Linux-Dictionary ( B - D )

Binary 8 Zero Suppression [encoding] (ISDN, T1) 
An icon editor in Perl-Tk Babygimp is an icon editor in Perl-Tk. It can edit and save files in .xpm format. 
back door
A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. 
back door
n. [common] A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. The motivation for such holes is not always sinister; some operating systems, for example, come out of the box with privileged accounts intended for use by field service technicians or the vendor's maintenance programmers. Syn. trap door; may also be called a `wormhole'. See also iron box, cracker, worm, logic bomb. Historically, back doors have often lurked in systems longer than anyone expected or planned, and a few have become widely known. Ken Thompson's 1983 Turing Award lecture to the ACM admitted the existence of a back door in early Unix versions that may have qualified as the most fiendishly clever security hack of all time. In this scheme, the C compiler contained code that would recognize when the `login' command was being recompiled and insert some code recognizing a password chosen by Thompson, giving him entry to the system whether or not an account had been created for him. Normally such a back door could be removed by removing it from the source code for the compiler and recompiling the compiler. But to recompile the compiler, you have to use the compiler -- so Thompson also arranged that the compiler would recognize when it was compiling a version of itself, and insert into the recompiled compiler the code to insert into the recompiled `login' the code to allow Thompson entry -- and, of course, the code to recognize itself and do the whole thing again the next time around! And having done this once, he was then able to recompile the compiler from the original sources; the hack perpetuated itself invisibly, leaving the back door in place and active but with no trace in the sources. The talk that suggested this truly moby hack was published as "Reflections on Trusting Trust", "Communications of the ACM 27", 8 (August 1984), pp. 761-763 (text available at Ken Thompson has since confirmed that this hack was implemented and that the Trojan Horse code did appear in the login binary of a Unix Support group machine. Ken says the crocked compiler was never distributed. Your editor has heard two separate reports that suggest that the crocked login did make it out of Bell Labs, notably to BBN, and that it enabled at least one late-night login across the network by someone using the login name `kt'. 
back up
to make a copy of important data onto a different storage medium. Backing up to tape is essential system maintenance. 
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network. 
In computers that can do more than one task at a time, the environment in which tasks (such as printing a document or downloading a file) are carried out while the user works with an applicatino in the foreground. In computers that lack multitasking capabilites, background tasks are carried out during brief pauses in the execution of the system's primary (foreground) tasks. 
n.,adj.,vt. [common] To do a task `in background' is to do it whenever foreground matters are not claiming your undivided attention, and `to background' something means to relegate it to a lower priority. "For now, we'll just print a list of nodes and links; I'm working on the graph-printing problem in background." Note that this implies ongoing activity but at a reduced level or in spare time, in contrast to mainstream `back burner' (which connotes benign neglect until some future resumption of activity). Some people prefer to use the term for processing that they have queued up for their unconscious minds (a tack that one can often fruitfully take upon encountering an obstacle in creative work). Compare amp off, slopsucker. Technically, a task running in background is detached from the terminal where it was started (and often running at a lower priority); oppose foreground. Nowadays this term is primarily associated with Unix, but it appears to have been first used in this sense on OS/360. 
Processing that a system performs without requiring interaction with the user. In Linux, append an ampersand (&) to the command line to request background processing. 
background process
A process that runs without interacting with a terminal. Because each user in a Linux system is allowed to have a number of background processes running simultaneously, Linux is called a multitasking system. 
Background Process
A program that is running without user input. A number of background processes can be running on a multitasking operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, while the user is interacting with the foreground process (for example, data entry). Some background processes daemons, for example never require user input. Others are merely in the background temporarily while the user is busy with the program presently running in the foreground. 
n. 1. In a regular expression or pattern match, the text which was matched within grouping parentheses 2. The part of the pattern which refers back to the matched text. 3. By extension, anything which refers back to something which has been seen or discussed before. "When you said `she' just now, who were you backreferencing?" 
A character (\) that is used in shell statements to quote another character (that is, to remove its special meaning to the shell). For example, if you want to use a dollar sign as a dollar sign, rather than as a symbol for end of line, enter \$. 
A copy of a file (or a group of files) that is stored off-line in the event that a computer system fails, losing or damaging the original file or files. 
To periodically archive data on a system to mitigate risk of permanent data loss in the event of system or component malfunction or destruction. 
backward combatability
/bak'w*rd k*m-bat'*-bil'*-tee/ n. [CMU, Tektronix: from `backward compatibility'] A property of hardware or software revisions in which previous protocols, formats, layouts, etc. are irrevocably discarded in favor of `new and improved' protocols, formats, and layouts, leaving the previous ones not merely deprecated but actively defeated. (Too often, the old and new versions cannot definitively be distinguished, such that lingering instances of the previous ones yield crashes or other infelicitous effects, as opposed to a simple "version mismatch" message.) A backwards compatible change, on the other hand, allows old versions to coexist without crashes or error messages, but too many major changes incorporating elaborate backwards compatibility processing can lead to extreme software bloat. See also flag day. 
backwards compatible
The quality of software to be able to work properly with older versions of the software that may be installed on a machine or communicating with another machine with a lower version of the software. 
Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BAP, RFC 2125) 
Broken As Designed (slang) 
Bad Penguin Linux
An Italian distribution, currently at version 0.99.5. 
search a device for bad blocks 
Bayerische Akademie Der Wissenschaften (org.) 
Bay Area GNU Enthusiasts League (GNU, org., user group) 
Basic Access Interface (ISDN) 
GNOME email client Balsa is a e-mail reader. This client is part of the GNOME desktop environment. It supports local mailboxes, POP3 and IMAP. 
BALanced-UNbalanced [adapter] (cable), "Balun" 
Bidirectional Associative Memory (neural nets) 
Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (org., Berlin, Germany) 
Bambi Linux
A Red Hat based wireless distribution. A 'wireless' distribution. 
How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression. 
1. n. Common spoken name for ! (ASCII 0100001), especially when used in pronouncing a bang path in spoken hackish. In elder days this was considered a CMUish usage, with MIT and Stanford hackers preferring excl or shriek; but the spread of Unix has carried `bang' with it (esp. via the term bang path) and it is now certainly the most common spoken name for !. Note that it is used exclusively for non-emphatic written !; one would not say "Congratulations bang" (except possibly for humorous purposes), but if one wanted to specify the exact characters `foo!' one would speak "Eff oh oh bang". See shriek, ASCII. 2. interj. An exclamation signifying roughly "I have achieved enlightenment!", or "The dynamite has cleared out my brain!" Often used to acknowledge that one has perpetrated a thinko immediately after one has been called on it. 
Denoted by the ! character. The C shell command !!, which repeats the last command, for example, is pronounced "Bang!Bang!". 
Bang path
A series of names that specifies a path between two nodes. It is sometimes used for email or BITNET as well as in the Linux uucp program. The path consists of machine or domain names separated by ! (bang). 
bang path
n. [now historical] An old-style UUCP electronic-mail address specifying hops to get from some assumed-reachable location to the addressee, so called because each hop is signified by a bang sign. Thus, for example, the path ...!bigsite!foovax!barbox!me directs people to route their mail to machine bigsite (presumably a well-known location accessible to everybody) and from there through the machine foovax to the account of user me on barbox. In the bad old days of not so long ago, before autorouting mailers became commonplace, people often published compound bang addresses using the { } convention (see glob) to give paths from several big machines, in the hopes that one's correspondent might be able to get mail to one of them reliably (example: ...!{seismo, ut-sally, ihnp4}!rice!beta!gamma!me). Bang paths of 8 to 10 hops were not uncommon in 1981. Late-night dial-up UUCP links would cause week-long transmission times. Bang paths were often selected by both transmission time and reliability, as messages would often get lost. See Internet address, the network, and sitename. 
Many text-based protocols will issue text banners when you connect to the service. These can usually be used to fingerprint the os or service. Key point: Many banners reveal the exact version of the product. Over time, exploits are found for specific versions of products. Therefore, the intruder can simply lookup the version numbers in a list to find which exploit will work on the system. In the examples below, the version numbers that reveal the service has known exploitable weaknesses are highlighted. Example: The example below is a RedHat Linux box with most the default service enabled. The examples below show only the text-based services that show banners upon connection (in some cases, a little bit of input was provided in order to trigger the banners). Note that this is an older version of Linux; exploits exist for most these services that would allow a hacker to break into this box (most are buffer-overflow exploits). Best practices: It is often recommend (and required in some government areas) to display a banner warning off unauthorized users. It makes the legal case stronger if you can show that the attacker saw a banner that indicated that they were unauthorized. Best practices: All version information should be supressed in the banners. See the product documentation for more information on this. An example on Solaris is to edit the configuration file /etc/default/telnetd and added the line: BANNER="" This will remove the Solaris login banner, making it more difficult for an intruder to determine the type of operating system. 
banner page
A way to separate printing jobs which often indicates the owner of the file that has been printed. 
BanShee Linux/R
BanShee Linux/R is a two-floppy rescue system using uClibc and Busybox to make sure that the system is as small as possible. Initial version 0.5 was released September 18, 2002. Version 0.61 was released October 27, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. 
[PPP] Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (PPP, RFC 2125, BACP) 
[PPP] Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (PPP, BAP, RFC 2125) 
Business Application Performance COrporation (org., Compaq, Dell, HP, IBM, MS, Lotus, Intel, ...), "BAPCo" 
Business Application Programmer's Interface (SAP, R/3, API) 
BundesAmt fuer Post und Telefon (org.) 
/bar/ n. 1. [very common] The second metasyntactic variable, after foo and before baz. "Suppose we have two functions: FOO and BAR. FOO calls BAR...." 2. Often appended to foo to produce foobar. 
Base Address Register (IC) 
Creates barcodes in .ps format GNU barcode can create printouts for the conventional product packaging standards: UPC-A, UPC-E, EAN-13, EAN-8, ISBN, code 39 code 128 (b and c), and interleaved 2 of 5 . Ouput is generated as either Postscript or Encapsulated Postscript. 
Deletes messages on the spool dir depending on their age. Barrendero is intended to limit the disk space wasted at the spool directory. It deletes mail messages depending on their age, and has the ability to send warnings and reports to the users, to make full and partial backups, and to have different allowed ages on a per-user basis. Warning and report messages are cusomizable and can be translated easely in order to make this package useful in any environment. This way of handling mail as an advantage over the traditional 'quota' system: quotas make the end user loose NEW mail, barrendero deletes OLD mail, so the new mail is always available. 
Bay Area Regional Research NETwork (network), "BARRNet" 
Basic Application RunTime (OS/2, IBM) 
Bay Area Research Wireless Access Network (network, USA) 
Basic Activity Subset 
Parse pathname components 
strip directory and suffix from filenames 
the name of a file minus any extension that may be included in the full name. For example, if the full name of the source file for a C program is combine.c, its basename is combine. 
Bash is a GNU project sh-compatible shell or command language interpreter. Bash (Bourne Again shell) incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and the C shell (csh). Most sh scripts can be run by bash without modification. Bash offers several improvements over sh, including command line editing, unlimited size command history, job control, shell functions and aliases, indexed arrays of unlimited size and integer arithmetic in any base from two to 64. Bash is ultimately intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell andTools standard.Bash is the default shell for Mandrake Linux. You should installbash because of its popularity and power. You'll probably end up using it. 
Bourne-Again SHell (Unix, Shell) 
Descended from the Bourne Shell, Bash is a GNU product, the "Bourne Again SHell." It's the standard command line interface on most Linux machines. 
The Bourne Again Shell and is based on the Bourne shell, sh, the original command interpreter.
The default command interpreter, or shell, for Red Hat Linux. bash features several enhancements to sh, such as built-in file management commands and support for completion of commands and paths using the the [Tab] key. 
The GNU Bourne Again SHell Bash is an sh-compatible command language interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input or from a file. Bash also incorporates useful features from the Korn and C shells (ksh and csh). Bash is ultimately intended to be a conformant implementation of the IEEE POSIX Shell and Tools specification (IEEE Working Group 1003.2). 
Bash (Bourne Again SHell)
An enhanced version of the Bourne Shell. (Also, see Korn Shell.) 
report a bug in bash 
/bay'-sic/ n. A programming language, originally designed for Dartmouth's experimental timesharing system in the early 1960s, which for many years was the leading cause of brain damage in proto-hackers. Edsger W. Dijkstra observed in "Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective" that "It is practically impossible to teach good programming style to students that have had prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration." This is another case (like Pascal) of the cascading lossage that happens when a language deliberately designed as an educational toy gets taken too seriously. A novice can write short BASIC programs (on the order of 10-20 lines) very easily; writing anything longer (a) is very painful, and (b) encourages bad habits that will make it harder to use more powerful languages well. This wouldn't be so bad if historical accidents hadn't made BASIC so common on low-end micros in the 1980s. As it is, it probably ruined tens of thousands of potential wizards. [1995: Some languages called `BASIC' aren't quite this nasty any more, having acquired Pascal- and C-like procedures and control structures and shed their line numbers. --ESR] Note: the name is commonly parsed as Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, but this is a backronym. BASIC was originally named Basic, simply because it was a simple and basic programming language. Because most programming language names were in fact acronyms, BASIC was often capitalized just out of habit or to be silly. No acronym for BASIC originally existed or was intended (as one can verify by reading texts through the early 1970s). Later, around the mid-1970s, people began to make up backronyms for BASIC because they weren't sure. Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code is the one that caught on. 
Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code 
Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code: a non-structured language that is often considered the easiest to start programming. It was developed as an interactive, mainframe timesharing language that received fame with home computers in the 1980s. 
Basic Input Output System (BIOS)
A set of instructions stored on a ROM CHIP that handles input-output functions and system component management (such as power configuration and interrupt request settings). 
BasicLinux is a mini-version of Linux that boots from hard drive, floppy, or CDROM, and runs in a 4meg ramdisk. It's based on Slackware 3.5 and contains a fully-featured shell, an easy-to-use editor, and a variety of useful utilities. It can dial an ISP, browse the web, send/receive mail, or act as a router/firewall. Version 1.7 was released May 12, 2002. Version 2.0 was released February 22, 2003, now based on Slackware 7.1. A small disk distribution. 
A PHP (both PHP3 and PHP4) and IMAP based webmail application powered with MySQL database server. It has a nice user-friendly interface and its HTML files are easy to be changed/edited. 0.7.6 includes WAP-Support. 
Bundesweites Alternatives Studentisches InformationsNetzwerk (WWW, org.) 
Security hardening tool Bastille Linux is a security hardening program for several Linux distributions. If run in the preferred Interactive mode, it can teach you a good deal about Security while personalizing your system security state. If run in the quicker Automated mode, it can quickly tighten your machine, once a default profile is selected. 
Baby Advanced Technology [board] (AT) 
adj. 1. Non-interactive. Hackers use this somewhat more loosely than the traditional technical definitions justify; in particular, switches on a normally interactive program that prepare it to receive non-interactive command input are often referred to as `batch mode' switches. A `batch file' is a series of instructions written to be handed to an interactive program running in batch mode. 2. Performance of dreary tasks all at one sitting. "I finally sat down in batch mode and wrote out checks for all those bills; I guess they'll turn the electricity back on next week..." 3. `batching up': Accumulation of a number of small tasks that can be lumped together for greater efficiency. "I'm batching up those letters to send sometime" "I'm batching up bottles to take to the recycling center." 
queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution 
a soccer game played with tanks or helicopters BattleBall is essentially the game of soccer, played with military vehicles rather than with people. Each player drives a tank or flies a helicopter, and tries to move the ball down the playfield to the other team's goal. Relatively unlimited number of human or computer players can compete in teams or head-to-head. 
Battery status applet for GNOME Battstat is a battery status applet that monitors the battery charge level on a laptop. It displays different icons depending on the state of the power subsystem, and will warn if the power drops below a user configurable level. It uses the standard GNOME event system to play user configurable samples at certain events. 
In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bitsit can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second). 
measures of the rate at which signals are transmitted over a telecommunications link. It is equivalent to the number of elements or pulses transmitted in one second. 
BAY networks' Switched Internetworking Services, "BaySIS" 
An ASCII-art demo BB is a high quality audio-visual demonstration for your text terminal. 
BridgeBoard (Amiga, Commodore) 
Broadband Bearer Capability (B-ISDN) 
Date tool for the blackbox window manager bbdate is a simple blackbox tool for displaying the date in your blackbox slit. 
The Insidious Big Brother Database (email rolodex) for Emacs BBDB is a rolodex-like database program for GNU Emacs. BBDB stands for Insidious Big Brother Database, and is not, repeat, *not* an obscure reference to the Buck Rogers TV series. 
[I'll] Be Back In A Bit (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
BBIagent provides a suite of applications to create the software for booting a computer as a broadband router and firewall. Based on the hardware configurations and connection type, you are able to download your own boot file which is written into a single 1.44MB diskette to be a boot diskette for the router. This is a Linux based system which uses Java tools to create a bootable floppy with router software. The software utilites provided by BBIagent.Net are free to use. Version 1.5.0 was released July 11, 2002. Version 1.8.1 was released May 16, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
Be Back In A Minute (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
application to handle key bindings in Blackbox In the Blackbox window manager version 0.60 and higher, a separate application is needed to handle key bindings. This is such a program. 
Be Back Later (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
launch windows with manipulated attribs under blackbox A program which allows the user to control the launching of applications under the Blackbox window manager. The user can launch applications with or without decorations, shaded, on a specific workspace or maximized horizontally or vertically. Requires that you be running the Blackbox window manager or a derivative. 
BBLCD Toolkit
BBLCD is the acronym for Bernhard's Bootable Linux CD or Build your own Bootable Linux CD. BBLCD is a toolkit for building your own bootable Linux CD from your favorite (and possibly customized) distribution. It uses, more or less, an intelligent cp -a / /dev/cdrom to create a CDROM from an existing system. Version 0.7.7 was released April 9, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Mail Utility for X This is a small mail utility for use with the Blackbox window manager. 
Bolt, Beranek and Newman (manufacturer) 
BroadBand Network Services 
Pager for the Blackbox window manager A pager tool for the Blackbox window manager. 
displays an image, and changes it every few seconds (from the README) If you've ever used the GNOME applet "fish," or Wanda, then this is an app very similar. In fact, that's where I got the idea for bbpal (since you need GNOME to use Wanda). When you run bbpal, is displays an image, and changes it every few seconds. Exciting, eh? It's fond of using up CPU cycles, and making your friends wonder what the heck it's used for. 
PPP tool for the blackbox window manager bbppp is a blackbox tool to control and manage your PPP link. It can start up /shut down your ppp connection (by running pon/poff), and displays rx and tx via a modem-lights style PPP load, and also the PPP link uptime. Note that you don't actually need blackbox for this program to work, but it won't look as good in any other window manager. 
Back Bone Ring 
Bulletin Board System (DFUe) 
BBS (Bulletin Board Service)
A forum for users to browse and exchange information. Computer BBSs are accessible by telephone via a personal computer and a modem. Many BBSs are small operations run by a single person that allow only several users to log on at the same time. Some are much larger and allow hundreds of users to login simultaneously to use the system. Huge, commercial examples are America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy. For example, please visit From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
BBS (Bulletin Board System)
A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. In the early 1990's there were many thousands (millions?) of BBS?s around the world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the line between a BBS and a system like AOL gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn. 
BBS (Bulletin Board System)
Electronic BBSs formed much of the the core "cyberspace" in the 1980s. Telecommunication costs were high, so rather than interconnected via "always-on" connections, such systems transfered files and messages as irregular intervals over dial-up lines. Mail was transported through BBS via protocols like FidoNet and UUCP. Files would move themselves from system to system as users would download from one BBS and upload to others. Many of today's older hackers were active in the BBS community of the 1980s. 
System load tool for the blackbox window manager bbsload is a blackbox tool to display your system load. It can show simple system bar graphs, including load averages for 1, 5 and 15 minute periods, memory usage, swap usage, total system usage, as well as CPU loads for user, nice and system processes and idle time. Note that you don't actually need blackbox for this program to work, but it won't look as good in any other window manager. 
Time tool for the blackbox window manager bbtime is a blackbox tool to display the system time in your blackbox slit. It can also display other times as an offset of your local time in a menu. Note that you don't actually need blackbox for this program to work, but it won't look as good in any other window manager. 
The GNU bc arbitrary precision calculator language GNU bc is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision which follows the POSIX 1003.2 draft standard, with several extensions including multi-character variable names, an `else' statement and full Boolean expressions. GNU bc does not require the separate GNU dc program. 
Basic Communication Access Method 
Broadband Connectionless Data Bearer Service (B-ISDN) 
16-bit C compiler This is a C-compiler for 8086 CPUs which is important for the development of boot loaders or BIOS related 8086 code. It is possible to run 8086 code under i386 Linux using an emulator, `elksemu', also included in this package. 
Base Communications-computer Center (mil., USA) 
Blind Carbon Copy (DFUe) 
Block Check Character 
Broadcast Control CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Binary Coded Decimal 
Broadband Connectionless Data Bearer Service (ATM) 
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code 
Broadband Code Division Multiple Access (Interdigital, SNI, Samsung), "B-CDMA" 
Base station Control Function (BS, BTS, GSM, mobile-systems) 
A CD image format converter from bin/cue to iso/cdr/wav The bchunk package contains a UNIX/C rewrite of the BinChunker program. BinChunker converts a CD image in a .bin/.cue format (sometimes .raw/.cue) into a set of .iso and .cdr/.wav tracks. The .bin/.cue format is used by some non-UNIX CD-writing software, but is not supported on most other CD-writing programs. 
Batibus Club International (org.) 
Brain Computer Interface 
Bezier Clock Bezier Clock, looking somewhat different than usual clocks. This very funny clock uses a Bezier curve to draw the hands of the clock. 
Basic Control Monitor (OS, Xerox, Xerox 530) 
Backbone Concentrator Node (Wellfleet) 
Broadband Class of Bearer (B-ISDN) 
Basic Call Process (IN) 
Binary Communications Protocol 
Binary Control Protocol (Adobe, PS) 
[Internet] Best Current Practice (Internet, RFC) 
[PPP] Bridging Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1638) 
// n. [abbreviation, `Basic Combined Programming Language') A programming language developed by Martin Richards in Cambridge in 1967. It is remarkable for its rich syntax, small size of compiler (it can be run in 16k) and extreme portability. It reached break-even point at a very early stage, and was the language in which the original hello world program was written. It has been ported to so many different systems that its creator confesses to having lost count. It has only one data type (a machine word) which can be used as an integer, a character, a floating point number, a pointer, or almost anything else, depending on context. BCPL was a precursor of C, which inherited some of its features. 
Basic / BBN Combined Programming Language (BBN) 
Bell System Reference Frequency Standard 
Banking Communication Standard (banking) 
Basic Combined Subset 
Basic Control System (OS, HP, HP 2100) 
Binary Compatibility Standard (Motorola) 
Block Check Sequenz (GPRS, GSM, mobile-systems) 
British Computer Society (org., UK) 
Basic Call State Model (IN) 
Bus Controller Unit 
BIOS Data Area (BIOS) 
Borland DAtabase (Borland, DB) 
BundesDatenAutobahn [e.v] (org., ISP) 
Basic Direct Access Method (DAM) 
Backup DOMAIN Controller (MS, Windows NT, PDC) 
Borland Database Engine (Borland, Delphi, DB) 
Bitmap Description / Display Format (Adobe, Fonts) 
BDF Fonts
A variety of bitmapped fonts for the X Window System. (Also, see PostScript Fonts and TrueType Fonts.) 
The bdflush process starts the kernel daemon which flushes dirty buffers back to disk (i.e., writes all unwritten data to disk). This helps to prevent the buffers from growing too stale.Bdflush is a basic system process that must run for your system to operate properly. 
Resize BDF Format Font Bdfresize is a command to magnify or reduce fonts which are described with the standard BDF format. 
convert X font from Bitmap Distribution Format to Portable Compiled Format 
generate truncated BDF font from ISO 10646-1-encoded BDF font 
[java]Beans Development Kit (Java) 
Basic Disk Operating System (CP/M) 
Bus Device Request (SCSI) 
BundesDatenSchutzGesetz Germany 
A stock portfolio performance monitoring tool This package provides beancounter, a tool to quantify gains and losses in stock portfolios, as well as the BeanCounter Perl module that underlies it. Beancounter queries stock prices from Yahoo! Finance server(s) around the globe and stores them in a relational database (using PostgreSQL) so that the data can be used for further analysis. Canned performance reports are available. 
Components for the JavaBeans architecture. 
BearOps Linux, formerly MaxOS, provides the BearOps Linux Server. 
GTK+ Graphical network system to generate sound BEAST/BSE is a plugin-based system where you can link objects to each other and generate sound. This is still an ALPHA version of the upstream. 
Best Enhanced Advanced Technology (Trident, AT) 
Binary Editor And Viewer (beav) beav is an editor for binary files containing arbitrary data. Text file editors, on the other hand, expect the files they edit to contain textual data, and/or to be formatted in a certain way (e.g. lines of printable characters delimited by newline characters). With beav, you can edit a file in HEX, ASCII, EBCDIC, OCTAL, DECIMAL, and BINARY. You can display but not edit data in FLOAT mode. You can search or search and replace in any of these modes. Data can be displayed in BYTE, WORD, or DOUBLE WORD formats. While displaying WORDS or DOUBLE WORDS the data can be displayed in INTEL's or MOTOROLA's byte ordering. Data of any length can be inserted at any point in the file. The source of this data can be the keyboard, another buffer, or a file. Any data that is being displayed can be sent to a printer in the displayed format. Files that are bigger than memory can be handled. 
An Early AdVanced EditoR Beaver is a text editor that is lightweight but full of features for programming from web authoring to C programming. It is based on the GTK+ toolkit, supports tons of languages through config files (compatible with UltraEdit 'wordfile.txt') and offers functions such as automatic indentation, correction and completion, or syntax highlighting. 
Binary Exponential Backoff (CSMA/CD, LIB) 
Back-End-Chip (DVR) 
BErlin Continuing Engineering Education Program, "BeCEEP" 
Becker, Donald
a staff scientist with the Center for Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences (CESDIS). Donald has been extremely influential in the development of low-cost, high-performance parallel computing as the chief investigator of the Beowulf Project. Becker has written enhancements to the kernel network subsystem to support faster I/O on high-speed networks, device drivers for countless Ethernet cards, and a distributed shared-memory package. 
