that it is an indication of cluelessness to say "version 4.2", and "release 4.2" is rare; the number stands on its own, or is used in the more explicit forms 4.2BSD or (less commonly) BSD 4.2. Similar remarks apply to "4.3", "4.4" and to earlier, less-widespread releases 4.1 and 2.9. 
4.4BSD rdist. This is the traditional rdist from 4.4BSD Lite with FreeBSD fixes. It is provided for compatibility with third-party rdist implementations. This is the binary package for 4.4BSD rdist. 
4th Generation Language 
4 GB [RAM] Tuning (RAM, GB) 
The 4Suite package contains XML-related tools and libraries for Python, including 4DOM, 4XSLT, 4XPath, 4RDF, and 4XPointer. 4DOM is animplementation of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) standard DOMAPI for HTML and XML content manipulation. 4DOM provides full distributed-object support based on the IDL used in the formal DOM specification. 4XSLT is an XSLT processor, which can be used to renderXML documents as customized and stylized HTML for current Web browsers. 4XSLT also provides a powerful programming API forapplications to use for low-level, customized transformations of XML documents. 4XPath is a library implementating the W3C's XPath language for indicating and selecting portions of an XML document. 4RDF is a toolkit and library for RDF processing. 4XPointer is a toolkit for processing fragment identifiers for URI references which locateresources of Internet media type text/xml. 
5th Generation Language 
TCP proxy for non-IPv6 applications 6tunnel allows you to use services provided by IPv6 hosts with IPv4-only applications and vice versa. It can bind to any of your IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and forward all data to IPv4 or IPv6 host. It can be used for example as an IPv6-capable IRC proxy. 
8-character password
Some systems, like Win9x and Solaris, limit the user to 8 characters in the password. Key point: Security conscious users of such systems need to make sure they use a more random mix of characters because they cannot create long passwords. Key point: Password cracking such systems is a little easier. 
8.3 filename
A filename corresponding to the standard MS-DOS gleaming conventions, which restrict filenames to 8 characters and optional extensions to 3 characters. From QUECID Such restictions can prove to be an infuriating problem like when transfering files across a heterogenous network such as between Windows and Linux machines. Since older versions of Windows only support 8.3 style filenames files transferred to it will be truncated. For example, "C:\Program Files" may appear to be "C:\Progra~1" From Binh
Standard protocol for radio-frequency wireless data transmission and networking. Also called Wi-Fi. 
802.11 High Rate (IEEE, WLAN), "802.11/HR" 
Command to print date and time in RFC822 format 
8 Phase Shift Keying (EDGE, mobile-systems) 
8-Vestigial Side Band, "8-VSB" 
Creates X menus from the shell. This is 9menu, a simple program that allows you to create X menus from the shell, where each menu item will run a command. 9menu is intended for use with 9wm, but can be used with any other window manager. 
An emulation of the Plan 9 window manager 8-1/2. 9wm is an X window manager which attempts to emulate the Plan 9 window manager 8-1/2 as far as possible within the constraints imposed by X. It provides a simple yet comfortable user interface, without garish decorations or title-bars. Or icons. And it's click-to-type. 
check file types and compare values 
On UNIX, a home directory can be referenced by using a tilde (~) followed by their login name. For example, "ls ~rob" on my computer will list all the files in "/home/rob". Key point: Web-servers often allow access to user's directories this way. An example would be Key point: A big hole on the Internet is that people unexpectedly open up information. For example, the file .bash_history is a hidden file in a person's directory that contains the complete text of all commands they've entered into the shell (assuming their shell is bash, which is the most popular one on Linux). 
a-Linux is an x86 floppy-based mini-distribution, where assembly code meets Linux kernel. It contains only programs written in assembly language. It is extemely small, yet functional, and provides HTTP and FTP services out-of-the-box. Initial version 0.17 was released August 17, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. 
Awk to Perl translator 
GNU a2ps 'Anything to PostScript' converter and pretty-printer a2ps converts files into PostScript for printing or viewing. It uses a nice default format, usually two pages on each physical page, borders surrounding pages, headers with useful information (page number, printing date, file name or supplied header), line numbering, symbol substitution as well as pretty printing for a wide range of programming languages. Historically, a2ps started as a text to PostScript converter, but thanks to powerful delegations it is able to let you use it for any kind of files, ie it can also digest manual pages, dvi files, texinfo, .... Among the other most noticeable features of a2ps are: - various encodings (all the Latins and others), - various fonts (automatic font down loading), - various medias, - various printer interfaces, - various output styles, - various programming languages, - various helping applications, - and various spoken languages. 
The a2ps filter converts text and other types of files to PostScript format. A2ps has pretty-printing capabilities and includes support for a wide number of programming languages, encodings (ISO Latins, Cyrillic, etc.), and media. 
Utilities to extract and decode ATCS A/52 streams Utilities to extract and decode ATCS A/52 streams. The A/52 standard is used in a variety of applications, including digital television and DVD. It is also known as AC-3. 
Auto Answer (MODEM) 
An ASCII art stereogram generator This program generates the well known and popular random dot stereograms in ASCII art. 
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting 
Advanced Audio Coding (IIS, MPEG) 
Authorization and Access Control (IETF) 
Authorized AutoCAD Dealer (AutoCAD, CAD) 
American Association of DOMAIN Names (org., USA, Internet) 
Advanced Authoring Format (MS) 
Allied command europe ACCIS Implementation Strategy (ACCIS, NATO, mil.) 
ATM Adaption Layer (ATM) 
sample programs using aalib AAlib is a portable ascii art graphics library. Internally, it works like a graphics display, but the output is rendered into gorgeous platform independent ascii graphics. This package contains a few sample programs that use aalib. 
Automatic Accoustic Management (ATA, HDD) 
American Association for Medical Systems Informatics (org., USA) 
Address Allocation Protocol (Multicast) 
Applications Access Point 
Association of American Publishers (org., USA) 
Appletalk Address Resolution Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk) 
ASCII Asynchronous Support Package (ASCII) 
Average Access Time 
Authorized Academic Training Program (MS, MCSD) 
A program to watch TV in a text-based console aatv is a program which allows you to watch TV in a text-based console, i.e. in a virtual console or in an xterm. 
Apple Attachment Unit Interface (Apple, AppleTalk) 
American Bankers Association (org., USA, banking) 
Advanced Business Application Programming/4 (SAP, R/3, 4GL), "ABAP/4" 
Automatic Bit Access Test System 
Apple Bulletin Board System (Apple) 
Translates ABC music description files to PostScript This is the Debian port of the abc2ps program by Michael Methfessel. The program translates tunes written in the ABC format to PostScript, which can then be viewed using Ghostview et al. or printed on a PostScript printer or through Ghostscript. It supports various semi-standard extensions to the ABC standard, such as multiple voices and staves. 
Altavista Business Card Directory (WWW) 
A Better CD Encoder A frontend program to cdparanoia, wget, cd-discid, id3, and your favorite Ogg or MP3 encoder (defaults to oggenc). Grabs an entire CD and converts each track to Ogg or MP3, then comments or ID3-tags each file, with one command. 
A converter from ABC to MIDI format and back This package contains the programs `abc2midi' and `midi2abc', which convert from the abc musical notation format to standard MIDI format and vice-versa. They can generate accompaniment from guitar chords in the abc file, as well as insert various MIDI events; the MIDI-to-abc translation tries to figure out bars, triplets and accidentals on its own. The package also contains `abc2abc' (an abc prettyprinter/transposer) and `mftext' (a program that will dump a MIDI file as text). The programs in this package are based on the `midifilelib' distribution available from 
Yet another ABC to PostScript converter This program translates tunes written in the ABC format to PostScript, which can then be viewed on screen or printed. It is essentially a (non-exclusive) alternative to abc2ps, being based on the abc2ps PostScript code together with the ABC parser from the abcmidi package. 
Advanced Boolean Expression Language 
ABnormal END (Netware) 
Application Binary Interface (POE) 
Application Binary Interface: details the machine language of the CPU family as well as the calls between the application and the operating system. 
binary compatibility checking tool ABIcheck is a tool for checking an application's compliance with a library's defined Application Binary Interface (ABI). It relies on ABI definition information contained in the library. Example definitions are given for GNOME and glibc. 
Advanced Basic Input Output System (IBM) 
Automatic Built In Self Test (IBM) 
WYSIWYG word processor AbiWord is the first application of a complete, open source office suite. The upstream source includes cross-platform support for Win32, BeOS, and QNX as well as GTK+ on Unix. AbiWord is still being developed. It's quite usable but not yet full- featured or polished. For many applications, however, it should prove effective and efficient. This program includes support for reading Microsoft Word files, RTF files, and many other foreign file formats. Natively, it uses a custom XML-based file format. 
Asynchronous Balanced Mode 
Augmented Backus-Naur Form (BNF) 
A text-based ncurses address book application. abook is a text-based ncurses address book application. It provides many different fields of user info. abook is designed for use with mutt, but can be used independently. 
Address Book Provider (Internet) 
Available Bit Rate (ATM, CBR, VBR, UBR, QOS) 
Apple Business Systems (Apple) 
Relating to file systems, the location of a directory or file that can be accessed regardless of the current working location of a user or program. For example, to access the Samba configuration file regardless of your current working directory, use the following absolute path: /etc/samba/smb.conf. 
absolute pathname
A pathname that explicitly identifies all directories from the root directory to an individual file. For example, pathname /home/linus/kernel/test refers to a file named test in directory kernel, which belongs to directory linus, which belongs to directory home, which belongs to the root directory /. 
Association of Banyan Users International (org., Banyan, VINES, user group, predecessor, ENA) 
AbulEdu is a Mandrake-based distribution for primary schools. It is currently in French but most of the tools can be translated. An AbulEdu server can handle Mac (netatalk), Windows (samba), GNU/Linux and X terminal (with LTSP) clients. The server acts as a central gateway for Web, mail, and printing, and facilitates the management of classes, pupils, and teachers. Everybody can publish Web pages on an intranet using Apache and all administration tasks are performed using a browser. The result is that a teacher who is not a computer specialist can install and manage a school network. Stable version 1.0.7-II was released May 26, 2003. Development version 1.0.11 beta 4 was released October 7, 2002. 
Crack dot Com's Abuse action game. Abuse is a side scrolling shoot-em-up action game from Crack dot Com. This package contains the Abuse game engine, in X and full screen svga versions. It requires a mouse. This package is obsolete and will be removed later (if you still need it, contact the maintainer). Please use abuse-sdl instead. 
Access Concentrator (PPPoE, ADSL) 
Access Control (Token Ring, ...) 
Amiga Club (org., user group, Amiga) 
Area Code 
Automatic Computer 
[digital] Audio Compression - 3 (Dolby, DVD, Digital audio), "AC-3" 
Audio CODEC 97 (Intel, CODEC) 
Asynchronous Communications Adapter 
AutoCAD (AutoCAD, CAD) 
Application Control Architecture Services (DEC) 
Area Communication Controller (MODACOM) 
Atari Competence Center 
check user's permissions for a file 
determine whether a file can be accessed 
access control (access)
Access control refers to controlling access by a user to a computer system, or data on that system. In formal terms, a "subject" (e.g. a user) attempts to access the "object" (e.g. system or data). An access control system will evaluate the security levels of the subject and object in order to see if access is permitted. Example: A simple example is the case where you enter a username and password in order to log onto the computer. Contrast: mandatory access control The system gives users "clearance levels", and assigns sensitivity levels to information. Therefore, if you only have "secret" clearance level, you cannot access "top-secret" information, but you can access "secret" or "confidential" information. See: Bell-LaPadula Model for more information. discretionary access control This system assigns subjects (users) to one or more groups. An object (system or file) contains a DACL (discretionary access control list) enumeration which users and groups may access the object. See: Access Control List for more information. Key point: There are different kinds of access. Read access means that somebody can read information, whereas write access implies that that somebody can change the data. For example, you can get a copy of your credit report and read it, but you can't necessarily change the data. 
Access Control List (access, ACL)
Controlling access not only the system in general, but also resources within the system. For example, firewalls can be configured to allow access to different portions of the network for different users. Likewise, even after you log onto a file server, the server may still block access to certain files. Key point: An Access Control List (ACL) is used to list those accounts that have access to the resource that the list applies to. When talking about firewalls, the ACL implies the list of IP addresses that have access to which ports and systems through the firewall. When talking about WinNT, the ACL implies the list of users that can access a specific file or directory on NTFS. Contrast: Discretionary Access Control is the ability to have fine grained control over who has access to what resources. Misconception: Many people believe that firewall IP address rules or IEEE 802.11 MAC address rules form robust ACLs. However, since neither IP addresses or MAC addresses provide robust authentication, such ACLs provide only a weak form of security. When these so-called ACLs are relied upon for security, they frequently lead to compromises as people spoof their IP or forge their MAC address. 
access permissions
a set of permissions associated with every file and directory that determine who can read it, write to it, or execute it. Only the owner of the file (or the super-user) can change these permissions. 
dumps the content of a man-db database in a human readable format. 
Automated Command and Control Information System (mil., USA) 
Asynchronous Character Control Map (PPP) 
a cominbation of login and password which is normally created by the system administrator. The creation of an account includes the assignment of a home directory. 
Account Name
Same as Login ID, User ID, or User Name. The name assigned to a user on a UNIX/Linux system. Multiple users can be set up on a system with unique account names, each with varying access (permission) levels. After Linux installation, account names are assigned by the Superuser, or root operator. 
Army Command and Control System (mil., USA) 
The GNU Accounting utilities. The GNU Accounting utilities `ac', `accton', `last', `lastcomm', and `sa' add login and process accounting support to Debian Linux. "Login accounting" provides summaries of system resource usage based on connect time, and "process accounting" provides summaries based on the commands executed on the system. The 'last' command is provided by the Debian sysvinit package and not included here. 
Association of C and C++ Users (org., UK) 
Automated Call Distribution (CTI) 
Alternating Current/Direct Current, "AC/DC" 
Asynchronous Communications Device Interface (IBM, CM/2) 
Access Control Entry (AD) 
Advanced Computing Environment (manufacturer) 
ASCII Compatible Encoding (ASCII, Internet, DOMAIN) 
Autonomous Computer Engine (WD) 
Solitaire-games with penguin-look. From the author's intro.html: "The Ace of Penguins is a set of Unix/X solitaire games based on the ones available for Windows(tm) but with a number of enhancements that make my wife like my versions better :-)" The package consists of the games Pegged, Minesweeper, Solitaire, Taipei (together with a level editor), Golf, Mastermind, Merlin and Freecell. 
Access Control Field 
Advanced Communications Function (IBM) 
Apple Communications Framework (Apple) 
Receive faxes using your radio and sound card acfax allows you to receive faxes using your sound card. Typically you might use it to decode faxes sent over HF radio or from satellites. 
Address and Control Field Compression (PPP) 
Advanced Communication Function / Network Control Program (IBM, ACF), "ACF/NCP" 
Advanced Communication Function / Telecommunications Access Method (IBM, ACF), "ACF/TCAM" 
Advanced Communication Function / Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (IBM, ACF), "ACF/VTAM" 
Association for Computers and the Humanities (org., USA) 
An artificial life and evolution simulator Achilles is an artificial life and evolution simulator that uses Hebbian neural networks and OpenGL/SDL to simulate life in a simplified environment. It is based on Larry Yaeger's PolyWorld. 
Associacio Catalana d'Intelligencia Artificial (org., Spain, AI) 
Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter 
Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases (IDS, CERT) 
Atomicity - Consistency - Isolation - Durability (DB, TP) 
Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases The Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases (ACID) is a PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of security events generated by various IDSes, firewalls, and network monitoring tools. The features currently include: o Query-builder and search interface for finding alerts matching on alert meta information (e.g. signature, detection time) as well as the underlying network evidence (e.g. source/destination address, ports, payload, or flags). o Packet viewer (decoder) will graphically display the layer-3 and layer-4 packet information of logged alerts o Alert management by providing constructs to logically group alerts to create incidents (alert groups), deleting the handled alerts or false positives, exporting to email for collaboration, or archiving of alerts to transfer them between alert databases. o Chart and statistic generation based on time, sensor, signature, protocol, IP address, TCP/UDP ports, or classification ACID has the ability to analyze a wide variety of events which are post-processed into its database. Tools exist for the following formats: o using Snort ( - Snort alerts - tcpdump binary logs o using logsnorter ( - Cisco PIX - ipchains - iptables - ipfw 
This is a linux port of the popular dos program Acidwarp. Acidwarp is a program that makes neat looking pictures and rotates the palette. Its only use is for entertainment, but it is neat. I stumbled upon source code for Acidwarp on the net one day, and decided that it was high time someone ported it to linux. So, here it is. 
American Commitee for Interoperable Systems (org., USA) 
/ak/ interj. 1. [common; from the ASCII mnemonic for 0000110] Acknowledge. Used to register one's presence (compare mainstream Yo!). An appropriate response to ping or ENQ. 2. [from the comic strip "Bloom County"] An exclamation of surprised disgust, esp. in "Ack pffft!" Semi-humorous. Generally this sense is not spelled in caps (ACK) and is distinguished by a following exclamation point. 3. Used to politely interrupt someone to tell them you understand their point (see NAK). Thus, for example, you might cut off an overly long explanation with "Ack. Ack. Ack. I get it now". 4. An affirmative. "Think we ought to ditch that damn NT server for a Linux box?" "ACK!" There is also a usage "ACK?" (from sense 1) meaning "Are you there?", often used in email when earlier mail has produced no reply, or during a lull in talk mode to see if the person has gone away (the standard humorous response is of course NAK (sense 1), i.e., "I'm not here"). 
Kanji code converter ACK is a highly versatile Kanji code converter. ACK can do reciprocal conversion among Japanese EUC, Shift-JIS and 7bit JIS. JIS Kata-kana(SJIS Han-kaku Kana) is also supported. Kanji code can be automatically detected even if the input stream contains Kata-kana characters. Besides, ACK can be used as a Kanji code checker with very high detection rate. 
Access Control List (DCE, DFS, NDS, AD) 
Access control list utilities This package contains the getfacl and setfacl utilities needed for manipulating access control lists. 
Advanced CMOS Logic 
Agent Control Language (Agents) 
Association for Computational Linguistics (org., USA) 
[MS] Access Compatibility Layer (MS, DB) 
Access Control List Facility (DCE) 
automatically generate aclocal.m4 from 
Address Complete Message (ATM) 
Association for Computing Machinery (org., USA) 
A multi-player aerial combat simulation. acm is an air combat simulator that runs under the X window system. Up to eight players can engage in simultaneous air combat. 
A Company that Makes Everything (slang) 
Application Control Management System 
AMP Communications Outlet 
Automatic CPU Overheating Prevention System (GigaByte), "A-COPS" 
Partition editor for Acorn/RISC OS machines Acorn-fdisk allows you to edit disk partitions on Acorn machines. It understands a variety of the partition tables formats used under RISC OS, including Filecore, ICS-IDE, EESOX and Powertec. 
Apple Classrooms Of Tomorrow (Apple) 
Active Configuration Profile (MODEM) 
Auxillary Control Process 
Audio Capture and Playback Adapter (IBM) 
Apple Communications Protocol Card (Apple) 
(Advanced configuration and Power Interface) is an open industry specification co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba. ACPI establishes industry-standard interfaces for OS-directed configuration and power management on laptops, desktops, and servers. ACPI evolves the existing collection of power management BIOS code, Advanced Power Management (APM) application programming interfaces (APIs, PNPBIOS APIs, Multiprocessor Specification (MPS) tables and so on into a well-defined power management and configuration interface specification. The specification enables new power management technology to evolve independantly in operating systems and hardware while ensuring that they continue to work together. From ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (Intel, MS, Toshiba, ACPI, OSPM) 
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface - Component Architecture (ACPI, Intel), "ACPI-CA" 
Utilities for using ACPI Modern computers support the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) to allow intelligent power management on your system and to query battery and configuration status. This package contains acpid, which is the user-space daemon needed in order to make the Linux ACPI support completely functional. In order to use this package you need a recent Kernel (=>2.4.7). This can be one including the patches on or a non patched one. 