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (ATM) 
Bookmark Exploring Dabbler (VRML) 
Burst EDO [DRAM] (EDO, RAM, DRAM, IC, Micron) 
Burst Extended Data Out DRAM (RAM, DRAM, IC), "BEDO-DRAM" 
An open source C library of cryptographic algorithms. BeeCrypt is an open source cryptography library that contains highly optimized C and assembler implementations of many well-known algorithms including Blowfish, SHA-1, Diffie-Hellman, and ElGamal. Unlike some other crypto libraries, BeeCrypt is not designed to solve one specific problem, like file encryption, but to be a general purpose toolkit which can be used in a variety of applications. There are also no patent or royalty issues associated with BeeCrypt, and it is released under the GNU LGPL license, which means it can be used for free in both open source and closed source commercial projects. 
Beehive Linux
Beehive Linux is a distribution made by system administrators, for system administrors. It's intent is to provide fast and clean setup of workhorse servers and workstations. Version 0.5.0 was released April 16, 2002. Version 0.6.0 was released September 15, 2002. 
Advanced pc-speaker beeper beep does what you'd expect: it beeps. But unlike printf "\a" beep allows you to control pitch, duration, and repetitions. Its job is to live inside shell/perl scripts and allow more granularity than one has otherwise. It is controlled completely through command line options. It's not supposed to be complex, and it isn't - but it makes system monitoring (or whatever else it gets hacked into) much more informative. 
Bundesverband der Elektronik- und ElektroschrottVerwerter (org.) 
Brightness Enhancement Foile (LCD) 
screen saver 
Behlendorf, Brian
although the Apache web server is largely a community effort, Behlendorf is probably one of its most important developers. 
Bell-LaPadula Modle (BLM)
An academic model for enforcing access control for government and military. The model is based around the idea of mandator access control. The formal definition from TCSEC is: ...a means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity (as represented by a label) of the information contained in the objects and the formal authorization (e.g., clearance) of subjects to access information of such sensitivity In this definition, a "subject" is somebody (user) who wants access to an "object" (information, data file, system). The subject and object have different security levels. Objects (information, data, systems) are assigned security classification levels. A typical example would be: unclassified < confidential < secret < top-secret Subjects are assigned similar clearance levels that allow access to objects of similar level or below. For example, if you are a government employee with "secret" clearance level, you can access everything but "top-secret" information. A classification level such as "top-secret" will also include categories. For example, you may have a "secret" clearance for NATO information, and "top-secret" clearance for all matters pertaining to nuclear weapons. The system follows the principle of least privilege. Therefore, you would not be cleared to access top-secret NATO nuclear plans because your NATO clearance isn't high enough. 
BELL COmmunications REsearch (org., USA), "Bellcore" 
Be Operating System (OS), "BeOS" 
a multi computer architecture which can be used for parallel computations. It is a system which usually consists of one server node, and one or more client nodes connected together via Ethernet or some other network. It is a system built using commodity hardware components, like any PC capable of running Linux, standard Ethernet adapters, and switches. 
A network of relatively inexpensive computers (including PCs), potentially using different processors and hardware architectures, united by Linux and special system-level software into a massively parallel computing system. The end result is a system capable of supercomputer computation at a much lower price. This sort of system is ideal for compute-intensive tasks such as weather modeling, because the calculations can be divided among dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of separate processors all running simultaneously. Sometimes referred to a "Beowulf-class supercomputer", or a super-cluster or hyper-cluster. For more on Beowulf technology, read the following articles:, and 
Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan. Beowulf is the earliest surviving epic poem written in English. It is a story about a hero of great strength and courage who defeted a monster called Grendel. See History to find out more about the Beowulf hero. There are probably as many Beowulf definitions as there are people who build or use Beowulf Supercomputer facilities. Some claim that one can call their system Beowulf only if it is built in the same way as the NASA's original machine. Others go to the other extreme and call Beowulf any system of workstations running parallel code. My definition of Beowulf fits somewhere between the two views described above, and is based on many postings to the Beowulf mailing list: Beowulf is a multi computer architecture which can be used for parallel computations. It is a system which usually consists of one server node, and one or more client nodes connected together via Ethernet or some other network. It is a system built using commodity hardware components, like any PC capable of running Linux, standard Ethernet adapters, and switches. It does not contain any custom hardware components and is trivially reproducible. Beowulf also uses commodity software like the Linux operating system, Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI). The server node controls the whole cluster and serves files to the client nodes. It is also the cluster's console and gateway to the outside world. Large Beowulf machines might have more than one server node, and possibly other nodes dedicated to particular tasks, for example consoles or monitoring stations. In most cases client nodes in a Beowulf system are dumb, the dumber the better. Nodes are configured and controlled by the server node, and do only what they are told to do. In a disk-less client configuration, client nodes don't even know their IP address or name until the server tells them what it is. One of the main differences between Beowulf and a Cluster of Workstations (COW) is the fact that Beowulf behaves more like a single machine rather than many workstations. In most cases client nodes do not have keyboards or monitors, and are accessed only via remote login or possibly serial terminal. Beowulf nodes can be thought of as a CPU + memory package which can be plugged in to the cluster, just like a CPU or memory module can be plugged into a motherboard. Beowulf is not a special software package, new network topology or the latest kernel hack. Beowulf is a technology of clustering Linux computers to form a parallel, virtual supercomputer. Although there are many software packages such as kernel modifications, PVM and MPI libraries, and configuration tools which make the Beowulf architecture faster, easier to configure, and much more usable, one can build a Beowulf class machine using standard Linux distribution without any additional software. If you have two networked Linux computers which share at least the /home file system via NFS, and trust each other to execute remote shells (rsh), then it could be argued that you have a simple, two node Beowulf machine. 
Basic Encoding Rules [for ASN.1] (ASN.1, OSI, ISO, IS 8825) 
Bit Error Rate 
Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
A domain name service implementation developed by the University of California at Berkeley. BIND is distributed with the named daemon, which actively listens for requests and queries root name servers to translate IP addresses to corresponding domain names and vice versa. 
Bit Error Rate Test 
Block Ended by Symbol (IBM, assembler) 
Bursty Errored Seconds (DS1/E1) 
Borland Enhanced Support and Training (Borland) 
Business Executive System for Timesharing (OS, Qantel) 
/bay't*/, /be't*/ or (Commonwealth) /bee't*/ n. 1. Mostly working, but still under test; usu. used with `in': `in beta'. In the Real World, systems (hardware or software) software often go through two stages of release testing: Alpha (in-house) and Beta (out-house?). Beta releases are generally made to a group of lucky (or unlucky) trusted customers. 2. Anything that is new and experimental. "His girlfriend is in beta" means that he is still testing for compatibility and reserving judgment. 3. Flaky; dubious; suspect (since beta software is notoriously buggy). Historical note: More formally, to beta-test is to test a pre-release (potentially unreliable) version of a piece of software by making it available to selected (or self-selected) customers and users. This term derives from early 1960s terminology for product cycle checkpoints, first used at IBM but later standard throughout the industry. `Alpha Test' was the unit, module, or component test phase; `Beta Test' was initial system test. These themselves came from earlier A- and B-tests for hardware. The A-test was a feasibility and manufacturability evaluation done before any commitment to design and development. The B-test was a demonstration that the engineering model functioned as specified. The C-test (corresponding to today's beta) was the B-test performed on early samples of the production design, and the D test was the C test repeated after the model had been in production a while. 
beta software
Development copies that are released prior to the full version. They are released to aid debugging of the software and to obtain real world reports of its operation. An expiry date is often built into the software. See alpha software. 
Bundesvereinigung mittelstaendischer Elektro- und elektronikgeraete entsorgungs- und VerwertungsUnternehmen Org., Germany 
Business Engineering Workbench (R/3, SAP) 
Bus Fraction [pin] (Intel, Pentium, CPU) 
Brute Force Binary Tester BFBTester is great for doing quick, proactive, security checks of binary programs. BFBTester will perform checks of single and multiple argument command line overflows as well as environment variable overflows. BFBTester can also watch for tempfile creation activity to alert the user of any programs using unsafe tempfile names. While BFBTester can not test all overflows in software, it is useful for detecting initial mistakes that can red flag dangerous software. 
Binary File Descriptor (Unix) 
Bye For Now (slang, IRC, Usenet) 
Bayonet Fiber Optic Connector 
nonblocking 8-bit-clean pipe buffer bfr's purpose is to buffer data. It buffers from its standard input and/or a list of files of your choosing, and allows this data to flow to its standard output at whatever rate that end can handle. It's useful for any situation in which its beneficial to have I/O occur in a detached yet smooth fashion. Also contained is bfp, a buffering /dev/dsp writer. Pipe your raw PCM data to it, for skip-free bliss. 
Binary File Transfer (DFUe) 
Big-5 wide-characters rectifier Bg5cc converts `\' in Big-5 wide-characters that appear in source programs to `\\'. This ensures programs that contain Big-5 characters can be compiled correctly. Bg5cc should have little use to end-users. 
A utility to print Chinese Big5/GB documents using TrueType fonts Bg5ps is a utility to output a Postscript file from a Chinese Big5 or GB2312 encoded document by using TrueType fonts. Postscript files produced by Netscape and mpage that contain Big5 or GB2312 characters can be filtered by bg5ps so that the Chinese characters within can be printed correctly. If you want to use the configuration tool 'bg5psconf', make sure you have the package python-gtk installed. 
Ball Grid Array (CPU, IC) 
Borland Graphics Interface (Borland) 
Border Gateway Protocol (RFC 1267/1771, IP) 
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
On the Internet, BGP is used between ISPs in order to communicate routers. For example, imagine that the ALICE ISP needs to reach the BOB ISP. However, ALICE is not directly connected to BOB. ALICE therefore must figure out which ISP should be used to send traffic to BOB. It is through the use of BGP that such information is discovered. The name "border" comes from the fact that ISPs use BGP only on their borders (in contrast, they would use some other protocol (like OSPF) inside their networks). Key point: BGP can be subverted in many ways. BGP is generally unauthenticated, and rogue ISPs can play havoc. 
Broadcast and Group Translators 
Busy Hour Call Attempts 
Broadband High Layer Information, "B-HLI" 
Bayerisches Hochschulnetz (network) 
Branch History Table (CPU) 
Breidbart-Index (Usenet, ECP, EMP) 
Back In A Bit (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Bus Interface Board 
Fast lookup in BibTeX bibliography data bases bibindex converts a .bib file to a .bix file, which is a compact binary representation of the .bib file containing hash tables for fast lookup, as well as byte offset positions into the corresponding .bib file. biblook provides an interactive lookup facility using the .bix and .bib files. It verifies that the file version number and bibindex version number match its own values, and also compares the file time stamps so that it can detect whether the .bix file is out-of-date with respect to the .bib file. In either case, execution terminates. This Debian package features a command line history mechanism through the GNU readline library. 
A bible study tool for KDE BibleTime 1.1 is a free and easy to use bible study tool for UNIX systems. It requires a working KDE2 environment and SWORD 1.5.3 or later. BibleTime provides easy handling of digitized texts (Bibles, commentaries and lexicons) and powerful features to work with these texts (search in texts, write own notes, save, print etc.). 
make a bibliography for (La)TeX 
BibTeX to HTML translator and BibTeX filter tool Collection of tools for filtering BibTeX data bases and for producing HTML documents from BibTeX data bases: - aux2bib extracts a BibTeX database consisting of only the entries that are refereed by an aux file. - bib2bib is a filter tool that reads one or several bibliography files, filters the entries with respect to a given criterion, and outputs the list of selected keys together with a new bibliography file containing only the selected entries; - bibtex2html is a translator that reads a bibliography file and outputs two HTML documents that are respectively the cited bibliography in a nice presentation, and the original BibTeX file augmented with several transparent HTML links to allow easy navigation. See the bibtex2html homepage 
A tool for manipulating BibTeX data bases. BibTeX provides an easy to use means to integrate citations and bibliographies into LaTeX documents. But the user is left alone with the management of the BibTeX files. The program BibTool is intended to fill this gap. BibTool allows the manipulation of BibTeX files which goes beyond the possibilities -- and intentions -- of BibTeX. 
X11 Bibliography database tool bibview is a tool to let you set up and maintain BibTeX bibliography databases. LaTeX can then use these automatically in citations and bibliographies in your documents. From its README: It [bibview] supports the user in making new entries, searching for entries and moving entries from one BiB to another. It is possible to work with more than one BiB simultaneously. bibview is implemented with Xt and Athena Widgets. There are six types of windows in bibview: The main window contains menus for customizing bibview and for working with BiBs on the file level. The bibliography window (one for every open BiB) contains commands for manipulating the BiB. The list window (at most one for every open BiB) shows a list of entries. It displays the fields author, title, type and year. The card window (at most one for every entry) helps editing an entry. It contains boxes for each field of the entry (according to the type). The fields can be edited by putting the mouse cursor into the field. Macros in fields and the symbol for concatenation ('#') are marked with a preceding '@'. 
Bit Independence Criterion (cryptography) 
Bus Interface Chip (DVR) 
Broadband InterCarrier Interface (B-ISDN), "B-ICI" 
Bisqwit's identd Bisqwit's identd is an Identification Protocol (RFC 1413) daemon. It works like an ident daemon is supposed to work. Masquerading is supported, and works recursively. Works only under Linux, due to the use of /proc filesystem. A typical case for using Bisqwit's identd: - Alpha has the internet connection. It has an ip in internet. - Beta is masqueraded by Alpha. - Gamma is masqueraded by Beta. - Somebody in Gamma starts irc, and the irc server (in internet) gets the username of the user in Gamma, correctly. All of these computers would be running bidentd (from inetd), although Gamma could have any ident daemon, as it does not masquerade further. 
Borland International Data Structures (Borland) 
Tool for watching and bidding on eBay auctions Bidwatcher is a tool for eBay users (eBay is a giant internet auction site). It is a stand alone application that can track auctions and perform automated bids. 
console hex viewer/editor with disassembler BIEW (Binary vIEW) is a free, portable, advanced file viewer with built-in editor for binary, hexadecimal and disassembler modes. It contains a highlight PentiumIII/K7 Athlon/Cyrix-M2 disassembler, full preview of MZ, NE, PE, LE, LX, DOS.SYS, NLM, ELF, a.out, arch, coff32, PharLap, rdoff executable formats, a code guider, and lot of other features, making it invaluable for examining binary code. DOS, Win32, OS/2, Linux, BeOS, Unix versions are available. 
Benchmark Interchange Format (PLB) 
Built In Function (REXX) 
a mail notification tool biff is a small little program that tells you when you get mail. Most standard .bashrc files include 'biff y' at the start to enable notification. The included biff server is notified whenever new mail arrives. 
biff /bif/ vt.
To notify someone of incoming mail. From the BSD utility biff(1), which was in turn named after a friendly dog who used to chase frisbees in the halls at UCB while 4.2BSD was in development. There was a legend that it had a habit of barking whenever the mailman came, but the author of biff says this is not true. No relation to B1FF. 
The Bifrost Network Project aims to find stability, performance, filter capabilities, administration, computer security, scalability and development possibilities of a Linux based streamlined router/firewall system. The hardware is basically a standard PC with two (or more) network interfaces (using preferably the Intel Tulip chip or an e1000 Gigabit card) and a 45 or 48 MB flash disk. The operating system is a modified, minimal and optimized Linux distribution, with the kernel configured for firewalling and routing. The filter which controls the firewall security policy, is part of the kernel code and can be configured via ipfwadm, ipchains or iptables. 
Bionet Intelligent Gateway (BioData) 
It describes the order in which bytes of a word are processed. Many RISC computers and 68000 processors use big-endian representations where the high-order byte is stored at the lower address. 
Breitbandiges Integriertes Glasfaser-Fernmelde-OrtsNetz 
A practical Scheme compiler Bigloo is a Scheme system which includes a compiler generating C code and an interpreter. Bigloo is conformant to IEEE Scheme and is mostly conformant to Revised^5 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme with many extensions: - Rgc, a lex facility. - Match, a pattern-matching compiler. - Foreign languages interface. - Module language. - Extension package system. - An LALR facility. - An Object system. - DSSSL support. - Unicode characters and strings. - Process, Pipe and Socket support. 
BueroInformations- und KOmmunikationsSysteme (org., GI) 
A billard game using OpenGL Play a game of billard against the computer or a friend. 
Broadband Interface Module 
British Interactive Multimedia Association (org., UK) 
16-bit assembler and loader This is the as86 and ld86 distribution written by Bruce Evans. It's a complete 8086 assembler and loader which can make 32-bit code for the 386+ processors (under Linux it's used only to create the 16-bit boot sector and setup binaries). 
Source code that has been compiled into executable programs. In the UNIX/Linux world, some software is distributed as source code only; other packages include both source and binaries; still others are distributed only in binary format. 
A code system that uses 2 as its base and 0s and 1s for its notation. Binary code is used by computers as it functions well with digital electronics and Boolean algebra. 
Information consisting entirely of ones and zeros. Also, commonly used to refer to files that are not simply text files, e.g. images. 
binary file
a file that contains codes which are not part of the ASCII character set. A binary file can contain any type of information that can be represented by an 8 bit byte - a possible 256 values. 
Berkeley Internet Name DOMAIN [software] (Unix) 
BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is an implementation of the DNS(Domain Name System) protocols. BIND includes a DNS server (named), which resolves host names to IP addresses; a resolver library (routines for applications to use when interfacing with DNS); and tools for verifying that the DNS server is operating properly. 
Internet Domain Name Server The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) implements an Internet domain name server. BIND is the most widely-used name server software on the Internet, and is supported by the Internet Software Consortium, 
See Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND). 
BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Daemon)
BIND is the most popular software on the Internet for providing DNS services. Your ISP is likely running BIND. BIND is open-source. Key point: BIND provides about 80% of all DNS services. It is also enabled by default on a lot of Linux distributions. As a result, any exploit discovered for BIND has immediate and large impact on the Internet. As of November, 1999, all versions of BIND previous to 8.2.2-P5/4.9.7 have known holes that can be exploited. It is likely that these newer versions also have undiscovered exploitable holes as well. Key point: BIND comes in two versions, 4.x and 8.x. This is largely due to backwards compatibility: people are running a lot of older servers and would rather patch them than upgrade to a newer version. Also, the newer 8.x code-base has not be extensively peer-reviewed and is thought to be a lot less secure than the 4.x source base. UPDATE: BIND v9 is now available, though most users are sticking with v8. See also: dig, DNS. 
Support for extra binary formats The binfmt_misc kernel module, contained in versions 2.1.43 and later of the Linux kernel, allows system administrators to register interpreters for various binary formats based on a magic number or their file extension, and cause the appropriate interpreter to be invoked whenever a matching file is executed. Think of it as a more flexible version of the #! executable interpreter mechanism. This package provides an 'update-binfmts' script with which package maintainers can register interpreters to be used with this module without having to worry about writing their own init.d scripts, and which sysadmins can use for a slightly higher-level interface to this module. 
Empirical stochastic bandwidth tester Bing is a point-to-point bandwidth measurement tool (hence the 'b'), based on ping. Bing determines the real (raw, as opposed to available or average) throughput on a link by measuring ICMP echo requests' round trip times for different packet sizes at each end of the link. 
Binhex (BINary HEXadecimal)
A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII. 
FidoTech TCP/IP mailer Binkd is a FidoTech mailer designed for use over TCP/IP. This program is NOT an internet mail transfer agent. If you don't know what it is, you don't need it. 
Statistics tool for installed programs A utility to aid the tidying up of binaries, interpreted scripts, and dynamic libraries. It can find the number and identity of a.out and ELF binaries, plus their debugging symbols status, setuid status, and dynamic library dependence. It can count the number of Java bytecode programs, tally up the main types of scripts, and look for unidentified executable text files. Also it is able to find any duplicated executable names, unused libraries, binaries with missing libraries, statically linked binaries, and duplicated manual page names. 
Binutils is a collection of binary utilities, including ar (for creating, modifying and extracting from archives), as (a family of GNU assemblers), gprof (for displaying call graph profile data), ld (theGNU linker), nm (for listing symbols from object files), objcopy (for copying and translating object files), objdump (for displaying information from object files), ranlib (for generating an index for the contents of an archive), size (for listing the section sizes of an object or archive file), strings (for listing printable strings from files), strip (for discarding symbols), and addr2line (for converting addresses to file and line). 
The GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities. The programs in this package are used to assemble, link and manipulate binary and object files. They may be used in conjunction with a compiler and various libraries to build programs for Linux. 
[Biology] An Emacs mode to edit genetic data biomode provides you several interesting commands to take the antiparallel of a region, convert it using readseq, runs blast on it, etc. 
[Biology] Perl tools for computational molecular biology The Bioperl project is a coordinated effort to collect computational methods routinely used in bioinformatics into a set of standard CPAN-style, well-documented, and freely available Perl modules. 
Basic Input Output System / Support (PC) 
Basic Input/Output System: services on a ROM chip that enable the hardware and software of a computer to communicate with each other. 
see Basic Input Output System (BIOS). 
Bit Interleaved Parity (SONET, ...) 
Bit Interleaved Parity Violation 
Belgian Institute for Automatic Control (org., Belgium) 
Internet Routing Daemon Supports OSPF, RIPv2 (No v1), BGP both IPv4 and IPv6 and redistribution between the protocols with a powerful configuration syntax. 
Display information about pending events on login Given a list of the dates of various different events, works out and displays a list of those which will come up in the next couple of weeks. This was originally designed for birthdays, but can equally be used for reminders about yearly events, or for a running diary. 
Business Information System 
Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (ATM), "B-ISDN" 
A parser generator that is compatible with YACC. Bison is a general-purpose parser generator that converts a grammar description for an LALR(1) context-free grammar into a C program to parse that grammar. Once you are proficient with Bison, you may use it to develop a wide range of language parsers, from those used in simple desk calculators to complex programming languages. Bison is upward compatible with Yacc: all properly-written Yacc grammars ought to work with Bison with no change. Anyone familiar with Yacc should be able to use Bison with little trouble. 
Bison is a general purpose parser generator that converts a grammar description for an LALR(1) context-free grammar into a C program to parse that grammar. Bison can be used to develop a wide range oflanguage parsers, from ones used in simple desk calculators to complex programming languages. Bison is upwardly compatible with Yacc, so anycorrectly written Yacc grammar should work with Bison without any changes. If you know Yacc, you should not have any trouble using Bison. You do need to be proficient in C programming to be able to use Bison. Bison is only needed on systems that are used for development.If your system will be used for C development, you should install Bison. 
Business Information System Program 
Broadband Inter-Switching System Interface (B-ISDN), "B-ISSI" 
Broadband ISDN User's Part (B-ISDN), "B-ISUP" 
Binary SYNchronous Communications (IBM) 
Basic Interconnection Test (ISO 9646-1) 
Binary digIT 
n. [from the mainstream meaning and `Binary digIT'] 1. [techspeak] The unit of information; the amount of information obtained by asking a yes-or-no question for which the two outcomes are equally probable. 2. [techspeak] A computational quantity that can take on one of two values, such as true and false or 0 and 1. 3. A mental flag: a reminder that something should be done eventually. "I have a bit set for you." (I haven't seen you for a while, and I'm supposed to tell or ask you something.) 4. More generally, a (possibly incorrect) mental state of belief. "I have a bit set that says that you were the last guy to hack on EMACS." (Meaning "I think you were the last guy to hack on EMACS, and what I am about to say is predicated on this, so please stop me if this isn't true.") "I just need one bit from you" is a polite way of indicating that you intend only a short interruption for a question that can presumably be answered yes or no. A bit is said to be `set' if its value is true or 1, and `reset' or `clear' if its value is false or 0. One speaks of setting and clearing bits. To toggle or `invert' a bit is to change it, either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. See also flag, trit, mode bit. The term `bit' first appeared in print in the computer-science sense in a 1948 paper by information theorist Claude Shannon, and was there credited to the early computer scientist John Tukey (who also seems to have coined the term `software'). Tukey records that `bit' evolved over a lunch table as a handier alternative to `bigit' or `binit', at a conference in the winter of 1943-44. 
Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of information a computer can read and manipulate. The value of a bit is 1 or 0. 
Bit (Binary DigIT)
A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidthis usually measured in bits-per-second. 
bit bang
n. Transmission of data on a serial line, when accomplished by rapidly tweaking a single output bit, in software, at the appropriate times. The technique is a simple loop with eight OUT and SHIFT instruction pairs for each byte. Input is more interesting. And full duplex (doing input and output at the same time) is one way to separate the real hackers from the wannabees. Bit bang was used on certain early models of Prime computers, presumably when UARTs were too expensive, and on archaic Z80 micros with a Zilog PIO but no SIO. In an interesting instance of the cycle of reincarnation, this technique returned to use in the early 1990s on some RISC architectures because it consumes such an infinitesimal part of the processor that it actually makes sense not to have a UART. Compare cycle of reincarnation. 
bit bashing
n. (alt. `bit diddling' or bit twiddling) Term used to describe any of several kinds of low-level programming characterized by manipulation of bit, flag, nybble, and other smaller-than-character-sized pieces of data; these include low-level device control, encryption algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavors of graphics programming (see bitblt), and assembler/compiler code generation. May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also bit bang, mode bit. 
bit bucket
n. [very common] 1. The universal data sink (originally, the mythical receptacle used to catch bits when they fall off the end of a register during a shift instruction). Discarded, lost, or destroyed data is said to have `gone to the bit bucket'. On Unix, often used for /dev/null. Sometimes amplified as `the Great Bit Bucket in the Sky'. 2. The place where all lost mail and news messages eventually go. The selection is performed according to Finagle's Law; important mail is much more likely to end up in the bit bucket than junk mail, which has an almost 100% probability of getting delivered. Routing to the bit bucket is automatically performed by mail-transfer agents, news systems, and the lower layers of the network. 3. The ideal location for all unwanted mail responses: "Flames about this article to the bit bucket." Such a request is guaranteed to overflow one's mailbox with flames. 4. Excuse for all mail that has not been sent. "I mailed you those figures last week; they must have landed in the bit bucket." Compare black hole. This term is used purely in jest. It is based on the fanciful notion that bits are objects that are not destroyed but only misplaced. This appears to have been a mutation of an earlier term `bit box', about which the same legend was current; old-time hackers also report that trainees used to be told that when the CPU stored bits into memory it was actually pulling them `out of the bit box'. See also chad box. Another variant of this legend has it that, as a consequence of the `parity preservation law', the number of 1 bits that go to the bit bucket must equal the number of 0 bits. Any imbalance results in bits filling up the bit bucket. A qualified computer technician can empty a full bit bucket as part of scheduled maintenance. 