Automated Corporate Planning Tool 
Anonymous Call Rejection 
Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio (cable) 
Automatic Call Recording 
Abreviation by CROping Names that Yield Meaning (slang) 
an abbreviation. Examples of Linux related acronyms are KDE, ELF and GNU. 
Access Control System (DISA) 
Advanced Communications System 
Al's Circuit Simulator -- dummy package acs, Al's Circuit Simulator, has been renamed GNUCAP. This is a dummy package to force an upgrade to the new package name. 
Alternate character set 
Architekten, Computer, Systeme (fair) 
Asynchronous Communication Server 
Australian Computer Science 
Australian Computer Society (org., Australia) 
Association Control Service Element (OSI, ISO, DIS 8649) 
Advanced/Atari Computer System Interface (Atari) 
ATM Circuit Steering Management Information Base (ATM, MIB), "ACS-MIB" 
Academic Computing Services NETwork 
Aural Cascading Style Sheets (CSS, HTML, WWW) 
Architecture Characterization Template (DISA) 
America's Carriers Telecommunications Association (USA) 
ACcess TEchnologies Forum (org.) 
read/write flags marking active boot partition 
ACTivate Physical Unit (SNA) 
Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (Europe, ACTS) 
Automatic Calling Unit 
Automatic Client Update (Novell, Netware) 
Association of College and University Telecommunication Administrators (org., USA) 
Active Directory (MS, WIndows, AD, DS) 
Analog-to-Digital (D/A), "A/D" 
Authorized Distributor (DEC) 
Autonomous DOMAIN 
A wireless networking architecture in which there is no central access point. Nodes act as peers on the network and transmit information directly to recipient nodes. 
Automatic Data Acquisitions 
n. A Pascal-descended language that was at one time made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. Hackers are nearly unanimous in observing that, technically, it is precisely what one might expect given that kind of endorsement by fiat; designed by committee, crockish, difficult to use, and overall a disastrous, multi-billion-dollar boondoggle (one common description wss "The PL/I of the 1980s"). Hackers find Ada's exception-handling and inter-process communication features particularly hilarious. Ada Lovelace (the daughter of Lord Byron who became the world's first programmer while cooperating with Charles Babbage on the design of his mechanical computing engines in the mid-1800s) would almost certainly blanch at the use to which her name has latterly been put; the kindest thing that has been said about it is that there is probably a good small language screaming to get out from inside its vast, elephantine bulk. 
Ada CGI interface This package lets you build CGI applications in Ada. 
Adamantix, formerly known as TrustedDebian, aims to create a highly secure but usable Linux platform. To accomplish this, the project will use currently available security solutions for Linux (like kernel patches, compiler patches, security related programs and techniques) and knit these together to a highly secure Linux platform. The initial release, version 0.9, became available March 18, 2003. Version 1.0.1 was released June 12, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
Association of Data Processing Service Organisation (org., USA) 
Architecture Design, Analysis, and Planning Tool 
a device that allows one system to connect to and work with another. 
adaptive compression
a data compression technique that dynamically adjusts the algorithm used based on the content of the data being compressed. 
Allied DATa processing Publication (mil., USA) 
A DeBugger (Unix) 
Apple Desktop Bus (Apple) 
ad! BBS. A perl based bbs or easy menu system. aD! BBS was basically written to provide a nice, easy to use menu / bbs interface, currently it doesn't handle special permissions, group permissions, etc. but they are in the 'todo' list. Supports ANSI Color. 
Advanced Data Broadcasting System (DirecPC) 
Adaptive Data Compression (MODEM) 
Analog to Digital Converter 
Apple Display Connector (Apple) 
Apple Distribution Center (Apple) 
Automatic Data Capture 
Advanced Data Communications Control Procedure (ANSI) 
Adapter Device Driver (OS/2) 
Automatic Data Direction Control (RS-485) 
Automatic Direct Distance Dialing System 
add a user or group to the system 
convert addresses into file names and line numbers. 
Tk personal address manager Addressbook is an address manager meant to replace your old paper rolodex. It stores addresses, phone and fax numbers and can interact with some additional programs (i.e., for dialing) It has a nice user interface written in Tcl/Tk. The additional suggested software will enable additional functionality, such as automatic dialing, faxing, printing, etc. The program is still fully functional without any of the suggested software. Author: Clemens Durka <> Homepage: 
Add and remove users and groups This package includes the adduser and deluser commands for creating and removing users. o Adduser can create new users and groups and add existing users to existing groups. o Deluser can remove users and groups and remove users from a given group. Adding users with adduser is much easier than adding them by hand. Adduser will choose appropriate UID and GID values, create a home directory, copy skeletal user configuration, allow you to set an initial password and the GECOS field. Deluser can optionally remove and backup the user's home directory and mail spool or all files on the system owned by him. Optionally a custom script can be executed after each of the commands. 
Application Development Environment 
Aufforderung zur DatenEingabe (BTX) 
Administrative Data Entry for Processing Transmission (mil., USA) 
Automatic Digital Encoding System 
Andrew Development Environment Workbench (ATK, Unix) 
Access control Decision Function (mil., USA) 
Automatic Document Feeder 
Autocad Device Interface (CAD, AutoCAD) 
AUTODIN-to-DISN Interface (AUTODIN, DISN, mil., USA) 
Asynchronous Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM, IC, Leadtek) 
Utility to display or set the kernel time variables This program gives you raw access to the kernel time variables. For a machine connected to the Internet, or equipped with a precision oscillator or radio clock, the best way to keep the system clock correct is with xntpd. However, for a standalone or intermittently connected machine, you may use adjtimex instead to at least correct for systematic drift. adjtimex can optionally adjust the system clock using the CMOS clock as a reference, and can log times for long-term estimation of drift rates. 
Adventure Description Language 
[international conference on the] Advances in Digital Libraries (IEEE) 
Asynchronous Data Link Control 
Area Division Multiple Access (mobile-systems) 
ADministration Management DOMAIN (X.400) 
processing triangulated solid meshes Currently, ADMesh only reads the STL file format that is used for rapid prototyping applications, although it can write STL, VRML, OFF, and DXF files. Some features of admesh are: Fill holes in the mesh by adding facets. Repair facets by connecting nearby facets. Repair normal directions (i.e. facets should be CCW) Remove degenerate facets (i.e. facets with 2 or more vertices equal) Web site: 
??? (UMTS) 
/ad-min'/ n. Short for `administrator'; very commonly used in speech or on-line to refer to the systems person in charge on a computer. Common constructions on this include `sysadmin' and `site admin' (emphasizing the administrator's role as a site contact for email and news) or `newsadmin' (focusing specifically on news). Compare postmaster, sysop, system mangler. 
short for administrator, referring to the systems person responsible for the maintenance of a computer. 
Access Device Messaging Specification (banking, Visa) 
Active Directory Migration Tool (MS, AD) 
Manage Squid or Web users using a Web browser This utility allows you to manage Squid or Web users using only a simple Web browser. All the management tasks, including creating, changing, removing, enabling and disabling users can be performed through an easy-to-use Web interface. This package is also know as admuser but it was agreed that admwebuser would be a better package name to be used instead. 
ADN (Advanced Digital Network)
Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line. 
ActiveX Data Objects (ASP, ODBC, MS, IIS) 
ADvanced On-Screen Information System, "AdonIS" 
Administrative Data Processing 
Advanced Data Processing 
Automatic Data Processing (ADP) 
Adaptive Delta Pulse Code Modulation 
Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADP) 
Automated Data Processing Liaison Office (ADP) 
Automatic Data Processing System (ADP) 
Automated Data Processing/Telecommunications (ADP), "ADP/T" 
Advanced Digital Recording (Streamer, Philips, OnStream) 
Advanced Digital System 
Application Development System 
Automatic Distribution System 
Automatic Documenting System (LAN) 
Auxiliary Data System 
Active Directory Service Interface (MS, COM, AD) 
Allied Data Systems Interoperability Agency (org., NATO, mil.) 
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line [technology] (BELLCORE, AT&T, DSL, ADSL) 
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop is a high-speed Internet access technology that uses a commonly available telephone copper loop. ADSL provides data speeds from 384kbps to 1.5 Mbps, normally using different speeds for the upstream and downstream channel (hence the " Asymmetric" ). ADSL provides a direct, dedicated pipe to an ISP. 
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop [modulation] 
Advanced Digital Signal Processor (DSP) 
Appletalk Data Stream Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk) 
Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release [generator] (VCA, audio) 
ATM Data Service Unit (ATM) 
Abstract Data Type 
Access Developer's Toolkit (MS, DB, Windows) 
Application Data Type 
Application Development Tools (IBM, AS/400) 
Atlantic Daylight Time [-0300] (TZ, AST) 
Automatic Dialing Unit 
Administrative Directory User Agent 
Automatisierte DatenVerarbeitung 
staatliche Akademie fuer DatenVerarbeitung (org., Uni Boeblingen, Germany) 
advanced configuration and power interface (ACPI)
An industry specification that lets an operating system control power management and configuration to PC and server components. 
advanced graphics port (AGP)
Hardware interface for the acceleration of graphics to a display such as a monitor. AGP video cards display three-dimensional graphics faster than peripheral component interconnect (PCI) cards. 
advanced power management (APM)
Legacy power control and configuration specification for hardware in PCs and servers. APM as a standard has been replaced by ACPI. 
Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI)
A system-level component interface used to connect CD-ROMs and tape drives to PCs and servers, as defined by the enhanced integrated drive electronics (EIDE) specification. 
/ad'vent/ n. The prototypical computer adventure game, first designed by Will Crowther on the PDP-10 in the mid-1970s as an attempt at computer-refereed fantasy gaming, and expanded into a puzzle-oriented game by Don Woods at Stanford in 1976. (Woods had been one of the authors of INTERCAL.) Now better known as Adventure or Colossal Cave Adventure, but the TOPS-10 operating system permitted only six-letter filenames. See also vadding, Zork, and Infocom. This game defined the terse, dryly humorous style since expected in text adventure games, and popularized several tag lines that have become fixtures of hacker-speak: "A huge green fierce snake bars the way!" "I see no X here" (for some noun X). "You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike." "You are in a little maze of twisty passages, all different." The `magic words' xyzzy and plugh also derive from this game. Crowther, by the way, participated in the exploration of the Mammoth & Flint Ridge cave system; it actually has a `Colossal Cave' and a `Bedquilt' as in the game, and the `Y2' that also turns up is cavers' jargon for a map reference to a secondary entrance. ADVENT sources are available for FTP at There is a Colossal Cave Adventure page. 
a DVI previewer and presenter written in Objective Caml Active-DVI is a DVI previewer and presenter written in Objective Caml ( with some eye candy effects for presentation, support for interactive demonstrations, and embedding of arbitrary applications within the presentation (hence the Active adjective of the presenter :). Active-DVI does not (yet) support postscript fonts (see the README.Debian for more details). Active-DVI also has the ability to run embedded commands, which may cause security problems when viewing untrusted DVI files. make sure to read the README.Debian for more information 
Automatisiertes DatenVerarbeitungsSystem 
Automatic Data eXchange 
Apple Events (Apple) 
Application Entity / Environment / Execution / Engineering (APE) 
American Electronics Association (org., USA) 
Asynchroner EmulationsAdapter (IBM) 
Analog Expansion Bus 
Advanced Error Correction (CD) 
An easy to use screen-based editor aee (advanced easy editor) is intended to be an easy to use screen-based editor that requires no instruction to use. Its interface is highlighted by simple pop-up menus, which makes it easy for the users to carry out tasks without remembering the commands. 
Access control Enforcement Function 
Advanced Electronic Guidance and Instrumentation System 
Advanced software management tool. Aegis integrates standard software tools such as gcc and cvs into an easy to use, extensible software management system. Aegis simplifies the problems associated with multiple developers and development trees using a transaction-based approach to version control, along with a web-browsable repository and an integrated testing mechanism. See aegis-doc for documentation, aegis-tk for a TK based user interface, and aegis-web for a web based user interface. 
Application Enabling Interface (IBM) 
Automatic Equipment Identification 
Apple Event Interprocess Messaging Protocol (Apple) 
Automatic Emulation Management (Brother) 
Apple Events Object Model (Apple) 
Asociacion Espanola Para la Inteligencia Artificial (org., Spain, AI) 
Web-based e-mail client. AeroMail is a web-based e-mail client noted for its elegant interface. Other highlights include: - attachments - images - cookie-free http authentication. It is written in PHP using PHP's built in IMAP functions. Details at 
Advanced Encryption Standard (cryptography) 
Application Environment Service / Specification (OSF) 
Automatic Emulation Switching (Lexmark) 
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard, Rijndael)
The United States encryption standard that replaces the older/weaker DES standard. Contrast: The main impetus behind AES to replace DES is the support for larger key sizes. DES uses 56-bit keys, which can be cracked in just a few minutes (in the year 2001). In contrast, AES supports 128-bit keys (as well as 192-bit and 256-bit). Whereas both DES and AES are fundamentally block-ciphers, AES is also designed to be an efficient stream-cipher and hash algorithm. Whereas DES was designed to be hardware based (software implementations are much slower), AES has been designed to be efficient in both software and hardware. In particular, implementations in ANSI C, Java, and x86 assembly language were important. Another important criteria was the ability for the algorithm to work within smart-cards with slow CPUs and limited memory. Key point: The NIST director in charge of selecting the AES algorithm says: "If Moore's law continues and quantum computing doesn't manifest itself, then I think this system will have a good 30 year run". Misconception: AES does not replace DES. In the 1980s, DES was the most used encryption algorithm. However, due to length of time it took the government to come up with a replacement standard, other encryption algorithms became widely used, such as RC2, RC4, Blowfish, IDEA, and Triple DES. Moreover, crypto has became very "pluggable", with many products supporting numerous simultaneous encryption algorithms. 
Auto Engineering Society/European Broadcasting Union (Digital audio), "AES/EBU" 
Apple Event Terminology Extension (Apple) 
Email and PIM application for KDE Aethera is a pim application, i.e. it handles all kinds of personal information: email, contacts, notes, tasks, todos, journals. 
Apple Event User Terminology (Apple) 
a minimalist window manager for X11 aewm is a minimalist window manager for X11. It has no nifty features, but is light on resources and extremely simple in appearance. It should eventually make a good reference implementation of the ICCCM. A few separate programs are included to handle running programs, switching between windows, etc. 
minimal window manager written in C++ aewm++ is a minimal window manager for X11, based on aewm. It keeps aewm's minimalist look and feel but is written in C++, and adds some modern features like virtual desktops and partial GNOME support. Also included with this package: * appbar: a small application launcher * aewm++_fspanel: a very small panel * setrootimage: draws a gradient on the X root window * aewm++_xsession: keeps an X session alive 
An Emacs-like mail reader and composer. Af is a standalone mail reader which has an Emacs-like interface by default. It has good facilities for handling folders, and commands for handling groups of messages in a single operation. Af is aimed primarily at Emacs users and people who deal with large amounts of mail daily, but other people have found it useful too. 
Auxiliary carry Flag (assembler) 
As Far As I'm Concerned (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
As Far As I Can Recall (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
As Far As I Can Tell (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
As Far As I Know (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
As Far As I Recall / Remember (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
[u.s.] Air Force Automated Message Processing Exchange (org., USA. mil.) 
Client-Server Backup System (Server side) This is a client-server backup system offering several workstations a centralized backup to a special backup server. Backing up only one computer is easily possible, too. Any streaming device can be used for writing the data to it, usually this will be a tape device. Writing backups is normally done sequentially: The next writing to tape goes to the end of the previous write no matter where you have restored from in the meantime. Features: - Authentication of the client is performed before it can take over control - Access restriction for the streamer device -> security - Client-side per-file compression -> reliability - Data stream is written to tape in pieces -> fast finding of files - Tape position logging for each file - Tape capacity is fully used - Full / incremental backups - Raw partitions can be backed up - Client and Server buffering for maximal throughput is done Note: Tk is required if you want to use the graphical configuration tool instead of the text configuration tool. 
AntiFerromagnetically Coupled [technology] (IBM, HDD) 
Application Foundation Classes (MS, GUI, Java) 
Automatic Font Change 
Association Francaise pour la Cybernetique Economique et Technique (org., France) 
Automatic File Distribution 
Apple File Exchange (Apple) 
AFrican EDIFACT Board (org., EDIFACT), "AF/EB" 
application to "stick" little notes on the desktop. Affiche is a little application that allows people to "stick" little notes on their computer desktop. It was made for the GNUstep environment. 
Authority and Format Indicator (NSAP, IDP) 
Authority Frame Identifier 
Association for Font Information Interchange (org., USA) 
Air Force Information Network (network, USA, mil.) 
Archive file manipulation program. Afio manipulates groups of files, copying them within or between filesystems and an afio archive. Afio archives are portable as they contain only ASCII-formatted header information. Afio makes cpio-format archives. Afio deals somewhat gracefully with input data corruption. Afio supports multi-volume archives during interactive operation. Afio can make compressed archives that are much safer than compressed tar or cpio archives. Afio is best used as an `archive engine' in a backup script. 
AutomatisiertesFingerabdruck-InformationsSystem (INPOL) 
Away from Keyboard (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
convert Adobe font metrics to TeX font metrics 
Air Force Network (network, USA, mil.) 
Advanced Function Presentation (IBM) 
Appletalk Filing Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk) 
Advanced Function Printing Architecture (IBM) 
Advanced Function Printing Data Stream (IBM) 
Authenticated Firewall Traversal (IETF) 
A window manager with the NEXTSTEP look and feel. AfterStep is a window manager based on FVWM which attempts to emulate the NEXTSTEP look and feel, while retaining the configurability of its predecessor. Note that this window manager makes extensive use of the color palette. If you have only an 8-bit color display, it will run as packaged, but you may want to modify the configuration to use fewer colors. AfterStep is a continuation of the BowMan window manager project, but the name was changed to reflect the desire that it do more than simply emulate and become a valuable window manager in its own right. 
One of several user interfaces (window managers), AfterStep makes Linux look and feel much like NeXTSTEP, with enhancements. For more on AfterStep, go to (Also, see Enlightenment, GNOME, KDE, and X Window System.) 
Anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 
Association Francaise des Utilisateurs d'Unix (org., France, Unix) 
Advanced Graphics Adapter 
The KDE2 frontend to the AudioGalaxy Linux client. AGBrowser is a program to complement the official satellite program for Linux from AudioGalaxy. By using AGBrowser, every dependency on another program to search for, download, share, and manage mp3s has been satisfied. AGBrowser requires the use of the non-open, non-free AudioGalaxy Satellite software. The installer is available as a Debian package, agsatellite. 
Automatic Gain Control (audio) 
Access Grant CHannel (GSM, CCCH, mobile-systems) 
there are two versions of the VR3d. One was released in December 2000 in the U.S., and the "Second Edition" was released in January 2001 in the U.S. and in Germany. Agenda Computing was scheduled to complete development in the spring of 2002, but their website seems to have disappeared [July 22, 2002]. Handhelds/PDA based distribution. 
ArbeitsGemeinschaft Elektronisches Publizieren [e.v.] (org., DTP), "AgEP" 
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der GrossForschungseinrichtungen [deutschlands] (org.) 
ArbeitsGemeinschaft Freier MailBoxen (org.) 
CIDR network aggregation and filtering aggregate is a tool for aggregating CIDR networks. Input is read from stdin and output is written to stdout. It understands IPv4 networks represented as network/prefix, network/netmask and start_address - end_address. It is able to read input in any one of these formats and output in the same or a different format. It is also able to limit the maximum and minimum prefix length that will be output. This can be used to filter, for instance ignoring all networks with a prefix longer than 24 bits. That is all networks smaller than a traditional Class C. 
AT&T Global Network Services (AT&T) 
Advanced / Accelerated Graphics Port (Intel, MMX, AGP) 
Audiogalaxy Satellite (installer) The Audiogalaxy Satellite is a small and simple program that allows you to share your music with friends and other users on Audiogalaxy. Audiogalaxy does not allow redistribution of their software. Therefore, this package requires the user to fetch the Audiogalaxy Satellite separately from their web site. When you install this package you will be guided through that process. This package installs the file AGSatellite0520-glibc21.tar.gz from the website (look for "Download Satellite"). 
[IP] Authentication Header (IPSEC, IPV6, RFC 1826, VPN) 
American Health Information Management Association (org., USA) 
Analytical Hierachy Process 
Army High Performance Computing Research Center (org., USA, HPC) 
/A-I/ n. Abbreviation for `Artificial Intelligence', so common that the full form is almost never written or spoken among hackers. 
Adobe Illustrator (Adobe) 
Artificial Intelligence 
Application Integration Architecture 
Artificial Intelligence roBOt (Sony, AI) 
AIX windows Interface Composer (AIX, IBM) 
[SRI] Artificial Intelligence Center (SRI, AI) 
Associazione Italiana per l'Informatica ed il Calcolo Automatico (org., Italy) 
Application IDentifier (APDU) 
Attention Interrupt ??? [key] (IBM) 
AUTODIN Interface Device (AUTODIN, mil., USA) 
Aktuelle Informationen in Deutsch zum Amiga (AC, Amiga) 
African Internet Development Action Team (org., Internet) 
Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment AIDE creates a database from the regular expression rules that it finds from the config file. Once this database is initialized it can be used to verify the integrity of the files. It has several message digest algorithms (md5,sha1,rmd160,tiger,haval,etc.) that are used to check the integrity of the file. More algorithms can be added with relative ease. All of the usual file attributes can also be checked for inconsistencies. You will almost certainly want to tweak the configuration file in /etc/aide/aide.conf. See manual.html for information on this file. 
Automatic Installation and Diagnostic Service 
Audio Interchange File Format 
Active Input Interface (UNI, PMD, FDDI) 
Associazione Italiana per l'Intelligenza Artificiale (org., Italy, AI) 
Association for Information and Image Management (org., USA) 
Advanced Invar Mask (Display, ViewSonic) 
Alternate Input Method (OS/2) 
AOL Instant Messenger [protocol] (AOL) 
Apple, IBM, Motorola [consortium] (Apple, IBM, Motorola, org.) 
Association of Imaging Manufacturers (org.) 
ATM / Ascend Inverse Multiplexing [protocol] (ATM) 
Automatic Interface Management (Brother) 
Additive-Increase Multiplicative-Decrease (TCP) 
Advanced Interactive Mudding Environment A MUD/Multi-user participatory environment server with a built-in builder port for straight-forward world creation, an online interpreted scripting engine for game logic, and an extremely flexible track-based level/quest/profession system. 
Apple Internet Mail Server (Apple) 
Association of Imaging Manufacturers ??? /Shared Resource Control Facility (Fujitsu), "AIM/SRCF" 
Advanced Intelligent Network (IN) 
Auto Insert Notification (CD-R) 
Asynchronous Input/Output 
Association of Internet Professionals (org., Internet) 
Associazione Informatici Professionisti (org., Italy) 
ATM Interface Processor (ATM) 
Automatic Image Refinement (Canon), "A.I.R." 
WLAN sniffer A wireless LAN (WLAN) tool which cracks encryption keys on 802.11b WEP networks. AirSnort operates by passively monitoring transmissions, computing the encryption key when enough packets have been gathered. 
[international symposium on] Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time Control (IFAC, IFIP, IMACS, conference) 
Account Information Security 
Alarm Indication Signal (UNI, ATM, OAM, DS3/E3) 
Applied Information Sciences (manufacturer) 
Applied Information Systems (manufacturer) 
Arbeitgeber-Informations-Service (WWW) 
Automated Information System 
Association of Imaging Service Bureaus (org.) 
Alarm Indication Signal-External (UNI, ATM), "AIS-E" 
ish/base64/uuencoded_file converter Aish is a file converter, which can encode binary files to ascii text as ish/base64/uuencoded_file. Aish can also decode them. 
[south australian] Artificial Intelligence Special Interest Group (org., Australia, AI) 
Association for Internet Service Providers (org., USA, ISP) 
Association of Information Systems Professionals (org., USA) 
Automated Information Systems Security Officer (mil., USA) 
Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (org., Japan) 
Advanced Intelligent Tape (Sony, Streamer) 
Angewandte InformationsTechnik [verlags gmbh] (manufacturer) 
[research institute for] Advanced Information TEChnology (org., Japan) 
Association Internationale pour les Technologies Objets (org.) 
As I Understand It (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
All In Wonder [graphic card] (ATI) 
APPN Implementers Workshop (org., APPN) 
Advanced Interactive eXecutive (IBM, Unix, OS) 
Advanced Interactive eXecutive/Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM, AIX), "AIX/ESA" 
Association of Japanese Business Studies (org., Japan) 
Application Kit (NextStep, OpenStep, Apple, Rhapsody) 
Also Known As 
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen KI Institute (org., KI) 
Akkerman, Wichert
one of the key developers of the Debian distribution. Wichert has also written important Linux programs such as strace and APT. 
Artificial Life 
Assembly Language 
Alamin GSM SMS Gateway client Client part of the Alamin GSM SMS Gateway. Used to send commands local or remotely to the gateway server (send a message, query a queue status, etc.). 
Alamin GSM SMS Gateway server Server part of the Alamin GSM SMS Gateway. This gateway allows you to send SMS messages over a GSM network, and receive SMS messages and run a program (called input message processor, IMP) to process the incoming message. 
Audio Local Area Network (audio), "A-LAN" 
Appletalk Link Access Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk) 
As Late As Possible (slang, Usenet) 
KDE Alarm daemon. 
Adaptation Layer Controller (ATM) 
Arithmetic and Logic Circuits (IC) 
Automatic Level Control 
The alchemist is a back-end configuration architecture. Alchemist provides multi-sourced configuration at the data level, postponing translation to native format until the last stage. It uses XML for intermediary data encoding, and can be extended to arbitrarily large configuration scenarios. 
alcolix is a minimal Linux rescue distribution with the goals of being small, compatible, and very usable. It has a cozy shell and a multitude of partition rescue/editing tools, all based on up-to-date releases (e.g., 2.4.x kernel with USB support). It uses cpio.bz2 data disks and has a full GRUB bootloader, memtest86, and more. Version 2.4.20 BETA3 was released June 16, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Alcove customisation of the DocBook DTD and stylesheets This includes the AlcoveBook DTD (generic, still to be refined into several other DTDs), and the Alcove DSSSL stylesheets, which currently include: - a generic extension over Norman Walsh's modular stylesheets - a book-like style for article - an improved article style (still somewhat experimental) It integrates smoothly within the sgml2x framework. 
Adaptive Lossless Data Compression (IBM) 
Address Lifetime Expectation (org., IETF, IP) 
Application Link Enabling (R/3, SAP) 
Atlanta Linux Enthusiasts (Linux, user group) 
Atomic Layer Epitaxy (IC) 
Authorized Linux Education Center (Linux, Caldera) 
The Aleph programming language - runtime Aleph is a multi-threaded functional programming language with dynamic symbol bindings that support the object oriented paradigm. Aleph has a rich set of features providing runtime compatibility with C++. The engine runs on both 32 bits and 64 bits platforms. It is designed to be portable across platforms. This package contains the runtime binaries & libraries. 
Aleph ARMlinux
Aleph One provides well-documented Linux distributions for various ARM-based systems. LWN distribution survey results for February 6, 2000. 
X11 Teletext/Videotext browser AleVT is an X11 program for browsing and searching Teletext/Videotext pages received by a compatible decoder (at the moment, bttv). Features include: * Multiple windows * Page cache * Regular expression searching * Built-in manual Additional command line utilities can * receive the time from Teletext/Videotext * capture pages and write them to disk Teletext/Videotext is used by TV channels to transmit textual information pages (it's transmitted via non-visible scan lines). Bttv is a driver for frame grabber cards using the Bt848 family of video decoder chips. It is included in the Linux kernel starting with version 2.2 or available separately from Homepage: 
ALGOrithmic Language 
A series of rules/procedures for solving a mathematical or logical problem. From an infosec point of few, the most interesting mathematical problems are those of cryptography. Cryptographic algorithms of interest are those for encrypting messages or generating unique hashes. Analogy: An cookbook recipe is an algorithm. Key point: Different algorithms have different levels of complexity. For example, consider the ancient parable (Babylonian?) about a king and a wise subject who did a favor for him. The subject asked for one piece of grain to be placed on the first square of a chess board, two grains on the second, four grains on the third, and so on, doubling the amount of grain for each successive square. This problem demonstrates an algorithm of exponential complexity. For the first 10 squares of the chess board, the series is: 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512. Thus, for the first 10 squares, roughly a thousand grains must be paid out. However, the series continues (using K=1024): 1k 2k 4k 8k 32k 64k 128k 256k 512k. Thus, for the first 20 squares, roughly a million grains must be paid out. After 30 squares, roughly a billion grains must be paid out. For 40 squares, roughly a trillion grains must be paid out. This is directly related to such things as key size. A 41-bit key is twice as hard to crack as a 40-bit key. A 50-bit key is a thousand times harder. A 60-bit key is a million times harder. This is why the 128-bit vs. 40-bit encryption debate is so important: 128-bit keys are a trillion trillion times harder to crack (via brute force) than 40-bit keys. Key point: Most algorithms are public, meaning that somebody trying to decrypt your message knows all the details of the algorithm. Consequently, the message is protected solely by the key. Many people try to add additional protection by making the details of the algorithm secret as well. Experience so far has led to the belief that this actually leads to weaker security for two reasons. First, such secrets always get discovered eventually, so if security depends upon this secret, it will eventually be broken. Secondly, human intelligence is such that someone cannot create a secure algorithm on his/her own. Therefore, only by working with a community of experts over many years can humans create a secure algorithm. To date, only two such communities exist: the entire world of cryptography experts publishing the details of their work and trying to break other people's work, and the tightly knit community of cryptography experts working in secret for the NSA. 
A secondary or symbolic name for a file, a collection of data, or a computer device. In a spreadsheet, a range name, such as Income, is an alias for a range, such as A3..K3. In networks, group aliases provide a handy way to send electronic mailed two or more people simultaneously. 
An alternate name, or abbreviation, used in place of a command or a sequence of commands in the C shell and the Korn shell. 
An alternate name, symbolic link, network configuration, or icon that points to a corresponding file or directory location. Aliases are useful for concatenating long strings or commands into shorter, less complex names. 
The word alias is used for many different things within infosec. In all its definitions, it generally means somesort of alternate name for something. Some definitions used for alias are: e-mail alias
Flexible ICQ client in pure Tcl/Tk Alicq is pure Tcl/Tk implementation of ICQ client with flexible modularized architecture, support for ICQ2000/Oscar protocol, and ability to pick up Licq configuration files and user database. Why would you use it? It is small, about 2500 lines as of release 0.6. It is modular and extendable in best tradition of the Tcl scripting language. New modules are easy to write, and dozen lines Tcl module can do a lot. It is crossplatfrom: works on Unix, Windows, Macintosh, and on any other system supported by Tcl/Tk. 
install non-native packages with dpkg Alien allows you to convert LSB, Red Hat, Stampede and Slackware Packages into Debian packages, which can be installed with dpkg. It can also generate packages of any of the other formats. This is a tool only suitable for binary packages. 
A comprehensive guide to building a GNU/Linux distribution. Initial version 0.0.1 was released January 2, 2002. Version 0.1.0 was released July 18, 2002. 
Archie Like Indexing in the WEB (WWW) 
Automatisierte LiegenschaftsKarte (ALTIS) 
force the most important Computer-Modern-fonts to be calculated 
force the most important Computer-Modern-fonts to be calculated 
cool game, demonstrating power of the Allegro library This game is distributed with the Allegro library and shows a new Allegro programmer the power of this lib. But it is more than an usual feature demo, it is fully playable and may make some fun... 
Allison, Jeremy
one of the lead developers of the Samba Windows file-and-print-sharing software. 
Allman, Eric
the creator of sendmail -- one of the most important pieces of software ever created by the OpenSource community. Eric has established Sendmail, Inc., which produces both open-sourced and proprietary versions of sendmail. 
force the calculation of all fonts now needed 
If set, bash allows pathname patterns which match no files (see Pathname Expansion below) to expand to a null string, rather than themselves. 
Application / Appware Loadable Module (Novell, Netware) 
Asynchronous Line Module 
Asynchronous Line Multiplexer 
This package provides a SGML typesetting system. Alml is a SGML typesetting system developed for a big italian document: "Appunti di informatica libera". Alml is made for very big documentation projects, and can generate PDF, PostScript, HTML and pure text output. 
Apple Library for Object Embedding (Apple, OpenDoc) 
Assembly Language Processor (IBM) 
a family of advanced RISC-based, 64-bit CPUs from Digital (now Compaq). Alpha's were introduced back in 1992. 
alpha software
The term used to describe an early release of software that will have many bugs and features missing. See beta software. 
Advanced Logic Research, inc (manufacturer) 
Adjacent Link Station (IBM) 
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (Linux) 
The ALSA sound driver was originally written as a replacement for the Linux kernel sound for Gravis UltraSound (GUS) cards. As this GUS replacement proved to be a success, the author started the ALSA project for a generic driver for several sound chips, with fully modularized design. It is compatible with the OSS/Free and OSS/Linux sound drivers (the drivers in the kernel), but has its own interface that is even better than the OSS drivers. A list of features can be found at The main page of the ALSA project is From ALSA-HOWTO The ALSA sound drivers have proven to be such a success that they have replaced the OSS drivers in the Linux kernel. From Binh
ALSA configurator This is configurator for ALSA driver. Run it, if you need configure your sound card. 
PCM player designed for ALSA Alsaplayer is a PCM player designed specifically for use with ALSA, but works great with OSS or EsounD. It's heavily threaded which cuts down on skipping, offers optional and even simultaneous visual scopes, plays mp3, mp2, ogg, cdda, audiofs, and lots more. This empty package provides an easy transition to either the gtk or text frontends; it may be safely removed once all its dependencies are installed. 
Associazione nazionale Laureati in Scienze dell'informazione e Informatica (org., Italy) 
/awlt/ 1. n. The alt shift key on an IBM PC or clone keyboard; see bucky bits, sense 2 (though typical PC usage does not simply set the 0200 bit). 2. n. The `option' key on a Macintosh; use of this term usually reveals that the speaker hacked PCs before coming to the Mac (see also feature key, which is sometimes incorrectly called `alt'). 3. n.,obs. [PDP-10; often capitalized to ALT] Alternate name for the ASCII ESC character (ASCII 0011011), after the keycap labeling on some older terminals; also `altmode' (/awlt'mohd/). This character was almost never pronounced `escape' on an ITS system, in TECO, or under TOPS-10 -- always alt, as in "Type alt alt to end a TECO command" or "alt-U onto the system" (for "log onto the [ITS] system"). This usage probably arose because alt is more convenient to say than `escape', especially when followed by another alt or a character (or another alt and a character, for that matter). 4. The alt hierarchy on Usenet, the tree of newsgroups created by users without a formal vote and approval procedure. There is a myth, not entirely implausible, that alt is acronymic for "anarchists, lunatics, and terrorists"; but in fact it is simply short for "alternative". 
alt bit
/awlt bit/ [from alternate] adj. See meta bit. 
ALT Linux
LWN distribution survey completed May 3, 2002. ALT Linux got its start as a Linux-Mandrake Russian Edition Spring 2001. Designed to be a universal distribution, suitable for server organization, for user workstations and for software development, ALT Linux has diverged from its roots and split into several projects, all with the same code base. For example, there's Castle, a secured, RSBAC-enabled, server distribution; and ALT Linux Junior, a single-disk distribution for home computers, designed especially for beginners, easy to install and use. The unstable Sisyphus branch changes daily. ALT Linux Master 2.2 was released March 7, 2003. ALT Linux Junior 2.2 (Plum) was released March 26, 2003. 
Association of Long-distance TELephone companies (org., USA) 
ALTERnative Network Information Center (Internet, USA) 
Alternate gcc package for the libc5 environment. This special gcc package works with the libc5-altdev package to build binaries for the old libc5/ environment. It can coexist with the standard libc6 development packages. 
IMAP email client for GTK+ The designers of Althea felt that there wasn't a stable, easy to use, GUI, IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) e-mail client for X Windows. The design goal was a stable e-mail client with the richness of usability of Microsoft's Outlook, Qualcomm's Eudora, and Cyrusoft's Mulberry. This package was built without SSL support. If you want SSL support, use the althea-ssl package, which is available in non-US, instead. Check the documentation at /usr/share/doc/althea/help.html before filing a bug report. 
Association for Local Telecommunications Services (org., USA) 
Arithmetic and Logic Unit (CPU) 
Active Matrix (LCD) 
Amplitude Modulation 
Asynchronous Mode 
The 4.4BSD automounter. Amd is an automounter--it mounts file systems "on demand" when they are first referenced and unmounts them after a period of inactivity. 
Automatic Message Accounting 
AMA Collection System (AMA) 
Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Client) Amanda is a backup system designed to archive many computers on a network to a single large-capacity tape drive. This package is suitable for large amounts of data to backup. For smaller solutions take a look at afbackup, tob, taper, ... Features: * will back up multiple machines in parallel to a holding disk, blasting finished dumps one by one to tape as fast as we can write files to tape. For example, a ~2 Gb 8mm tape on a ~240K/s interface to a host with a large holding disk can be filled by Amanda in under 4 hours. * built on top of standard backup software: Unix dump/restore, and later GNU Tar and others. * does simple tape management: will not overwrite the wrong tape. * supports tape changers via a generic interface. Easily customizable to any type of tape carousel, robot, or stacker that can be controlled via the unix command line. * for a restore, tells you what tapes you need, and finds the proper backup image on the tape for you. * recovers gracefully from errors, including down or hung machines. * reports results, including all errors in detail, in email to operators. * will dynamically adjust backup schedule to keep within constraints: no more juggling by hand when adding disks and computers to network. * includes a pre-run checker program, that conducts sanity checks on both the tape server host and all the client hosts (in parallel), and will send an e-mail report of any problems that could cause the backups to fail. * can compress dumps before sending or after sending over the net, with either compress or gzip. * can optionally synchronize with external backups, for those large timesharing computers where you want to do full dumps when the system is down in single-user mode (since BSD dump is not reliable on active filesystems): Amanda will still do your daily dumps. * lots of other options; Amanda is very configurable. THIS PACKAGE RELIES ON A RUNNING AMANDA SERVER IN YOUR NETWORK. For a quick start read the README.client.debian in /usr/share/doc/amanda-client. Explanation of suggested programs: - awk and gnuplot are needed for plotting statistics of backups 
Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Libs) This package contains libraries required by the amanda client and server packages. 
Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver (Server) Amanda is a backup system designed to archive many computers on a network to a single large-capacity tape drive. This package is suitable for large amounts of data to backup. For smaller solutions take a look at afbackup, tob, taper, ... Features: * will back up multiple machines in parallel to a holding disk, blasting finished dumps one by one to tape as fast as we can write files to tape. For example, a ~2 Gb 8mm tape on a ~240K/s interface to a host with a large holding disk can be filled by Amanda in under 4 hours. * built on top of standard backup software: Unix dump/restore, and later GNU Tar and others. * does simple tape management: will not overwrite the wrong tape. * supports tape changers via a generic interface. Easily customizable to any type of tape carousel, robot, or stacker that can be controlled via the unix command line. * for a restore, tells you what tapes you need, and finds the proper backup image on the tape for you. * recovers gracefully from errors, including down or hung machines. * reports results, including all errors in detail, in email to operators. * will dynamically adjust backup schedule to keep within constraints: no more juggling by hand when adding disks and computers to network. * includes a pre-run checker program, that conducts sanity checks on both the tape server host and all the client hosts (in parallel), and will send an e-mail report of any problems that could cause the backups to fail. * can compress dumps before sending or after sending over the net, with either compress or gzip. * can optionally synchronize with external backups, for those large timesharing computers where you want to do full dumps when the system is down in single-user mode (since BSD dump is not reliable on active filesystems): Amanda will still do your daily dumps. * lots of other options; Amanda is very configurable. For a quick start read the README.server.debian in /usr/share/doc/amanda. Explanation of suggested programs: - perl is needed for some non essential server utilities - awk and gnuplot are needed for plotting statistics of backups - to backup the tape server, you need to install the client too - /usr/bin/Mail from mailx is used by amcheck to mail info about which tape is needed next, etc 
As Much As Possible (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Networt protocol probing tool Amap allows you to probe IP ports for running protocols, ignoring the port number. It does this by sending probe packets to the port and analyzing the responses. This will allow you to find services running on non-standard ports. Having nmap installed is suggested, since amap cannot scan for open ports (but there is an option to import nmap's output). 