Advanced Internet Relay Chat client This is the bleeding edge of IRC software -- the most common functions normally done by scripts are coded into the client itself. It contains dozens of features such as: * Built-in ANSI color (this is probably the biggest feature) * Ease of use -- dozens of useful command aliases to reduce typing * Built-in notify, protection, and bot lists * Built-in mass commands and tools * Extended set of DCC commands and built-in CDCC offering * Extended scripting functionality, including unique functions * Code is based on ircII-Plutonium and more recent ircII-EPiC Online linux help is available at 
Collects bitprint and other information from files for Think of it as a really big file hash database on the internet with constant contributions from others of metadata on files. Bitcollider is a small program to reliably identify and describe files on your machine. When run with a specific file as input, this program does two major things: * It examines the file, calculating a distinctive digital fingerprint, or bitprint, and taking note of some other identifying information that can be extracted from the file, like file length and the local filename. * It launches your web browser to do a lookup at our website, submitting this identifying information as the search terms. At you'll see what - if anything - others have said about your file, and have a chance to contribute descriptions or comments yourself. If your automatic submission included information useful to our database, that new information will be contributed to the database under your screen name. 
bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System 
Define a new bitmap from a Tcl script 
Because It's Time NETwork (network) 
BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There NETwork))
A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs., a popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. At its peak (the late 1980's and early 1990's) BITNET machines were usually mainframes, often running IBM's MVS operating system. BITNET is probably the only international network that is shrinking. 
pl.n. 1. Information. Examples: "I need some bits about file formats." ("I need to know about file formats.") Compare core dump, sense 4. 2. Machine-readable representation of a document, specifically as contrasted with paper: "I have only a photocopy of the Jargon File; does anyone know where I can get the bits?". See softcopy, source of all good bits See also bit. 
Bus Interface Unit 
Byte Information eXchange 
Bipolar Junction Transistor (IC) 
Buero Kommunikation 
Utility to turn bookmarks into Yahoo/Slashdot like pages bk2site will transform a Netscape bookmarks file (use xbel-utils to convert other formats) into a yahoo-like website with slashdot-like news. You can see an example website created with it at The program has several nice features: Includes hit-counter and display feature (see which URLs are popular). Includes integrated cgi-bin program. Nice-looking output. Powerful customization. Inserts navigation information into the top of each page. Puts a "new" icon next to new entries. Supports any other icon(s) (e.g., cool.gif, hot.gif) you might want to show. Puts New Additions on the front page. Puts News Items on the front page. Supports URL and directory aliases. Use PRIVATE keyword to keep some URLs/folders from appearing. 
BenutzerKoordinatenSystem (CAD) 
Blink Keyboard LEDs. bl blinks the keyboard LEDs: the Num Lock, the Caps Lock, and the Scroll Lock. bl is a very helpful monitor of server's state. Blinking speed could tell about CPU load. 
Blue Lightning [processor family] (Intel) 
Black Cat Linux
Black Cat is a Russian distribution now owned by ASPLinux. 
Black Lab Linux
Terra Soft Solutions provides Black Lab for HPC Clusters. It features a graphical installation, configuration, and maintenance suite for Yellow Dog Linux HPC (high performance computing) clusters. It's designed to work with Apple Macintosh and Terra Soft's Yellow briQ Nodes. Black Lab ships with the YDL 2.1 foundation and includes a subscription for 2 upgrades to future releases of both YDL and Black Lab. 
Find the crystals There's a black box. You can shoot in and watch, where the shot leaves the box. In the box, crystals are reflecting the shots. You have to guess where the crystals are hidden, by watching your shots. 
Window manager for X This is a window manager for X. It is similar in many respects to such popular packages as Window Maker, Enlightenment, and FVWM2. You might be interested in this package if you are tired of window managers that are a heavy drain on your system resources, but you still want an attractive and modern-looking interface. The best part of all is that this program is coded in C++, so it is even more attractive "under the hood" than it is in service -- no small feat. If none of this sounds familiar to you, or you want your computer to look like Microsoft Windows or Apple's OS X, you probably don't want this package. 
A feature rich ircII based IRC client IRC (Internet Relay Chat) provides a way of communicating in real time with people from all over the world. It consists of various separate networks (or "nets") of IRC servers, machines that allow users to connect to IRC. The largest nets are EFnet (the original IRC net, often having more than 32,000 people at once), Undernet, IRCnet, DALnet, NewNet and OPN. Generally, the user (such as you) runs a program (called a "client") to connect to a server on one of the IRC nets. The server relays information to and from other servers on the same net. The ircII program is the first widely used IRC client. IrcII has spawned several other clients in modern times, all of which keep the basic ircII command set and add to it in various more or less useful ways. Blackened is an enhanced ircII based IRC client that offers a variety of features not found in other clients, including commands designed for IRC server operators and administrators. Normal users also benefit from additional functionality. See also the Official Blackened Website at 
BlackRhino GNU/Linux
BlackRhino is a free Debian-based GNU/Linux software distribution for the Sony PlayStation 2. It contains over 1,200 software packages to aid in using and creating programs for the Sony PlayStation 2 Linux kit. The programs range in functionality from simple games, to text editors, compilers, web servers, windowing systems, database systems, graphics packages, mail servers and a variety of other tools and utilities. Version 1.0 was released March 4, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Basic Linear Algebra Communications Subprograms The BLACS project is an ongoing investigation whose purpose is to create a linear algebra oriented message passing interface that may be implemented efficiently and uniformly across a large range of distributed memory platforms. You can choose between an implementation based on MPI or PVM. This package uses MPI. There also exist implementations on HP Exemplar, IBM SP Series, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI Origin 2000 and some Crays. 
Basic Linear Algebra for Distributed Environments 
Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines, shared library BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines) is a set of efficient routines for most of the basic vector and matrix operations. They are widely used as the basis for other high quality linear algebra software, for example lapack and linpack. This implementation is the Fortran 77 reference implementation found at netlib. This package contains a shared version of the library. 
Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines, testing programs BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines) is a set of efficient routines for most of the basic vector and matrix operations. They are widely used as the basis for other high quality linear algebra software, for example lapack and linpack. This implementation is the Fortran 77 reference implementation found at netlib. This package contains a set of programs which test the integrity of an installed blas-compatible shared library. These programs may therefore be used to test the libraries provided by the blas package as well as those provided by the atlas packages. The programs are dynamically linked -- one can explicitly select a library to test by setting the LD_LIBRARY_PATH or LD_PRELOAD environment variables. Likewise, one can display the library selected using the ldd program in an identical environment. 
BLocked ASynchronous Transmission 
Vent your frustration with programs by blowing holes in them Blast lets you vent your frustration with programs by blowing holes in them. With this program you can blast holes any window in X. Holes become permanent unless you repair them before you quit. You may move permanently "damaged" windows and enjoy the view behind the holes. 
Basic Local Alignment Search Tool The famous sequence alignment program. This is "official" NCBI version, #2. The blastall executable allows you to give a nucleotide or protein sequence to the program. It is compared against databases and a summary of matches is returned to the user. Note that databases are not included in Debian; they must be retrieved manually. 
a powerful text markup and transformation language A blatte document can be translated into a Perl program that, when executed, produces a transformed version of the input document. A Major emacs mode for editing Blatte source is also included. Many users will be interested in Blatte's ability to serve as a high-level language for writing web pages. This requires the module blatte-html which is included. 
BLock Error Rate (CD) 
BLFS (Beyond Linux From Scratch)
Beyond Linux From Scratch (BLFS) is a project with the aim of assisting LFS users to go beyond the base system. It contains a broad range of instrutions for installing and configuring various packages on top of a base LFS system. If you are wondering why you would want an LFS system or what one is, see the entry for LinuxFromScratch below in this list. BLFS 1.0 was released April 28, 2003 under the original BSD License. 
Blinks keyboard LEDs for an answering machine or fax machine. Blinkd is a client/server pair, that lets the keyboard LEDs blink, indicating things like the number of incoming voice calls in the voice box or incoming faxes in the spool. 
C++ template class library for scientific computing Blitz++ offers a high level of abstraction, but performance which rivals Fortran. The current version supports arrays and vectors. This package includes libraries and headers for compiling programs with blitz++. Homepage 
Broadband Low Layer Information (BISDN), "B-LLI" 
Bayerische Landeszentrale fuer neue Medien (org.) 
Board-Level Multitasking eXecutive (OS) 
n. [common] Software that provides minimal functionality while requiring a disproportionate amount of diskspace and memory. Especially used for application and OS upgrades. This term is very common in the Windows/NT world. So is its cause. 
Binary Large OBject 
A unit of information that's processed or transferred. The unit size may vary. 
v. [common; from process scheduling terminology in OS theory] 1. vi. To delay or sit idle while waiting for something. "We're blocking until everyone gets here." Compare busy-wait. 2. `block on' vt. To block, waiting for (something). "Lunch is blocked on Phil's arrival." 
block transfer computations
n. [from the television series "Dr. Who"] Computations so fiendishly subtle and complex that they could not be performed by machines. Used to refer to any task that should be expressible as an algorithm in theory, but isn't. (The Z80's LDIR instruction, "Computed Block Transfer with increment", may also be relevant.) 
call block device ioctls from the command line 
Blog (weB LOG)
A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in cronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominantly. 
Sliding-blocks puzzle (glotski written in perl) Bloksi is a sliding-blocks puzzle : blocks should be pushed around until a "goal" position is reached. This is nearly a clone -written in perl- of glotski, whose files can be loaded. 
a severely modified infobot for IRC This bot is based upon infobot-0.44.2 by Kevin Lenzo. The basis of infobot is still there but _many_ wild features have been added. Along the way, a couple of typos were spotted in the original infobot source and fixed in this version. Without infobot, there would be no blootbot so all thanks to kevin for bringing infobot in the first place. FEATURES * Additional information stored with factoids. (factinfo) * Wide range of statistics for Bot, Factoids, IRC, Debian. (status, factstats, ircstats, chanstats, cmdstats) * Advanced topic management. (the first cool feature) * Improved factoid search, allowing search by key or value. * Freshmeat support ( * Debian Contents and Packages, search and info. * much more... 
BLOck based ROBot 
Base Level System Modernization 
BLock Transfer 
Shared libraries for blt This is the shared libraries for BLT. You should only need this if you are using programs which are linked to blt, or are developing programs in BLT. BLT is an extension to the Tk toolkit, adding new widgets, geometry managers, and miscellaneous commands. It does not require any patching of the Tcl or Tk source files. An attempt is being made to unify the BLT libraries so that the package is independent of whatever tcl/tk library (e.g. 8.0,8.2,8.3) you are using. This will be via the tcl stubs interface. As part of this process, blt8.0 is obsolete and this package dynamically chooses the correct version of BLT library to match your situation. This makes is a lot bigger than if you choose the library versions yourself, but means that you always have the version you need (not always the case under the old system) 
Blue Cat Linux
BlueCat Linux from LynuxWorks is an enhanced implementation of the Linux model, made viable for use in a wide range of embedded systems. 
Blue Linux
Blue Linux, is a free Linux-based operating system bundled with many packages that are used in the educational field, for computers in the educational field. Version 1.0RC2 was released April 16, 2002. Version 1.0 was released January 30, 2003. 
A Gtk+ HTML editor Bluefish is a GTK HTML editor for the experienced web designer. It is currently in alpha stage, but still usable. Its features include nice wizards for startup, tables and frame; a fully featured image insert dialog; thumbnail creation and automatically linking of the thumbnail with the original image; and configurable HTML syntax highlighting. For validation to work you need weblint. For preview to work, you need a web browser that can view local files given to it on the command line. 
blueflops is a Linux distribution that fits on two floppy disks, and includes a graphical Web browser (links 2.1pre9 using svgalib 1.4.3) and a popular IRC client (BitchX 1.0c19). The kernel is 2.4.20 with most of the Ethernet drivers compiled as modules. The C library is uClibc 0.9.16, busybox is a slightly modified version of 0.61.pre. The 'links' and 'BitchX' binaries are statically linked and compressed with UPX 1.90. The distinguishing feature of blueflops is its configuration procedure. The scripts are all accessible through a 'setup' script, and they all have a nice 'dialog' front-end. Version 1.0.0 was released April 15, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
BluePoint Embedded
BluePoint, a leader in Chinese localized Linux software, provides Linux platform technology and Embedded Linux Solution. 
BluePoint Linux
BluePoint claims to be China's leading Chinese localized Linux software company. 
A wireless technology that uses short-range radio frequencies to allow communication between many different devices. 
BundesMinisterium fuer Bildung und Forschung (org.) 
BundesMinisterium fuer Bildung und Wissenschaft (org.) 
The installer and configurator of the Smart Boot Manager The Smart Boot Manager is a program which runs at boot time, and give you the ability to select which OS you want to run. It has a lot of functionality which haven't implemented by other boot managers, like scheduled default, boot from other hard disk than first, good privilege system with encrypted passwords, online configuration, etc. In this package you can find an installer and a configurator program too. With installer you can easily install the SBM, but the configurator may be complicated, and to end-users I think the online configuration is better. The configurator is good if you want to configure the Smart Boot Manager from scripts. 
Bio-Medical Data Package 
Bundesverband Materialwirtschaft, Einkauf und Logistik CATalog data exchange format (XML), "BMEcat" 
BundesMinisterium fuer Forschung und Technik (org.) 
Bean Markup Language (Java) 
Business Management Layer (TMN) 
Bipolar Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Basic Mapping Support (CICS) 
Basic Monitor System (OS, DEC, PDP 9, PDP 15) 
Broadcast Message Server (PCTE) 
Biel Mean Time (TZ, Internet) 
Backbone Message Transfer Agent (MTA) 
bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System 
Berkeley Macintosh User Group (org., Apple, USA, user group) 
PostScript viewer for SVGAlib BMV is a frontend for GhostScript. Using BMV you can now preview your PostScript files comfortably. You can also use it for viewing rawPBM image files. It uses SVGAlib and it is intended for Linux users who cannot run X. It is particularly suitable for previewing PS files from dvips. It is small and fast. The Debian version of bmv is patched to include a rotate option and further keybindings. 
BundesMinisterium fuer WIssenschaft und technologie (org.) 
Bridge Number 
Baby N Connector (slang) 
Bayonet Neill Concelman [connector] 
Bayonet Nipple Connector (slang) 
Bayonet Nut Coupling ??? 
British Naval Connector 
IRC Session Bouncing Proxy BouNCe is a daemon designed to allow some people who do not have access to the net in general, but who do have access to another pc that can reach the net, the ability to BouNCe though this pc to IRC. 
Battle.Net server for Unix like systems The server currently implements most of the same functionality as the real Battle.Net servers. You can chat, play games, use / commands, and things like account passwords, user icons, add banners, and channel operators work too. It is by no means complete, though. More information can be found at the bnetd web site 
Backus-Naur Form (TTCN, ...) 
A multiple precision mathematics library. Assembly language routines are used to make this library very fast. 
Broadband Network Premises 
Broadband Network Termination (B-ISDN), "B-NT" 
Basic Networking Utilities (AT&T) 
Back Orifice (CDC) 
Basic Object Adapter 
Lightweight and High Performance WebServer Boa is a single-tasking HTTP server. That means that unlike traditional web servers, it does not fork for each incoming connection, nor does it fork many copies of itself to handle multiple connections. It internally multiplexes all of the ongoing HTTP connections, and forks only for CGI programs (which must be separate processes.) Preliminary tests show boa is capable of handling several hundred hits per second on a 100 MHz Pentium. 
Publish Python objects on web servers (command line version) 
An IRC bot with scripting features. bobot++ is a robust IRC bot with many common bot features such as flood control, userlist and channel control, logging, but also intelligent ban/deban and channel mode settings. It also provides Scheme scripting features using Guile. 
Borland Object Component Architecture (Borland) 
IA-32 (x86) PC emulator Bochs is a highly portable free IA-32 (x86) PC emulator written in C++, that runs on most popular platforms. It includes emulation of the Intel x86 CPU, common I/O devices, and a custom BIOS. Currently, bochs can be compiled to emulate a 386, 486 or Pentium CPU. Bochs is capable of running most Operating Systems inside the emulation including GNU, GNU/Linux, Windows. 
Bootstrap-only compiler kit for a subset of Java(tm) BOCK is a prototype native compiler, originally intended to enable a Java(tm) development environment to be bootstrapped from a C-only environment. It was envisioned that its sole purpose in life would be to compile the forthcoming "Jackal" Java compiler. BOCK has, since then, gained functionality, and should soon be able to compile most non-graphical Java programs. Its lack of anything resembling error checking means that it won't be of much use for development, but it might be able to generate a reasonably fast binary version of your program. That said, BOCK is still very much in the pre-alpha testing stage. It is therefore unlikely to be of use to anyone except dedicated hackers and developers. Also included is "jcomp", a slightly more friendly front-end for bock, which compiles programs against the BOCK mini-library and compiles BOCK's C output to native code in one step. 
Business Object Documents (OAG) 
Birds Of a Feather (Usenix) 
Ben's Own Graphics Library - graphical terminal Ben's Own Graphics Library is a small framebuffer library, including basic widgets, support for text in multiple languages, and mouse handling. This package contains bterm, a utf-enabled framebuffer terminal. 
`BogoMips' is a contraction of `Bogus MIPS'. MIPS stands for (depending who you listen to) Millions of Instructions per Second, or Meaningless Indication of Processor Speed. 
/bo'go-mips/ n. The number of million times a second a processor can do absolutely nothing. The Linux OS measures BogoMIPS at startup in order to calibrate some soft timing loops that will be used later on; details at the BogoMIPS mini-HOWTO. The name Linus chose, of course, is an ironic comment on the uselessness of all other MIPS figures. 
sorts or doesn't sort files or standard input bogosort sorts files or its standard input using the bogo-sort algorithm. It can also simply randomize lines in a file for you. 
Beginning of Message 
Byte Order Mark (Unicode) 
The GNU Bombing utility This game is the same as the old bombardier game on Commodore Plus 4. This version supports hall of fame and more cities. 
A bomberman clone for GNOME, for 2-4 players It is a multiplayer action game in which players run around in a square-grid maze while dropping bombs and collecting power-ups. The bombs explode after a short time delay, taking out any nearby bricks and players. For maximum effect, bombs can be arranged so as to cause a chain reaction of explosions. The last player left is the winner. 
Bandwidth ON Demand INteroperability Group (org., manufacturer, AIM) 
Hard drive bottleneck testing benchmark suite. It is called Bonnie++ because it was based on the Bonnie program. This program also tests performance with creating large numbers of files. Now includes zcav raw-read test program. A modern hard drive will have more sectors in the outer tracks because they are longer. The hard drive will have a number (often more than 8) of zones where each zone has the same number of sectors (due to the need for an integral number of sectors per track). This program allows you to determine the levels of performance provided by different zones and store them in a convenient format for gnuplot. 
Bonobo is a library that provides the necessary framework for GNOME applications to deal with compound documents, such spreadsheet and/or graphics embedded in a word-processing document. 
The GNOME Bonobo System. Bonobo is a set of language and system independent CORBA interfaces for creating reusable components (controls) and creating compound documents. The Bonobo distribution includes a Gtk+ based implementation of the Bonobo interfaces, enabling developers to create reusable components and applications that can be used to form more complex documents. 
The famous Mozilla CVS query tool by web interface The Mozilla team made this tool to help following the life of CVS modules. Here is the Debian version of this tools. WARNING: This tool will not work out of the box. You will need to complete the install procedure according the /usr/share/doc/bonsai/README.debian.gz document. 
Bonzai Linux
Bonzai Linux has been built to offer a Debian based Desktop-OS that fits on a 180MB CD-R(W). The Distribution includes the current stable version of KDE and has been modified for easier installation. Version 1.5 was released May 20, 2003. Version 2.1 was released June 23, 2003. 
WWW based bookmark management, retrieval and search tool Bookmarker is a nice tool for people who have too many bookmarks, in too many different browsers, on too many different computers. It helps manage bookmarks throw categories and allow other people access or extent your bookmark database through a really simple http based interface. More information can be found at the bookmarker web site . 
The Debian bookmark collection This package is a large collection of bookmarks (weblinks), and shall constantly be updated and improved with your help. The German link collection for example is already very complete. The numerous links are most useful to everybody, but of course especially for newbies to find their way to the vast Internet resources. Although this bookmark collection lists all kind of resources (e.g. search engines, links to online dictionaries, etc), the majority of them are still computer and Linux oriented. This package also includes the Perl script bookmarks-convert that can convert different bookmark formats (netscape, lynx, html). 
Tcl/Tk based NDTP(Network Dictionary Transfer Protocol) client. BookView is a NDTP (Network Dictionary Transfer Protocol) client written in Tcl/Tk. It requires Tcl8.0jp/Tk8.0jp (`jp' means `Japanized version'). 
Expression-based system that uses the operators AND, OR, and NOT; operations are based on variables which can be 1 (true) or 0 (false). 
The process of loading a computer's operating system. If your system is working properly, the operating system boots when the computer is turned on. 
To 'boot' a computer is to start the operating system. A boot can be a "hard boot" or a "soft boot". A restart may be to the lowest level of the CPU's control program (BIOS), or slightly higher, depending on whether it is a hard or soft boot and the design of the computer system. In any case, the "operating system" is restarted from the beginning. 
v.,n. [techspeak; from `by one's bootstraps'] To load and initialize the operating system on a machine. This usage is no longer jargon (having passed into techspeak) but has given rise to some derivatives that are still jargon. The derivative `reboot' implies that the machine hasn't been down for long, or that the boot is a bounce (sense 4) intended to clear some state of wedgitude. This is sometimes used of human thought processes, as in the following exchange: "You've lost me." "OK, reboot. Here's the theory...." This term is also found in the variants `cold boot' (from power-off condition) and `warm boot' (with the CPU and all devices already powered up, as after a hardware reset or software crash). Another variant: `soft boot', reinitialization of only part of a system, under control of other software still running: "If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft-boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running." Opposed to this there is `hard boot', which connotes hostility towards or frustration with the machine being booted: "I'll have to hard-boot this losing Sun." "I recommend booting it hard." One often hard-boots by performing a power cycle. Historical note: this term derives from `bootstrap loader', a short program that was read in from cards or paper tape, or toggled in from the front panel switches. This program was always very short (great efforts were expended on making it short in order to minimize the labor and chance of error involved in toggling it in), but was just smart enough to read in a slightly more complex program (usually from a card or paper tape reader), to which it handed control; this program in turn was smart enough to read the application or operating system from a magnetic tape drive or disk drive. Thus, in successive steps, the computer `pulled itself up by its bootstraps' to a useful operating state. Nowadays the bootstrap is usually found in ROM or EPROM, and reads the first stage in from a fixed location on the disk, called the `boot block'. When this program gains control, it is powerful enough to load the actual OS and hand control over to it. 
Boot Disk
A diskette (floppy) containing enough of an operating system (such as Linux) to boot up (start) the computer and run some essential programs from the command line. This may be necessary if the system was rendered non-bootable for some reason. A boot disk can be used to partition and format the hard drive, restore the Master Boot Record, or copy specific files, among other things. 
boot diskette
A diskette that loads, or boots, a computer system.
boot loader
Software that is stored on the master boot record of a bootable storage disk; can load one or more operating systems by reading file system information or through a pointer to a disk partition containing operating system files. 
boot partition
The partition on a disk where the /boot directory is mounted. The boot partition contains the operating system kernel, as well as critical files needed during the boot process. 
Boot sector
The first track on an IBM PC-comptible hard disk or floppy disk (track 0). During the boot process, read-only memory (ROM) tells the computer to read the first block of data on this track and load whatever program is found there. If system files are found, they direct the computer to load MS-DOS. 
boot sector (boot record)
The first sector on a driver where the operating system will bootstrap from. Key point: Until macro viruses came along, boot sector viruses where the most common variant. They spread through companies via floppy disks. Users would leave floppy disks in the drive and when the computer restarted, it would attempt to boot from the floppy. This would run the virus, which then infected the boot sector on the hard drive. Any further floppies plugged into the system would then be infected by the virus. Countermeasures: I worked at a company with anal anti-virus procedures (anti-virus on all desktops, regular wiping of floppy disks). It was never able to completely free itself from the boot sector virus problem; one of the viruses was never successfully eradicated from the company. My own personal policy is to disconnect the floppies on 90% of the machines, and disable floppy bootup on the remaining machines. 
Boot sequence
The order in which computers basic input output system (BIOS) searches disk drives for operating system files. Unless programmed otherwise, IBM PCs and compatibles look for the operating system on drive A first, then search drive C. To speed up your computers boot procedure, you can use the BIOS setup program to make it search drive C first. 
run your system from cd without need for disks. Copy your running Debian System on CD with the command bootcdwrite. If your system has no CD-Writer you can build a bootcd via NFS on a remote System with CD-Writer. When you run your system from CD you do not need any disks. All changes will be done in ram. To reuse this changes at next boottime you can save them on FLOPPY with the command bootcdflopcp. If booting from your CD-drive is not supported, booting from FLOPPY is possible. It is possible to install a new system from the running CD with the command bootcd2disk. Bootcd2disk can also find a target disk, format it and make it bootable automatically. 
a miniature, self-contained Linux system on a floppy diskette. 
bootE Linux
bootE Linux is yet another minimalist (i386) Linux distribution and is contained entirely on a single floppy disk. It supports only single user mode, and is intended as a repair/rescue/emergency distribution. Initial version 0.10 was released April 18, 2002. Version 0.20-r1 was released February 19, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
bootp/DHCP server This is a server for the bootp protocol; which allows network administrator to setup networking information for clients via an /etc/bootptab on a server so that the clients can automatically get their networking information. While this server includes rudimentary DHCP support as well, we suggest using the dhcp package if you need DHCP support, as it is much more complete. 
bootp (boot protocol)
This relative ancient protocol facilitates booting devices ("clients") from a network server rather than their local hard-disks (such as diskless workstations). In this configuration, the bootp protocol configures the diskless device with its IP configuration information as well as the name of the file server. At this point, the client shifts to TFTP to download the actual files it will use to boot from. Key point: DHCP is simply an extension on top of bootp. This is important because without an IP address, clients cannot reach bootp servers that reside across routers. Virtually all routers have an extension for bootp forwarding that fixes this issue. Since DHCP had the same requires, the designers just stuck it inside bootp packets rather than requiring yet another change to the routing infrastructure. 
Boot parameter server. bootparamd is a server process that provides information to diskless clients necessary for booting. It consults the /etc/bootparams file to find the information it needs. 
bootp client This is a boot protocol client used to grab the machines ip number, set up DNS nameservers and other useful information. 
This package contains the scripts and pictures visible when booting a Mandrake kernel. They are automatically installed when an initrd is generated by mkinitrd. 
The ROM routine used to load the OS is often known as the 'bootstrap', from the old expression "pull yourself up by your own bootstraps". 