AMA Recording Center (AMA) 
AMA Standard Entry (AMA) 
AMA Transmitter (AMA) 
GTK+ based window manager AMATERUS is a GTK+ based Window Manager. It has some interesting features like: * It is written with GTK * You can make "window group" and manipulate windows which belong to the group together. * You can edit the title bar strings. * Configuration file has an XML syntax (implementation is not so stable nor complete, though). * You can apply the GTK+ theme to the window manager. 
AMA TeleProcessing System (AMA) 
Interface between MTA and virus scanner. AMaViS is a script that interfaces a mail transport agent (MTA) with one or more virus scanners. AMaViS supports MTAs are exim, qmail, postfix, and sendmail, although this version has been built with only postfix support. 
Graphical HTML Editor from Amaya is a WYSIWYG HTML Editor, based on the thot toolkit developed at INRIA. 
Active Matrix Color Display (AMD, LCD) 
Activity Monitoring Completion Detection 
Active Matrix Display (LCD) 
Advanced MicroDevices [inc.] (manufacturer) 
Advanced Metal Evaporated [tape] (Seagate, Streamer) 
Advanced Modeling Extension (AutoCAD) 
hosts. These tools will provide you with the IP addresses for given host names, as well as other information about registered domains and network addresses.You should install bind-utils if you need to get information from DNS nameservers. 
Active Matrix Electro Luminescent (AMD, LCD) 
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
Alphanumeric characters are represented by numbers ranging from 0 to 127 and are translated into a 7-bit binary code. ASCII allows for easy transfer of text-only files between different kinds of computers. 
Automated Material Handling 
Automated Message Handling System (MHS) 
Alternate Mark Inversion (ISDN, T1) 
American Megatrends Incorporation (manufacturer) 
An X input method server for Korean text input Ami is an X input method server for Korean text input. Hangul or Hanja Korean text can be input with Ami, which responds the requests from XIM compliant applications. In this package, Ami has been built as a standalone version and a WindowMaker dock. 
ATM Management Interface (ForeRunner) 
American Medical Informatics Association (org., USA) 
Australian Medical Informatics Association (org., Australia) 
Apple Memory-mapped I/O Controller (Apple) 
Amiga Digital Environment (Amiga), "AmigaDE" 
Advanced Mobile Integration in General Operating Systems 
Audio Message Interface Standard 
ACPI Machine Language (ACPI, ASL, BIOS) 
Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMD, LCD) 
Advanced Memory Management Architecture 
Automated Multi-Media Exchange 
Allgemeines Mailbox NETzwerk (BBS, network) 
A Modular Operating Kernel (OS, Cray) 
a KDE creature for your desktop AMOR stands for Amusing Misuse Of Resources. It provides several different characters who prance around your X screen doing tricks and giving you tips. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. 
Alpha Microsystems Operating System (OS) 
Automated Message Processing Exchange 
jump'n run game that offers some unique visual effects Amphetamine is an exciting Jump'n run game that offers some unique visual effects like colored lighting, fogging and coronas. You must fight eleven evil monsters with your magic weapons. 
Any type of system on the network that can be used to amplify (increase) the the size of traffic is known as an amplifier. Example: The classic example is the smurf amplifier. An attacker spoofs the address of a victim and sends directed broadcasts to the amplifier, which then sends hundreds of replies back to the victim. Thus, it only costs the attacker a single packet to send many packets to the victim. Example: A more subtle attack is the use of DNS. The DNS response packet can be much larger than the request. This allows an attacker to flood the victim with large packets at the cost of small packets. 
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (mobile-systems, Motorola) 
Audio MODEM Riser [slot] (Intel) 
Advanced Monitor System (OS, DEC, PDP 9, PDP 15) 
American Mathematical Society (org., USA) 
Andrew Mail / Message System (Unix) 
Asymmetric Multiprocessing System 
AUTODIN Mail Server (AUTODIN, mil., USA) 
AMStrad Disk Operating System (Amstrad, OS), "AMS-DOS" 
structured text formatting and typesetting 
Active Matrix Technology (AMD, LDC) 
Apple Media Toolkit (Apple) 
Average Modulation Transfer Function 
Active Matrix Thin Film Transistor (AMD, LCD, TFT) 
Apple Media Tool Programming Environment (Apple), "AMT PE" 
Architecture Methodology Working Group (org., DISA) 
Access Node 
Alternating Network 
Very fast anagram generator. Generates anagrams for a phrase supplied by the user, the words used in the anagram are taken from a specified dictionary which should contain one word per line (default:/usr/share/dict/words). Appears to be up to 10 times faster than wordplay, especially for longer phrases. 
a cron-like program that doesn't go by time Anacron (like `anac(h)ronistic') is a periodic command scheduler. It executes commands at intervals specified in days. Unlike cron, it does not assume that the system is running continuously. It can therefore be used to control the execution of daily, weekly and monthly jobs (or anything with a period of n days), on systems that don't run 24 hours a day. When installed and configured properly, Anacron will make sure that the commands are run at the specified intervals as closely as machine-uptime permits. This package is pre-configured to execute the daily jobs of the Debian system. You should install this program if your system isn't powered on 24 hours a day to make sure the maintenance jobs of other Debian packages are executed each day. 
Anacron (like `anac(h)ronistic') is a periodic command scheduler. It executes commands at intervals specified in days. Unlike cron, it does not assume that the system is running continuously. It can therefore be used to control the execution of daily, weekly, and monthly jobs (or anything with a period of n days), on systems that do not run 24 hours a day. When installed and configured properly, Anacron will make sure that the commands are run at the specifiedintervals as closely as machine-uptime permits. This package is pre-configured to execute the daily jobs of the RedHat Linux system. You should install this program if your system is not powered on 24 hours a day to make sure the maintenance jobs ofother Red Hat Linux packages are executed periodically. 
analyzes logfiles from web servers Analog is a fast logfile processor that generates usage statistic reports for your web server. Features: * It's fast. Very fast. It can process millions of lines per minute. * It's very scalable. * It's very flexible. The default output will be satisfactory for most people, but there are hundreds of options producing 32 different reports for those who want to do things differently. * It can output in many different languages, and 4 output formats. * It produces attractive output that complies with the HTML spec (and so can be read on any browser). * It can read logfiles in almost any format. * It can be run at the command line or from a web form interface. 
An exhaustive exploration of Anarchist theory and practice. The Anarchist FAQ is an excellent source of information regarding Anarchist (libertarian socialist) theory and practice. It covers all major topics, from the basics of Anarchism to very specific discussions of politics, social organization, and economics. 
AT&T Netware Connect Services (AT&T, Netware) 
Auto Nice Daemon The auto nice daemon activates itself in certain intervals and renices jobs according to their priority and CPU usage. Jobs owned by root are left alone. Jobs are never increased in their priority. The renice intervals can be adjusted as well as the default nice level and the activation intervals. A priority database stores user/group/job tuples along with their renice values for three CPU usage time ranges. Negative nice levels are interpreted as signals to be sent to a process, triggered by CPU usage; this way, Netscapes going berserk can be killed automatically. The strategy for searching the priority database can be configured. AND also provides network-wide configuration files with host-specific sections, as well as wildcard/regexp support for commands in the priority database. 
Architecture Neutral Distribution Format (OSF) 
And Now For Something Completely Different (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
angle brackets
n. Either of the characters < (ASCII 0111100) and > (ASCII 0111110) (ASCII less-than or greater-than signs). Typographers in the Real World use angle brackets which are either taller and slimmer (the ISO `Bra' and `Ket' characters), or significantly smaller (single or double guillemets) than the less-than and greater-than signs. See broket, ASCII. 
Access Node Hub Router (AN) 
Automatic Number Identification 
Traditional AI animal guessing engine using a binary tree DB You think of an animal, and this package tries to guess it... when it's wrong, you teach it about your animal. 
A GNOME development IDE, for C/C++. Anjuta is a GNOME development IDE and can be used to create either GNOME/Gtk+ applications with glade or glade-gnome or can be used for creating generic applications. It is designed for use with C/C++ and therefore features an easy to use debugger and compilation environment. 
Apple Network Managers Association (org., Apple) 
Advanced ??? Network Management Protocol 
Artificial Neural Networks (NN) 
anonymous FTP
A means of transferring and obtaining files that are available for public download from FTP sites. The publicly available files are usually kept in a directory called /pub/. See File Transfer Protocol (FTP). 
anonymous FTP
A method of file transfer that allows you to log in to an FTP server as a guest. 
anonymous FTP
Access to FTP servers with an account name of "anonymous" or "ftp" (or sometimes "guest"). When you access FTP URLs with your web browser, it will automatically use anonymous FTP. This means that conceptually, anonymous FTP provides access similar to standard HTTP. However, there is a slight difference. Anonymous FTP servers are frequently misconfigured to allow for anonymous write access to the same directories as read access. Hackers regularly scan the Internet looking for anonymous FTP servers that they can use as drop-off spots for porn and warez. 
Access Node Router 
Advanced Network & Services Inc. (IBM, MCI. Merit, NFSnet) 
American National Standard (ANSI, ISO, USA) 
Advanced Networked Systems Architecture (ISA) 
American National Standard Institute (org., USA) 
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
A standards body made up of industry representatives. For infosec purposes, the two interesting areas are the X9 standards for financial/banking, and the X12 standards for EDI (also governing health-care transactions). Contrast: ANSI is the American representative to the ISO. ANSI is made up of industry, whereas NIST specifies standards only for use within government. 
ANSI /an'see/
1. n. [techspeak] The American National Standards Institute. ANSI, along with the International Organization for Standards (ISO), standardized the C programming language (see K&R, Classic C), and promulgates many other important software standards. 2. n. [techspeak] A terminal may be said to be `ANSI' if it meets the ANSI X3.64 standard for terminal control. Unfortunately, this standard was both over-complicated and too permissive. It has been retired and replaced by the ECMA-48 standard, which shares both flaws. 3. n. [BBS jargon] The set of screen-painting codes that most MS-DOS and Amiga computers accept. This comes from the ANSI.SYS device driver that must be loaded on an MS-DOS computer to view such codes. Unfortunately, neither DOS ANSI nor the BBS ANSIs derived from it exactly match the ANSI X3.64 terminal standard. For example, the ESC-[1m code turns on the bold highlight on large machines, but in IBM PC/MS-DOS ANSI, it turns on `intense' (bright) colors. Also, in BBS-land, the term `ANSI' is often used to imply that a particular computer uses or can emulate the IBM high-half character set from MS-DOS. Particular use depends on context. Occasionally, the vanilla ASCII character set is used with the color codes, but on BBSs, ANSI and `IBM characters' tend to go together. 
a revision of C, adding function prototypes, structure passing, structure assignment and standardised library functions. 
ANSI standard
/an'see stan'd*rd/ The ANSI standard usage of `ANSI standard' refers to any practice which is typical or broadly done. It can also be applied in a jovial context in which everyone does something in the same way but it is not quite regulation. For example: ANSI standard shaking of a laser printer cartridge to get extra life from it, or the ANSI standard word tripling in names of usenet alt groups. 
Advanced Network System Performance and Application Group (RDN-CRC) 
Java based build tool like make A system independent (i.e. not shell based) build tool that uses XML files as "Makefiles". For more information see 
Advanced Networking Test Center (org., USA, AMD, FDDI) 
a method used to better define higher resolution objects in lower resolution. It is a term often used for fonts. 
Converts MS Word files to text and ps Antiword is a free MS Word reader. It converts the binary files from MS Word 6, 7, 97 and 2000 to text and Postscript. 
AT&T Novell Telephone Services (AT&T, Novell), "A/NTS" 
Australian National University Meta Language, "ANU ML" 
Arvutikasutaja Oskustunnistus (Org, Estonia) 
Decoder and Viewer for AO-40 Telemetry AO40tlmview decodes the binary telemetry transmitted by the AMSAT OSCAR 40 satellite. It provides an ncurses-based (i.e., text-mode) interface for browsing through the telemetry blocks. The telemetry blocks can either be read from a file (e.g., downloaded from the AMSAT telemetry archive), or received live through a TCP or UDP connection to a demodulator. Furthermore, it can produce simple graphs of the telemetry, either through gnuplot if running in a graphical (X11) environment, or as a crude ASCII graph when running in a text-only environment. 
American Optometric Association (org., USA) 
Always On, Always Connected (NBS) 
Advice Of Charge, During the call 
Advice Of Charge, at the End of the call 
Apple Open Collaboration Environment (Apple) 
Always On / Dynamic ISDN (ISDN, ACTEF), "AO/DI" 
Application Operating Environment (AT&T) 
Active Output Interface (UNI, PMD, FDDI) 
America OnLine (network, AOL) 
AOL Web Server This is the web engine that powers the mighty America On-Line. It is capable of serving a tremendous number of users, and can publish hundreds of virtual servers within the same process at the same time. It is similar in many respects to Zope, except based largely on Tcl. It is multi-threaded, and has a C API that can be used to extend its functionality. 
Advanced Operating System (OS) 
Algebraic Operating System (IBM) 
Australian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation (org., Australia) 
Arithmetic Output Unit 
Asia and Oceania Workshop (OSI) 
Access Point (WLAN) 
Access Provider (ETSI, ETSI 201 671) 
Application Processor 
Auto Precharge (SDRAM) 
Automatic Pagination 
Adaptive Packet Assembly 
All Points Addressable 
Arithmetic Processing Accelerator 
Apache is the leading internet web server, with over 60% market share, according to the Netcraft survey. Several key factors have contributed to Apache's success: The Apache license. It is an open source, BSD-like license that allows for both commercial and non-commercial uses of Apache. Talented community of developers with a variety of backgrounds and an open development process based on technical merits. Modular architecture. Apache users can easily add functionality or tailor Apache to their specific enviroment. Portable: Apache runs on nearly all flavors of Unix (and Linux), Windows, BeOs, mainframes... Robustness and security. Many commercial vendors have adopted Apache-based solutions for their products, including Oracle, Red Hat and IBM. In addition, Covalent provides add-on modules and 24x7 support for Apache. The following websites use Apache or derivatives. Chances are that if Apache is good enough for them, it is also good enough for you. Yahoo! W3 Consortium Financial Times Network solutions Stanford From the Apache website: The Apache Project is a collaborative software development effort aimed at creating a robust, commercial-grade, featureful, and freely-available source code implementation of an HTTP (Web) server. The Apache project has grown beyond building just a web server into other critical server side technologies like Java or XML. The Apache Software Foundation, described in the next section, serves as an umbrella for these projects. From Apache Overview HOWTO
Versatile, high-performance HTTP server The most popular server in the world, Apache features a modular design and supports dynamic selection of extension modules at runtime. Some of its strong points are its range of possible customization, dynamic adjustment of the number of server processes, and a whole range of available modules including many authentication mechanisms, server-parsed HTML, server-side includes, access control, CERN httpd metafiles emulation, proxy caching, etc. Apache also supports multiple virtual homing. Separate Debian packages are available for PHP3, mod_perl, Java Servlet support, Apache-SSL, and other common extensions. More information is available at 
Authorized Program Analysis Report (IBM) 
American Power Conversion (manufacturer, UPS) 
ArbeitsPlatz Computer (SNI) 
Association for Progressive Communications (org., network) 
Arbitrary precision calculator (original name: calc) Calc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic system that uses a C-like language. Calc is useful as a calculator, an algorithm prototyper and as a mathematical research tool. More importantly, calc provides one with a machine independent means of computation. Calc comes with a rich set of builtin mathematical and programmatic functions. Calc is built on top of the library libcalc that represents numeric values as fractions reduced to their lowest terms. This library can also be used to add arbitrary precision capabilities to your own programs and is available in the Debian package `apcalc-dev'. The original name of this package is `calc', but it had to be changed to `apcalc' for Debian, because there's already another package called `calc' in Debian. Nevertheless, the binary and manpage installed by this package are still named `calc'. 
APC Smart UPS daemon This daemon monitors an APC UPS either as master, with the serial cable attached to it, or as a slave, with a network connection to the master. The daemon constantly gathers information from the UPS (battery load, Temperature, workload, etc.) and logs them to a file. It shuts down the system cleanly after a certain period of constant power failure or if the battery load falls below a certain level. 
Association of Personal Computer User Groups (org.) 
APC UPS Power Management Controls / monitors the status of an APC UPS under Linux. Allows your computer or server to run for a specified length of time on UPS power, and then executes a controlled shutdown in the case of an extended power failure. 
Additional Product Documentation 
Apple Programmers and Developers Association (org., Apple) 
Advanced PDF Password Recovery (PDF) 
Application Protocol Data Unit (OSI, PDU, OSI/RM, APDU, ICC) 
APplication Engineering 
A Portable EMACS Library (EMACS, GNU) 
Portable Emacs Library APEL stands for A Portable Emacs Library poe.el emulation module mainly for basic functions and special forms/macros of latest emacsen poem.el provide basic functions to write portable MULE programs mcharset.el provide MIME charset related features broken.el provide information of broken facilities of Emacs. pccl.el utility to write portable CCL program and some utilities. 
Advanced Packet EXchange 
Advanced Printer Function (IBM, ADT) 
Automated Password Generator - Standalone version APG (Automated Password Generator) is the tool set for random password generation. It generates some random words of required type and prints them to standard output. This binary package contains only the standalone version of apg. This is the first version that can be compiled without SHA, which _should_ make it ok for main. This upload went to non-US nevertheless because I want to have a second opinion. Advantages: * Built-in ANSI X9.17 RNG (Random Number Generator)(CAST/SHA1) * Built-in password quality checking system (now it has support for Bloom filter for faster access --[ BETA ]--) * Two Password Generation Algorithms: 1. Pronounceable Password Generation Algorithm (according to NIST FIPS 181) 2. Random Character Password Generation Algorithm with 35 configurable modes of operation * Configurable password length parameters * Configurable amount of generated passwords * Ability to initialize RNG with user string * Support for /dev/random * Ability to crypt() generated passwords and print them as additional output. * Special parameters to use APG in script * Ability to log password generation requests for network version * Ability to control APG service access using tcpd * Ability to use password generation service from any type of box (Mac, WinXX, etc.) that connected to network * Ability to enforce remote users to use only allowed type of password generation The client/server version of apg has been deliberately omitted. 
Application Program Interface (API) 
Associacao Portuguesa de Informatica (org., Portugal) 
Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (Intel, PIC) 
Arbeitsdatei PIOS Innere Sicherheit (INPOL, PIOS) 
A Perspicuous Language / Alles Parallel Loesbar (APL, slang) 
A Programming Language (IBM) 
A Programming Language with Shared Files (CMU, DEC) 
A Programming Language with Shared Variables (IBM) 
Arbeitsdatei PIOS LandesVerrat (INPOL, PIOS) 
Advanced Power Management 
APM (Advanced Power Management)
An industry standard for allowing the system processor and various components to enter power-saving modes, including suspend, sleep and off. APM software is especially important for mobile devices, because it saves battery power. 
APMD is a set of programs for controlling the Advanced Power Management daemon and utilities found in most modern laptop computers. APMD can watch your notebook's battery and warnusers when the battery is low. APMD is also capable of shutting down the PCMCIA sockets before a suspend. Install the apmd package if you need to control the APM system on your laptop. 
Utilities for Advanced Power Management (APM) On laptop computers, the Advanced Power Management (APM) support provides access to battery status information and may help you to conserve battery power, depending on your laptop and the APM implementation. The apmd program also lets you run arbitrary programs when APM events happen (for example, you can eject PCMCIA devices when you suspend, or change hard drive timeouts when you connect the battery). This package contains apmd(8), a daemon for logging and acting on APM events; and apm(1), a client that prints the information in /proc/apm in a readable format. apmd is notified of APM events by the APM driver in the kernel. Recent Debian kernels are built with APM support but it is disabled by default. You need to boot the kernel with the "apm=on" option if you want to enable the driver. (You may need to add this option to your lilo command line.) 
Automated Program Management information System 
Asian Pacific Network Information Center (org., Internet) 
Advanced Planner and Optimizer (SAP, SCM) 
Arbeitsdatei PIOS Organisierte Kriminalitaet (INPOL, PIOS) 
Autenticated Post Office Protocol (Internet, POP, RFC 1734) 
/ap/ n. Short for `application program', as opposed to a systems program. Apps are what systems vendors are forever chasing developers to create for their environments so they can sell more boxes. Hackers tend not to think of the things they themselves run as apps; thus, in hacker parlance the term excludes compilers, program editors, games, and messaging systems, though a user would consider all those to be apps. (Broadly, an app is often a self-contained environment for performing some well-defined task such as `word processing'; hackers tend to prefer more general-purpose tools.) See killer app; oppose tool, operating system. 
Application Portability Profile 
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications (IBM, SNA, LU 6.2) 
Advanced Program to Program Communication (IBM) 
Application Program to Program Converter (IBM) 
Access Protection and Priority Control Mechanism (DQDB) 
Advanced Program to Program Communications Protocol (APPC, IBM) 
A P3P Preference Exchange Language (P3P) 
To place after, or at the end of, a character, a line, or a file. In the vi editor, certain commands let you append text in a document. In the Bourne and C shells, the symbol >> allows you to append output to an existing file (or create a new file if the file does not yet exist). 
append mode
In vi, the mode that allows you to type new text after existing text in a file; terminate this mode by pressing ESC. 
Append Symbol
The > keyboard character, repeated (i.e., >>). It is often used to send the output from a command to a text file, appending the data to the end of the file, rather than replacing the existing content. For example, ls -a >> output.txt sends the current directory list to a file called output.txt, and adds it to the end of the file. Repeating the command will continue to add new data to the end of the file. (Also, see Piping Symbol and Redirection Symbol.) 
Advanced Peer to Peer Internetworking (Cisco) 
Apple ][ Emulator This is a fully-functional 100% Apple ][ emulator for the Linux console. It is partly written in 386 (AT&T) assembler and partly in C. You can switch diskettes using a diskette database through an intuitive interface. Furthermore, it is possible to trim the speed of the emulator and it runs in full speed (approximately) twice as fast as an standard Apple II+ on a 486DX-50. It uses the svgalib's key scancodes and implements the undocumented 6502 instructions (required by at least two games: Bug Attack and MS Pacman). Because the Apple ROMs are copyrighted, they are not included here. You will have to make copies of them from your old Apple computer. If you don't want to mess around with this, you can find a copy at: Transferring your old Apple disks is a bit of work, but you can save yourself the trouble of digging up your old masters by seeing if some kind soul has already done the work for you at: Remember, you can only use these ROMs and images _legally_ if you already own the original. Have fun! (Ahhh.... What memories!) 
A small application, usually a utility or other simple program, that can be executed on a graphical desktop panel. 
A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The common rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent. 
Application Program Interface (API)
System software that provides a complete set of functions and resources on which programmers can draw to create interface features, such as pull down menus, command names, dialog boxes, keyboard commands, and windows. In network systems, an API establishes how programes use various network features. 
Advanced Peer to Peer Networking (IBM) 
list X application resource database 
Italian documentation about free software This package contains the HTML version of "Appunti di Informatica Libera" written by Daniele Giacomini <>. The entire book is in Italian and there are no translations into other languages. The book can be downloaded in other formats from Questo pacchetto contiene la version HTML di "Appunti di Informatica Libera" di Daniele Giacomini <>. L'intera opera h in Italiano e non esistono traduzioni in altre lingue. L'opera pur essere scaricata in altri formati da 
Arbeitsdatei PIOS Rauschgift (INPOL, PIOS) 
search the manual page names and descriptions 
Internet Gateway for the Automatic Position Reporting System aprsd is an internet to RF gateway (igate) for the APRS Automatic Position Reporting System. It allows hams on the Internet to send text messages to hams on RF, especially when linked to the worldwide APRServe network ( 
Digipeater for APRS aprsdigi is a repeater for the Automatic Position Reporting System, APRS. It also includes aprsmon, a one-way gateway to APRS on TCP/IP. 
Active Pixel Sensor 
Application Page Server 
Application Service Provider (WAN) 
Asynchronous Protocol Specification 
Ada Programming Support Environment 
Agfa Publishing Systems Environment (Agfa, DTP) 
Magic print filter with automatic file type recognition apsfilter makes printing many file formats much easier. It features on-the-fly decompression and conversion, and works on both PostScript and non-PostScript (via Ghostscript) graphical printers. Among the supported formats are: gzip, bzip2, compress, freeze, pack, ASCII, BMP, data (PCL, etc.), DVI, FBM, FIG, FITS, GIF, Group 3 fax, HTML, IFF ILBM, JPEG, Kodak Photo CD, MGR, MIFF, PBM/PGM/PNM/PPM, PDF, PNG, PostScript, RLE, SGI, Sketch, Sun raster, Targa, TIFF, troff, WPG, X pixmap, XCF. Note that actual support depends on the installed filter programs. 
Apple Public Source License (Apple) 
Address Pass Through 
Advanced front-end for dpkg This is Debian's next generation front-end for the dpkg package manager. It provides the apt-get utility and APT dselect method that provides a simpler, safer way to install and upgrade packages. APT features complete installation ordering, multiple source capability and several other unique features, see the Users Guide in /usr/share/doc/apt/guide.text.gz 
Advanced Photoscale Technology (Brother) 
Automatically Programmed Tools 
APT package handling utility - cache manipulator 
APT CDROM managment utility 
APT Configuration Query program 
APT, Dpkg Quick Reference sheet A quick lookup chart with various APT and dpkg options for handy reference, for those who haven't quite memorized the most commonly used commands. 
Utility to extract DebConf config and templates from Debian packages 
APT package searching utility -- command-line interface apt-file is a command line tool for searching packages for the APT packaging system. Unlike apt-cache, you can search in which package a file is included or list the contents of a package without installing or fetching it. 
Utility to generate index files 
APT package handling utility - command-line interface 
Display new Debian changelog entries from .deb archives apt-listchanges is a tool to show what has been changed in a new version of a Debian package, as compared to the version currently installed on the system. It does this by extracting the relevant entries from the Debian changelog file, usually found in /usr/share/doc/package/changelog.Debian.gz It can be run on several .deb archives at a time to get a list of all of the changes that would be effected by installing or upgrading a group of packages. It can be configured to do this automatically during upgrades using apt. 
Move cache of Debian packages into a mirror hierarchy apt-move is used to move a collection of Debian package files into a proper archive hierarchy of the form debian/dists/... It is intended as a tool to help manage the apt-get(8) file cache, but could be configured to work with any collection of Debian packages. Running apt-move periodically will assist in managing the resulting partial mirror by optionally removing obsolete packages, and creating valid local Packages.gz files. It can also optionally employ rsync(1) to build a partial or complete local mirror of a Debian binary distribution (including an ``installed-packages only'' mirror). 
Debian archive proxy and partial mirror builder apt-proxy automatically builds a Debian HTTP mirror based on requests which pass through the proxy. It's great for multiple Debian machines on the same network with a slower internet link. The archive is automatically kept up to date using http, ftp or rsync. Cache cleaning of unused and old versions is configurable. You can also import the contents of your apt cache into the archive using apt-proxy-import. For more information, see the apt-proxy homepage at The suggested packages are needed for the following features: wget for http/ftp backend support, rsync for rsyncd backends, dpkg-dev for apt-proxy-import and stat for improved apt-proxy performance. 
add apt download sources 
Shows source-package information This program parses the APT lists for source packages and the dpkg status file and then lists every package with a different version number than the one installed. It's very useful if your deb-src sources.list entries point to unstable and your deb entries point to stable. 
Lists available package versions with distribution apt-show-versions parses the dpkg status file and the APT lists for the installed and available package versions and distribution and shows upgrade options within the specific distribution of the selected package. This is really useful if you have a mixed stable/testing environment and want to list all packages which are from testing and can be upgraded in testing. 
Utility to sort package index files 
writes a sources.list file based on bandwidth tests. Downloads from a list of current mirrors and tests each of the mirrors for bandwidth. Writes a /etc/apt/sources.list file based on the responses it gets. 
APT utility programs This package contains some infrequently used APT utility programs such as apt-ftparchive, apt-sortpkgs and apt-extracttemplates. apt-extracttemplates is used by debconf to prompt for configuration questions before installation. apt-ftparchive is used to create Package and other index files. apt-sortpkgs is a Package/Source file normalizer. 
Update a non-networked computer using apt and removable media These scripts simplify the process of using dselect and apt on a non-networked Debian box, using removable media like ZIP floppies. One generates a `fetch' script (supporting backends such as wget and lftp, in a modular, extensible way) to be run on a host with better connectivity, check space constraints of your removable media, and then install the package on your Debian box. Note on current version: space-checking is not done and spanning multiple disks is not yet supported. 
Advanced Processor Temperature Control (Chaintech) 
curses-based apt frontend aptitude is a curses-based apt frontend with a number of useful extended features, including: a mutt-like syntax for matching packages in a flexible manner, dselect-like persistence of user actions, the ability to retrieve and display the Debian changelog of most packages, and extreme flexibility and customization. aptitude is also Y2K-compliant, non-fattening, naturally cleansing, and housebroken. 
Application Program to Transaction Manager (TP) 
Arbeitsdatei PIOS Waffen (INPOL, PIOS) 
Administrative Request [message] (LFAP) 
create, modify, and extract from archives 
Administrative Request Acknowledge [message] (LFAP) 
Affiliate Registration Authority (RA, PKI, ITU) 
Apple[talk] Remote Access (Apple, AppleTalk) 
Arabeyes Project
Arabeyes is a Meta project that is aimed at fully supporting the Arabic language in the Unix/Linux environment. It is designed to be a central location to standardize the Arabization process. Arabeyes relies on voluntary contributions by computer professionals and enthusiasts all over the world. 
AntiReflection AntiGlare (ViewSonic) 
Atari Running on Any Machine aranym is a 32bit Atari ST/TT/Falcon software layer (read as virtual machine) for Atari applications. NOTE: For proper use you will need image of Atari Falcon ROM or you can use open source ROM image from EmuTOS project at 
Apple Remote Access Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk) 
Architecture Review Board (OpenGL, manufacturer, org.) 
Catalog support classes and parsing tools These Java classes implement the OASIS Entity Management Catalog format for resolving XML public identifiers into accessible files or resources on a user's system or throughout the Web. These definitions can easily be incorporated into most Java-based XML processors, thereby giving the users of these processors all the benefits of public identifier use. Two sample applications for parsing catalogs and resolving entities are included. Related tools that provide catalog support for the Saxon and XT xslt processors are available in the saxon-catalog and xt-catalog packages. Author: Norman Walsh <> Homepage: 
Advanced RISC Computing [architecture] (ACE, RISC) 
Advanced RISC Computing Architecture (ACE, RISC) 
Arcangeli, Andrea
employed by SuSE as a kernel developer, Andrea has created the IKD kernel debugging tool and the workaround for a famous TCP incompatibility between Solaris and Linux. 
print machine architecture 
revision control system arch is a revision control system with features that are ideal for projects characterized by widely distributed development, concurrent support of multiple releases, and substantial amounts of development on branches. It is intended to replace CVS and corrects many mis-features of that system. Highlights: - distributed databases - fancy merging - renames handling - web interface 
Arch Linux
Arch Linux is an i686-optimized Linux distribution. It is lightweight and contains the latest stable versions of software. Packages are in .tar.gz format and are tracked by a package manager that is designed to allow easy package upgrades. Arch is designed to be streamlined while allowing for a customized configuration, with newer features such as reiserfs/ext3 and devfs. The inital version, 0.1, was released March 11, 2002. Arch 0.4 (Dragon) was released December 18, 2002. Arch Linux released Pacman 2.1 (package manager) on August 22, 2002. 
A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it. By 1999 Archie had been almost completely replaced by web-based search engines. Back when FTP was the main way people moved files over the Internet archie was quite popular. 
The design, 0, and integration of components within a computer system, primarily determined by the central processing unit that the system employs. 
A single large file containing multiple files, usually compressed to save storage space. Often created to facilitate transferring between computers. Popular archival formats include ARJ, TAR, ZIP and ZOO. Also, to create such an archive file. 
To collect files into one large file for storage or backup purposes. Archives are often used for the purpose of saving disk space. 
archive and compress your old email Archivemail moves old mail out of a mailbox (in Maildir, MH, or mbox-format) and archives it in a compressed mbox-format mailbox file. It is well suited to be run from cron for automatic archiving of your old mail. 
Attached Resource Computer NETwork (Datapoint), "ARCnet" 
All Routes Explorer (ATM) 
n. [common; Unix] The area of memory attached to a process by brk(2) and sbrk(2) and used by malloc(3) as dynamic storage. So named from a malloc: corrupt arena message emitted when some early versions detected an impossible value in the free block list. See overrun screw, aliasing bug, memory leak, memory smash, smash the stack. 
Amiga Restructured EXtended eXecutor [language] (Amiga, Commodore, REXX) 
/arg/ n. Abbreviation for `argument' (to a function), used so often as to have become a new word (like `piano' from `pianoforte'). "The sine function takes 1 arg, but the arc-tangent function can take either 1 or 2 args." Compare param, parm, var. 
A new virtual operating system A new Polish (complete!) virtual operating system - written to be secure and stable - and, by the way, very efficient. Argante supports Hierarchical Access Control (HAC) and OSI architecture and also DISTRIBUTED NETWORKING. So every software written for Argante can be divided into some parts, each of them running on diferrent computer (the software is platform independent, so one of modules can run on Linux, the other one - on FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, SunOS/Solaris or IRIX). Compiled without SSL support because of restrictions in some countries - but you can use ssh tunnelling to get secure rIPC connections. 
a mathematical term that refers to a number, character or word which changes the action of the command it is applied to. 
Words, phrases or numbers that you enter on the same command line as a command or a statement to expand or modify how that command or statement operates. 
IP network transaction auditing tool argus is a network transaction auditing tool that allows the user to easily classify connections using tcpdump(1) compliant expressions. Argus runs as an application level daemon, promiscuously reading network datagrams from a specified interface, and generates network traffic audit records for the network activity that it encounters. Auditing records can be used to ensure that access control policies are being enforced, identify network problems such as denial of service attacks and more. This package contains the client programs for the argus server. Please see the package argus-server for the appropriate server. 
IP network transaction auditing tool argus is a network transaction auditing tool that allows the user to easily classify connections using tcpdump(1) compliant expressions. Argus runs as an application level daemon, promiscuously reading network datagrams from a specified interface, and generates network traffic audit records for the network activity that it encounters. Auditing records can be used to ensure that access control policies are being enforced, identify network problems such as denial of service attacks and more. This package contains the binaries required for the argus server. Please see the package argus-client for appropriate clients. 
Text based simple Yahoo Messenger client Simple Yahoo messenger client that requires no windowing system. 
a download tool similar to Reget or GetRight Aria is a download tool similar to Reget or GetRight. It downloads files from Internet via HTTP or FTP. The transfer can be paused, resumed, queued and saved. It has very friendly GTK based GUI, and useful log consoles. Program supports CRC checking, HTTP proxy server, cut-and-paste, drag-and-drop, and can define specific file retrieving procedure for particular web servers. 
interpreter for arithmetic ARIBAS is an interactive interpreter suitable for big integer arithmetic and multiprecision floating point arithmetic. It has a syntax similar to Pascal or Modula-2, but contains also features from other programming languages like C, Lisp, Oberon. The Aribas home page is 
American Registry for Internet Numbers (org., Internet, USA) 
Scan system logs for security incidents and report them to ARIS The Attack Registry and Intelligence Service (ARIS) is a free, user-integrated attack-trending system hosted by SecurityFocus that allows administrators and operators of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to track, evaluate and respond to security alerts and attacks in a proactive manner. As an integral piece of the ARIS Analzyer service, SecurityFocus's open-source ARIS Extractor utility distills data provided by IDS attack-list logs to build client portfolios that provide meaningful, graphical analysis of potentially malicious network incidents. By filtering out insignificant or benign data and converting it to a common format (xml), ARIS Extractor streamlines incident reporting for both security professionals and home users in a way that allows IDS operators to focus only on relevant attacks and incidents. Additionally, ARIS Extractor ensures client confidentiality through secure file-transfer protocols and optional IP address suppression. 
A popular file compression/archival tool, available for UNIX/Linux, DOS/Windows, and other operating systems. Files compressed in this manner typically have .arj or .ar extensions. 
An archiver for KDE An archiver for KDE Supports: zip, tar, tar + compression (lzop, gzip, bzip2, bzip, compress) lha, zoo, rar, ar, etc... 
Ark is a KDE tool for handling archive files. It supports the following file formats: zip, plain tar and tar with compression, gzip, bzip2, bzip, compress, lha, zoo, single files compressed with compressors, lzop, gzip, bzip2, bzip, compress rar and ar 
KDE archive tool. 
Ark Linux
Ark Linux is a Linux distribution designed especially for desktop use, primarily for people without prior Linux experience. Its main goal is ease of use, and the inclusion of many tools end users will need. Ark Linux is based on Red Hat 7.3 / 8.0, with KDE. Initial Freshmeat version 1.0-0.alpha7.1 was released March 14, 2003. 
Abuse Resistant Key Distribution (Arcade) 
Access Rights List (Banyan, VINES) 
A free client for the AFS distributed network filesystem This is a free, mostly independently written, implementation of the client side of the Andrew File System. AFS is a distributed network file system. AFS presents a unified directory hierarchy /afs containing all volumes from any site. The default configuration includes many sites including KTH, MIT, CMU and others. For authentication AFS uses Kerberos. 
Source to generate arla-modules This package provides the source code xfs kernel module which is actually a generic user-space filesystem interface. Arlad communicates with it over a character device and handles all file system requests. Xfs caches some lookups but doesn't implement any of the AFS protocol. 
Advanced Run-Length Limited [encoding] 
Advanced RISC Machines (manufacturer, Acorn, Apple, VLSI, RISC) 
Annotated [c++] Reference Manual 
Asynchronous Response Mode 
ARM Linux
ARM Linux is a port of the Linux Operating System to ARM processor based machines mainly by Russell King with contributions from others. 
Association of Records Managers and Administrators, inc. (org.) 
A 3D Tron-like high speed game. A 3D Tron-like high speed game. The rules are simple: you ride a light cycle (a kind of motorbike that can only turn 90 degrees at a time, leaves a wall behind and cannot be stopped) and have to avoid running into walls while at the same time you have to try to get your opponent to run into them. The idea is based on the Disney movie from 1982 called "Tron". If you ever wanted to take a try at one of those speed demons features in the movie, this is your chance. Of all the Tron clones out there, I think one is the one that comes closest to the feeling the movie tries to express. This is in part thanks to the sophisticated camera motions, in part to the superb modelling work and in part to the fabulous sound effects. To add some extra fascination into the game, unlike to other Tron clones, in armagetron you can accelerate. Alas, there's no accelerate button. If you want to drive fast, you have to drive good -- and really really close to the walls. Armagetron can be played against AI opponents, against other humans over the network, or a mixture of both. Still not convinced? 
n. [acronym, `Automated Retroactive Minimal Moderation'] A Usenet cancelbot created by Dick Depew of Munroe Falls, Ohio. ARMM was intended to automatically cancel posts from anonymous-posting sites. Unfortunately, the robot's recognizer for anonymous postings triggered on its own automatically-generated control messages! Transformed by this stroke of programming ineptitude into a monster of Frankensteinian proportions, it broke loose on the night of March 31, 1993 and proceeded to spam news.admin.policy with a recursive explosion of over 200 messages. ARMM's bug produced a recursive cascade of messages each of which mechanically added text to the ID and Subject and some other headers of its parent. This produced a flood of messages in which each header took up several screens and each message ID and subject line got longer and longer and longer. Reactions varied from amusement to outrage. The pathological messages crashed at least one mail system, and upset people paying line charges for their Usenet feeds. One poster described the ARMM debacle as "instant Usenet history" (also establishing the term despew), and it has since been widely cited as a cautionary example of the havoc the combination of good intentions and incompetence can wreak on a network. Compare Great Worm; sorcerer's apprentice mode. See also software laser, network meltdown. 