Bootstrap Protocol (bootp)
A TCP/IP protocol allowing a diskless workstation to find its own IP address at startup. 
Billion Operations Per Second 
Battery, Overvoltage, Ringing, Signalling, Coding, Hybrid, Testing [functions] (PBX) 
Basic Operating System (AIX, IBM) 
Batch Operating System (OS, Honeywell) 
Basic Operating System / 360 (OS, S/360, IBM), "BOS/360" 
Business Operating Software /5 (OS), "BOS/5" 
Basic OS Software for BASIC (OS, BASIC) 
an IRC or MUD user who is actually a program. On IRC, typically the robot provides some useful service. Examples are NickServ, which tries to prevent random users from adopting nicks already claimed by others, and MsgServ, which allows one to send asynchronous messages to be delivered when the recipient signs on. 
Back On Topic (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Beginning Of Tape 
Broadcast Online TV 
Build, Operate and Transfer (networke) 
Short for Robot. A program designed to search for information on the Internet with little human intervention. 
Boten GNU/Linux
Boten GNU/Linux is intended for home users and provides a fully-localized GNU/Linux environment in Hebrew. It's especially made for those new to Linux, though aimed to please all users, experts and newbies alike. It's currently based around the 2.4 Linux kernel series (USB supported) and the GNU C Library version 2.2.5 (libc6 ELF). Boten GNU/Linux could be installed in a UMSDOS partition as well and can run on 386 systems all the way up to the latest x86 machines. Version 9.5 h1/i1 was released April 21, 2003. 
Utility to control X10 Firecracker devices A command-line utility to interact with the Firecracker version of X10's home control devices. Also included is rocket launcher, a graphical frontend to bottlerocket. If you want this functionality you should have wish installed 
This describes the action of an undeliverable email message being returned to the sender. In the popular pine program the term bounce actually refers to the redirection of an email. 
Bounced message
An electronic mail message that comes back to the sender after a failed delivery attempt. The failure may be due to an incorrectly-typed e-mail address or to a network problem. 
Bourne Shell
A popular command line shell offering many advantages over the DOS command prompt. (Also, see Bash and Korn Shell.) 
Bourne Shell
The Bourne shell is the most widely used Unix shell.It prompts you with $.Its program name is sh. 
A tcl/tk text-reader that formats the file in boustrophedon This is a tcl/tk text-reader that formats the file in boustrophedon (a reading- / writing- style that alternates direction every line). Unlike conventional left-to-right styles of reading/writing, boustrophedon does not require the eye (or the hand) to whip back to the margin whenever the end of a line is reached. In boustrophedon, the horizontal position does not change; one simply goes down to the next line and continues. 
Textmode box- and comment drawing filter. Boxes is extremely configurable filter for adding and removing ASCII art (comments, for example) around chunks of text. Most modern text editors support filtering text through external filters. Boxes is such a filter. 
Base Pointer [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
login client for the Telstra Bigpond Cable Network (Australia) bpalogin is an open source login client for the Telstra Bigpond Cable Network in Australia. It is neither written nor supported by Telstra or Bigpond. It is both simple to use and stable. Unlike the standard client it does not crash, reconnects when there is a network problem, is available for most operating systems, can run as a service on WinNT/2k and comes with source 
BIOS Parameter Block (BIOS, DOS, HDD, FDD) 
Broadcast Personal Computer (PC) 
BankParameterDaten (DDBAC) 
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 
Berkeley Packet Filter (BSD, Unix) 
Bits Per Inch (HDD) 
Best Play for Imperfect Player (NEC) 
Bytes Per Line 
Buffered audio file player/recorder The bplay package provides a simple command-line utility for playing and recording audio files in raw sample, VOC and WAV formats. To use this program you need a soundcard of some kind and the appropriate driver configured into your kernel. When run the program creates two processes which share a memory buffer. It does reading/writing on the disk and the sound device simultaneously, in order to be less liable to `pause' because the disk is too slow or too busy. 
Back-Propagation Net (NN) 
monitor UPS status for Best Patriot power supplies bpowerd is used to monitor a serial port for the status of a Best Patriot power supply. It runs as a daemon and sends status information to the system log. bpowerd can detect powerfail, battery-low, and power-restore condi- tions. The status is communicated to init via /dev/initctl. bpowerd can also send a signal to the power supply's inverter by using the -k switch. 
Bits Per Pixel 
Bridge Port Pair 
Bits Per Second (MODEM) 
bps (Bits-Per-Second)
A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56K modem can move about 57,000 bits per second. 
Bi-Phase Shift Keying [modulation] 
Branch Prediction Unit (CPU, MMX, Intel) 
Branch Processing Unit (CPU) 
BiPolar Violation [error event] (DS1/E1, DS3/E3) 
Boundary Representation (CAD, CAM) 
Graphical music editor and MIDI sequencer Brahms is a multi-track graphical music editor. It allows score and piano-roll notation, multi-part tracks and drum-tracks. Brahms is part of the KDE project. It uses the KDE sound daemon (aRTs) for MIDI input and output. 
BRLSPEAK is a Braille and Speech oriented mini-distribution of Linux for the visually impaired. Support for English, French, and Dutch (Netherlands). A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Berlin Research Area Information Network (network) 
Broadcast Recognition Access Method (MAC) 
Broadcast Recognition with Alternating Priorities (MAC) 
Brazilian Portuguese verb conjugator This package contains a interactive program (conjugue) capable of conjugating portuguese verbs, as spoken in Brazil. The upstream version is numbered 1.0, but as it is distributed together with the Ispell dictionary for Brazilian Portuguese, it has the same version number as the ibrazilian package for Debian. See for more information. 
Be Right Back (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
buffered sound recording/playing 
Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (CDMA, Oualcomm) 
Benchmark Reporting Format (PLB) 
Basic Rate Interface (ISDN) 
Bridge Router Interface ??? (Banyan, VINES) 
Any device that connects two physically distinct network segments, usually at a lower network layer than would a router. 
Utilities for configuring the Linux 2.4 bridge. This package contains utilities for configuring the Linux ethernet bridge. The Linux ethernet bridge can be used for connecting multiple ethernet devices together. The connecting is fully transparent: hosts connected to one ethernet device see hosts connected to the other ethernet devices directly. 
Basic Reconfigurable Interactive Editing Facility 
Bridge/Router Interface Module 
Access software for a blind person using a soft braille terminal BRLTTY is a daemon which provides access to the Linux console (text mode) for a blind person using a soft braille display. It drives the braille terminal and provides complete screen review functionality. The following display models are supported: * Alva (ABT3xx/Delphi) * BrailleLite (18 or 40) * BrailleNote 18/32 * Tieman CombiBraille * EcoBraille displays * EuroBraille displays * HandyTech * LogText 32 * Tieman MultiBraille * MDV braille displays * Tieman MiniBraille * Papenmeier * TSI (PowerBraille/Navigator) * Vario Emul. 1 (40/80) * Vario Emul. 2 * Videobraille * Tieman Voyager 44/70 (USB) * VisioBraille 
a type of communication between hosts (or computers) on a network where a computer can talk to all computers. See multicast and unicast. 
Packets that transmit to all hosts on the network. 
The term "broadcast" is generic and is used in many different area. The origin of the term obviously means to cast out broadly, such as a radio broadcast. Subdefinition: Ethernet has broadcast domains, allowing you to partially sniff some data from your neighbors, and possibly subvert it. Typical protocols that can be sniffed and subverted in this manner are: ARP, NetBIOS, MSBROWSE, rwho, bootp/DHCP, SNMP. An Ethernet broadcast address is "FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF". Subdefinition: The Internet protocols TCP/IP support a feature known as a directed broadcast, which allows a remote person the ability to send a single packet to an entire subnet. This will then take advantage of the Ethernet broadcast domain once it reaches its destination. Attacks like smurf take advantage of this. A directed broadcast address looks something like, where the last integer "255" means "all devices on subnet 192.0.2.x". Subdefinition: The special IP address of "" is the local broadcast, and causes the packets to be sent to everyone locally, but not across the Internet. 
broadcast domain
A local network where broadcasts can be seen. Typical broadcast domains include cable-modem networks, colocation facilities, and Ethernet networks. The problem with broadcast domains is that a passive packet sniffer can discover vast amounts of information about the structure of the network. Attackers on the same broadcast domains can also broadcast packets that break into their neighbors, such as in ARP redirects. 
Broadcast message
In a network, a message to all system users that appears when you log in to the system. For example, broadcast messages are used to inform users when the system will be shut down for maintenance. 
brown-paper-bag bug
n. A bug in a public software release that is so embarrassing that the author notionally wears a brown paper bag over his head for a while so he won't be recognized on the net. Entered popular usage after the early-1999 release of the first Linux 2.2, which had one. The phrase was used in Linus Torvalds's apology posting. 
A period of low-volatage electrical power caused by unusually heavy demand, such as that created by summertime air-conditioner user. Brownouts can cause computers to operate eractically or crash, either of which can result in data loss. If brownouts frequently cause your computer to crash, you may need to buy a line-interactive uninterruptible power supply to work with yout machine. 
A Program which allows your computer to download and display documents from the World Wide Web. The two most popular browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. It is also a software that allows users to access and navigate the World Wide Web. Some Web browsers, such as Mosaic and Netscape, are graphical. Lynx is a text-based browser. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
n. A program specifically designed to help users view and navigate hypertext, on-line documentation, or a database. While this general sense has been present in jargon for a long time, the proliferation of browsers for the World Wide Web after 1992 has made it much more popular and provided a central or default techspeak meaning of the word previously lacking in hacker usage. Nowadays, if someone mentions using a `browser' without qualification, one may assume it is a Web browser. 
See Web browser. 
User daemon that tracks URLs looked at and logs them. Browser-history came from the will to overcome a Netscape bug: there is no global history, and if you close a window, its whole history is lost. For people browsing lots of sites, having the possibility of backtracking to where one has been before means that you don't have to put everything in your bookmarks file. If you are not sure if a site may be worth remembering, don't add it in your bookmarks. If you need it later, just browse your history files. It works with: Netscape Navigator, Arena, and Amaya. Support for `browser-history' can easily be added to other browsers, provided you can program and have the browser sources. A manual page and simple documentation will be installed in /usr/share/doc/browser-history/browser-history.html, along with a simple CGI interface to grep the history log and display the result. The optional CGI program requires `cgiwrap' or Apache configured with `suexec'. 
Big Red Switch 
Berlin Regional TestBed (WIN) 
Brutalware fits on two floppy disks with TCP/IP networking (currently only bootp-based) and one supplementary floppy with tons of hacking utilities. Great distribution for use in school labs and Internet cafes. Brutalware Linux 1.1 is a libc5 based 2.0.36 Linux distribution. A floppy-based distribution. 
brute force
adj. Describes a primitive programming style, one in which the programmer relies on the computer's processing power instead of using his or her own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of scale and applying naive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones. The term can also be used in reference to programming style: brute-force programs are written in a heavyhanded, tedious way, full of repetition and devoid of any elegance or useful abstraction (see also brute force and ignorance). The canonical example of a brute-force algorithm is associated with the `traveling salesman problem' (TSP), a classical NP-hard problem: Suppose a person is in, say, Boston, and wishes to drive to N other cities. In what order should the cities be visited in order to minimize the distance travelled? The brute-force method is to simply generate all possible routes and compare the distances; while guaranteed to work and simple to implement, this algorithm is clearly very stupid in that it considers even obviously absurd routes (like going from Boston to Houston via San Francisco and New York, in that order). For very small N it works well, but it rapidly becomes absurdly inefficient when N increases (for N = 15, there are already 1,307,674,368,000 possible routes to consider, and for N = 1000 -- well, see bignum). Sometimes, unfortunately, there is no better general solution than brute force. See also NP-. A more simple-minded example of brute-force programming is finding the smallest number in a large list by first using an existing program to sort the list in ascending order, and then picking the first number off the front. Whether brute-force programming should actually be considered stupid or not depends on the context; if the problem is not terribly big, the extra CPU time spent on a brute-force solution may cost less than the programmer time it would take to develop a more `intelligent' algorithm. Additionally, a more intelligent algorithm may imply more long-term complexity cost and bug-chasing than are justified by the speed improvement. Ken Thompson, co-inventor of Unix, is reported to have uttered the epigram "When in doubt, use brute force". He probably intended this as a ha ha only serious, but the original Unix kernel's preference for simple, robust, and portable algorithms over brittle `smart' ones does seem to have been a significant factor in the success of that OS. Like so many other tradeoffs in software design, the choice between brute force and complex, finely-tuned cleverness is often a difficult one that requires both engineering savvy and delicate esthetic judgment. 
BackSpace one record (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
Banded Signaling 
Base Station (LA, GSM, mobile-systems) 
BetriebsSystem 2000 (SNI, OS) 
Backbone Service Area 
Business Software Alliance (org., manufacturer) 
Basic Sequential Access Method (IBM, MVS, SAM) 
Balanced ScoreCard 
Base Station Controller (BS, BTS, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Binary Synchronous Coded 
Binary Synchronous Communications [protocol] (IBM) 
Binary Synchronous Communications Module 
Berkeley System / Software Distribution (manufacturer, Unix, OS) 
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
A version of the UNIX operating system that was developed and formerly maintained by the University of California, Berkeley. BSD helped to establish the Internet in colleges and universities because the distributed software included TCP/IP. 
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) UNIX
UNIX distribution from University of California at Berkeley. (Also, see FreeBSD.) 
Port of the OpenBSD FTP server This is a GNU/Linux port of the FTP server from OpenBSD. Consequently, it is believed to be quite secure. Other interesting features are support for IPv6 and an internal ls. 
collection of text games from BSD systems This is a collection of some of the text-based games and amusements that have been enjoyed for decades on unix systems. Includes these programs: adventure, arithmetic, atc, backgammon, battlestar, bcd, boggle, caesar, canfield, countmail, cribbage, fish, gomoku, hangman, hunt, mille, monop, morse, number, pig, phantasia, pom, ppt, primes, quiz, random, rain, robots, sail, snake, tetris, trek, wargames, worm, worms, wump, wtf 
Berkeley Software Design Incorporated (manufacturer) 
Berkeley/San Diego License 
More utilities from FreeBSD. This package contains lots of small programs many people expect to find when they use a BSD-style Unix system. Included are: banner, ncal, cal, calendar, col, colcrt, colrm, column, from, hexdump, look, lorder, ul, write. This package used to contain whois and vacation, which are now distributed in their own packages. Also here was tsort, which is now in the "textutils" package, version 2.0-1 and later. 
Basic utilities from 4.4BSD-Lite. This package contains the bare minimum number of BSD utilities needed to boot a Debian system. You should probably also install bsdmainutils to get the remaining standard BSD utilities. Included are: logger, renice, replay, script, wall 
A Java scripting environment. BeanShell is a small, free, embeddable, Java source interpreter with object scripting language features, written in Java. BeanShell executes standard Java statements and expressions, in addition to obvious scripting commands and syntax. BeanShell supports scripted objects as simple method closures like those in Perl and JavaScript(tm). You can use BeanShell interactively for Java experimentation and debugging or as a simple scripting engine for you applications. In short: BeanShell is a dynamically interpreted Java, plus some useful stuff. 
Bentley Systems, Incorporated (manufacturer) 
British Standards Institute (org., UK) 
Bundesamt fuer Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik Org., Germany 
Base Station Identification Code (BS, BCCH, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Corruption & intrusion detection using embedded hashes This package embeds secure hashes (SHA1) and digital signatures (GNU Privacy Guard) into files for verification and authentication. Currently, target file types are all ELF format: executables, kernel modules, shared and static link libraries. This program has functionality similar to tripwire and integrit without the need to maintain a database. 
Batched Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 
Batched SMTP mailer for sendmail and postfix This package adds a new "mailer" named bsmtp to sendmail or postfix, which allows you to use batched SMTP as protocol. BSMTP is used in UUCP environments and allows to transport many mails as a (compressed) batch instead of transporting every single mail. So bsmtp is an alternative to rmail. Special features of this bsmtp package: - Completely written in C. - Configurable batch size (automatically sends batch to uux when a defined size is reached). - Creates backups of all outgoing batches (and removes them regularly) - Works with sendmail and postfix. 
BetriebsSystemProzessor (Windows NT, SMP) 
Binary Space Partioning [tree] 
BootStrap Router (PIM, RP, Multicast) 
Base Station System / Subsystem (GPRS, BSC, BTS) 
Basic Service Set (WLAN) 
Basic Synchronized Subset 
Block Started by Symbol (IBM, assembler, Unix) 
Block Storage Segment 
Broadband Switching System 
Base Station System Management Application Part (RR, BS, MTP, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Bering Strait Time [-1100] (TZ) 
Brazil Standard Time [-0300] (TZ) 
British Summer Time [+0100] (TZ, UK) 
Broadcast Switched Virtual Connections (ATM) 
Baghdad Time [+0200] (TZ) 
Bering Time [-1100] (TZ) 
British Telecom (org.) 
Burst Tolerance 
Bus Terminator 
Basic Tape Access Method (BS2000) 
Basic Telecommunications Access Method (IBM) 
Branch Target Buffer (CPU) 
Biting The Carpet (slang, Usenet) 
Been There, Done That (slang, Linux, Kernel) 
Broadband Terminal Equipment (B-ISDN), "B-TE" 
Bell Telephone Laboratories 
Block Translation Look-aside Buffer (CPU) 
Batch Time-sharing Monitor (OS) 
Benchmark Timing Methodology (PLB) 
Business TRON (TRON) 
Base Transceiver Station entities (BCF, BS, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Bug Tracking System 
Basic Transmission Unit (IBM, SNA) 
By The Way (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
Backtracking parser generator based on byacc btyacc is a hacked version of the original Berkeley "byacc". The main change to byacc is the addition of backtracking code, allowing you to try both alternatives in case of shift-reduce or reduce-reduce conflicts. As long as no backtracking takes place, speed is comparable to bison. Additional features: - enhanced support for storing of text position information for tokens - closes the potential *yacc/bison memory leak during error recovery - preprocessor directives like %ifdef, %include - C++ friendly Related packages: bison, byacc, antlr 
BU Linux
Created at/for Boston University, BU Linux is based on Red Hat Linux, but specifically tailored for the BU environment. They have added security updates, made modifications to make software work better with their setup, and added some applications. BU Linux 2.5 (a.k.a Gigantic) was released August 27, 2002. BU Linux 3.0 (Doolittle) was released May 7, 2003. 
Bubbling Load Monitoring Gnome Applet A GNOME panel applet that displays the CPU + memory load as a bubbling liquid. 
bucky bits
/buh'kee bits/ n. 1. obs. The bits produced by the CONTROL and META shift keys on a SAIL keyboard (octal 200 and 400 respectively), resulting in a 9-bit keyboard character set. The MIT AI TV (Knight) keyboards extended this with TOP and separate left and right CONTROL and META keys, resulting in a 12-bit character set; later, LISP Machines added such keys as SUPER, HYPER, and GREEK (see space-cadet keyboard). 2. By extension, bits associated with `extra' shift keys on any keyboard, e.g., the ALT on an IBM PC or command and option keys on a Macintosh. It has long been rumored that `bucky bits' were named for Buckminster Fuller during a period when he was consulting at Stanford. Actually, bucky bits were invented by Niklaus Wirth when he was at Stanford in 1964-65; he first suggested the idea of an EDIT key to set the 8th bit of an otherwise 7-bit ASCII character). It seems that, unknown to Wirth, certain Stanford hackers had privately nicknamed him `Bucky' after a prominent portion of his dental anatomy, and this nickname transferred to the bit. Bucky-bit commands were used in a number of editors written at Stanford, including most notably TV-EDIT and NLS. The term spread to MIT and CMU early and is now in general use. Ironically, Wirth himself remained unaware of its derivation for nearly 30 years, until GLS dug up this history in early 1993! See double bucky, quadruple bucky. 
A temporary storage space which holds data for future processing. The data may be stored on a hard disk, in RAM or on specialised chips such as UARTs. 
Buffering/reblocking program for tape backups, printing, etc. Buffer implements double buffering and can be used to keep backup tapes streaming or printers printing. It can also be used to convert a data stream to a given output blocksize. Buffer uses shared memory to convert a variable input data rate to a constant output data rate. It is typically used in a pipe between a backup program and the tape device, but there are also other applications like buffering printer data in lpd's input filter. 
buffer overflow
Common coding style is to never allocate large enough buffers, and to not check for overflows. When such buffers overflow, the executing program (daemon or set-uid program) can be tricked in doing some other things. Generally this works by overwriting a function's return address on the stack to point to another location. 
buffer overflow
n. What happens when you try to stuff more data into a buffer (holding area) than it can handle. This problem is commonly exploited by crackers to get arbitrary commands executed by a program running with root permissions. This may be due to a mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see overrun and firehose syndrome), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that must accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text-processing tool that crunches a line at a time, a short line buffer can result in lossage as input from a long line overflows the buffer and trashes data beyond it. Good defensive programming would check for overflow on each character and stop accepting data when the buffer is full up. The term is used of and by humans in a metaphorical sense. "What time did I agree to meet you? My buffer must have overflowed." Or "If I answer that phone my buffer is going to overflow." See also spam, overrun screw. 
buffer overflow (buffer overrun, input overflow, unchecked buffer overflow) . . . . .
Username: This form limits input to 10 characters; the browser won't let you type more than that because the form was programmed with a maxlength=10 parameter. However, when this form is submitted, it will actually be sent as a URL that looks something like Lazy programmers know that browsers will never submit more than 10 characters, and write code that will break if the user submits more. As a hacker, you could simply go to the top of your screen and edit the URL to look something like This may crash the target system or allow you to bypass password checks. A classic attack that inputs too much data. The excess data "overflows" into other areas of memory, frequently allowing an attack into insert executable code along with the input. This allows the atacker to break into the computer. Buffer overflows are one of the most common programming errors, and the ones most likely to slip through quality assurance testing. They are therefore one of the most common ways of breaking into computers. Analogy: Consider two popular bathroom sink designs. One design is a simple sink with a single drain. The other design includes a backup drain near the top of the sink. The first design is easy and often looks better, but suffers from the problem that if the drain is plugged and the water is left running, the sink will overflow all over the bathroom. The second design prevents the sink from overflowing, as the water level can never get past the top drain. Example: Programmers often forget to validate input. They (rightly) believe that a legal username is less than 32 characters long, and (wrongly) reserve more than enough memory for it, typically 200 characters. The assume that nobody will enter in a name longer than 200 characters, and don't verify this. Malicious hackers exploit this condition by purposely entering in user names a 1000 characters long. Key point: This is a classic programming bug that afflicts almost all systems. The average system on the Internet is vulnerable to a well known buffer overflow attack. Many Windows NT servers have IIS services vulnerable to a buffer overflow in ".htr" handler, many Solaris servers have vulnerable RPC services like cmsd, ToolTalk, and statd; many Linux boxes have vulnerable IMAP4, POP3, or FTP services. Key point: Programs written in C are most vulnerable, C++ is somewhat less vulnerable. Programs written in scripting level languages like VisualBasic and Java are generally not vulnerable. The reason is that C requires the programmer to check buffer lengths, but scripting languages generally make these checks whether the programmer wants them or not. Key point: Buffer overflows are usually a Denial-of-Service in that they will crash/hang a service/system. The most interesting ones, however, can cause the system to execute code provided by the hacker as part of the exploit. Defenses: There are a number of ways to avoid buffer-overflows in code: Use programming languages like Java that bounds-check arrays for you. Run code through special compilers that bounds-check for you. Audit code manually Audit code automatically Key point: The NOOP (no operation) machine language instruction for x86 CPUs is 0x90. Buffer overflows often have long strings of these characters when attacking x86 computers (Windows, Linux). Key point: In a successful buffer overflow exploit, hackers force the system to run their own code. Since most network services run as "root" or "administrator", the exploit would give complete control over the machine. For this reason, more and more services are being configured to run with lower privileges. See also: stack frame 
A bug is a flaw in design, coding or manufacture of software which causes all -- or some portion -- of a program to not perform as expected. 
A progamming error that casuses to a program or a computer system to perform erratically, produce incorrect results, or crash. The term bug was coined when a real insect was discovered to have fouled up one of the circuits of the first electronic digital computer, the ENIAC. A hardware problem is called a glitch. 