Architecture for Reliable Managed Storage (Cheyenne) 
Automation Resources Management System 
Appletalk Remote Network Server (Apple, AppleTalk) 
Affiliate Registration Organization (RA, PKI, ITU) 
Alterable Read Only Memory (ROM) 
a TCP/IP protocol used to obtain a station's physical address from its logical IP address. ARP requests are broadcast onto the network. 
Address Resolution Protocol (Internet, RFC 826) 
ARP is a protocol used with TCP/IP to resolve addresses. The TCP/IP stack used to transmit data across the Internet is independent from the Ethernet used to shuttle data between local machines. Thus, when machine needs to send an IP packet to a nearby machine, it broadcasts the IP address on the local Ethernet asking for the corresponding Ethernet address. The machine who owns the address responds, at which point the IP packet in question is sent to that Ethernet address. Key point: By sniffing ARP packets off the wire, you can discover a lot of stuff going on. This is especially true of cable-modem and DSL segments. Since ARP packets are broadcasts, you aren't technically breaking your user's agreement by sniffing. Key point: You can spoof ARP requests and/or responses in order to redirect traffic through your machine. 
Linux ARP kernel module. 
manipulate the system ARP cache 
ARP redirect
A tool that is part of the standard hacker's toolkit, ARP redirect will redirect Internet traffic from a local neighbor through your own machine allowing you to sniff it. 
Advanced Research Projects Agency (org., USA) 
object-oriented version of the ARPACK package. ARPACK++ is an object-oriented version of the ARPACK package. It consists a collection of classes that offers c++ programmers an interface to ARPACK. It preserves the full capability, performance, accuracy and low memory requirements of the FORTRAN package, but takes advantage of the c++ object-oriented programming environment. 
Fortran77 subroutines to solve large scale eigenvalue problems. ARPACK software is capable of solving large scale symmetric, nonsymmetric, and generalized eigenproblems from significant application areas. The software is designed to compute a few (k) eigenvalues with user specified features such as those of largest real part or largest magnitude. Storage requirements are on the order of n*k locations. No auxiliary storage is required. A set of Schur basis vectors for the desired k-dimensional eigen-space is computed which is numerically orthogonal to working precision. Numerically accurate eigenvectors are available on request. Important Features: o Reverse Communication Interface. o Single and Double Precision Real Arithmetic Versions for Symmetric, Non-symmetric, o Standard or Generalized Problems. o Single and Double Precision Complex Arithmetic Versions for Standard or Generalized Problems. o Routines for Banded Matrices - Standard or Generalized Problems. o Routines for The Singular Value Decomposition. o Example driver routines that may be used as templates to implement numerous Shift-Invert strategies for all problem types, data types and precision. 
A wide area network (WAN), created in 1969 with funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Undergoing constant research and development in the earls to mid-l970s, ARPAnet served as the testbed for the development of TCP/IP (the protocols that make the Internet possible). A major goal of the ARPAnet project was to increase the military's command and control capability enabling communication across a variety of physically dissimilar media, including satellites. An allied goal was to create a robust network capable of withstanding outages, such as those that might result from a nuclear exchange. ARPAnet met these objectives, but it also surprised its creators: It was found in short order that most ARPAnet users preferred to use the network for communication, such as electronic mail and discussion groups. Initially, the ARPAnet was available only to government research institutes and to universities holding Department of Defense (DoD) research contracts. In 1983, ARPAnet was divided into a high-security military network (Milnet) and an ARPAanet that was recast as a research and development network. 
Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork (USA, network) 
A user-space ARP daemon The ARP daemon moves the management of the ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) table from kernel to user space. It is useful for sites with LARGE network segments (256+ systems per segment), because the kernel hash tables are not optimized to handle this situation. To use the ARP daemon your kernel needs to have ARPD and NETLINK support enabled. The standard kernels of Debian GNU/Linux lack this support. 
Association of Rehabilitation Programs in Data Processing (org., USA) 
sends IP and/or ARP pings (to the MAC address) The arping utility sends ARP and/or ICMP requests to the specified host and displays the replies. The host may be specified by its hostname, its IP address, or its MAC address. This program is only able to run as root. Make it setuid if you like. 
Ethernet/FDDI station activity monitor. Arpwatch maintains a database of Ethernet MAC addresses seen on the network, with their associated IP pairs. Alerts the system administrator via e-mail if any change happens, such as new station/activity, flip-flops, changed and re-used old addresses. 
Automatic Re-transmission reQuest (MODEM) 
Announced Retransmission Random Access (MAC) 
ARSIG is a GNU Linux distribution designed especially for diskless routers, where the main (primary) boot-up device is compact-flash card. The goal is to make the "static" part of the operating system lay on the CF card, mounted as readonly. All other parts of the OS that need read-write access are mounted in RAM. ARSIG is based on Openwall GNU/*/Linux (Owl). Initial Freshmeat announcement, version 1.0_pre01 (PHDS), was released January 4, 2003. 
Adaptive Resonance Theory (NN) 
Advanced Resolution Technology (Minolta) 
Emacs Lisp drawing package Artist is an Emacs lisp package that allows you to draw lines, rectangles and ellipses by using your mouse and/or keyboard. Note: Artist does not work with XEmacs 
Accelerated Ray-Tracing System (raytracing) 
aRts (Analog Real-Time Synthesizer) is a sound system for KDE.aRts creates and processes sound using small modules that do certain tasks. aRts modules can create waveforms (oscillators), playsamples, filter data, add signals, perform effects like delay/flanger/chorus, or output the data to a soundcard. By connecting all of the modules together, you can perform complex tasks like simulating a mixer, generating an instrument, or playing a wave file with effects. 
Asynchronous Remote Takeover Server 
Arts synthesizer designer This is the analog real-time synthesizer graphical design tool. 
Asynchronous Remote Takeover Terminal 
Advanced Server (Windows NT) 
Authentication Service (DCE) 
Autonomous System (IP, Internet, RFC 1930) 
the portable GNU assembler. 
Application System/400 (IBM), "AS/400" 
Assembler for 8086..80386 processors 
Advanced SCSI Architecture (SCSI) 
American Standards Association (org., USA, ANSI, predecessor) 
As Soon As Possible (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Automatic Switching And Processing 
Autonomous System Border / Boundary Router (AS) 
Accredited Standards Committee (org., ANSI) 
Additional Sense Code 
American Society for Cybernetics (org., USA) 
Authorized Support Center 
Automatic Contrast Selection (FAX) 
CD player and mixer AScd is a small CD player and mixer that can be "docked" with AfterStep and WindowMaker window managers. 
AfterStep CD changer ascdc is a small CD changer. It follows the look and feel of the AfterStep window manager and is ideally suited to be run within AfterStep's Wharf module. 
Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative 
/as'kee/ n. [originally an acronym (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) but now merely conventional] The predominant character set encoding of present-day computers. The standard version uses 7 bits for each character, whereas most earlier codes (including early drafts of ASCII prior to June 1961) used fewer. This change allowed the inclusion of lowercase letters -- a major win -- but it did not provide for accented letters or any other letterforms not used in English (such as the German sharp-S or the ae-ligature which is a letter in, for example, Norwegian). It could be worse, though. It could be much worse. See EBCDIC to understand how. A history of ASCII and its ancestors is at Computers are much pickier and less flexible about spelling than humans; thus, hackers need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for them. Every character has one or more names -- some formal, some concise, some silly. Common jargon names for ASCII characters are collected here. See also individual entries for bang, excl, open, ques, semi, shriek, splat, twiddle, and Yu-Shiang Whole Fish. This list derives from revision 2.3 of the Usenet ASCII pronunciation guide. Single characters are listed in ASCII order; character pairs are sorted in by first member. For each character, common names are given in rough order of popularity, followed by names that are reported but rarely seen; official ANSI/CCITT names are surrounded by brokets: <>. Square brackets mark the particularly silly names introduced by INTERCAL. The abbreviations "l/r" and "o/c" stand for left/right and "open/close" respectively. Ordinary parentheticals provide some usage information. ! Common: bang; pling; excl; not; shriek; ball-bat; <exclamation mark>. Rare: factorial; exclam; smash; cuss; boing; yell; wow; hey; wham; eureka; [spark-spot]; soldier, control. " Common: double quote; quote. Rare: literal mark; double-glitch; <quotation marks>; <dieresis>; dirk; [rabbit-ears]; double prime. # Common: number sign; pound; pound sign; hash; sharp; crunch; hex; [mesh]. Rare: grid; crosshatch; octothorpe; flash; <square>, pig-pen; tictactoe; scratchmark; thud; thump; splat. $ Common: dollar; <dollar sign>. Rare: currency symbol; buck; cash; string (from BASIC); escape (when used as the echo of ASCII ESC); ding; cache; [big money]. % Common: percent; <percent sign>; mod; grapes. Rare: [double-oh-seven]. & Common: <ampersand>; amp; amper; and, and sign. Rare: address (from C); reference (from C++); andpersand; bitand; background (from sh(1)); pretzel. [INTERCAL called this `ampersand'; what could be sillier?] ' Common: single quote; quote; <apostrophe>. Rare: prime; glitch; tick; irk; pop; [spark]; <closing single quotation mark>; <acute accent>. ( ) Common: l/r paren; l/r parenthesis; left/right; open/close; paren/thesis; o/c paren; o/c parenthesis; l/r parenthesis; l/r banana. Rare: so/already; lparen/rparen; <opening/closing parenthesis>; o/c round bracket, l/r round bracket, [wax/wane]; parenthisey/unparenthisey; l/r ear. * Common: star; [splat]; <asterisk>. Rare: wildcard; gear; dingle; mult; spider; aster; times; twinkle; glob (see glob); Nathan Hale. + Common: <plus>; add. Rare: cross; [intersection]. , Common: <comma>. Rare: <cedilla>; [tail]. - Common: dash; <hyphen>; <minus>. Rare: [worm]; option; dak; bithorpe. Common: dot; point; <period>; <decimal point>. Rare: radix point; full stop; [spot]. / Common: slash; stroke; <slant>; forward slash. Rare: diagonal; solidus; over; slak; virgule; [slat]. : Common: <colon>. Rare: dots; [two-spot]. ; Common: <semicolon>; semi. Rare: weenie; [hybrid], pit-thwong. < > Common: <less/greater than>; bra/ket; l/r angle; l/r angle bracket; l/r broket. Rare: from/{into, towards}; read from/write to; suck/blow; comes-from/gozinta; in/out; crunch/zap (all from UNIX); tic/tac; [angle/right angle]. = Common: <equals>; gets; takes. Rare: quadrathorpe; [half-mesh]. ? Common: query; <question mark>; ques. Rare: quiz; whatmark; [what]; wildchar; huh; hook; buttonhook; hunchback. @ Common: at sign; at; strudel. Rare: each; vortex; whorl; [whirlpool]; cyclone; snail; ape; cat; rose; cabbage; <commercial at>. V Rare: [book]. [ ] Common: l/r square bracket; l/r bracket; <opening/closing bracket>; bracket/unbracket. Rare: square/unsquare; [U turn/U turn back]. \ Common: backslash, hack, whack; escape (from C/UNIX); reverse slash; slosh; backslant; backwhack. Rare: bash; <reverse slant>; reversed virgule; [backslat]. ^ Common: hat; control; uparrow; caret; <circumflex>. Rare: xor sign, chevron; [shark (or shark-fin)]; to the (`to the power of'); fang; pointer (in Pascal). _ Common: <underline>; underscore; underbar; under. Rare: score; backarrow; skid; [flatworm]. ` Common: backquote; left quote; left single quote; open quote; <grave accent>; grave. Rare: backprime; [backspark]; unapostrophe; birk; blugle; back tick; back glitch; push; <opening single quotation mark>; quasiquote. { } Common: o/c brace; l/r brace; l/r squiggly; l/r squiggly bracket/brace; l/r curly bracket/brace; <opening/closing brace>. Rare: brace/unbrace; curly/uncurly; leftit/rytit; l/r squirrelly; [embrace/bracelet]. A balanced pair of these may be called `curlies'. | Common: bar; or; or-bar; v-bar; pipe; vertical bar. Rare: <vertical line>; gozinta; thru; pipesinta (last three from UNIX); [spike]. ~ Common: <tilde>; squiggle; twiddle; not. Rare: approx; wiggle; swung dash; enyay; [sqiggle (sic)]. The pronunciation of # as `pound' is common in the U.S. but a bad idea; Commonwealth Hackish has its own, rather more apposite use of `pound sign' (confusingly, on British keyboards the pound graphic happens to replace #; thus Britishers sometimes call # on a U.S.-ASCII keyboard `pound', compounding the American error). The U.S. usage derives from an old-fashioned commercial practice of using a # suffix to tag pound weights on bills of lading. The character is usually pronounced `hash' outside the U.S. There are more culture wars over the correct pronunciation of this character than any other, which has led to the ha ha only serious suggestion that it be pronounced `shibboleth' (see Judges 12:6 in an Old Testament or Tanakh). The `uparrow' name for circumflex and `leftarrow' name for underline are historical relics from archaic ASCII (the 1963 version), which had these graphics in those character positions rather than the modern punctuation characters. The `swung dash' or `approximation' sign is not quite the same as tilde in typeset material but the ASCII tilde serves for both (compare angle brackets). Some other common usages cause odd overlaps. The #, $, >, and & characters, for example, are all pronounced "hex" in different communities because various assemblers use them as a prefix tag for hexadecimal constants (in particular, # in many assembler-programming cultures, $ in the 6502 world, > at Texas Instruments, and & on the BBC Micro, Sinclair, and some Z80 machines). See also splat. The inability of ASCII text to correctly represent any of the world's other major languages makes the designers' choice of 7 bits look more and more like a serious misfeature as the use of international networks continues to increase (see software rot). Hardware and software from the U.S. still tends to embody the assumption that ASCII is the universal character set and that characters have 7 bits; this is a major irritant to people who want to use a character set suited to their own languages. Perversely, though, efforts to solve this problem by proliferating `national' character sets produce an evolutionary pressure to use a smaller subset common to all those in use. 
American Standard Code of Information Interchange 
Prints aliases and tables for ASCII character. A programmer's utility that recognizes different ways of naming ASCII characters (hex, octal, binary, decimal, C escape, ISO character table pair, slang names, and others) and prints out all equivalent aliases. 
see American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). 
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
a standard code used for representing information on computer systems and networks. It uses the printing and non-printing characters that can be generated by the keyboard. Since 7 bits are available to represent each character it is possible to represent a total of 128 different characters. 
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
This is the defacto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111. 
upload/download files using the ASCII protocol 
X11 window manager, AfterStep Classic (forked from v1.1) AfterStep Classic is a window manager based on AfterStep v1.1 which attempts to retain and improve on AfterStep's well-tested stability and configurability. Note that this window manager makes extensive use of the color palette. If you have only an 8-bit color display, it will run as packaged, but you may want to modify the configuration to use fewer colors. AfterStep is a continuation of the BowMan window manager project, but the name was changed to reflect the desire that it do more than simply emulate and become a valuable window manager in its own right. 
A clock designed with the NeXTStep look This little application displays the time of the day (digital, either 12 or 24 hour format), and the date. It provides three alternatives: one suitable for low color systems, one with "real" NeXTStep colors, and the third one is somewhat in between. 
This is an AfterStep look & feel CPU statistics monitor tool. ascpu is a neat 54x54 applet that displays instantaneous and average system, nice and user CPU time. 
Advanced Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) 
Architecture Summary Design 
Advanced Sound Daemon asd is a full featured esound-replacement. In the final version it will implement everything esound ( does, plus many features. 
Application-Specific Digital Signal Processor 
Active Storage Element (GigaB, IP-router) 
Aladdin Smartcard Environment (Fast, Aladdin) 
Application Service Element (ATM) 
ASian EDIFACT Board (org., EDIFACT), "AS/EB" 
Army Standards Electronic Mail Host (mil., USA) 
Advanced Streaming Format (MS) 
A shell is a basic system program that interprets keyboard and mousecommands. The ash shell is a clone of Berkeley's Bourne shell(sh). Ash supports all of the standard sh shell commands, but is considerably smaller than sh. The ash shell lacks some Bourne shell features (for example, command-line histories), but uses considerably less memory. You should install ash if you need a lightweight shell with many of the same capabilities as the sh shell. 
Almquist SHell (BSD, Unix, Shell), "ash" 
NetBSD /bin/sh "ash" is a POSIX compliant shell that is much smaller than "bash". We take advantage of that by making it the shell on the installation root floppy, where space is at a premium. It can be usefully installed as /bin/sh (because it executes scripts somewhat faster than "bash"), or as the default shell either of root or of a second user with a userid of 0 (because it depends on fewer libraries, and is therefore less likely to be affected by an upgrade problem or a disk failure). It is also useful for checking that a script uses only POSIX syntax. "bash" is a better shell for most users, since it has some nice features absent from "ash", and is a required part of the system. 
Adapter Support Interface (IBM, LAN) 
Amorphous SIlicon drum (Kyocera), "aSI" 
Aquarius Systems International (manufacturer) 
Asynchronous SCSI Interface 
Automatic System Installation 
Application Specific Integrated Circuit (IC, RL) 
Arbeitskreis Simulation und Kuenstliche Intelligenz (org., GI) 
Audio Stream Input/Output 
American Society for Information Science (org.) 
Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS) example programs ASIS (Ada Semantic Interface Specification) lets you develop applications to walk through the sources of your Ada programs and examine the semantic constructs. This package contains four programs (asistant, display_source, gnatelim and gnatstub) which are useful to understand or optimize Ada programs. 
Akademische Software Kooperation (org., Karlsruhe, Germany) 
Amplitude Shift Keying 
Access Stored Knowledge via Symbolic Access Method (DB), "askSam" 
ACPI Source Language (ACPI, AML) 
Adaptive Speed Levelling (US Robotics) 
Advanced Solid Logic Technology (IC) 
Advanced Server Management (Acer) 
Association of Systems Management (org.) 
Administratively Scoped IP Multicast (RFC 2365, Multicast) 
AfterStep mail monitor asmail is a small mail monitor similar to xbiff. It follows the AfterStep window manager's look and feel and is ideally suited to be run within AfterStep's Wharf module. 
This is an AfterStep look & feel memory utilization monitor. asmem displays memory (user/system, buffer and cache) and swap usage in a small 54x54 X window. 
The tool displays a volume knob. The volume knob adjusts the master volume of your sound card. Just grab the knob with the left button of your mouse and drag it around. 
AfterStep audio mixer asmixer is a small audio mixer. It follows the look and feel of the AfterStep window manager and is ideally suited to be run within AfterStep's Wharf module. 
Advanced Storage Magneto Optical [disk] (Hitachi, Maxell, Matsushita, Fujitsu, Olympus, Philips, Sanyo, Sharp, Sony, LG Electronics) 
AfterStep modem monitor asmodem is a hack of asmail that checks a modem lock file instead of your mail. You just pass it a lock (like /var/lock/LCK..ttyS1) using the -m parameter and off it goes. For best results, use the -s and have wharf Swallow it. 
A system resource monitor dockapp for Afterstep and WindowMaker Asmon is a wharfable/dockable application for that displays meters detailing CPU, memory, swap, and X mem usage. Also included the exact numbers for load average, mem, swap, and X. Developed to use very little CPU time itself. 
monitoring mount points tool asmounter monitors different mount points and facilitates the mounting/unmounting of these mount points. 
ASymetric MultiProcessing [system] 
ASymmetrisches MultiProzessor [system] 
Abstract Syntax Notation One (OSI, ISO, IS 8824), "ASN.1" 
AdvanceStack Network Management (HP) 
ASN.1 to C/C++ converter This console application helps to convert your ASN.1 description files to C/C++ applications. For more information on asnparser visit the development homepage 
Abstract Service Primitive (OSI) 
Active Server Pages (HTTP, MS) 
Advanced Signal Processing / Processor 
Appletalk Session Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk) 
Application Service Provider / Providing (ISP, Internet) 
Association of Shareware Professionals (org., USA) 
Authorized Service Provider (Sun) 
Discovers present ip-address of dynamically connected hosts. Asp discovers the present ip address of a host that has a dynamically assigned ip-address. This is useful when you want to connect to dynamic hosts, or to help others find you (in which case you run asp as a server). 
Advanced SPectre Entropy Coding (MPEG, Digital audio) 
A more intelligent replacement for the ispell spell checker Aspell is an interactive spell checker that is designed to eventually replace ispell. It does a much better job of coming up with possible suggestions than ispell (and in some cases even Microsoft Word 97's spell checker). It also has run time support for other non English languages. aspell can learn from users misspellings. Aspell is designed to be a drop-in replacement for ispell. This package comes with a minimal man page. If you want more detailed documentation you should install the aspell-doc package and read the documentation in /usr/share/doc/aspell-doc/. 
Aspell is a spelling checker designed to eventually replace Ispell. Aspell's primary advantage (over Ispell) is greater ability tosuggesting correct spellings. Aspell includes both compile-time and run-time support for non-English languages and can spellcheck (La)TeXand HTML files. 
GNU Aspell is a Free and Open Source spell checker designed to eventually replace Ispell. It can either be used as a library or as an independent spell checker. Its main feature is that it does a much better job of coming up with possible suggestions than just about any other spell checker out there for the Englishlanguage, including Ispell and Microsoft Word. It also has many other technical enhancements over Ispell such as using shared memory for dictionaries and intelligently handling personal dictionaries when more than one Aspell processis open at once. 
Automatic System for Performance Evaluation of the Network 
Advanced SCSI Programming Interface (Adaptec, API, SCSI) 
Advanced SCSI Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC, SCSI) 
Algebraic Specifications and Implementations ??? (ISDV) 
ASPLinux is a Russian distribution from a multi-national company based in Singapore. The Red Hat based ASPLinux GNU/Linux distribution, includes all components for creation of a high perfomance Internet/Intranet server or powerful multimedia workstation. ASP 7.3 (vostok) was released August 13, 2002. 
Application Specific Programmable Product (ASIC, ASSP, FPGA, RL) 
Advanced Signal Processing System 
Automated Software Quality 
American Society of Quality Control (org., USA) 
Automatic Server Restart (HP) 
Automatic Speech Recognition 
alt.sysadmin.recovery manual pages A set of humorous manual pages developed on alt.sysadmin.recovery (don't treat them seriously!). They document a set of really useful tools that for some strange reason are not included in any implementation of Unix. This includes such famous commands as lart, sysadmin, luser, bosskill and others. The authors recommend these man pages should be installed on every system. 
A program that transforms assembly language program into machine language so the computer can execute the program. 
a program which converts assembly language into machine code. 
ADEPT Subsystem for Scanning of Electronic Received Traffic (ADEPT, mil., USA) 
To give a value to a variable in a programming or configuration statement. For example, in the Bourne shell statement TERM=vt100, you assign the value vt100 to the environmental variable TERM, which identifies your terminal type (VT100) to Linux. 
Automated Special Security Information System Terminal (mil., USA) 
Application Specific Standard Product (RL) 
ASsociation Suisse pour l'Automatique (org., Switzerland) 
Agreed Set of Security Rules (mil., USA) 
Atlantic Standard Time [-0400] (TZ, ADT) 
Advanced Software Technology and Agorithms (HPCC) 
Astaro Security Linux
A firewall and VPN product based on the 2.4 Linux kernel. Available for free download but not completely open source. There are several branches. Version 3.200 (beta) was released June 4, 2002. A stable 3.217 (for i386) was released April 8, 2003. Beta version 3.391 was released January 30, 2003. The stable 2.x tree is at version 2.031, released November 15, 2002. There is also a version 2.027 for Sun Cobalt was released July 3, 2002. Stable version 4.008 was released June 12, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. 
Open Source Private Branch Exchange (PBX) Asterisk is an Open Source Private Branch Exchange (PBX) and telephony development platform that can both replace a conventional PBX and act as a platform for developing custom telephony applications for delivering dynamic content over a telephone similarly to how one can deliver dynamic content through a web browser using CGI and a web server. Asterisk talks to a variety of telephony hardware including BRI, PRI, POTS, and IP telephony clients using the Inter-Asterisk eXchange protocol (e.g. gnophone or miniphone). For more information and a current list of supported hardware, see 
Alliance fuer Strategic Token Ring Advancement and Leadership (manufacturer) 
Source code indenter for C++/C/Java source code Artistic Style is a reindenter and reformatter of C++, C and Java source code. 
Asynchron-Synchron Umsetzer 
Analog Simultaneous Voice and Data (MODEM) 
A lack of synchronization. A method of transmitting data over a network using a start bit at the beginning of a character and a stop bit at the end. The time intervak between characters may be varying lengths. In video, a signal is asynchronous when its timing differs from that of the system reference signal. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
It describes a communications strategy where start and stop bits are used to indicate the beginning and end of a character. 
Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM)
A fixed-route network protocol in which transmission packets have direct paths and destinations. ATM is an alternative to TCP/IP, which tags each packet with destination information in the header and can be routed through arbitrary paths on a carrier network such as the Internet. 
Advanced Technology (IBM, PC) 
At and batch read commands from standard input or from a specified file.At allows you to specify that a command will be run at a particular time(now or a specified time in the future). Batch will execute commands when the system load levels drop to a particular level. Both commands use /bin/sh to run the commands. You should install the at package if you need a utility that will dotime-oriented job control. Note: you should use crontab instead, if it is a recurring job that will need to be repeated at the same time everyday/week/etc. 
Delayed job execution and batch processing At and batch read shell commands from standard input storing them as a job to be scheduled for execution in the future. Use at to run the job at a specified time batch to run the job when system load levels permit 
queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution 
Run a command once at some future time. 
AT command set (Hayes command set)
Today's modems are controlled by the old Hayes "AT" command set. In order to dial the phone number 555-1212 using a modem, you simply send the string "ATDT555-1212" to the modem. The "D" following the "AT" means to "Dial", and the "T" means to use "Tone" dialing (rather than "P" for "Pulse" dialing). The command "ATH0" means to hang up the modem. Key point: One of the juvenile tricks people play is to cause people to hang up their own modem. Once the modem connects, it goes into a different mode where it no longer accepts AT commands. However, a user can switch back to the command mode by sending the characters "+++" to the modem. Therefore, if somebody can remotely trick your PC into sending "+++ATH0", then your modem will hang up. One way of doing this is with the ping program that sends and ICMP echo to the victim, which then replies with the same contents. E.g.: ping -p 2b2b2b415448300d victim The most popular exploits for this are spoofed ICMP pings, but it can be exploited in any number of ways. For example, one may include the following in an HTML webpage: <IMG src=""> 
Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA, HDD) 
Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (WAI) 
Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATA) 
AT Attachment Packet Interface - a standard that allows people to connect tape drives and CD-ROMs to Enhanced IDE controllers. 
see Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI). 
Partition editor for Atari (running on non-Atari) Atari-fdisk allows you to create and edit the partition table of a disk partitioned in Atari format. It supports both the AHDI 5.0 and ICD variations of the Atari format. It is an interactive tool with a menu similar to PC fdisk, and also supports most options of PC fdisk. 
Atari emulator for svgalib/X/curses This is an Atari emulator that can use SVGALIB, X, or plain curses. It can emulate the Atari 800, 800XL, 130XE, and 5200 systems. The Atari Operating System ROMs are not available with this package, due to copyright. You'll have to either make copies of them from an old Atari computer, or see README.Debian for other ways to obtain them. 
Advanced Technology Attachment Software Programming Interface (ATA) 
Address Translation Cache (CPU) 
Address Translation Controller (ATM) 
Automatic Transmission Control 
Allied Tactical Communications Agency (org., NATO, mil.) 
[PPP] AppleTalk Control Protocol (Apple, AppleTalk, PPP, NCP, RFC 1378) 
Asynchronous Time Division (ATM) 
run jobs queued for later execution 
Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexer (ATD) 
Asynchronous Time Division Multiple Access (ATD) 
ATtention Dial Pulse (MODEM) 
ATtention Dial Tone (MODEM) 
Asynchronous Terminal Emulation (Banyan, VINES) 
ATM Terminating Equipment (SONET, ATM) 
Authorized Training and Education Center (MS, MOCS, MCSD, ATEC) 
Afterstep XVT - a VT102 emulator for the X window system Aterm is a colour vt102 terminal emulator, based on rxvt 2.4.8 with some additions of fast transparency, intended as an xterm replacement for users who do not require features such as Tektronix 4014 emulation and toolkit-style configurability. As a result, aterm uses much less swap space -- a significant advantage on a machine serving many X sessions. It was created with AfterStep Window Manager users in mind, but is not tied to any libraries, and can be used anywhere. 
Advanced Techniques integration into Efficient scientific Software (ESPRIT, CASE) 
Automatic Track Finding (DDS) 
The Attributed File System (AtFS). AtFS is a storage system supporting multiple versions of files and associating an arbitrary number of application defined attributes of the form "name=value" with each version. AtFS comes as a function library that is meant as an extension to the UNIX file system. It does this without the need for kernel modifications and without imposing any restrictions to existing file system applications. 
Advanced TFTP client. Interactive client for the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). Its usage is mainly for testing and debugging a TFTP server since a client is usually implemented in BIOS' for boot from LAN setups. 
Advanced TFTP server. Multithreaded TFTP server implementing all options specified in RFCs 1350, 2090, 2347, 2348, 2349 (multicast not implemented yet). The server currently supports being started from inetd(8) only. The server then handles new connections directly by starting new threads and kills itself after 5 minutes of inactivity. 
ATtention Hang up (MODEM) 
Advanced Telecomunications Institute (org., USA) 
Asociacion de Tecnicos de Informatica (org., Spain) 
Unix jargon for "the time a file was last accessed". (cf. ctime, mtime). 
Absolute Time In Pregroove (CD) 
Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (org., USA) 
Andrew ToolKit (Unix) 
The ATK library provides a set of interfaces for adding accessibility support to applications and graphical user interface toolkits. By supporting the ATK interfaces, an application or toolkit can be used with tools such as screen readers, magnifiers, and alternative inputdevices. 
Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches InformationsSystem 
Activex Template Library (MS, ActiceX, MSVC) 
Adaptive Threshold Learning (neural nets) 
Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software,generic shared ATLAS is an approach for the automatic generation and optimization of numerical software for processors with deep memory hierarchies and pipelined functional units. The production of such software for machines ranging from desktop workstations to embedded processors can be a tedious and time consuming task. ATLAS has been designed to automate much of this process. We concentrate our efforts on the widely used linear algebra kernels called the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS). These libraries are built without any processor extension instructions, and should run on all processors of this general architecture, albeit less than optimally. 
Abstract Test Method (ISO 9646-1) 
Adobe Type Manager 
Asynchronous Transfer Mode 
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. High Speed (up to 155 Mbps), high bandwidth, low-delay, transport technology, integrating multiple data types (voice, video, and data), International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has selected ATM as the basis for the future broadband network because of its flexibility and suitability for both transmission and switching. It may be used in the phone and computer networks of the future. It is also a multiplexed information transfer technique of sending data in irregular time intervals using a code such as ASCII. ATM allows most modern computers to communicate with one another easily. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
At The Moment (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Automatic Teller Machine 
Base programs for ATM in Linux, the net-tools for ATM. All the basic programs for setting up, monitoring, and tuning ATM networks. 
ATM Address Resolution Protocol (ATM, ARP) 
Ascend Tunnel Management Protocol (Ascend, RFC 2107) 
Assumption based Truth Maintenance System (AI) 
Augmented Transition Network 
bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System 
Kana-Kanji translation system ATOKX for Linux (Installer) This package is installer to install "ATOKX for Linux" to Debian system, ATOKX is released by JUSTSYSTEM Corporation. It is commercial software and does not allow redistribution. 
Advanced super Thinlayer and high-Output Metal Media (Fuji) 
A script for managing file archives of various types atool is a script for managing file archives of various types (tar, tar+gzip, zip etc). The main command is probably aunpack, extracting files from an archive. It overcomes the dreaded "multiple files in archive root" problem by first extracting to a unique subdirectory, and then moving back the files if possible. aunpack also prevents local files from being overwritten by mistake. 
a text to PostScript converter with some C syntax highlighting atp is a text to postscript converter. It supports a special "gaudy" output mode, uses user-selectable number of columns and margins in the output, supports nroff's bold and italic conventions, and has some syntax highlighting for C and C++ sources. 
Advanced Technology Partner 
Appletalk Transaction Protocol (Apple) 
Application Transaction Program (IBM, APPC) 
Available To Promise (SCM) 
AppleTalk Phase 2 (Apple, AppleTalk) 
AppleTalk Printing Services (AppleTalk, Apple) 
queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution 
Advanced Telecommunications Research laboratory (org., Japan) 
Answer To Reset 
Automatic Terminal Recognition 
Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding (Sony, Digital audio, CODEC) 
queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution 
run jobs queued for later execution 
Abstract Test Suite 
Administrative Terminal System 
Apple Terminal Services (Apple, AppleTalk) 
system activity reporter monitor system resources such as cpu & disk, record data for later analysis 
Apple Text Services for Unicode Imaging (Apple, Unicode) 
American Telephone and Telegraph, "AT&T" 
A set of tools for manipulating extended attributes on filesystem objects, in particular getfattr(1) and setfattr(1). An attr(1) command is also provided which is largely compatible with the SGI IRIX tool of the same name. 
Utilities for manipulating filesystem extended attributes A set of tools for manipulating extended attributes on filesystem objects, in particular getfattr(1) and setfattr(1). An attr(1) command is also provided which is largely compatible with the SGI IRIX tool of the same name. 
Advanced TV Enhancement Forum (org.) 
Advanced Technology eXtended [format] 
Access Unit 
Association for Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (org., AI) 
Assembles binary files from USENET AUB automatically assembles the pieces of multi-part Usenet postings and decodes them. A user-supplied configuration file tells which newsgroups AUB should monitor. The user can also supply a "hook" program, which tests each subject header and determines whether that particular file should be downloaded or not. Resumed development resuming after 10 years of inactivity has given AUB the better documentation and the new abilities to decode Base64 files, perform NNTP authentication as well as a good deal of additional functionality. 
AUthentication Center (GSM, mobile-systems), "AuC" 
An integrated environment for writing TeX/LaTeX documents. AUC TeX can indent your text as you write it, let you run TeX/LaTeX and other LaTeX-related tools (such as a output filter or post processor) from within Emacs, and includes a wide range of Emacs macros to allow both easy insertions of LaTeX commands, and easy compilation, previewing, and printing of your TeX documents. AUC TeX also lets you browse through compiling errors TeX reports, while it moves the cursor directly to the reported error and displays documentation for that particular error. This will even work when the document is spread over several files. Currently XEmacs ships with its own AUC TeX, so this package should only be used with GNU/Emacs. (I.e., you don't need to install this package if your site uses only XEmacs.) 
A fast, cross-platform audio editor Audacity is an innovative graphical audio editor. Its main goals are speed and being cross-platform (it uses the cross-platform toolkit wxWindows, and is fully supported on Linux, Windows, Mac OS 9 and X, and FreeBSD). It is very fast. Due to its file format and internal data representation, undo and redo are constant-time operations. It also supports an unlimited number of tracks, and can import and export a number of different formats including WAV, AIFF, MP3 and Ogg Vorbis. 
Audio Bookshelf
Including the Enigma Audio Bookshelf could be stretching the definition of a Linux distribution more than a little. But this is a bootable CD product, which contains enough of a Linux operating system to turn a PC into a book reader. Any PC meeting the requirements can be turned into a Linux based book reader, regardless of the OS installed on the hard drive. Read the book yourself, or have the computer read to you. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
The Audio File library is an implementation of SGI's Audio File Library, which provides an API for accessing audio file formats likeAIFF/AIFF-C, WAVE, and NeXT/Sun .snd/.au files. This library is used by the EsounD daemon.Install audio file if you are installing EsounD or you need an API forany of the sound file formats it can handle. 
transparent OSS emulation over NAS This is a compatibility utility that allows programs written for the popular Open Sound System (OSS) interface to run using the Network Audio System (NAS) instead. It works by preloading a library to intercept and manipulate critical system calls such as open(), read(), and write(). The emulation is not yet complete, but it already works for many programs. 
AUtomated Data Input Terminal 
The word audit has two meanings. The first is the security audit, whereby a consulting firm comes in and validates a companies security profile. This is similar to how accounting firms review a company's books. The second term is infosec specific, and means an "auditing" subsystem that monitors actions within the system. For example, it may keep a record of everyone who logs onto a system. Such a record is known as an audit trail. 
AUssenDIenstUnterstuetzungsSystem (CAS) 
Andrew User Environment (Unix) 
Apple User Group Europe (org., Apple, user group) 
Tcl/Tk HTML editor. August is a Tcl/Tk HTML editor with interesting features. It is not WYSIWYG but is very useful for developing HTML pages. 
Access Unit Interface 
Asociacion de Usarios de Internet (Internet, user group, Spain, org.) 
Attachment Unit Interface (ethernet) 
Audible User Interface (UI) 
Andrew User Interface System (Unix, UI) 
Aumix is a tty-based, interactive method of controlling a sound card mixer. It lets you adjust the input levels from the CD, microphone, and board synthesizers, as well as the output volume. Aumix can adjust audio mixers from the command line, from a script, or interactively at the console or terminal with an ncurses-based interface. The aumix-X11 package provides a GTK+ interface for using aumix with the X Window System. 
Simple text-based mixer control program aumix is a small, easy-to-use program to control the mixer of your sound card. It runs in text mode using the ncurses library, or from the command line (non-interactively). It can read default settings from a file. A wrapper script xaumix is provided that finds and invokes xterm or a replacement. This is primarily for creating the best sized terminal window. If you want a true graphical interface, install aumix-gtk instead. That has the same functionality as this one in addition to offering a nice X11 GUI. The old companion package aumix-alsa, which did take advantage of the extra facilities in the ALSA sound driver, is no longer available. This package should work fine with the ALSA driver. 
This is a program for adjusting audio mixers from the command line or scripts, or interactively at the console or a terminal with a full-screen, ncurses-based interface or a GTK-based X interface. 
Acceptable Use Policy (NFSNet) 
Aurora Sparc Project
This Sparc Linux distribution is based on Red Hat 7.3. Build 0.2 was announced on December 4, 2001. Build 0.4 (Titanium) was released September 26, 2002. Build 0.42 (Douglas) was released October 4, 2002. 
Aurox Linux
Aurox Linux is an international distribution, hailing from Poland. It is available in several european countries, in different language versions, including Polish, Czech, German, French and Spanish. Aurox is based on Red Hat, with Aurox 9.0 the most recent offering. Added to list June 11, 2003. 
Appletalk Update-based Routing Protocol (Apple, Appletalk, RFC 1504) 
Application Under Test 
Allows non-root programs to bind() to low ports This package allows a package to be started as non-root but still bind to low ports, without any changes to the application. 
Authconfig is a terminal mode program which can configure a workstation to use shadow passwords. Authconfig can also configure asystem to be a client for certain networked user information and authentication schemes. 
In infosec, authentication is the process of identifying an individual or data. The goal of authentication is to confirm the identification of an individual, message, file, or other data. The two primary areas of authentication are user authentication (proving that Bob is who he says he is) and message authentication (proving that your nuclear missile launch orders weren't forged or corrupted). The antonym of authentication is forgery. Contrast: Authentication will identify who an individual is; authorization will identify what the individual is allowed to do. Example: When you log in with your username and give the password, you are authenticating yourself to the system. You are proving that you are you because, in theory, only you know your password. Contrast: Abstractly, anything that combats forgery is called authentication. For example, IPsec includes an Authentication Header (AH) that proves that a packet hasn't been modified in transit. However, this feature overlaps with the abstract concept of integrity: both are checked at the same time. Examples: biometrics Signature (handwriting), facial features, fingerprint, etc. smart-card A card with an on-board microprocessor that can run crypto algorithms. For example, it may store a private-key, and be able to encrypt/decrypto tokens with that key. passwords digital certificates A small file containing public or private keys. SecureID A commercial product that uses a key and the current timestamp to generate a stream of random numbers that can be verified by a server. A user has roughly 10 seconds to enter the current number displayed on the card. Contrast: Three things used for authentication: physical (what you have) car keys, subway tokens, driver's license, passport, credit cards, ID cards, smart cards knowledge (what you know) PINs, usernames/passwords, account numbers, mother's maiden name biometrics (who you are) written signature, fingerprint, what you look like, etc. See also: Authentication is often mentioned along with other key security concepts such as integrity, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. 
the verification of the identity of a person or process. In a communication system, authentication verifies that messages really come from their stated source, like the signature on a (paper) letter 
Verification of the identity of a username, password, process, or computer system for security purposes. 