Bug Reporting Tool interfacing with the Bug Tracking System A script to ease the reporting of bugs. Automatically figures out version numbers of the package reported and all depending packages. Adds config files etc to the bug report. A script for easily accessing the bug database in the WWW is also included. 
n. An unwanted and unintended property of a program or piece of hardware, esp. one that causes it to malfunction. Antonym of feature. Examples: "There's a bug in the editor: it writes things out backwards." "The system crashed because of a hardware bug." "Fred is a winner, but he has a few bugs" (i.e., Fred is a good guy, but he has a few personality problems). Historical note: Admiral Grace Hopper (an early computing pioneer better known for inventing COBOL) liked to tell a story in which a technician solved a glitch in the Harvard Mark II machine by pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays, and she subsequently promulgated bug in its hackish sense as a joke about the incident (though, as she was careful to admit, she was not there when it happened). For many years the logbook associated with the incident and the actual bug in question (a moth) sat in a display case at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC). The entire story, with a picture of the logbook and the moth taped into it, is recorded in the "Annals of the History of Computing", Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1981), pp. 285-286. The text of the log entry (from September 9, 1947), reads "1545 Relay #70 Panel F (moth) in relay. First actual case of bug being found". This wording establishes that the term was already in use at the time in its current specific sense -- and Hopper herself reports that the term `bug' was regularly applied to problems in radar electronics during WWII. Indeed, the use of `bug' to mean an industrial defect was already established in Thomas Edison's time, and a more specific and rather modern use can be found in an electrical handbook from 1896 ("Hawkin's New Catechism of Electricity", Theo. Audel & Co.) which says: "The term `bug' is used to a limited extent to designate any fault or trouble in the connections or working of electric apparatus." It further notes that the term is "said to have originated in quadruplex telegraphy and have been transferred to all electric apparatus." The latter observation may explain a common folk etymology of the term; that it came from telephone company usage, in which "bugs in a telephone cable" were blamed for noisy lines. Though this derivation seems to be mistaken, it may well be a distorted memory of a joke first current among telegraph operators more than a century ago! Or perhaps not a joke. Historians of the field inform us that the term "bug" was regularly used in the early days of telegraphy to refer to a variety of semi-automatic telegraphy keyers that would send a string of dots if you held them down. In fact, the Vibroplex keyers (which were among the most common of this type) even had a graphic of a beetle on them (and still do)! While the ability to send repeated dots automatically was very useful for professional morse code operators, these were also significantly trickier to use than the older manual keyers, and it could take some practice to ensure one didn't introduce extraneous dots into the code by holding the key down a fraction too long. In the hands of an inexperienced operator, a Vibroplex "bug" on the line could mean that a lot of garbled Morse would soon be coming your way. Further, the term "bug" has long been used among radio technicians to describe a device that converts electromagnetic field variations into acoustic signals. It is used to trace radio interference and look for dangerous radio emissions. Radio community usage derives from the roach-like shape of the first versions used by 19th century physicists. The first versions consisted of a coil of wire (roach body), with the two wire ends sticking out and bent back to nearly touch forming a spark gap (roach antennae). The bug is to the radio technician what the stethoscope is to the stereotype medical doctor. This sense is almost certainly ancestral to modern use of "bug" for a covert monitoring device, but may also have contributed to the use of "bug" for the effects of radio interference itself. Actually, use of `bug' in the general sense of a disruptive event goes back to Shakespeare! (Henry VI, part III - Act V, Scene II: King Edward: "So, lie thou there. Die thou; and die our fear; For Warwick was a bug that fear'd us all.") In the first edition of Samuel Johnson's dictionary one meaning of `bug' is "A frightful object; a walking spectre"; this is traced to `bugbear', a Welsh term for a variety of mythological monster which (to complete the circle) has recently been reintroduced into the popular lexicon through fantasy role-playing games. In any case, in jargon the word almost never refers to insects. Here is a plausible conversation that never actually happened: "There is a bug in this ant farm!" "What do you mean? I don't see any ants in it." "That's the bug." A careful discussion of the etymological issues can be found in a paper by Fred R. Shapiro, 1987, "Entomology of the Computer Bug: History and Folklore", American Speech 62(4):376-378. [There has been a widespread myth that the original bug was moved to the Smithsonian, and an earlier version of this entry so asserted. A correspondent who thought to check discovered that the bug was not there. While investigating this in late 1990, your editor discovered that the NSWC still had the bug, but had unsuccessfully tried to get the Smithsonian to accept it -- and that the present curator of their History of American Technology Museum didn't know this and agreed that it would make a worthwhile exhibit. It was moved to the Smithsonian in mid-1991, but due to space and money constraints was not actually exhibited for years afterwards. Thus, the process of investigating the original-computer-bug bug fixed it in an entirely unexpected way, by making the myth true! --ESR] 
The word "bug" describes some sort of programming mistake. Common programming mistakes related to security are: buffer-overflows, format-string bugs, race conditions. 
A graphical bug reporting tool for GNOME The goal of bug-buddy is to make reporting bugs very simple and easy for the user, while making the reports themselves more useful and informative for the developer. It can extract debugging information from a core file or crashed application (via gnome_segv). It currently supports the bug tracking systems of Gnome, Helix, KDE, and Debian. 
BUGS file
List of errata. 
Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! "Bug Squish" is an action game not unlike light gun arcade games, but played with a mouse. It's loosely based on a MacOS game whose name I can't recall. Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! Squish them with with your fly swatter before you run out of blood. 
evolve biomorphs using genetic algorithms buugsx is a program which draws biomorphs based on parametric plots of Fourier sine and cosine series and let's you play with them using genetic algorithms. 
One of the most important sources of information in the security community. BUGTRAQ has become the quasi-official place to publish vulnerability and exploit information. Controversy: A debate over "full-disclosure" surrounds BUGTRAQ. On one side is a community of people that believe full and open disclosure of vulnerabilities and exploits is necessary to promote the developement of protections against hacking. On the other side is a community of people that believe total disclosure, including script-kiddy ready exploits, is harmful. 
Mozilla bug tracking system Bugzilla is a web-based tool that lets you: * report bugs * assign bugs to the appropriate developers * prioritize bugs * set bug dependencies * arrange bugs by product and component With these features, you can also use Bugzilla as a to-do list manager. Bugzilla is a web application that lets users report and look up existing bugs. Changes made to a bug's status are automatically sent to users concerned with it. 
Bus Interface Unit (DEC) 
attractive desktop clock As clocks go, Buici satisfies the basic need of representing the time accurately and attractively. I wrote it when I began to use X as my primary desktop environment and wanted to have a decent looking clock on my desktop. I loathe digital clocks. This release has limited configurability. 
Informational list of build-essential packages If you do not plan to build Debian packages, you don't need this package. Moreover this package is not required for building Debian packages. This package contains an informational list of packages which are considered essential for building Debian packages. This package also depends on the packages on that list, to make it easy to have the build-essential packages installed. If you have this package installed, you only need to install whatever a package specifies as its build-time dependencies to build the package. Conversely, if you are determining what your package needs to build-depend on, you can always leave out the packages this package depends on. This package is NOT the definition of what packages are build-essential; the real definition is in the Debian Policy Manual. This package contains merely an informational list, which is all most people need. However, if this package and the manual disagree, the manual is correct. 
Interactive spelling checking 
Capable, because of high fault tolerance, of resisting external interferance and recovering from situations that would crash other programs. 
1 or 2 players race through a multi-level maze. In BumpRacer, 1 player or 2 players (team or competitive) choose among 4 vehicles and race through a multi-level maze. The players must acquire bonuses and avoid traps and enemy fire in a race against the clock. 
a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.2 
Avoid evil foodstuffs and make burgers. This is a clone of the classic game "BurgerTime". In it, you play the part of a chef who must create burgers by stepping repeatedly on the ingredients until they fall into place. And to make things more complicated, you also must avoid evil animate food items while performing this task, with nothing but your trusty pepper shaker to protect you. 
An internal communication network in a computer system. A typical system includes an address bus, a data bus, and a control bus. The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory that can be addressed by the system. 
An internal electrical pathway along which signals are sent from one part of the computer to another. Personal computers have a processor bus design with three pathways. The data bus sends data back and forth between the memory and the microprocessor divided into an external data bus and an internal data bus. The addrss bus identifies which memory location will come into play. The control bus carries the control unit's signals. 
Broadcast and Unknown Server (ATM, LANE) 
Conductors that connect the functional units in a computer (called a bus because it travels to all destinations). Local busses connect elements within the CPU and other busses connect to external memory and peripherals. 
Bus Master DMA
A technology for increasing the speed of hard disk data transfers which requires support from the motherboard and the BIOS, and at least some support from the drive. 
Tiny utilities for small and embedded systems. BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for the most common utilities you would usually find on your desktop system (i.e., ls, cp, mv, mount, tar, etc.). The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts. This package installs the BusyBox binary but does not install symlinks for any of the supported utilities. You can use /bin/busybox --install to install BusyBox to the current directory (you do not want to do this in / on your Debian system!). 
copy all but the first few lines Copy all but the first N lines of standard input to standard output. 
BundesVerband fuer Buero- und informationssysteme [e.v.] (org.) 
[PPP] Banyan VINES Control Protocol (RFC 1763, Banyan, VINES, PPP) 
A binary file editor The bvi is a display-oriented editor for binary files, based on the vi text editor. If you are familiar with vi, just start the editor and begin to edit! If you never heard about vi, maybe bvi is not the best choice for you. 
BundesVerband InformationsTechnologien [e.v.] (org.) 
Business Warehouse (DWH) 
Generates text and graphical readout of current bandwidth use. This program will output a PNG and a text file that can be used in scripts or be included in web pages to show current bandwidth usage. The amount of total bandwidth can be customized. The PNG output appears as a bar graph showing maximum possible usage with the current inbound or outbound usage shown as a differently colored bar. An example of this can be seen at 
Bywater BASIC Interpreter The Bywater BASIC Interpreter (bwBASIC) implements a large superset of the ANSI Standard for Minimal BASIC (X3.60-1978) and a significant subset of the ANSI Standard for Full BASIC (X3.113-1987) in C. It also offers shell programming facilities as an extension of BASIC. bwBASIC seeks to be as portable as possible. 
Bandwidth Balancing Mechanism (DQDB) 
Borland Windows Custom Controls (Borland, DLL) 
A set of extension widgets for Tcl/Tk The BWidget toolkit is a high-level widget set for Tcl/Tk. It contains widgets such as progress bars, 3D separators, various manager widgets for toplevels, frames, paned or scrolled windows, button boxes, notebooks or dialogs as well as composite widgets such as comboboxes, spin boxes and tree widgets. The BWidget toolkit is completely written in Tcl so no compiled extension library is required. 
BandWidth Monitor This is a very tiny bandwidth monitor (not X11). Can monitor up to 16 interfaces in the in the same time, and shows totals too. 
Disk Image Creation Tool for Bochs This tool is part of the Bochs project. Its purpose is to generate disk images that are used to allocate the guest operating system in Bochs environment. It can be useful for other programs that also make use of disk images, like Plex86. 
Byacc (Berkeley Yacc) is a public domain LALR parser generator which is used by many programs during their build process. 
The Berkeley LALR parser generator Yacc reads the grammar specification in a file and generates an LR(1) parser for it. The parsers consist of a set of LALR(1) parsing tables and a driver routine written in the C programming language. 
Build Your Linux Disk (BYLD) is a little package that helps you to build a Linux distribution on a single floppy disk to use as you want. Build a net client, rescue disk or other small application. A floppy-based distribution. 
BYO Linux
BYO Linux (aka Build Your Own Linux OR DiyLinux to some) allows Linux enthusiasts to construct their own 100% pure Linux distribution. 
/bi:t/ n. [techspeak] A unit of memory or data equal to the amount used to represent one character; on modern architectures this is usually 8 bits, but may be 9 on 36-bit machines. Some older architectures used `byte' for quantities of 6 or 7 bits, and the PDP-10 supported `bytes' that were actually bitfields of 1 to 36 bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend toward power-of-2 word sizes. Historical note: The term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the IBM Stretch computer; originally it was described as 1 to 6 bits (typical I/O equipment of the period used 6-bit chunks of information). The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the System/360. The word was coined by mutating the word `bite' so it would not be accidentally misspelled as bit. See also nybble. 
A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made. 
A single computer character, generally eight bits. For example, the letter "G" in binary code is 01000111. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Eight bits in a row. That is a series of eight pieces of information, each of which can be either 1 or 0. 
The amount of memory space used to store one character; generally 8 bits. 
byte ordering
This refers to the order in which bytes that are ordered in memory as n,n+1,... are ordered when a computer considers multiple bytes as one integer. Big-endian computers use bytes with lower addresses for the bits with higher powers of two. PowerPC, m68k, HP-PA-RISC, IBM-370, PDP-10, most other computers use this. Little-endian computers use the opposite convention. i86, PDP-11, VAX, uses this. 
decompresses files to stdout 
compare bzip2 compressed files 
compare bzip2 compressed files 
search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression 
search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression 
a 3D first person tank battle game BZFlag is a 3D multi-player tank battle game that allows users to play against each other in a networked environ- ment. There are five teams: red, green, blue, purple and rogue (rogue tanks are black). Destroying a player on another team scores a win, while being destroyed or destroying a teammate scores a loss. Rogues have no team- mates (not even other rogues), so they cannot shoot team- mates and they do not have a team score. There are two main styles of play: capture-the-flag and free-for-all. In capture-the-flag, each team (except rogues) has a team base and each team with at least one player has a team flag. The object is to capture an enemy team's flag by bringing it to your team's base. This destroys every player on the captured team, subtracts one from that team's score, and adds one to your team's score. In free-for-all, there are no team flags or team bases. The object is simply to get as high a score as possible. 
search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression 
A high-quality block-sorting file compressor - utilities bzip2 is a freely available, patent free, high-quality data compressor. It typically compresses files to within 10% to 15% of the best available techniques, whilst being around twice as fast at compression and six times faster at decompression. bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. The archive file format of bzip2 (.bz2) is incompatible with that of its predecessor, bzip (.bz). 
Bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors.The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU Gzip, but they are not identical. 
Bzip2 is a freely available, patent-free, high-quality data compressor that uses the same command line flags as gzip. 
is a relatively new algorithm for compressing data. It generally achieves files that are 60-70% of the size of their gzipped counterparts. From Bzip2 mini-HOWTO
recovers data from damaged bzip2 files 
file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text 
file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text 
Bit Zone Recording (ROD) 
a programming language designed by Dennis Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to reimplement Unix; so called because many features derived from an earlier compiler named `B' in commemoration of its parent, BCPL. 
n. 1. The third letter of the English alphabet. 2. ASCII 1000011. 3. The name of a programming language designed by Dennis Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to reimplement Unix; so called because many features derived from an earlier compiler named `B' in commemoration of its parent, BCPL. (BCPL was in turn descended from an earlier Algol-derived language, CPL.) Before Bjarne Stroustrup settled the question by designing C++, there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be named `D' or `P'. C became immensely popular outside Bell Labs after about 1980 and is now the dominant language in systems and microcomputer applications programming. See also languages of choice, indent style. C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain varying according to the speaker, as "a language that combines all the elegance and power of assembly language with all the readability and maintainability of assembly language". 
C programming language
Point: The language is quirky, difficult for beginners to learn, and really just an accident of history. Despite this, one must grok the language in order to become an elite hacker. Key point: The large number of buffer overflow exploits is directly related to poor way that C protects programmers from doing the wrong thing. On the other hand, these lack of protections leads directly to its high speed. 
C Shell
A Linux shell written to look sort of like the C programming language. It prompts you with %. Its program name is csh. 
/C'-pluhs-pluhs/ n. Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Labs as a successor to C. Now one of the languages of choice, although many hackers still grumble that it is the successor to either Algol 68 or Ada (depending on generation), and a prime example of second-system effect. Almost anything that can be done in any language can be done in C++, but it requires a language lawyer to know what is and what is not legal-- the design is almost too large to hold in even hackers' heads. Much of the cruft results from C++'s attempt to be backward compatible with C. Stroustrup himself has said in his retrospective book "The Design and Evolution of C++" (p. 207), "Within C++, there is a much smaller and cleaner language struggling to get out." [Many hackers would now add "Yes, and it's called Java" --ESR] 
GNU project C++ Compiler 
Demangle *(C+ and Java symbols. 
A signature tool for GNU Emacs C-sig is a signature insertion tool for GNU Emacs. Features in c-sig include: - registering signatures interactively - learning facility - expanding signatures dynamically - modifying signatures through elisp functions 
Commodore 128 [computer] (Commodore) 
Lexmark 2050 Color Jetprinter Linux Driver Filter to convert a Postscript file to Lexmark 2050 format. This driver allow you to print at 300dpi in color on A4 paper. 
C->Haskell Interface Generator C->Haskell is an interface generator that simplifies the development of Haskell bindings to C libraries. The tool processes existing C header files that determine data layout and function signatures on the C side in conjunction with Haskell modules that specify Haskell-side type signatures and marshaling details. Hooks embedded in the Haskell code signal access to C structures and functions -- they are expanded by the interfacing tool in dependence on information from the corresponding C header file. Haskell 98 is "the" standard lazy functional programming language. More info plus the language definition is at 
Highlight C sources for WWW presentation c2html can highlight your source for presentation in the WWW. It can also be used as a CGI script and can detect whether the client browser supports compressed data to save bandwidth. 
Command and Control Information Systems (mil., USA) 
generate manual pages from C source code 
Graham Stoney's mechanized man page generator C2man is an automatic documentation tool that extracts comments from C source code to generate functional interface documentation in the same format as sections 2 & 3 of the Unix Programmer's Manual. It requires minimal effort from the programmer by looking for comments in the usual places near the objects they document, rather than imposing a rigid function-comment syntax or requiring that the programmer learn and use a typesetting language. Acceptable documentation can often be generated from existing code with no modifications. conformance: supports both K&R and ISO/ANSI C coding styles Features: * generates output in nroff -man, TeXinfo, LaTeX or HTML format * handles comments as part of the language grammar * automagically documents enum parameter & return values * handles C (/* */) and C++ (//) style comments Problems: * doesn't handle C++ grammar (yet) * doxygen does this job better 
Dump C structures as generated from *(C`cc -g -S*(C' stabs 
Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (mil., USA) 
Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Information Systems (mil., USA), "C3I/IS" 
Command, Control, Communications and Computers (mil., USA) 
Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (mil., USA) 
Commodore 64 [computer] (Commodore) 
ANSI (1989) C compiler 
Cell Arrival (ATM) 
Certification Authority (cryptography) 
Computer Animation 
Computer Associates (manufacturer) 
Common CA Certificates PEM files It includes the followings PEM files of CA certificates * Mozilla builtin CA certificates * certificate This is useful for any openssl applications to verify SSL connection. 
Computer Aided Architectural Design 
a program to extract Microsoft Cabinet files Cabextract is a program which unpacks cabinet (.cab) files, which are a form of archive Microsoft uses to distribute their software and things like Windows Font Packs. 
Channel Access Code (Bluetooth) 
Computer Aided Crime 
Connection Admission Control (UNI, ATM) 
Computer-Assisted Circuit Engineering and Allocating System 
A small fast memory holding recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc. 
A storage area that keeps frequently accessed data or program instructions readily available so that you don't have to retrieve them repeatedly from slow storage. Caches improve storage by storing data or instructions in faster sections of memory and by using efficient design to increase the likelihood that the data needed next is in the cache. 
A temporary storage area for currently-used or recently-accessed data. Cache can be system-level (residing in dedicated cache memory on the motherboard or physically etched on the central processing unit) or disk-based (residing in main memory such as a hard disk drive or RAM). 
In general computer science, the word cache means simply to keep things around in case they are used again. For example, when you log onto your system, your username and password are stored in a cache in memory, because they are repeatedly used by the system every time you access a resource. Key point: Sometimes systems can be exploited through the cache. Examples are: HTTP proxy servers Companies use these so that thousands of users can share a single Internet connection. They store recently used webpages so that when multiple users access the same web-site, the proxy server only has to go across the link once in order to fetch the page for all the users. A never ending series of bugs leads to conditions whereby when one user logs into a website, other users can see that first user's data. Web-browser history/file cache Once a hacker breaks into a machine, he/she can view the history cache (list of URLs) or file cache (the actual contents of the web-sites) in order to spy on where the user has been. Embarrassing, inadvertent disclosure of this information by users with certain surfing habits is common. Web-browser cookie cache Lots of web-sites store passwords within cookies, so that stealing somebody's cookie information will allow a hacker to log in as that user. 
Frontend to rrdtool for monitoring systems and services Cacti is a complete frondend to rrdtool, it stores all of the necessary information to create graphs and populate them with data in a MySQL database. The frontend is completely PHP driven. Along with being able to maintain Graphs, Data Sources, and Round Robin Archives in a database, cacti handles the data gathering also. There is also SNMP support for those used to creating traffic graphs with MRTG. 
Community Automated Counter-Terrorism Intelligence System (mil., USA) 
Computer Aided Dispatch / Drafting 
Computer Aided Design (CIM) 
command-line client for WebDAV server Useful for WebDAV server testing and scripting. Works like command line FTP clients. This Version supports HTTPS, including Client Site Certificates. Briefly: WebDAV stands for "Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning". It is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers. 
Computer Aided Document Engineering (Microstar) 
Computer-Assisted Display System 
Creative ASCII Drawing Utility By Ian CADUBI is an application written in Perl that allows you to draw text-based images that are viewable on typical unix-based consoles. Usually the applications that emulate these consoles support various text modes, such as background and foreground colors, bold, and inverse. This text art, commonly called "ASCII art," is used in various places such as online BBSes, email and login prompts. 
Client Application Enabler (IBM, DB) 
Common Application Environment (X/Open) 
Computer Aided Education 
Computer Aided Engineering (CIM) 
CAEN Linux
The CAEN RedHat 6.1 (BlueHat) distribution was an effort put together by CAEN to provide a free, downloadable release of RedHat 6.1 that would be "secure out of the box" and well configured for the University of Michigan environment. The site seems to have been last updated in September 2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Computer Aided Inspection (CIM) 
Computer Aided Instruction 
Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (conference) 
Common APSE Interface Specification 
Center for the Application of Information Technology (org., USA) 
Central Academy of Information Technology (org., MITI) 
Caixa Magica
The desktop version "Computador Magico" is available now. The server version "Servidor Magico" will be available soon. This distribution is partialy based on Debian and SuSE, but much of it was rewritten, and localized in Portuguese. It includes OpenOffice. Added to list July 8, 2002. Version 8.01 was released May 21, 2003. 
Client Access License (Lotus, MS) 
Computer Aided Logistics 
Computer Assisted Learning 
displays a calendar and the date of easter 
Displays a simple calendar. If arguments are not specified, the current month is displayed. 
Log analyzer for Squid or Oops proxy log files Calamaris is a Perl script which generates nice statistics out of Squid or Oops log files. It is invoked daily before the proxy rotates its log files and mails the statistics or puts them on the web. There are quite a number of options to choose what kind of report should be generated (domain-report, peak-report, performance-report etc.). This can be tuned in /etc/cron.daily/calamaris An example of such a report can be found on 
An advanced calculator and mathematical tool for Emacs This is an advanced calculator and mathematical tool for GNU Emacs. XEmacs has calc built-in, so you only need this package if you are using GNU Emacs. Very roughly based on the HP-28/48 series of calculators, calc's many features include: * Choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry of calculations. * Arbitrary precision integers and floating-point numbers. * Arithmetic on rational numbers, complex numbers (rectangular and polar), error forms with standard deviations, open and closed intervals, vectors and matrices, dates and times, infinities, sets, quantities with units, and algebraic formulas. * Mathematical operations such as logarithms and trigonometric functions. * Programmer's features (bitwise operations, non-decimal numbers). * Financial functions such as future value and internal rate of return. * Number theoretical features such as prime factorization and arithmetic modulo M for any M. * Algebraic manipulation features, including symbolic calculus. * Moving data to and from regular editing buffers. * "Embedded mode" for manipulating Calc formulas and data directly inside any editing buffer. * Graphics using GNUPLOT, a versatile (and free) plotting program. * Easy programming using keyboard macros, algebraic formulas, algebraic rewrite rules, or extended Emacs Lisp. 
Scientific calculator (GTK+) Calcoo is a scientific calculator designed to provide maximum usability. The features that make Calcoo better than (at least some) other calculator programs are: - bitmapped button labels and display digits to improve readability - no double-function buttons - you need to click only one button for any operation (except for arc-hyp trigonometric functions) - undo/redo buttons - both RPN (reverse Polish notation) and algebraic modes - copy/pase interaction with X clipboard - display tick marks to separate thousands - two memory registers with displays - displays for Y, Z, and T registers 
Communications Assistance Law Enforcement Act (USA) 
reminder service 
Provides super user privileges to specific users. Calife is a lightweight alternative to Sudo. It allows selected users to obtain a shell with the identity of root, or another user, after entering their own password. This permits the system administrator to grant root privileges without sharing the root password. 
Computer aided Acquisition and Logistics Support 
Cpu's Audio Mixer for Linux An audio mixer for Linux, based originally on aumix. Supports both OSS/Free and OSS/Linux. The DOSEMU package provides the vga font which xcam (a script to run cam nicely in an xterm) needs to run properly, but it will run without it. 
Computer Automated Measurement And Control 
A versatile WebMail system for the Caudium WebServer CAMAS is a WebMail system created for the Caudium WebServer. It features multi-lingual interface (most European languages are already present in the distribution), full themability of the user interface, mailbox sorting, on-line mail notification, global and local address books, import from the Pine or Netscape address books and much more. CAMAS is written in the Pike language. 
Rewrite of the xawtv webcam app using imlib2 camE is a rewrite of the xawtv webcam app using imlib2 Features include: * Uses Imlib2 * TTF fonts * Blended transparent text * Title text * Options in ~/.camErc * Message read from separate file (eg echo "eating my dinner" > ~/.caminfo) * Color the text as you like * Text background any color/alpha value * scp support for uploading * And more... 
Still Camera Digital Interface A downloading/controlling tool for digital cameras with Sanyo firmware. Cameras with Sanyo firmware include all Olympus products, Epson products, Agfa products, and of course, Sanyo digital cameras. KNOWN TO WORK WITH The following lines list is based on Japanese product code. (US product code is in parentheses - EPSON's naming scheme is too confusing) - Olympus "Camedia" C-400L (Olympus D-200L) - Olympus "Camedia" C-820L (Olympus D-320L) - Olympus "Camedia" C-1000L (Olympus D-500L) - Olympus D-450Z - Olympus "Camedia" C-2020Z - Sanyo DSC-V1 (Sanyo VPC-G200E) - EPSON "Colorio Photo" CP-100 (EPSON PhotoPC) - EPSON "Colorio Photo" CP-200 (EPSON PhotoPC 500) - EPSON "Colorio Photo" CP-500 (EPSON PhotoPC 600) - Nikon CP-900 SHOULD WORK WITH Any camera with Sanyo firmware/CPU. Olympus, Epson, Agfa and Sanyo digital cameras falls into this category, reportedly. 
Camel Book
n. Universally recognized nickname for the book "Programming Perl", by Larry Wall and Randal L. Schwartz, O'Reilly and Associates 1991, ISBN 0-937175-64-1 (second edition 1996, ISBN 1-56592-149-6). The definitive reference on Perl. 
Stub code generator for Objective Caml CamlIDL generates stub code for interfacing Caml with C from an IDL description of the C functions. Thus, CamlIDL automates the most tedious task in interfacing C libraries with Caml programs. It can also be used to interface Caml programs with other languages, as long as those languages have a well-defined C interface. This package contains the CamlIDL executable. 
Computer Assisted Material Management 
stream video out onto the web Takes a video-for-linux video stream, generally from a camera, and streams it out live to requesting clients. Works with Mozilla, Netscape Navigator, and (under protest) Microsoft Internet Explorer. 
relay camserv streaming video This connects as a client to a camserv streaming video server, and then acts as a camserv server, streaming the same data to clients. Useful when the computer doing the streaming has insufficient CPU, I/O, or network bandwidth to stream to the required number of clients. A tree of camserv relays can handle massive loads. 
collection of tools for webcams and other video-devices CamStream is (going to be) a collection of tools for webcams and other video-devices, enhancing your Linux system with multimedia video. All written in C++ and with a nice GUI frontend. The interface is based on Qt, an excellent GUI framework. The aim of this project is build a set of programs for: * Webcamming, that is saving an image and uploading it to a server at regular intervals; * Video conferencing; * Webcam broadcast (including server); * Recording movie clips (AVI, Quicktime) from a webcam (and playing them back); * Using a webcam as a security camera. 
Complete Area Networks (SNI) 
Controller Area Network 
A japanese input system (server and dictionary). Canna is a Japanese input system available in Free Software. Canna provides a unified user interface for inputing Japanese. Canna supports Nemacs(Mule), kinput2 and canuum. All of these tools can be used by a single customization file, romaji-to-kana conversion rules and conversion dictionaries, and input Japanese in the same way. Canna converts kana to kanji based on a client-server model and supports automatic kana-to-kanji conversion. This package includes cannaserver program and dictionary files. 
Computer Aided Office 
Carrierless Amplitude Phase [modulation] (ADSL, AT&T) 
Communications-electronics Accommodation Program 
Component Approval Process 
Computer Aided Planning (CIM) 
Computer Aided Publishing 
Computer Applications in Production and Engineering (conference, IFIP) 
Communication Application Program Interface (ISDN, API) 
Cryptography Application Programming Interface (cryptography, API) 
Computer Aided Process Planning 
an utility to let your boss think that you're working hard Run this software on your computer when you are not motivated to work, and enjoy doing something different. If your boss come in your cubicle, he'll think "Yeah, he's doing something different since his computer is really busy - He's doing something really important". 
CAnnon Printing System Language (Canon), "CaPSL" 
Graphical front-end for command line programs (Qt version) Captain is a universal graphical front-end (Qt) based on context-free grammars. The program kaptain reads a file containing grammatical rules for generating text. It builds a dialog from the grammar and generates the text according to the user's settings. There's also KDE version of this package (kaptain) if you have already installed KDE desktop. 
convert a termcap description into a terminfo description 
Card Virtual Machine (Java, Sun), "CardVM" 
Computer Assistance Resource Exchange 
Computer Aided Real Language Orthographic System 
Column Address Strobe (IC, DRAM) 
Communicating Applications Specification (FAX, Intel, DCA) 
Computer Aided Selling 
Computer Algebra System 
Computerized Autodial System 
Common Application Service Element (ISO, OSI) 
Computer Aided Software Engineering 
case sensitive
Of or relating to the handling of character casing in data input and output. UNIX (TM) and UNIX-compatible operating systems (such as Red Hat Linux) are case-sensitive in that they treat the same defined term differently if the terms are not cased identically (such as foo and FOO). 
Computer Aided Service Handling (Ashton-Tate), "C.A.S.H." 
Backup utility for the CASIO diary. It is a package ported from DOS to allow communication to the CASIO series of hand-held organizers. It allows backup from CASIO to your computer and restore a backup file from your computer to the CASIO. It can also output human readable file from CASIO. Currently supports: phone, calendar, schedule, memo, and reminder. Read the documentation before using this program! 
Computer Aided Software Testing 
Castle is a server distribution from the ALT Linux Team in Russia. Installation instructions and some other documentation is available in English. A 'secured' distribution. 
enclose land and destroy your opponent's castle It's a clone of the old DOS game Rampart. Up to four players (or more in future versions) build castle walls, place cannons inside these walls, and shoot at the walls of their enemy(s). If a player can't build a complete wall around one of his castles, he loses. The last surviving player wins. 
Communication and Status Utilities This package contains 2 utilities: 1. flon -- lists your friends who are logged on 2. to -- sends a short message to another user flon simply uses the ~/.friends file to instruct it on which users to display. Flon can also act like a BSD style who(1), if invoked with the -w option or from a symlink named 'who'. to is rather like write(1), except that it accepts input as command line arguments rather than on the standard input. It uses ~/.torc for configuration, and can be configured to autoreply to messages in different ways depending on whether you're logged in or not or if your terminal is idle, and can also exclude individual users from sending messages to your terminal. 
Common Authentication Technology (IETF, RFC 1511) 
Computer Aided Technology (fair) 
Computer Aided Telephony 
Computer Aided Testing 
concatenate files and print on the standard output 
[from `catenate' via Unix cat(1)] vt. 1. [techspeak] To spew an entire file to the screen or some other output sink without pause (syn. blast). 2. By extension, to dump large amounts of data at an unprepared target or with no intention of browsing it carefully. Usage: considered silly. Rare outside Unix sites. See also dd, BLT. Among Unix fans, cat(1) is considered an excellent example of user-interface design, because it delivers the file contents without such verbosity as spacing or headers between the files, and because it does not require the files to consist of lines of text, but works with any sort of data. Among Unix haters, cat(1) is considered the canonical example of bad user-interface design, because of its woefully unobvious name. It is far more often used to blast a file to standard output than to concatenate two files. The name cat for the former operation is just as unintuitive as, say, LISP's cdr. Of such oppositions are holy wars made.... See also UUOC. 
Tool to create,maintain and display Yahoo! like directories. Catalog is a perl program that allows to create, maintain and display Yahoo! like directories. The user interface is 100% HTML. It requires a MySQL database to run. The general idea behind the design of Catalog is that creating a catalog is mainly a matter of organizing objects in a structured tree. For Catalog the objects are records in a table of the SQL database. The structured tree is a set of tree nodes and relations between these nodes. The maintainer of the catalog is in charge of building the tree and placing objects in this tree. Here is a short list of the functions provided by Catalog: * Display structured trees of resources. * Display chronologically ordered resources and associated calendar. * Display alphabetical indexes of resources. * Allow full text search in the resources and the category names. * Powerful HTML based administration of catalogs. * On-Line editing of resource records. * Handle an arbitrary number of catalogs. * High performances using mod_perl and Apache. * Easy customization of the user view using HTML template files. * It is possible to define more than one view of the same catalog. * Load and unload a thematic catalog in XML. * Create an HTML dump of a structured tree to publish a static version. * Complete documentation including a guide and a reference manual. * Ready to use example. 
adj. Describes a condition of suspended animation in which something is so wedged or hung that it makes no response. If you are typing on a terminal and suddenly the computer doesn't even echo the letters back to the screen as you type, let alone do what you're asking it to do, then the computer is suffering from catatonia (possibly because it has crashed). "There I was in the middle of a winning game of nethack and it went catatonic on me! Aaargh!" Compare buzz. 
Catch segmentation faults in programs 
MS-Word to TeX or plain text converter This program extracts text from MS-Word files, trying to preserve as many special printable characters as possible. catdoc supports everything up to Word-97. It doesn't even try to preserve fancy Word formatting, because Word users usually don't care about document structure, and it is this very thing which is important to LaTeX users. Also provided is xls2csv, which extracts data from Excel spreadsheets and outputs it in comma-separated-value format. This package suggests tk because it also includes wordview, an optional Tk-based GUI for catdoc. The MIME config provided in this package will use wordview is X is running, or catdoc directly if it is not. 
DVI to plain text translator CatDVI translates a TeX Device Independent (DVI) file into a readable plaintext file. It aims to generate high-quality output that reproduces all aspects of the DVI file within the limits of the output medium. CatDVI uses Unicode internally and can output ASCII, ISO Latin 1 and UTF-8 Unicode. CatDVI can be used for previewing TeX documents on character-cell displays such as traditional terminals and terminal emulators. It is also possible to use it in generation of plain text documents from TeX source, assuming that the document is written with this conversion in mind. CatDVI is under development and as such yet incomplete. However, it is quite useful even in its current form and already outperforms some of its competition in some areas. CatDVI requires that the TFM files for all fonts used in its input DVI files are installed or can be generated by kpathsea. 
Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing 
Computer-Assisted Tactical Information System (mil., USA) 
create or update the pre-formatted manual pages 
Common ArchiTecture for Next generation Internet Protocol (IPNG, RFC 1707) 
CodeWarrior Analysis Tools 
Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email (org., Internet, spam, UCE) 
An extensible WWW server written in Pike Caudium is a modern, fast and extensible WWW server derived from Roxen. Caudium is by default compatible with Roxen 1.3 although some incompatible options, mostly introduced to improve the performance, security etc. of the server, can be turned on. Caudium features built-in log parsing engine (UltraLog), XSLT parser, native PHP4 support, multiple execution threads and many more features - see and for more information. 
Constant Angular Velocity (CD, HDD, MOD) 
Cave for Automated Virtual Environment (VR) 
Computer Associates - Visual Objects (CA, DB), "CA-VO" 
Commercial Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) 
The Check-Book Balancer - a Quicken clone CBB is a perl and tk application which can handle several bank accounts. CBB make transfers, balancing, spending analysis a breeze. 
Cipher Block Chaining [mode] (DES, DESE, RC5, cryptography) 
CallBack Control Protocol 
Computer Based Conversation System (BBS) 
Character Bitmap Distribution Format (Adobe) 
Connectionless Broadband Data Service (Europe) 
Certified Banyan Engineer (Banyan, VINES) 
Text-mode Bulgarian/English Dictionary CBE Dictionary is a command-line Bulgarian to English and English to Bulgarian electronic Dictionary. It can work in interactive mode too. The dictionary databases are not included in this package. You have to download bedic-data.tar.gz from Install the files buleng.dat and engbul.dat in /usr/local/share/bedic. 
Computer & Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (org.) 
Code Behind Form (MS, Access, DB) 
Ceramic Ball and Grid Array (IC) 
Compatibility Basic Input Output System (IBM, BIOS) 
Connectionless Broadband Data Service 
Class Based Queueing 
Constant Bit Rate (ATM, VBR, ABR, UBR, QOS) 
a C/C++ source code indexing, querying and browsing tool Cbrowser is a graphical C/C++ source code searching and browsing tool, and a hierarchical function call viewer. Cbrowser is a front-end to the popular source code indexing and querying program cscope and the alternative cs, both free software. Author: Chris Felaco <> Home Page: 
Certified Banyan Specialist (Banyan, VINES) 
Candidate BootStrap Router (PIM, BSR, Multicast), "C-BSR" 
Canon Buffer Transmission (Fax) 
Computer-Based Training 
Core Based Tree [multicast protocol] (IP, RFC 1949/2189, ST, Multicast) 
Computerized Branch eXchange (PBX) 
Carbon Copy 
Continuity Cell (ATM) 
Country Code (MS-ISDN, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Cross Connector 
GNU project C and C++ Compiler (gcc-2.95) 
Compiler results cacher, for fast recompiles. ccache is a compiler cache. It speeds up re-compilation of C/C++ code by caching previous compiles and detecting when the same compile is being done again. This is similar (but faster) than the compilercache package. 
Call Control Agent Function (IN) 
Colorised calendar utility CCAL is a drop in replacement for the standard unix calendar program. It includes support for color and daily, weekly, and yearly reminders/appointments. This release contains bug fixes and new features including support for reading "reminder" data files. 
Chaos Computer Club (org.) 
Computer Control Center 
Cube Connected Cycles (MP) 
Campus Computer Communication Association (org., USA) 
A small GTK+ CD player program cccd is a small GTK+ CD player program with many features: * Works with SCSI devices * CDDB lookups (local and remote) and local storing * Uses very little screen space * Handles CD Extras (mixed mode CDs) 
Common Control CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
Center for Cyber Communities Initiative (org., Japan) 
Charge Coupled Device 
Connection Control Entity 
Console Chinese Environment - display Chinese (GB) on console CCE is a Console Chinese Environment like WZCE, yact & chdrv that lets you display and input Chinese (GB) at the console. Input methods include PinYin, WuBi, ShuangPin and ZiranMa. 
[visual basic] Control Creation Edition (VB, ActiveX, MS) 
Centre Commun d'Etudes de Telediffusion et Telecommunications (org., France) 
??? (org.) 
Capsulated Color Filter (NEC) 
Central Computer Facility 
Connection Control Function (IN) 
Controller Configuration Facility 
Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (LCD) 
Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (LCD, Display) 
Coordinating Committee of International Networks (org.) 
Common Channel Interoffice Signaling (AT&T) 
Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique (org., ITU, predecessor) 
Cerberus Central Limited (manufacturer) 
Change Configuration Management 
create dependencies in makefiles using a C compiler 
A memory profiler/debugger This is a memory profiling package. It can be used to debug various memory allocation problems, including: o memory leaks o multiple deallocation of the same data o under writes and over writes o writes to already deallocated data 
convert C++ comments to C comments 
Common Channel Network Controller 
Computer / Communications Network Center 
Cache-Coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (SMP, NUMA), "cc-NUMA" 
Command Console Processor (CP/M) 
Communications Control Program (OS, IBM) 
Compact Communication Products (TPS) 
[PPP] Compression Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1962) 
Commitment, Concurrency and Recovery (OSI) 
Current Cell Rate (ATM) 
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (org., Stanford, UK) 
Cambridge Cybernetic Society (org.) 
Coded Character Set (CCS, Unicode) 
Common Channel Signaling (IN) 
Common Command Set (SCSI) 
Common Communications Support (IBM, SAA) 
Communications-Computer Systems, "C-CS" 
Cyprus Computer Society (Org, Zypern) 
Common Channel signaling System 7 (IN, Telekom, CCITT) 
Coded Character Set IDentification (IBM) 
Cooperative Computing System Program (HP) 
China Coast Time [+0800] (TZ) 
Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (org., UK) 
Country Code Top Level DOMAIN (Internet, ICANN), "ccTLD" 
Cache Control Unit (Wyse) 
Customer Control Unit 
C-bit Coding Violation [error event] (DS3/E3) 
COM Callable Wrapper (MS, COM, Java) 
Carrier Detect (MODEM, RS-232) 
Change Directory (DOS, Unix, OS/2) 
change directory - ; cd .. moves you backwards to the next higher subdirectory level; cd / moves you to the highest directory level. 
Committee Draft (ISO) 
Compact Disk (CD) 
cd tilde
/C-D til-d*/ vi. To go home. From the Unix C-shell and Korn-shell command cd ~, which takes one to one's $HOME (cd with no arguments happens to do the same thing). By extension, may be used with other arguments; thus, over an electronic chat link, cd ~coffee would mean "I'm going to the coffee machine." 
prints round shaped cd-labels a program to create round shaped cd-labels written in perl, using perl-tk as frontend. It has four lines of nice round shaped text for each label, additional four fields with normal text, choosable text-size, font colour, background colour and background images. You can squeeze the whole page if your printer doesn't generate correct circles and you can move the circle on the sheet. The output is postscript so it should be usable on any system. 
CDDB DiscID utility cd-discid is a backend utility to get CDDB discid information from a CD-ROM disc. 
see compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM). 
Communications Decency Act (Internet, USA) 
Compound Document Architecture (DEC) 
If this is set, an argument to the cd builtin command that is not a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable whose value is the directory to change to. 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Command Descriptor Block 
CD-R(W) backup utility cdbackup and cdrestore are a pair of utilities designed to facilitiate streaming backup to and from CD-R(W) disks. Specificially, they were designed to work with dump/restore, but tar/cpio/whatever you want should work, so long as it writes to stdout for backups and reads from stdin for restores. 
common GUI for writing CDs under KDE CD Bake Oven (CDBO) is a graphical CD-creation/copying tool designed which aims to combine the power and stability of great command line utilities with a contemporary, easy-to-use user interface. CDBO enables you to create data or music CDs in the most intuitive matter, while enabling you to control every aspect of the process. It is built on top of very well known cdrecord, mkisofs, cdda2wav and cdparanoia, encapsulating most of the options those utilities provide. This makes creating professional quality media as easy as making a few mouse clicks. Features include: o creating custom CDs by drag'n'drop'ing files from Konqueror or CDBO into the compilation list and clicking 'Create' o auto-detection of CD writers, supplemented by a Custom Devices Dialog for simple custom device configuration o a fully customize CD creation/duplication/erasing process (the CDBO Settings Dialog is split into convenient sections, such as o Audio CD copy, ISO Image creation, CDBO defaults, etc.) o a number of other features, such as: the ability to listen to o audio CDs while copying; ISO image creation; ISO image preview; Burn-At-Once support; BurnProf support (must be supported by the (hardware); bootable (El Torito) CD creation; and multiplatform CD creation. 
Connectionless Data Bearer Service 
Computerized Digital Branch eXchange (PBX) 
Connected Device Configuration (JVM) 
Control Data Corporation (manufacturer) 
Cult of the Dead Cow (org.), "cDc" 
command line or console based CD player cdcd works in two ways, accepting commands directly off the command line or in a query mode similar to other UNIX programs. To pass a command to cdcd, simply run cdcd with the command as the argument (e.g. cdcd play). This is great for using cron and cdcd together to make a CD alarm clock. Or you can run cdcd without arguments and you will be given the cdcd command prompt. 
A parallel burner that allow you to write to one or more CD-Writter at once CDcontrol is a parallel CD burner program. It's allow you write to a unlimited number or CD writers (IDE and SCSI) at once time. The CDcontrol is the first burning system of that type that I know for *nix operating system and it's all under GPL license. Some of it's features are better than commercial systems that I've hear about (and fully support CD images and all data type supported by cdrecord program), one of these features is the separated control of each recorder once the recording is started (avoid problems due a fail or speed problem in other writers). The CDcontrol itself has a daily production report for each writter and fails of writting, in cases of more serious errors, a technical report is also written (it's content is a full cdrecord output for that writter, plus the time when it happens). Other interesting feature is the automatic calculation of copies, enabling only the writers requested to complete the number and skipping all that are disabled. The CDcontrol come with the following tools: cd-memoria - Read the CD image and write it on the permanent memory (HD, Raid, CDRW, etc). memoria-cd - Read the CD image and write it on all writers. apagar-cdcontrol - Delete a CD image from permanent memory config-cdcontrol - Allow you to manually enable/disable one or more writers. rel-cdcontrol - Allow you to read the success/fail reports of each day (the technician report is found at the subdirectory $LOG_DIR/tec and should be read as any text file in the system). 
Creating Data-CD Covers cdcover is a little commandline tool which creates user-defined data-cd covers. 
command line CDROM control 
Component Design Document 
Compact Disk - Digital Audio (CD, Digital audio), "CD-DA" 
Cdda2wav is a sampling utility for CD-ROM drives that is capable of providing CD audio data in digital form to your host. Audio data read from the CD can be saved as .wav or .sun format sound files. Recording formats include stereo/mono, 8/12/16 bits, and different rates. Cdda2wav can also be used as a CD player. 
Creates WAV files from audio CDs cdda2wav lets you digitally copy audio tracks from a CD-ROM, avoiding the distortion that is introduced when recording via a sound card. Data can be dumped into wav or sun format sound files. Options control the recording format (stereo/mono; 8/16 bits; sampling rate, etc). 
CD DataBase support tools This package provides a location for programs to store files from the CDDB in and contains a simple program to query CDDB servers. 
Copper Distributed Data Interface (FDDI, UTP) 
Certified Directory Engineer (Novell, Netware) 
Common Desktop Environment 
Compact Disk - Erasable (CD), "CD-E" 
Cooperative Development Environment (Oracle) 
CDE (Common Desktop Environment)
UNIX has not traditionally been intended as a desktop operating system, and therefore has lacked many of the features of Windows and Macintosh PCs. CDE is a standard supported by numerous UNIX vendors to supply a common desktop environment on top of X Windows and RPC. Of interest to hackers are the following, services: ToolTalk rpc.ttdbd Provides the core of most "desktop" services. Provides an inter-application communication library that can be linked to applications. ToolTalk has had two major remote exploits providing root access. In 1999, a buffer-overflow was discovered. In 2001, a format-string exploit was discovered. Both resulted in widespread compromises. 
Debian Configuration Management System (C-implementation) Debconf is a configuration management system for Debian packages. It is used by some packages to prompt you for information before they are installed. This is a reimplementation of the original debconf version in C. Installing this package is rather dangerous now. It will break debconf. You have been warned! 
Turn english phrases to C or C++ declarations Cdecl is a program which will turn English-like phrases such as "declare foo as array 5 of pointer to function returning int" into C declarations such as "int (*foo[5])()". It can also translate the C into the pseudo- English. And it handles typecasts, too. Plus C++. And in this version it has command line editing and history with the GNU readline library. 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Channel Definition Format (MS, Internet, XML) 
Compound Document Framework (IBM, OLE) 
Compact Disk File System (CD, OS/2, IBM) 
shows the tracks on a CD as normal files CDfs is a file system for Linux systems that `exports' all tracks and boot images on a CD as normal files. These files can then be mounted (e.g. for ISO and boot images), copied, played (WAVE audio and VideoCD tracks)... The primary goal for developing this file system was to `unlock' information in old ISO images. 
Compact Disk + Graphics (CD), "CD+G" 
Compact Disk - Interactive (CD), "CD-I" 
Dialog is a utility that allows you to show dialog boxes (containing questions or messages) in TTY (text mode) interfaces. Dialog is called from within a shell script. The following dialog boxes are implemented: yes/no, menu, input, message, text, info, checklist, radiolist, and gauge. Install dialog if you would like to create TTY dialog boxes. 
CASE Data Interchange Format (CASE) 
cdindex is intended to be the open source replacement of cddb(tm) cdindex is a system that allows the web based submission of title, artist information of CDs and the retrieval. It is completely web based (cgi / html / xml) and uses a web browser for submission / retrieval. 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Control Development Toolkit (MS, VB) 
generates front cards and tray cards for CDs cdlabelgen was designed to simplify the process of generating labels for CDs. It originated as a program to allow auto generation of front cards and tray cards for CDs burned via an automated mechanism (specifically for archiving data), but has now become popular for labelling CD compilations of mp3's, and copies of CDs. Note that cdlabelgen does not actually print anything--it just spits out postscript, which you can then do with as you please. Author: B. W. Fitzpatrick <> Homepage: 
CDlinux is a CD based mini Linux distribution, which runs from a CDROM. It aims to be an administration/rescue tool for Eastern Asian (CJK) users. CDlinux is also highly user configureable, and supports a wide range of hardware (PCMCIA/SCSI/USB). Version 0.4.3 was released June 10, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
This CDLinux was a Chinese Debian GNU/Linux running on a CD. Last update, March 30, 2001. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Restart a CD when it ceases playing 
Compressed Data Mode 
Code Division Multiple Access (DFUe) 
Compact Disk + Musical Instruments Digital Interface (CD, MIDI), "CD+MIDI" 
Compact Disk - Magneto Optical (CD), "CD-MO" 
Communication Driver Maintenance System (ISDN, HST) 
Chinese DOMAIN Name Consortium (org., Internet, DOMAIN) 
Collaboration Data Objects (WSH, MS) 
query cddb database for info on a disc 
Cdp is a program for playing CDs on the Linux console. Cdp includes a full-screen ncurses mode and a command line mode for scripts. 
An audio extraction tool for sampling CDs. Unlike similar programs such as cdda2wav, cdparanoia goes to great lengths to try to extract the audio information without any artifacts such as jitter. 
This CDDA reader distribution ('cdparanoia') reads audio from the CDROM directly as data, with no analog step between, and writes the data to a fileor pipe as .wav, .aifc or as raw 16 bit linear PCM. cdparanoia is a complete rewrite of Heiko Eissfeldt's 'cdda2wav' program, and generally is much better at succeeding to read difficult discs with cheap drives. 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Cellular Digital Packet Data 
Cellular Digital Packet Data (mobile-systems) 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Compact Disk - Recordable (CD), "CD-R" 
Character Data Representation Architecture 
Cached Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
Cdrdao records audio CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode, based on a textual description of the CD contents. Recording in DAO mode writes the complete disc (lead-in, one or more tracks, and lead-out) in a single step. DAO allows full control over the length and the contents of pre-gaps, the pause areas between tracks. 
Write audio or mixed mode CD-Rs in disk-at-once mode cdrdao creates audio or mixed mode CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode driven by a description file. In DAO mode it is possible to create non standard track pre-gaps that have other lengths than 2 seconds and contain nonzero audio data. This is for example useful to divide live recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would be irritating. It is also possible to create hidden tracks or track intros as found on commercial CDs. This tool can produce audio and mixed mode CDs. 
Writes audio CD-Rs in disc-at-once (DAO) mode allowing control over pre-gaps (length down to 0, nonzero audiodata) and sub-channel information like ISRC codes. Alldata that is written to the disc must be specified witha text file. Audio data may be in WAVE or raw format. 
A command line CD/DVD writing tool cdrecord allows you to create CDs on a CD recorder (SCSI or ATAPI). It supports writing data, audio, mixed, multi-session, and CD+ and DVD discs, on just about every type of CD recorder out there. 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Cross DOMAIN Resource Manager (VTAM, SSCP, IBM) 
Compact Disk - Read Only Memory (CD, ROM), "CD-ROM" 
Compact Disk - ROM / eXtended Architecture (CD, MPC, ROM), "CD-ROM/XA" 
Tcl/Tk front-end for burning cdrom. CDR-Toaster is a Tcl/Tk front-end for cdrecord, cdparanoia and mkisofs. It is very userful for burning data and audio cdrom. 
Compact Disk - ReWritable (CD), "CD-RW" 
Cell Directory Service (DCE) 
Current Directory Structure (BIOS. DOS) 
Common Data Securuty Architecture (HP, cryptography) 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Creative Decision Stimulation Systems (AI, DSS) 
Cell Delay Tolerance (ATN) 
Central Daylight Time [-0500] (TZ, CST, USA) 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
some text-based commands for managing a CD cdtool contains cdplay, cdeject, cdstop, cdpause, and several other utilities that let you control your CD-ROM drive from a command line. Also, it comes with cdir, a utility that uses a workman-style database to keep track of the contents of different CDs. It now includes a commandline utility for controlling a CD-ROM called cdctrl. 
Commodore Dynamic Total Vision (Commodore) 
Cell Delay Variation (UNI, ATM, QOS) 
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (UNI, ATM, CDV) 
Compact Disk - Write Once (CD), "CD-WO" 
Communaute / Comunique Europeenne (Europe) 
Communications-Electronics, "C-E" 
Compact Edition (MS, Windows) 
Connection Endpoint (UNI) 
Cisco Educational ARCHive (Cisco, WWW) 
welt CEntrum Buero Information Telekommunikation (fair), "CeBIT" 
CICS Enhanced Command Interpreter (IBM, CICS) 
??? (CICS, IBM) 
[Microsoft Windows] Compact Edition Driver Repository (MS, Windows, CE) 
Central and Eastern European Countries EDIFACT Board (org., EDIFACT), "CEEC/EB" 
Continuous Edge Graphics (Grafik, IC) 
Connection Endpoint Identifier (UNI) 
A real-time visual space simulation Celestia is a real-time visual simulation of space. Choose a point within the Local Group of galaxies, and Celestia will show you an approximation of how it would appear to your eyes were you actually there. Some of what Celestia shows is necessarily hypothetical--the farther away from Earth you get, the less real data there is and the more guesswork is involved. Thus Celestia supplements observational data with good guesses based on models of stellar and planetary processes. Celestia is unique in its ability to allow you to navigate at an immense range of scales. Orbit a couple kilometers above the surface of a tiny, irregular asteroid, then head off toward Jupiter, watching it grow from a bright point of light into a looming sphere filling your field of vision. Leave our solar system entirely and observe the sun as it fades from a brilliant disk to a bright star, disappearing almost entirely as you head off toward the Upsilon Andromeda system to orbit around its innermost giant planet. 