In infosec, authenticity is about making sure that the message received is the same as the message that was sent. In law, authenticity is about validating that evidence has been gathered correctly by a reliable source and hasn't been tampered with. Contrast: The terms integrity and authenticity are widely used to mean the same thing. In other situations, they have subtly different meanings (especially law). The term integrity generally describes defending against malicious change of a message once it has been sent, whereas authenticity implies some sort of validation of the sender of the message to protect against forgeries. Contrast: The terms authentication and authenticity are widely used to mean the same thing. The subtle difference is that authentication is about someone proving who they say they are, whereas authenticity is about proving that message was sent by a certain person. 
Authoritative for a Domain
I have emphasized that name servers only hold information for their own domains. Any other information they may have about another domain is cached, temporary data that has an expiration date attached to it. The domain that a name server has information about is said to be the domain that a name server is authoritative for. Alternatively we say: ``a name server is authoritative for the domain.'' For instance, the server is authoritative for the domain Hence, lookups from anywhere on the Internet having the domain ultimately are the responsibility of, and originate (albeit through a long series of caches) from the host 
In infosec, the concept of authorization validates that someone has the rights to access something. For example, you are authorized to read files from my webserver, but I don't authorize you to change anything. Contrast: The first stage of authorization is generally authentication. Before you decide what an individual is allowed to do, you must first establish who they are. In some cases, authorization is independent from authentication, such as not allowing anybody to logon after midnight. 
List of people who contributed to or wrote a package or document. 
package search by file and on-demand package installation tool auto-apt checks the file access of programs running within its environments, and if a program tries to access a file known to belong in an uninstalled package, auto-apt will install that package using apt-get. This feature requires apt and sudo to work. It also provides simple database to search which package contains a requesting file. 
PGP tools for command-line and Emacs use This package provides the shell commands pgp-auto, pgp-decrypt, and pgp-pixie. It also integrates PGP into your Emacs mailreader. 
automatic classification or clustering AutoClass solves the problem of automatic discovery of classes in data (sometimes called clustering, or unsupervised learning), as distinct from the generation of class descriptions from labeled examples (called supervised learning). It aims to discover the "natural" classes in the data. AutoClass is applicable to observations of things that can be described by a set of attributes, without referring to other things. The data values corresponding to each attribute are limited to be either numbers or the elements of a fixed set of symbols. With numeric data, a measurement error must be provided. For more information, see 
automatic configure script builder The standard for FSF source packages. This is only useful if you write your own programs or if you extensively modify other people's programs. This version of autoconf contains many changes from the previous release, version 2.13. For now, it depends on autoconf2.13 to provide compatibility. This will eventually go away, so please upgrade your autoconfiscations. 
creates scripts to configure source code packages using templates 
GNU's Autoconf is a tool for configuring source code and Makefiles. Using Autoconf, programmers can create portable and configurable packages, since the person building the package is allowed to specify various configuration options. You should install Autoconf if you are developing software and you would like to use it to create shell scripts that will configure yoursource code packages. If you are installing Autoconf, you will alsoneed to install the GNU m4 package. Note that the Autoconf package is not required for the end-user whomay be configuring software with an Autoconf-generated script; Autoconf is only required for the generation of the scripts, not their use. 
GNU's Autoconf is a tool for configuring source code and Makefiles.Using Autoconf, programmers can create portable and configurable packages, since the person building the package is allowed to specify various configuration options. You should install Autoconf if you are developing software and you'd like to use it to create shell scripts which will configure yoursource code packages. If you are installing Autoconf, you will also need to install the GNU m4 package. Note that the Autoconf package is not required for the end user who may be configuring software with an Autoconf-generated script; Autoconf is only required for the generation of the scripts, not their use.-- PLEASE NOTICE ---> this version is meant to coexist with autoconf-2.5x;to that end, the various binaries are actually linked to a script which decides which version to execute. It tries to be clever and will execute2.5x if `' is present, or if `' contains AC_PREREQand the value's 3 first letters are stringwise greater than '2.1'. Ifanything fails, you can manually select 2.13 by providing the environmentvariable WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1 set to `1' (use WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5 if you wantthe 2.5x version). 
AUTOmatic DIgital Network (DMS, DISA) 
Automatic DNS updates for DHCP autodns-dhcp uses bind 8's dynamic update features to update a zonefile with hostnames from the dhcp leases file, this is done just once for each hostname as the IP, MAC address and name are settled on the dhcp configuration to have an static zone. 
A kernel-based automounter for Linux. The kernel automounter implements an almost complete SunOS style automounter under Linux. The automounter is supported by Linux kernels 2.0.31 and higher or the 2.1.X series. Automounter support must be activated while compiling the kernel. 
Autofs controls the operation of the automount daemons. The automount daemons automatically mount filesystems when you use them and unmount them after a period of inactivity. Filesystems can include network filesystems, CD-ROMs, floppies, and other media. Install this package if you want a program for automatically mounting and unmounting filesystems. If your Red Hat Linux machine is on anetwork, you should install autofs. 
an automated text file generator AutoGen is a tool designed for generating program files that contain repetitive text with varied substitutions. This is especially valuable if there are several blocks of such text that must be kept synchronized. Included with AutoGen is a tool that virtually eliminates the hassle of processing options, keeping usage text up to date and so on. This tool allows you to specify several program attributes, innumerable options and option attributes, then it produces all the code necessary to parse and handle the command line and initialization file options. This package contains the development tools. libopts9-dev contains the static libraries and header files. libopts9 contains the shared libraries. 
creates a template file of C #define's for use by configure. 
Progeny Debian auto-installation system This package contains the Progeny Debian auto-installation system. This system makes it possible to install a complete Debian system with no user interaction from a set of configuration files. The basic model is that of cloning an existing system; after installing and configuring a Debian system to taste, the configuration is "dumped" to the configuration files, along with some extra information. It currently supports flexible constraints for partitioning differently-sized disks in a logical fashion, hardware auto-configuration with discover (including configuration of X, if appropriate), network configuration via DHCP or a database based on MAC addresses, and a cross-platform design making it possible for install media for any platform to be created on any other platform. Platform-specific files are not included in this package; install the "autoinstall-<arch>" packages to install support for <arch>. 
Terminates connections for idle users Autolog terminates connections considered to be idle based on a large variety of parameters. 
A tool for generating GNU Standards-compliant Makefiles. Automake is a tool for automatically generating `'s from files called `'. The goal of Automake is to remove the burden of Makefile maintenance from the back of the individual GNU maintainer (and put it on the back of the Automake maintainer). The `' is basically a series of `make' macro definitions (with rules being thrown in occasionally). The generated `'s are compliant with the GNU Makefile standards. 
Automake is a tool for automatically generating Makefiles compliant with the GNU Coding Standards.You should install Automake if you are developing software and would like touse its capabilities of automatically generating GNU standard Makefiles. If you install Automake, you will also need to install GNU's Autoconf package. 
Automake is an experimental Makefile generator. Automake was inspiredby the 4.4BSD make and include files, but aims to be portable and toconform to the GNU standards for Makefile variables and targets. You should install Automake if you are developing software and wouldlike to use its ability to automatically generate GNU standard Makefiles. If you install Automake, you will also need to install GNU's Autoconf package. 
automatically create's from's 
Automounting is the process where mounting and unmounting of certain filesystems is done automatically by a daemon. If the filesystem is unmounted, and a user attempts to access it, it will be automatically (re)mounted. This is especially useful in large networked environments and for crossmounting filesystems between a few machines (especially ones which are not always online). It may also be very useful for removable devices, or a few other uses, such as easy switching between a forced-on ascii conversion mount of a dos filesystem and a forced-off ascii conversion mount of the same dos fs. If you are new to Linux and dont understand what mounting and deamons are, then refer to some documentation regarding this. There are two types of automounters in linux; AMD and autofs. AMD is the automount daemon, and supposedly works like the SunOS AMD. It is implemented in user space, meaning it's not part of the kernel. It's not necessary for the kernel to understand automounting if you NFS mount to the local host, through the AMD daemon, which routes all automount filesystem traffic through the NFS system. Autofs is a newer system assisted by the kernel, meaning that the kernel's filesystem code knows where the automount mount points are on an otherwise normal underlying fs, and the automount program takes it from there. Only autofs will be described in this mini-howto. From Automount-miniHOWTO
To automatically access a storage medium such as CD-ROMs and make its contents available to a computer system. 
Monitor the DTR line of /dev/palm and run a command to start sync AutoPilot monitors the DTR line of /dev/palm, waiting for it to go from LOW to HIGH, which is used to activate a command automatically to make syncing easier. It can be used to boot up your favourite Palm syncer. 
create a skeleton source package for a new program autoproject interviews the user, then creates a source package for a new program which follows the GNU programming standards. The new package uses autoconf to configure itself, and automake to create the Makefile. `make distcheck' succeeds. The idea is that you execute autoproject just once when you start a new project. It will ask a few questions, then create a new directory and populate it with standard files, customized for the new project. Optionally, the new package will use a command line parser generator. Currently, autoproject supports two parser generators: clig by Harald Kirsch <> (see, and autogen by Bruce Korb <> (see 
update configure scripts 
email autoresponder for qmail autorespond sends an automatically generated response to emails for given address(es). It catches simple situations such as mail from a mailer-daemon, empty envelope sender, bulk precedence headers, etc. 
The autorun utility recognizes all of the CD-ROM drives on yoursystem, mounts the drive when a CD-ROM is inserted, and executes an autorun executable (if one exists) on the CD. If you want to giveusers (instead of just root) the autorun ability, you will need to adduser, exec options to the CD-ROM line in /etc/fstab. 
help to create a file for a software package 
AUTOmated SEcure VOice COMmunications (predecessor, SVIP, mil., USA) 
Bitmap to vector graphics converter AutoTrace is a program for converting bitmaps to vector graphics. The aim of the AutoTrace project is the development of a freely-available application similar to CorelTrace or Adobe Streamline. In some aspects it is already better. Originally created as a plugin for the GIMP, AutoTrace is now a standalone program. 
updates an old file to version 2 
AUTOmatic VOice Network (predecessor, DSN, DISA) 
This variable controls how the shell interacts with the user and job control. If this variable is set, single word simple commands without redirections are treated as candidates for resumption of an existing stopped job. There is no ambiguity allowed; if there is more than one job beginning with the string typed, the job most recently accessed is selected. The name of a stopped job, in this context, is the command line used to start it. If set to the value exact, the string supplied must match the name of a stopped job exactly; if set to substring, the string supplied needs to match a substring of the name of a stopped job. The substring value provides functionality analogous to the %? job id (see JOB CONTROL below). If set to any other value, the supplied string must be a prefix of a stopped job's name; this provides functionality analogous to the % job id. 
ATM User-to-User (ATM) 
Apple UniX (Apple, Unix), "A/UX" 
Audio/Video, "A/V" 
AudioVisual [macintosh] (Apple) 
Algebraical Virtual Assembler for Atmel's AVR MCUs AVA is an advanced assembler and linker for Atmel's family of 8-bit AVR microcontrollers. It offers a C-like preprocessor, powerful segments, and virtual symbols. This assembler is not compatible with Atmel's assembler syntax. 
Audio-Visual Authoring 
In infosec, availability describes the need that resources must be continuously available. For example, in the Kosovo war, the European forces bombed power plants in order to destroy the availability of electricity. Another example is in February of the year 2000, when massive DDoS attacks brought down major websites (making them "unavailable"). Controversy: Availability is one of the key sticking points in security. It is easy to secure things simply by making them unavailable: if a computer is turned off, nobody can hack into it. The trick to infosec is making things both available and secure. Examples of this problem are: account lockouts In order to prevent password grinding, computers will lock out accounts when too many bad passwords have been attempted. However, this means that hackers can purposely lock out accounts. firewalls and IDS Some IDSs will reconfigure firewalls, therefore spoofing attacks can cause the firewall to shut people out. fail-close/fail-open So called "proper" security will shut things down when things start to fail; for example, if the firewall crashes, it should shutdown all communication until the firewall is restarted rather than allowin traffic through unchecked. However, web-sites that demand 99.99% uptime are therefore unable to use traditional firewalls. Antonym: The opposite of the infosec term "availability" is the hacking term "DoS". See also: Availability is often mentioned along with other key security concepts such as integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. 
teile-Auftragserfassungs-, Verwaltungs- und AbrufSystem (MBAG) 
A graphical representation of you acting as an identification on 3D chat worlds. 
Advanced Video Attribute Terminal Assembler and Recreator (BBS) 
Audio-Visual Connection 
Audio-Visual Computer Display 
Alternation Voice/Data 
AutoCAD Visualization Extension (AutoCAD) 
Anti-Virus Emergency Response Team (McAfee) 
Advanced Video Graphics Array (VGA) 
Audio Video Interleaved (MS) 
Audio Video Interleaved: a proprietary video format developed by Microsoft. It interleaves standard waveform audio and digital video frames (bitmaps) and is a popular format. Popular Linux programs such as xanim support AVI. 
A high quality ASCII art image viewer and video player aview is a high quality ASCII art image viewer and video player. It is especially useful with a text-based browser such as lynx, links or w3m. It supports the pnm, pgm, pbm and ppm image formats, as well as the FLI and FLC video formats. It also supports output via stdio, (n)curses and slang and even has support for gpm. Features * High quality ASCII art rendering * Portable * Save into many formats (HTML, text, ANSI, more/less etc...) * Contrast, Bright, Gamma control * Image zooming/unzooming * Three dithering modes * Hidden "bonus" features :) * Inversion * Support for bright, dim, inverse attributes/extended character set 
AuftragsVerwaltungs- und InformationsSYstem (MBAG) 
Adelson, Veslkij and Laudis [tree] 
AudioVisuelles Marketing und computersysteme [gmbh] (manufacturer) 
Anchor Volume Descriptor Pointer (CD-R, UDF, ISO 9660) 
Automatic Voice Recognition 
Automatic Voltage Regulation (USV) 
Standard C library for Atmel AVR development Standard library used to the development of C programs for the Atmel AVR micro controllers. This package contains static libraries as well as the header files needed. 
Assembler for Atmel AVR microcontrollers Avra is an assembler for the Atmel's family of AVR 8-bit RISC microcontrollers. It is is mostly compatible with Atmel's own assembler, but adds new features such as better macro support and additional preprocessor directives. 
Programmer for Atmel AVR microcontrollers Avrp is a FLASH/EEPROM programmer for Atmel's family of AVR 8-bit RISC microcontrollers. It can also program the Atmel AT89 series microcontrollers. It supports at least four different programming devices including Atmel's own AVR development board and in-circuit programming. 
Programmer for Atmel AVR microcontrollers Programmer for Atmel AVR microcontrollers that uses PC parallel port to program the device in serial mode. The device can be programmed "in-system". It comes with a schematic of the hardware required. The hardware was designed to be efficient and inexpensive. For more information, see 
Address Verification System 
Linux AWE32 driver source and utilities Linux supports the Sound Blaster 32, and Sound Blaster AWE32, through the use of a driver written by Takashi Iwai <>. These utilities are the package of AWE32 utilities for use with this driver, which manipulate patch files. They are required to load the vital '.SBK', or '.SF2' files, which will have been installed with your AWE32 DOS or Win95 software in \SB16\SFBANK or \Windows\System. This also includes 'gusload', for loading GUS-format patches to the AWE32 driver. This package installs the source for the AWE32 driver into /usr/src/awedrv. In order to use the awe32 driver, you must recompile your kernel, after using the install script found in this package to patch these sources into your kernel source tree (they can alternatively be manually installed into the kernel source or into a separate copy of the sound driver). There are also some converters between different patch file formats for the AWE32, and the 'sfxtest' program for testing the AWE32 driver, which are installed in /usr/lib/awe. 
/awk/ 1. n. [Unix techspeak] An interpreted language for massaging text data developed by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan (the name derives from their initials). It is characterized by C-like syntax, a declaration-free approach to variable typing and declarations, associative arrays, and field-oriented text processing. See also Perl. 2. n. Editing term for an expression awkward to manipulate through normal regexp facilities (for example, one containing a newline). 3. vt. To process data using awk(1). 
al Aho, peter Weinberger, brian Kernighan (Unix) 
An interpreted language for massaging text data developed by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan (the name derives from their initials). It is characterized by C-like syntax, a declaration-free approach to variable typing and declarations, associative arrays, and field-oriented text processing. 
pattern scanning and text processing language 
Awk (Aho, Weinberger, and Kernighan)
A programming language useful for its patternmatching syntax, and often used for data retrieval and data transformation. A GNU version is called Gawk. 
Abesent WithOut Leave (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Apple Workgroup Server (Appletalk, Apple) 
A powerful and featureful web server log analyzer Advanced Web Statistics (AWStats) is a powerful web server logfile analyzer written in perl that shows you all your web statistics including visits, unique visitors, pages, hits, rush hours, search engines, keywords used to find your site, robots, broken links and more. Gives more detailed information and better graphical charts than webalizer, and is easier to use. Works with several web server log format as a CGI and/or from command line. Supports multiple languages (English, French, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, German, Polish, Greek...). 
Abstract Windows Toolkit (Java, Sun) 
Abstract Windows Toolkit-Application Programmer Interface (AWT, API, Java) 
a Packet Radio Protocol that offers both connected and connectionless modes of operation, and is used either by itself for point-point links, or to carry other protocols such as TCP/IP and NetRom. 
Application eXecution Environment 
A light download accelerator - Console version This program tries to accelerate the downloading process by using multiple connections for one file. Starting from version 0.97, the program can use multiple mirrors for one download as well. The program tries to be as light as possible (25-30k in binary form), so it might be useful as a wget clone on byte-critical systems. 
An XML Delivery Toolkit for Apache AxKit is an XML Application Server for Apache. It provides on-the-fly conversion from XML to any format, such as HTML, WAP or text using either W3C standard techniques, or flexible custom code. AxKit also uses a built-in Perl interpreter to provide some amazingly powerful techniques for XML transformation. The emphasis with AxKit is on separation of content from presentation. The pipelining technique that AxKit uses allows content to be converted to a presentable format in stages, allowing certain platforms to see data differently to others. AxKit allows web designers to focus on web site design, content developers to work on a purely content basis, and webmasters to focus on their core competencies. AxKit is based on plugin components. This allows the web site developer to create a completely custom XML Application Server based around the AxKit API. AxKit can either automatically provide caching facilities, or you can create your own cache handler, so that XML transformations (which can be time consuming) only happen when required. The toolkit also provides ability to build component based web sites, and dynamic content. Database integration is fully supported, allowing either deliver of XML from a database, or XML generation from a database query. Dynamic web components can be built using the Perl language, making the possibilities as infinite as CGI scripts, without the potential mess that CGI programming can cause. 
A graphical ftp program with GTK interface AxY FTP is a ftp program with a nice, wsftp like interface. Current major features are: user-friendly, intuitive interface, passive data transfers, convenient session manager window, on-line help system, recursive downloads with resume option, recursive uploads, multiple delete You need Netscape or Lynx and the axyftp-doc package to use the help system. With other browsers, just read /usr/doc/axyftp-doc/html/index.html The GTK version of axyftp is Debian's preferred version of axyftp, but there is also the axyftp-lesstif package, which is the same program using the lesstif widget set. 
A graphical ftp program with Lesstif interface axyftp is a ftp program with a nice, wsftp like interface. Current major features are: user-friendly, intuitive interface, passive data transfers, convenient session manager window, on-line help system, recursive downloads with resume option, recursive uploads, multiple delete You need Netscape or Lynx and the axyftp-doc package to use the help system. With other browsers, just read /usr/doc/axyftp-doc/html/index.html 
Help for spanish-speakers This package contains a help program called 'ayuda' useful for users that speak spanish, and are new to the world of Debian GNU/Linux. The help provided covers many topics from administration to daily use. 

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