Card Edge Low Profile [socket] 
Code Excited Linear Prediction 
Contract Equipment Manufacturer 
??? (CICS, IBM) 
Comite Europeen de Normalisation (Europe, Brussels) 
Comite Europeen de Normalisation ELECtrotechnique (org., CEN, Europe) 
A text-mode ICQ client based on ncurses Centericq is a text mode menu- and window-driven IM interface. ICQ, Yahoo! and MSN protocols are now supported. It allows you to send, receive, and forward messages, URLs, SMSes and, contacts, mass message send, search for users (including extended "whitepages search"), view users' details, maintain your contact list directly from the program (including non-icq contacts), view the messages history, register a new UIN and update your details, be informed on receiving email messages, automatically set away after the defined period of inactivity (on any console), and have your own ignore, visible and invisible lists. It can also associate events with sounds, has support for Hebrew and Arabic languages and allows to arrange contacts into groups. 
Council of European National Top level DOMAIN Registries 
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The component of a computer in which data processing takes place.From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
central processing unit (CPU)
The component which controls the computation and operation of a computer system. Units within the CPU perform math and logic operations and translate and execute instructions. 
CMOS-Ein-Platinen-Allzweck-Computer (IC, CMOS, C'T) 
Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (org., Europe) 
Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications administrations (org., CCITT, conference, Europe) 
Cell Error Ratio (ATM) 
California Educational and Research Federation NETwork (network), "CERFNet" 
Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire (org., Europe, Geneva) 
CERN Linux
CERN Linux is based on Red Hat Linux, with modifications to the kernel (to better support their hardware) and with additional software for High Energy Physics (HEP). It is used mostly at CERN and a few of the smaller HEP institutes worldwide, running on farm machines, servers, desktops and embedded PCs. CERN 7.3.2 was released April 9, 2003. Added to list June 17, 2003. 
The CERN HTTP (World-Wide Web) server The CERN HTTP daemon allows you to run an HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) server on your computer. HTTP is the main transport protocol used in the World Wide Web. Unless you wish only to serve files to users of your system, you must be hooked up to a TCP/IP network. This HTTP server is fairly outdated, and no longer maintained upstream. It does serve as a fairly nice local server, though. CERN ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This product includes computer software created and made available by CERN. This acknowledgment shall be mentioned in full in any product which includes the CERN computer software included herein or parts thereof. 
Computer Emergency Response Team (DARPA, CMU, Internet) 
Certificate Authority
An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections. 
KDE based CVS frontend Cervisia is a graphical frontend for the CVS client. It provides access to the following features: * Updating or retrieving the status of a working directory or single files. * Files are displayed in different colors depending on their status, and the shown files can be filtered according to their status. * Common operations like adding, removing and commiting files. * Advanced operations like adding and removing watches, editing and unediting files, locking and unlocking. * Checking out and importing modules. * Graphical diff against the repository and between different revisions. * Blame-annotated view of a file. * View of the log messages in tree and list form. * Resolving of conflicts in a file. * Tagging and branching. * Updating to a tag, branch or date. * A Changelog editor coupled with the commit dialog. 
C-bit Errored Seconds (DS3/E3) 
Character Encoding Scheme (CSS, Unicode) 
Circuit Emulation Service 
Consumer Electronics Show (fair, USA) 
Central Employment Search And Retrieval (WWW) 
Central European Time [+0100] (TZ, MET) 
Centro de Estudes de Telecomunicoes (org., Portugal) 
Carry Flag (assembler) 
Compact Flash [card] 
Center for Architecture (org., JIEO, DISA) 
Code Fiels Address (Forth) 
Cipher FeedBack [mode] (cryptography, DES) 
Call For Discussion (Internet) 
Computational Fluid Dynamics [applications] 
Curses based disk partition table manipulator for Linux 
A small UTF8 capable version of cfdisk This package contains the cfdisk program linked against the UTF8 libraries. Do not install it unless you really need a fdisk programs which needs to handle with UTF8, or unless you need if for a small Linux root filesystem like this on the boot-floppies. 
Center for Engineering (org., JIEO, DISA) 
Console Font Editor cfe is a console font editor which works well both on the console and the terminal. It includes such abilities as various glyph transforming, multi-level undo, and comparing the glyphs of two fonts. cfe automatically supports loading of .psf and raw binary fonts. Other types of fonts can be opened using the proper options. 
Tool for configuring and maintaining network machines The main purpose of cfengine is to allow the system administrator to create a single central file which will define how every host on a network should be configured. cfengine is also useful as an interpreter for a general scripting language for ordinary users. It is handy for tidying up junk files and for maintaining `watchdog' scripts to manage access rights and permissions on files when collaborating with other users. It takes a while to set up cfengine for a network (especially an already existing network), but once that is done you will wonder how you ever lived without it! 
Compact Font Format (Adobe) 
CAD Framework Initiative (org., CAD) 
Copyright does not exist, book about hacker culture. Copyright does not exist: Book about hacker culture, folklore and history by Linus Walleij. This is a translation from the original Swedish text. In HTML format. 
Configurable finger daemon This is a free replacement for standard finger daemons such as GNU fingerd and MIT fingerd. Cfingerd can enable/disable finger service to individual users, rather than to all users on a given host. Cfingerd is able to respond to a finger request to a specified user by running a shell script (e.g., finger doorbell@mysite.mydomain might cause a sound file to be sent) rather than just a plain text file. 
Shared library for I/O with FITS format data files FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) is a data format most used in astronomy. cfitsio is a library of ANSI C routines for reading and writing FITS format data files. A set of Fortran-callable wrapper routines are also included for the convenience of Fortran programmers. This package contains what you need to run programs that use this library. 
C function call hierarchy analyzer The cflow command reads the given program source and attempts to print a graph of the program's function call hierarchy to the standard output. 
print a function call hierarchy 
ConFiguration Management (FDDI, SMT) 
Committee to Fight Microsoft Corporation (org., MS) 
Cold Fusion Markup Language 
Call For Papers 
Center for Standards (org., JIEO, DISA) 
Cryptographic FileSystem (Linux, cryptography) 
Cryptographic Filesystem CFS pushes encryption services into the Unix(tm) file system. It supports secure storage at the system level through a standard Unix file system interface to encrypted files. Users associate a cryptographic key with the directories they wish to protect. Files in these directories (as well as their pathname components) are transparently encrypted and decrypted with the specified key without further user intervention. CFS employs a novel combination of DES stream and codebook cipher modes to provide high security with good performance on a modern workstation. CFS can use any available file system for its underlying storage without modification, including remote file servers such as NFS. 
A full-screen ftp client. Cftp is an ftp client where you just use the arrow keys to move around and get what you want. 
Call For Vote (Internet, Usenet), "CfV" 
tests and creates .sfv, .csv and md5 files cfv is a utility to both test and create .sfv (Simple File Verify) .csv, and md5sum files. These files are commonly used to ensure the correct retrieval or storage of data. 
Colour Graphics Adapter 
Graphics Communications Association (org.) 
Graphics Communications Association Research Institute (org., CGA) 
Computer (???) Game Developers' Conference 
Common Gateway Interface (WWW) 
Computer Generated Imagery 
Computer Graphics Interface 
Computer Graphics International (conference) 
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
An interface between a Web site and a user. It allows forms, surveys and other documents to be filled on-line and the results automatically sent to the web site's UNIX server. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
Used on Web servers to transmit data between scripts and/or applications and then return the data to the Web page or browser. CGI scripts are often created using the Perl language, and can generate dynamic Web content (including e-commerce shopping baskets, discussion groups, survey forms, current news, etc.). 
The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGIprograms are stored. 
CGI Form-to-Mail converter cgiemail is a flexible CGI-based tool that will allow non-programmers to create forms to be emailed. Note that it's no longer actively maintained upstream and has a history of security problems, so you may wish to use another package, such as mailto. 
Simple CGI Library This library provides a simple programming API to the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). It features HTTP Redirect, provides read access to FORM variables, sets HTTP Cookies and reads them. 
allows ordinary users to run their own CGI scripts a gateway that allows more secure user access to CGI programs on an HTTPd server than is provided by the http server itself. The primary function of CGIwrap is to make certain that any CGI script runs with the permissions of the user who installed it, and not those of the server. 
Computer Graphics Metafile (ISO 8632) 
Copy Generation Management System (CD) 
Complete Go board Cgoban (Complete Goban) is a computerized board on which you can play the game of Go against another player, view and edit smart-go files, and connect to Go servers on the Internet. It can also interface with computer Go programs that speak Go modem protocol. You will need some sort of image converter if you wish to use the utility provided to capture "screen shots" of a cgoban game. 
Computer Graphics Reference Model (ISO, IEC, ISO/IEC 11072) 
Computer Graphic Virtual Device Interface, "CG-VDI" 
command-line source browsing tool. cgvg is a pair of Perl scripts ("cg" and "vg") which are meant to assist a programmer in doing command-line source browsing. The idea is you can easily search for keywords in the code, and jump to the file and line where a match is found. Used with ctags(1), this can really help with jumping around and following code. Some features include a human-readable output, coloring, bolding (and alternate bolding), and just sheer convenience for a programmer. cgvg uses the Perl internal find and does it's own searching, rather than being a wrapper for UNIX find(1) and grep(1). There is a ~/.cgvgrc file for per-user configuration, and some nice features like coloring, and multiple log files. 
change user password expiry information 
CHisquard Automatic Interaction Detector / Detection (SPSS) 
ChainSaw Linux
ChainSaw Linux had video production, but as of May 4, 2002, the original Editing Edition is seen as "the ultimate goal for ChainSaw Linux." A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
challenge (challenge-response)
A method to authenticate users that avoids sending passwords over the network. It goes something like this (though the details among various programs are different). the client requests access the server sends back random data the client then encrypts/hashes the data using the password the server checks the result In this manner, the client proves it knows the correct password without ever sending it across the wire. Key point: In most cases the user is prompted for the password, which the client then stores in memory. In the use of smart cards, however, the system may give the user the challenge string, which the user then types into the smart card. The smart card then produces a response, which the user must type back into the system. In this way, the user validates that they have the smart card. Key point: Challenge-response systems are thought to be more secure because the challenge/response is different every time. This guards against replay attacks as well as making cracking more difficult. 
Application for putting pictures or color in the root window Using GTK and Imlib, Chameleon allows the use to place a picture in any format or a color chosen from a color wheel in the root window of X (the background). It also can be run from the command line w/o using the GTK interface. 
An important security practice where changes to the systems are reviewed ahead of time to validate they are appropriate, then recorded in order to "roll back" in case they introduce a fault. A common use for change-control is validating that a firewall's ruleset doesn't degrade. Change-control is also used for maintaining system patches. 
change the /dev/cdrom link 
ChangeLog file
A specially formatted list containing a history of all changes ever done to the package, by whom, and on what date. Used to track work on the package. 
Monitor (and recover from) changes to configuration files A program to monitor changes to a set of files. If files are modified one day, and the machine starts working incorrectly some days later, changetrack can provide information on which files were modified, and help locate the problem. Changetrack will also allow recovery of the files from any stage using RCS. 
Replacement of Gnus with gnus-mime for SEMI. Chaos is the latest branch of normally Semi-gnus. Semi-gnus is a replacement of Gnus with gnus-mime for SEMI. It has all features of Gnus and gnus-mime, so there are no need to install Gnus to use it, and you must not use gnus-mime for SEMI. It requires SEMI package, so please get and install SEMI package before to install it. Chaos is one of Semi-gnus variants. Now, "Semi-gnus" is generic name of Gnus for SEMI. 
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol - used to verify a user's name and password for PPP Internet connections. It is more secure than the other main authentication protocol (PAP).
[PPP] Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (PPP, RFC 1334/1994) 
An object, such as a symbol, that is comprised of one byte of computer storage. 
character device
System component or peripheral (such as an Ethernet card or printer) that is accessed without buffer cache memory. 
Set an ACM for use in one of the G0/G1 charset slots. 
Follow a symlink and print out its target file Chase is a small utility for tracking down the actual file that a symbolic link points to - chasing the symlink, if you will. The result of a successful run is guaranteed to be an existing file which is not a symbolic link. 
a Japanese Morphological Analysis System ChaSen is a morphological analysys system. It can segment and tokenize Japanese text string, and can output with many additional informations (pronunciation, semantic information, and others). It will print the result of such an operation to the standard output, so that it can either written to a file or further processed. 
blacklists for SquidGuard squidGuard is a free (GPL), flexible and ultra fast filter, redirector and access controller plugin for squid. It lets you define multiple access rules with different restrictions for different user groups on a squid cache. squidGuard uses squid's standard redirector interface. This package contains blacklists provided by the Chastity project. Chastity intends to make a maintained ACL-list for squid for use in public schools and other organizations. The projects is divided into a web-based adminstration tool, datastorage and client-tools. 
Online, realtime chatting is one of the more popular features of the Internet. There are many popular systems. Among the hacking community, services like IRC and ICQ are popular. Some popular commercial services include Yahoo messenger, AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), and Microsoft Messenger. Key point: Favorite because it provides real-time anonymous communication. 
change file attributes on a Linux second extended file system 
A tool for changing the desktop background image in X11 A GTK+ based program that lets you periodically change your X desktop. It has several random effects, a slideshow, and and may act as a xscreensaver hack or as a standalone screensaver. 
ChBg is for changing desktop backgrounds in a given period. It can render images with 10 modes (such as tiled, centered, scaled, etc.). It uses Imlib1, Imlib2, or gdk_pixbuf for loading images, so it supports many image formats. This version uses gdk-pixbuf. ChBg has a windowed setup program, is able to load setup files, can be used as slideshow picture previewer in its own window or as adesktop background, and can be used as screensaver or as an xscreensaverhack. It has a dialog for fast previewing of pictures and very usablethumbnail previews. 
CHange Code Page (DOS) 
Computer Hardware Description Language (HDL) 
Kuo Chiao 16x16 font for CHDRV Chinese console terminal This package contains the Kuo Chiao 16x16 Chinese bitmap font and the corresponding 8x16 ASCII font files (kcchin16.f00 and kctext16.f00) for the CHDRV Chinese console terminal for Linux. These fonts were part of the Kuo Chiao Chinese System generously donated to the Taiwan Academic Network (TANet). To the best of my knowledge, these fonts have since been widely distributed all over the world and are now in the public domain. 
A unit test framework for C Check features a simple interface for defining unit tests, putting little in the way of the developer. Tests are run in a separate address space, so Check can catch both assertion failures and code errors that cause segmentation faults or other signals. The output from unit tests can be used within source code editors and IDEs. 
a WWW link verifier Checkbot is a perl5 script which can verify links within a region of the World Wide Web. It checks all pages within an identified region, and all links within that region. After checking all links within the region, it will also check all links which point outside of the region, and then stop. 
identify MP3s that do not follow the MP3 format mp3_check helps to identify in explicit detail MP3s that do not correctly follow the MP3 format. It also looks for invalid frame headers, missing frames, etc., and generates useful statistics. This can be useful when building a high-quality mp3 archive... 
check for changes to setuid programs 
Checks the status of services on (remote) hosts Checkservice is a simple and fast service checking perl script. It is able to show the results in many ways: by keeping logs, showing it on the PHP status page, output that MRTG can use or warning(plugins) if something is wrong. Checkservice features grouping of hosts, very easy configuration and thorough service checking using checkplugins. 
A number computed by adding together all the characters from an entire file in a special mathematical way. It is useful for ensuring a file has been transferred correctly. 
A technique for detecting if data inadvertently changes during transmission. The sender simply divides all the data up into two-character numbers, then adds all the numbers together. The receiver makes the same calculation, and checks the calculated checksum with the transmitted checksum. If they don't match, then the receiver knows the data was corrupted in transit. Key point: Checksums are not secure against intentional changes by hackers. For that, you need a cryptographic hash. 
An acronym for SUMmation CHECK. In data communications, an error-checking technique in which the number of bits in a unit of data is summed, transmitted along with the data, and checked by the receiving computer. If the sum differs, an error probably occurred in transmission and the transmission is repeated. A commonly used personal computer communications protocol called XMODEM uses the checksum technique. In some virus scanning and file integrity software checksums are calculted for every file in a directory and the results are stoed in the directory. When the program is scanningm it compares the checksum information stored in the directory with the current checksum for each scanned file. A difference in the sum may indicate that the file has been infected by a virus that doesn't leave a recognised signature. 
Sound Module Tracking Program (IT - Impulse Tracker Clone) This program is used to create what is called 'Sound Modules', files containing samples of, for instance, piano's and guitars, and a couple of play-patterns with notes, durations and effects. If these patterns are sequenced, a melody will play according to the notes and instruments you set in the pattern. This program is a direct clone of the MSDOS program called Impulse Tracker. It's not hard to learn, and very funny to play around with. This version is only capable of loading .IT type files (the original Impulse Tracker format). To start and find some cool pre-made tunes go to 
GTK-based chemical structures drawing program Chemtool is a GTK+ based 2D chemical structure editor for X11. It supports many bond styles, most forms of text needed for chemical typesetting and splines/arcs/curved arrows. Drawings can be exported to MOL and PDB format, SVG or XFig format for further annotation, as a PiCTeX drawing, as a bitmap or as Postscript files (several of these through XFig's companion program transfig). The package also contains a helper program, cht, to calculate sum formula and (exact) molecular weight from a chemtool drawing file. Cht can either be called directly by Chemtool or on the console. 
Network swiss army knife Cheops is a combination of a variety of network tools to provide system adminstrators and users with a simple interface to managing and accessing their networks. Cheops aims to do for the network what the file manager did for the filesystem. Additionally, cheops has taken on the role of a network management system, in the same category as one might put HP Openview. 
Computers in Higher Education Software Team (org., UK) 
A component of network lag, chew is the percentage of packets that are 'eaten' by the network connection. Ideally no packets should be lost, but the Internet is often anything but ideal. 
change user name and information 
Changes the group ownership of each given file to group, which can be either a group name or a numeric group ID. 
A simple Scheme-to-C compiler Why CHICKEN? - R5RS support. - SRFIs 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 18, 22 and 23 - Syntax-case highlevel macros - Lightweight threads based on first-class continuations - Pattern matching with Andrew Wright's match package - Record structures - A simple and straightforward module system - An object system with multiple inheritance, multimethods and a meta-object protocol - Separated compilation poses no problem and full tail-recursion and first-class continuations are suported. - Extended comment- and string-literal syntaxes - Libraries for regular expressions, string handling, Common LISP style format, UNIX system calls and extended data structures - Create interpreted or compiled shell scripts written in Scheme - Compiled C files can be easily distributed - Generates quite portable C code and compiled files generated by it (including itself) should work without any change on DOS, Windows, most UNIX-like platforms, and with minor changes on other systems. - Linkage to C modules and C library functions is straightforward. Compiled programs can easily be embedded into existing C code. - Simple. It can be used as a pedagogical tool for anybody who is interested in the workings of a compiler. - Extendable, since its code generation scheme, runtime system, and garbage collector fit neatly into a C environment. - Offers better performance than nearly all interpreter based implementations, but still provides full Scheme semantics. - Probably is the first implementation of Scheme that uses Henry Baker's [Cheney on the M.T.A] concept. Usually, you will also need to install the chicken-dev package. The source files are not included since you could easily get them with the Debian source package. If you really feel the needs to get them under /usr/share/chicken/src, then please let me know. There are many Scheme implementations available in Debian, have a look at each of them! Have fun! 
child process
A process created by another process (the parent process). Each process may create many child processes but will have only one parent process, except for the very first process which has no parent. The first process, called init in Linux, is started by the kernel at boot time and never terminates. 
highlight a C source file 
CCITT HIgh Level programming Language (CCITT) 
The GNU CHILL compiler. This is the ITU CHILL compiler. CHILL is the "CCITT High-Level Language", where CCITT is the old name for what is now ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. It is a language in the Modula-2 family, and targets many of the same applications as Ada (especially large embedded systems). CHILL was never used much in the United States, but is still being used in Europe, Brazil, Korea, and other places. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU CHILL compiler for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
Web browser for X Simple, fast, free web browser. This is an alpha-test version; some of the rendering routines are buggy. 
Chinese 2000 Linux
Chinese 2000 Linux comes from Hong Kong. 
Chinese Linux Extension
CLE is still there, mostly in Chinese, last update November 9, 2001. 
a circuit schematic capture tool and simulation environment. A circuit schematic capture tool and simulation environment. Log is a large circuit editing and simulation system. It has facilities for digital simulation (the original LOG), analog simulation (AnaLOG), network generation (LOGNTK), and plotting (LPLOT). Log is the most popular Chipmunk tool. This package contains analog, diglog and loged. For more information, please see the docs contained in log-doc package. Log needs the p-system emulation runtime libraries for Chipmunk tools to work, which are included in psys packages. 
Chkconfig is a basic system utility. It updates and queries runlevelinformation for system services. Chkconfig manipulates the numerous symbolic links in /etc/rc*.d, to relieve system administrators of some of the drudgery of manually editing the symbolic links. 
find duplicate executables 
This is a simple terminal mode program for configuring the directories in the X font server's path. It is mostly intended to be used internally by RPM when packages with fonts are added or removed, butit may be useful as a standalone utility in some instances. 
This is a simple terminal mode program for configuring the directories in the X font server's path. It is mostly intended to be used `internally' by RPM when packages with fonts are added or removed, butit may be useful as a stand-alone utility in some instances. 
check for new mail 
Checks for signs of rootkits on the local system chkrootkit identifies whether the target computer is infected with a rootkit. Some of the rootkits that chkrootkit identifies are: 1. lrk3, lrk4, lrk5, lrk6 (and some variants); 2. Solaris rootkit; 3. FreeBSD rootkit; 4. t0rn (including latest variant); 5. Ambient's Rootkit for Linux (ARK); 6. Ramen Worm; 7. rh[67]-shaper; 8. RSHA; 9. Romanian rootkit; 10. RK17; 11. Lion Worm; 12. Adore Worm. Please note that this is not a definitive test, it does not ensure that the target has not been cracked. In addition to running chkrootkit, one should perform more specific tests. 
Finds typographic errors in LaTeX * Supports over 40 warnings. * Supports ``\input'' command; both TeX and LaTeX version. Actually includes the files. ``TEXINPUTS''-equivalent search path. * Intelligent warning/error handling. The user may promote/mute warnings to suit his preferences. You may also mute warnings in the header of a file; thus killing much unwanted garbage. * Supports both LaTeX 2.09 and LaTeX2e. * Flexible output handling. Has some predefined formats and lets the user specify his own format. Uses a ``printf()'' similar syntax. ``lacheck'' compatible mode included for interfacing with the AUC-TeX Emacs mode. 
check for trigraphs in C source code 
changes the permissions for a file; permissions should include a letter designating who gets permissions (u for the user, g for the group, o for others, or a for all) followed by a + or - (to give or take away the permission) followed by the kind of permission (r for read access, w for write access, x for execute if the file is a program or script). 
The simultaneous pressing of two or more buttons or keys on an input device such as a keyboard or mouse that produces one set action. 
Easy Boot loader with a Boot-Menu Easy to use Boot-Loader for Linux / DOS / other Operating systems. It works like lilo but offers a simple menu on boot. No strange prompt anymore! Background images and more! Includes X interface to configure the boot screen and all parameters 
changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file as specified by the first non-option argument as follows. 
update password file in batch 
A powerful and simple preprocessor CHPP is a powerful preprocessor originally designed for, but not limited to, HTML. CHPP combines features of CPP, M4, Perl and Scheme. Among the features of CHPP are - CHPP is non-intrusive, i.e. you can take already existing text and just pipe it through CHPP and it is likely it won't change. - User-defined macros, which can be recursive - Complex data structures (lists and hashes) - Powerful looping constructs - Regular expression matching - Support for CGI scripting - An interface to SQL-Servers (at the moment mSQL and MySQL). 
Slick scrolling space shooter Chromium is a top down fast paced high action scrolling space shooter using sdl libs. 
You are captain of the cargo ship Chromium B.S.U., responsible for delivering supplies to our troops on the front line. Your ship has a small fleet of robotic fighters which you control from the relative safety of the Chromium vessel.- Do not let ANY enemy ships get past your fighters! Each enemyship that makes it past the bottom of the screen will attackthe Chromium, and you lose a fighter.- Use your fighters as weapons! Crash into enemies to destroy thembefore they can get past you.- Strategic suicide is a powerful tactic! When the Chromium launches a new fighter, it releases a high energy burst which destroys all enemies in range.- Self-destruct to preserve your ammunition! A double-right-click will cause your current fighter to self-destruct. Before theship blows up, it ejects its ammunition so that the next fighter can pick it up. 
It sets your computer's clock from time servers on the Net. It consists of a pair of programs : `chronyd'. This is a daemon which runs in background on the system. It obtains measurements (e.g. via the network) of the system's offset relative to other systems, and adjusts the system time accordingly. For isolated systems, the user can periodically enter the correct time by hand (using `chronyc'). In either case, `chronyd' determines the rate at which the computer gains or loses time, and compensates for this. `chronyc'. This is a command-line driven control and monitoring program. An administrator can use this to fine-tune various parameters within the daemon, add or delete servers etc whilst the daemon is running. 
Makes the root directory (/) become something other than its default for the lifetime of the current process. It can only be run by privileged users and is used to give a process (commonly a network server such as FTP or HTTP) access to a restricted portion of the file system. 
chroot (jail)
A UNIX feature that creates a limited sandbox allowing a process to view only a single subtree of the filesystem. The jail call in BSD is a more advanced version for creating the same sort of sandbox. Point: In order for it to work properly, some common programs and libraries (e.g. /bin/sh, /usr/lib/, ...) need to be copied/linked to the appropriate locations in the new directory tree. Key point: A process running with root access can break out of a chrooted environment. Therefore, it should be used in conjunction with setuid. 
Common Hardware Reference Platform (AIM) 
Tool to edit the rpath in ELF binaries rpath allows you to change the rpath (where the application looks for libraries) in an application. It does not (yet) allow you to add an rpath if there isn't one already. 
Cylinder Head Sectors 
stands for Cylinder/Head/Sector. 
CHS (Cylinder/Head/Sector)
Disk information required by FDISK during partitioning. 
change login shell 
C Hardware Specific Module (NEST, MLID, Novell) 
Card Holder Value [aka PIN] (ICC, PIN) 
change foreground virtual terminal 
Check In (RCS) 
check in RCS revisions 
Coded Information 
Component Interface (DMI) 
Configuration Item (CM) 
Congestion Indicator 
Computer Incident Advisory Capability (org., LLNL, Internet) 
Computer Integrated Business 
Carrier Identification Code 
Coordination and Information Center (CSNET) 
Center of Innovative Computer Applications (org.) 
Customer Information Control System (IBM, CICS) 
Customer Information Control System/Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM, CICS), "CICS/ESA" 
Customer Information Control System / Transaction Server (IBM, VSE/ESA), "CICS/TS" 
Customer Information Control System / Virtual Storage (IBM, CICS), "CICS/VS" 
Configuration - Installation - Distribution (IBM) 
Common Intrusion Detection Framework (CIDF, IDS) 
Classless Internet DOMAIN Routing [protocol] (RFC 1519) 
Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (org.) 
Common Internet File System (TCP/IP) 
Common Internet File System: a protocol that defines a standard for remote file access using millions of computers at a time. 
Chess In Lisp. A library for cmucl. This library is mainly intended as an example file. Not much useful stuff can be done yet. 
Computer Integration Laboratories (org., Apple, IBM, Novell, Sun, ...) 
Component Integration LABoratorieS (org.,, OpenDoc, Apple, IBM, Adobe, ...), CILabs 
Cisco Interactive Mentor (Cisco) 
Common Information Model (DMTF, XML, DMI) 
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 
GNU Simula compiler GNU Cim is a compiler for the programming language Simula (except unspecified parameters to formal or virtual procedures (see the documentation for how portable code for formal procedures can be written)). It offers a class concept, separate compilation with full type checking, interface to external C routines, an application package for process simulation and a coroutine concept. The portability of the GNU Simula Compiler is based on the C programming language. The compiler and the run-time system is written in C, and the compiler produces C code, that is passed to a C compiler for further processing towards machine code. 
CIM Object Model (CIM) 
CIncinnati Milacron Operating System (OS), "CiMOS" 
Cisco Information Online (Cisco, WWW) 
Carrier Identification Parameter 
Classical IP over ATM (IP, ATM, IETF) 
Computer Integrated Processing 
Children's Internet Protection Act (Internet, USA, COPA) 
cipher (decipher)
In cryptography, the word cipher means an encryption algorithm. A cipher transforms the original data/message into pseudo-random data/message of the same length. In order to decipher the message, a reverse transformation must be applied. Key point: A block cipher is one that encrypts a block of data at a time. For example, DES uses a block size of 64-bits. Each input block must correspond to exactly one output block (like a codebook). A block-cipher suffers from the fact the same data repeated in a message would be encoded in the same way. Consider a block size of 8-bit encrypting English text; you could therefore figure out all the letter 'e's in the cipher text because they are the most common letter used. Therefore, block-ciphers are often used in a chaining mode such that the same pattern will indeed be decrypted differently. Key point: A stream cipher is essentially a chained block cipher with a block size of 1 (either 1-bit or 1-byte). It generates a keystream against which it XORs the plaintext, operating much like a one-time pad, though less secure in theory but more secure in practice. Example: Some popular ciphers are: DES The original widely-used computer-based encryption cipher that spawned the industry, but easily crackable today. triple DES A more secure form of DES whereby data is simply encrypted three different times. RC4 One of the most widely used ciphers today because of its prevalent use within web browsers and SSL. RC2 A cipher similar to RC4. IDEA Gained popularity because it was used as the default cipher for PGP. Blowfish Popular cipher because of its open source and non-patented status. CAST-128 Alternate cipher in PGP. Skipjack Controversal cipher designed for the Clipper chip, a government program to encourage key recovery for law enforcement. GOST 28147 Russian standard with 256-bit key. AES The new American standard for replacing DES. 
In cryptography, ciphertext describes the data after it has been encrypted. Contrast: clear-text, plaintext. 
Committed Information Rate (ATM) 
Cross Interleaved Reed-solomon Code (CD) 
Centre for International Research on Communication and Information Technology (org., Australia) 
Circle MUDLinux
MUDLinux is minidistribution of Linux containing a running Circle MUDServer. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
creation and display of circle packings CirclePack is a C program for the creation, display, manipulation, and storage of circle packings using the X Window System. Computations may be done in either hyperbolic, Euclidean, or spherical geometry, though the routines for the latter are not yet complete. For the theory behind the package, one must consult the research literature. One of the author's primary interests concerns the parallels between the developing theory of circle packings and the classical theory of analytic functions. Home page: 
The clowns are trying to pop balloons to score points! "Circus Linux!" is based on the Atari 2600 game "Circus Atari" by Atari, released in 1980. Gameplay is similar to "Breakout" and "Arkanoid" - you slide a device left and right to bounce objects into the air which destroy a wall. 
Card Information Structure / Space (PCMCIA) 
Command Information System (mil., USA) 
Compuserve Information Systems (network) 
Contact Image Sensor 
Complex Instruction Set Computer (CPU) 
Computer and Information Science Directorate (org., NSF) 
[3D] Campus-InformationsSystem KArlsruhe (Uni Karlsruhe, Germany, VRML) 
Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques (org.) 
Center for Information Systems Security (org., JIEO, DISA, mil., USA) 
Computer Integrated Telephony 
Computer Intergrated Tooling 
Copyright In Transmitted Electronic Documents (ESPRIT) 
??? [switch] (IBM) 
Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller (Apple) 
Commercial Internet eXchange (ISP) 
A LaTeX macro package for CJK (Chinese/Japanese/Korean) CJK is a macro package for LaTeX to enable typesetting Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. It supports (even simultaneously) various CJK encodings, e.g. Big5, GB, JIS, KS, CNS. Please also install: * freetype1-tools to use TrueType fonts with CJK (ttf2pk and ttf2tfm). * tfm-arphic-* for DFSG-free Chinese TrueType fonts donated by Arphic. tfm-arphic-bsmi00lp and tfm-arphic-bkai00mp for Big5 Ming and Kai fonts; tfm-arphic-gbsn00lp and tfm-arphic-gkai00mp for GB Sung and Kai fonts. Main Author: Werner Lemberg <> 
sfv checker and generator SFV, Simple File Verification, uses crc32 checksums to verify that files are intact. cksfv automates the task of generating and checking .sfv sheets. For integrity, md5 checksums are probably a better alternative, but sfv is a widely used method for verification on the USENET binary newsgroups and other places. 
checksum and count the bytes in a file 
Column Address Strobe Latency (CAS) 
ConnectionLess (CO) 
Control Language (IBM, OS/400) 
Bomberman like game Blow up your friends and avoid being blown up yourself. Features include: * Nice graphics and sound * Powerups * Up to 8 players * Computer controlled players 
Core runtime libraries for the ClanLib game SDK ClanLib delivers a platform independent interface to write games with. If a game is written with ClanLib, it should be possible to compile the game under any platform (supported by ClanLib, that is) without changing the application source code. But ClanLib is not just a wrapper library, providing an common interface to low-level libraries such as DirectFB, DirectX, OpenGL, X11, etc. While platform independence is ClanLib's primary goal, it also tries to be a service-minded game sdk. In other words, we have put great effort in to designing the API, to ensure ClanLib's easy of use - while maintaining it's power. This package provides the core clanlib libraries (layer1, layer2, etc). 
Free OCR program for Unix Systems Clara OCR is a free (GPL) OCR for systems that support the C library and the X window system (e.g. most flavours of Unix). Clara OCR is intended for large scale digitalization projects. It features a powerful GUI and a web interface for cooperative digitalization of books. 
ClarkConnect is a Red Hat based distribution which can can transform standard PC hardware into a dedicated broadband gateway and easy-to-use server. The software is a great solution for small businesses, home offices, and networked homes. ClarkConnect version 1.1 was released July 31, 2002. 
Centralized Local Area Selective Signaling 
Custom Local Area Signaling Service 
Classic C
/klas'ik C/ n. [a play on `Coke Classic'] The C programming language as defined in the first edition of K&R, with some small additions. It is also known as `K&R C'. The name came into use while C was being standardized by the ANSI X3J11 committee. Also `C Classic'. An analogous construction is sometimes applied elsewhere: thus, `X Classic', where X = Star Trek (referring to the original TV series) or X = PC (referring to IBM's ISA-bus machines as opposed to the PS/2 series). This construction is especially used of product series in which the newer versions are considered serious losers relative to the older ones. 
Compiler for the INTERCAL language This package provides a Perl-based compiler for the INTERCAL programming language, usable either from the command line or as a Perl module. CLC-INTERCAL is designed to be almost compatible with the original (Princeton 1972) compiler. It also implements several extensions to the original language, including support for object orientation, operator overloading and quantum computing. The non-binary base extensions supported by the C-INTERCAL compiler are not yet implemented. 
Connected Limited Device Configuration (KVM, CDC) 
Certified Lotus Engineer (Lotus) 
Wrap any command-line driven tool with readline This handy tool lets you use history and line-editing in any text oriented tool. This is especially usefully with third-party commercial tools that cannot be modified to use readline themselves. It's not perfect but it works pretty well. 
remove dangling symbolic links and empty directories 
clean up the mess that bogus install-info may have done 
clear the terminal screen 
In cryptography, the term clear-text describes messages that have not been encrypted. The word has the connotation of data that should be encrypted, but isn't (such as clear-text passwords). Misunderstanding: The word text comes from traditional cryptography that meant the text of messages, though these days text can refer to binary computer data as well. 
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier 
Call Level Interface (SAQ, X/Open, Informix, ...) 
CLear Interrupt (assembler) 
Command Line Interpreter / Interface (OS) 
Common Language Infrastructure (MS) 
CLI (Command Line Interface)
A full-screen or windowed text-mode session where the user executes programs by typing in commands with or without parameters. The CLI displays output text from the operating system or program and provides a command prompt for user input. 
CLI (command line interface)
A means of communication between a program and its user, based solely on textual input and output. Commands are input with the help of a keyboard or similar device and are interpreted and executed by the program. Results are output as text or graphics to the terminal. 
Chemnitzer LInux Cluster (Linux, Chemnitz), "CLiC" 
Computer Liability Insurance Coverage 
MandrakeSoft, Bull and INPG/INRIA, a Grenoble Research Group created CLIC, a Linux Clustering Distribution. The first CLIC version, released October 30, 2002, features rapid deployment, auto-configuration, MPICH, LAM and PVM support, a large number of mathematical libraries, and Netjuggler (a parallelized virtual reality 3D engine). A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Calling Line IDentification 
A machine that requests resources from other machines (servers). A client application, e.g. the popular email client elm, is a program that makes requests on other applications for information. 
A machine that requests services (e-mail, for example) from a server. 
A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. EachClient program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client. 
In a computer network, a user or process on a node that requests information or service from another node (usually a server). 
A common form of distributed system in which software is split between server tasks and client tasks. A client sends requests to a server, according to some protocol, asking for information or action, and the server responds. 
C language interpreter Clif, a C-like Interpreter Framework, is and open-ended system for fast development of programs with C syntax. The program is compiled and if syntactically correct, code is immediately generated. The code is generated for a virtual machine. The virtual machine is a part of the framework. 
Command Line Interpreter Generator Based on a simple specification file clig generates C-code for a function Cmdline *parseCmdline(int argc, char **argv) which parses the command-line of a typical C-program and returns the result in a structure of type Cmdline. Besides parseCmdline(), the function void usage(void) is generated and will be called by the command-line parser if the command line contains obvious errors. One of the main reasons to use clig is the automatic generation of a usage()-function which is always up-to- date with respect to the options actually understood by the program. Additionally, clig creates a manual page. For more information, see 
Common LISP Interface Manager (CLOS, LISP) 
"C" Language Integrated Production System CLIPS 6.0 is an OPS-like forward chaining production system written in ANSI C by NASA. The CLIPS inference engine includes truth maintenance, dynamic rule addition, and customizable conflict resolution strategies. CLIPS, including the runtime version, is easily embeddable in other applications. CLIPS includes an object-oriented language called COOL (CLIPS Object-Oriented Language) which is directly integrated with the inference engine. 
GNU CLISP, a Common Lisp implementation Common Lisp is a high-level, general-purpose programming language. GNU CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible of Karlsruhe University and Michael Stoll of Munich University, both in Germany. It mostly supports the Lisp described in the ANSI Common Lisp standard. It runs on microcomputers (OS/2, Windows NT/2000, Windows 95/98, Amiga 500-4000, Acorn RISC PC) as well as on Unix workstations (Linux, SVR4, Sun4, DEC Alpha OSF, HP-UX, BeOS, NeXTstep, SGI, AIX, Sun3 and others) and needs only 2 MB of RAM. The user interface comes in German, English, French, Spanish and Dutch. GNU CLISP includes an interpreter, a compiler, a large subset of CLOS, a foreign language interface and a socket interface. An X11 interface is available through CLX and Garnet. 
Configurable Long Instruction Word (IC, CPU) 
ConnectionLess Layer (UNI, NNI, ATM) 
Connectionless Network Access Protocol (UNI, NNI, ATM) 
ConnectionLess Network Protocol (OSI, ISO 8473) 
ConnectionLess Network Service 
vt. To overwrite, usually unintentionally: "I walked off the end of the array and clobbered the stack." Compare mung, scribble, trash, and smash the stack. 
Common LISP Object System (LISP) 
Cell Loss Priority (UNI, ATM, CLR) 
Cell Loss Ratio (UNI, ATM, QOS) 
Card Loading Signal 
ConnectionLess Service Function 
CLasS IDentifier (COM) 
ConnectionLess Transport Protocol (OSI) 
Command Line Utility: a program that can be executed from the command prompt. Examples of command line utilities in Linux are ls, dd, tar and gzip. 
CLU (Command Line Utility)
A program that is run from a command line session, or shell, such as Tar or Mkdir. 
Lisp package for clue/clio/pictures: X interfaces for lisp Clue is to lisp what xlib is to C. It's basic, but close to the metal. Clio is to Lisp what Xt is to C. It uses CLOS to give an OO interface to X. Pictures is an imaging-system for clue. It lets people use constraints and such to draw pictures. 
Chemnitzer Linux User Group (Chemnitz, user group, Linux) 
From Pachyderm Software, ClumpOS is a CD-based Linux/MOSIX mini-distribution designed to allow you to quickly, or temporarily, add nodes to a MOSIX cluster. By default ClumpOS will attempt to configure the system for correct MOSIX operation, but an 'Expert' mode allows users to manually configure network and MOSIX settings. Version R5.0 was released February 12, 2002, with Linux kernel 2.4.17 and MOSIX 1.5.7 for 2.4.17. Version R7.0 was released September 18, 2002. Support for ClumpOS was discontinued as of January 31, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
1. A physical group of blocks on a computer disk, treated as a single logical unit. 2. A collection of linked computer systems used for high-performance data processing load- balancing. 
A network of workstations (PCs or other) running Linux. (Also, see Beowulf.) 
On a floppy or hard disk, the basic unit of data storage. A cluster includes two or more sectors. 
Range from a conventional network of workstations (NOW) to essentially custom parallel machines that just happen to use Linux PCs as processor nodes. 
ClusterKnoppix is a basically a modified Knoppix with the openMosix kernel. Bittorrent: clusterKNOPPIX_V3.2-2003-05-20-EN-cl1.iso was released May 28, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Color LookUp Table (VGA) 
Constant Linear Velocity (CD, MOD) 
Class Library for cross platform (Delphi, Windows, Linux) 
Compatibility Mode (PARISC, NM) 
Configuration Management 
Configuration Manager (BIOS, PNP) 
Connection Management (RR, MM, GSM, mobile-systems) 
Communication Manager /2 (IBM), "CM/2" 
Connection Machine 5 (TMC) 
A cross-platform, open-source make system. CMake is used to control the software compilation process using simple platform and compiler independent configuration files. CMake generates native makefiles and workspaces that can be used in the compiler environment of your choice. CMake is quite sophisticated: it is possible to support complex environments requiring system configuration, pre-processor generation, code generation, and template instantiation. CMake was developed by Kitware as part of the NLM Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit project. The ASCI VIEWS project also provided support in the context of their parallel computation environment. Other sponsors include the Insight, VTK, and VXL open source software communities. 
Cambridge Multiple Access System (OS) 
Console Matrix simulates the display from "The Matrix" It is based on the screensaver from the movie's website. It works with terminal settings up to 132x300 and can scroll lines all at the same rate 
Common Messaging Calls [interface] (XAPIA) 
Complement Carry Flag (assembler) 
Computer Mediated Communications [studies centre] (org., USA) 
Cambridge Model Distributed System (OS) 
Component Management Entity 
Community of Massive Gaming Agents Internet, Germany, Telekom 
Cyan Magenta Gelb Schwarz (color system, DTP) 
Coded Mark Inversion 
Connection Manager Interface (IBM, SNA) 
China Medical Informatics Association (org., China) 
Common Management Information Protocol (OSI, ISO, DP 9506, X.700) 
Common Management Information Service (OSI) 
Common Management Information Service Element (CMIS) 
A program specializer for C A program specializer or, as it is also called, a "partial evaluator" takes the source code for a program or a routine and (commonly) some of its input, and tries to produce faster but equivalent code, utilizing the fact that some of the variables will have known values so that some of the program's actions can be precomputed. This allows one to combine the maintainability of a generic parameterized source code with the speed of programs optimized for specific problem instances. C-Mix is a program specializer that works on portable C code. You will need a C compiler for compiling intermediate programs. For advanced use you may also want a WWW browser for browsing the analysis results. 
Color Management Method (DTP, ICM) 
Cache/Memory Management Unit 
Chi Mei Optoelectronic (manufacturer) 
Complementary-symmetry Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
When the system is powered off, some persistent BIOS settings are stored in a small bit of battery sustained RAM built using CMOS technology. The name "CMOS settings" have become synonymous with "BIOS settings". Some viruses have been known to corrupt these settings, resulting in a condition where the machine can no longer boot. Simply setting a jumper to disconnect the battery backup will restore the settings back to factory defaults. 
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)
An energy-saving chip made to duplicate the functions of other chips, such as momry chips or microprocessors. CMOS chips are used in battery-powered portable computers and in other applications where reduced electrical consumption is desired. CMOS also refers to a special CMOS chip that operates the real time clock included on a motherboard and stores the basic system configuration, including floppy and hard disk types, amount of installed momery, and wat state settings. These settings are retained while the computer is off with only nominal battery support. 
compare two files or byte ranges 
Cooperative Marketing Partner (DEC) 
Cell Misinsertion Rate (ATM) 
Chip Multiprocessor System 
Code Management System (DEC, CM) 
Color Management System 
Content Management Software / System 
Cryptographic Message Syntax (cryptography, RFC 2630) 
[Cambridge] / Conversational Monitor System (IBM, OS, VM, VME, VM/ESA, Z/VM) 
CMSD (Calender Manager Server Daemon)
rpc.cmsd Provides an online calender were different people can view each other's schedules. The very existence of this application scares some security profesionals because it reveals too much information about individuals In 1998, a buffer-overflow in CMSD was one of the most popular exploits on the Internet. dtspcd DeskTop SubProces Control Daemon A service whereby a CDE process can easily launch another process on another computer. In November 2001, a remote exploit was discovered that affects all major UNIX vendors. 
Computer Music Toolkit (cmt) a collection of LADSPA plugins cmt -- Computer Music Toolkit -- is a collection of LADSPA compatible plugins that any conforming program may take advantage of. Plugins available are: low/high pass filters, echo/feedback delay filters with configurable delays from 0.01 to 60 seconds, amplifies, white noise generators, compresspors, expanders, limiters, b/fmh encoders, drum synthesizers and many more These plugins are only usable in host applications, of which glame, sweep and others can be found in Debian. For further information on cmt see <URL:> 
Connection ManagemenT (FDDI) 
Carnegie-Mellon-University (org.) 
The CMUCL lisp compiler and development system. This is the basis package for CMUCL. It contains the base image with the compiler, PCL (CLOS), and the tty based debugger. It also contains cmuclconfig to configure in additional libraries. NOTE: you also need to select one of the cores that this package suggests! 
Cyan Magenta Yellow (color system, DTP) 
Cyan Magenta Yellow blacK (color system, DTP) 
Communications Network 
Connection Management (mobile-systems) 
Coordination Message (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
Copy Network 
Corporate Network 
Certified Novell Administrator (Novell, Netware) 
Communication Network Architecture (SEL) 
Communications Network Application 
Center for Neural Basis of Cognition (org., CMU, AI) 
Communications Network Control 
Computerized Numerical Control 
Caldera Network Desktop (Linux) 
Caller Number Delivery (MODEM) 
Certified Netware Engineer (Novell, Netware) 
Certified Netware Engineers Professional Association (org., Netware) 
Centre Nationale d'Etudes des Telecommunications (org., France) 
Simple News Server for Usenet news. C News is a light weight news server suitable for small feeds. C News is very useful for keeping some Usenet groups on a local system and minimizing the time you need to stay connected to the internet. The nntp package is needed for NNTP support. You need the non-free ncompress package only if you want to exchange news batches with sites where uncompress isn't gunzip. 
Certified Netware Instructor (Novell, Netware) 
Common Network Interface 
Coalition for Networked Information DIRectories (Internet) 
Communications Network Management 
Customer Network Management 
Communications Network for Manufacturing Applications 
Cylink Network Management System 
China interNet Network Information Center (org., Internet, China) 
Corporate Network Products (TPS) 
Communications and Network Riser 
Compressed News ReCeive Via UUCP 
Certified Novell Salesperson (Novell, Netware) 
Complimentary Network Service 
Compuserve Network Services (CIS) 
Check Out (RCS) 
check out RCS revisions 
Connection Oriented (CL) 
Most often used to refer to having a server that belongs to one person or group physically located on an Internet-connected network that belongs to another person or group. Usually this is done because the server owner wants their machine to be on a high-speed Internet connection and/or they do not want the security risks of having the server on thier own network. 
Co-operative multitasking
In an operating system, a means of running more than one program at a time. In cooperative multitasking, one application program cannot force another to do something. An application yields to another voluntarily, but only after checking the electronic equivalent of a message box to see if any other applications have made a request. If the applicatio nis involved in a lengthy operation, howeber, it may not check the message box until the opeation is completed. See pre-emptive multitasking. 
Caldera Open Administration System (Linux) 
Cache On A STick (Intel) 
Computer Operations, Audit and Security Technology (org.) 
make a C source file unreadable but compilable 
/koh'bol/ n. [COmmon Business-Oriented Language] (Synonymous with evil.) A weak, verbose, and flabby language used by card wallopers to do boring mindless things on dinosaur mainframes. Hackers believe that all COBOL programmers are suits or code grinders, and no self-respecting hacker will ever admit to having learned the language. Its very name is seldom uttered without ritual expressions of disgust or horror. One popular one is Edsger W. Dijkstra's famous observation that "The use of COBOL cripples the mind; its teaching should, therefore, be regarded as a criminal offense." (from "Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective") See also fear and loathing, software rot. 
COmmon Business Orientated Language 
??? (org., Netherlands) 
COmmunication technology: Basic Research and Applications 
COntent-Based image retrieval on the WEB (WWW, ESPRIT) 
Cost Of Cracking Adjustment (cryptography) 
A XML/XSL publishing framework servlet Cocoon is a 100% pure Java XML/XSL publishing framework servlet that allows complete separation of content, logic and style. It currently works with tomcat but with some manual changes it should work with jserv too. More information can be found at 
Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone 
Connection Oriented Data 
Conference On DAta Systems Languages (conference) 
Central Office Data Connecting Facility 
Client/server Open Development Environment (Powersoft) 
COlor Depth Enhancement (ATI) 
This word has a number of uses. It may describe the "code" used to program computers. It may describe the "codes" used in encryption. It may be a number, such as an area-code or ICMP code. source code Describes the code that a programmer writes. It is compiled into binary object-code . See open-source. object code The output from compiling source-code. area code ICMP code. 
Syntax highlighter. Code2html is a perl script which converts a program source code to syntax highlighted HTML, or any other target for which rules are defined. It may be used as a simple console program, converting a single source code file to a single output file, it can patch HTML files including special command sequences to insert syntax highlighted snippets of code, or it can be used as a CGI script. 
In ancient times, a codebook was a book where you looked up a word, and replaced with another word according to the substitution table in the book. For example, you may look up the words "attack at dawn" in the book and come up with the words mouse dog cat that you send to your troops. The troops receiving the message would likewise look up these words in their codebooks in order to figure out the original message. Key point: In block-ciphers, the key represents a codebook. In other words, you could use the key to generate a huge book of matching pairs whereby each plaintext block would match to exactly one ciphertext block. Then, you could encrypt messages by looking them up in this table. See also: ECB 
A Master Mind clone using GTK Code Breaker is a variation on the game "MasterMind" (R) that is put out by Pressman (R). So if you know how to play "MasterMind" (R) you should catch onto this game right away. 
COder - DECoder 
In multimedia, a program that comresses audio, video, or graphics files for efficient storag or transmission, and decompresses them for playback purposes. Codec is an abbreviatoin for compressional decompression. 
Codec (COder/DECoder)
Device used to convert analog signals to digital signals for transmission and reconvert signals upon reception at the remote site while allowing for the signal to be compressed for less expensive transmission. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Central Office Equipment 
COE Engineering System (COE) 
??? (Digital audio) 
Common Object File Format (Unix) 
Connection Orientated Internet Packet eXchange (Novell, Netware, IPX), "CO-IPX" 
Caldera Open Linux (Caldera, Linux) 
filter reverse line feeds from input 
A shorthand way of referring to the Internet newsgroup comp.os.linux.announce, where Linux-related materials are announced. 
filter nroff output for CRT previewing 
Computer Output on LaserDisk 
A tool for syncing PalmOS PDAs with Unix workstations Coldsync is a tool for syncing PalmOS PDAs with a Unix workstation with a focus on consistancy of data. It also has an API which allows conduits to be written in Perl, among other languages. 
COprozessor fuer LISP auf der Basis von RISC (RISC)
generate DocBook index files 
College Linux
CollegeLinux is made available by Robert Kennedy College, Del.Aimont, Suisse to both RKC and non RKC students. CollegeLinux is a new, stand-alone operating system based on Slackware. The aim of this experimental Linux distribution is to provide to students with an operating system which is easy to install and use and which provides an alternative to the traditional commercial operating systems. Entry added March 4, 2003. College Linux 2.3 (Darth Vader) was released May 9, 2003. 
Colorizer for GCC warning/error messages A Perl wrapper to colorize the output of compilers with warning / error messages matching the gcc output format. More information can be found at the colorgcc web site 
A robust log colorizer in Perl. This is a short (no, it's not short anymore :) perl script to colorize your logs. You can even use syslog-ng to redirect all logs to the script and colorize them on the fly! 
a simple wrapper around make to colorize output This package contains which parses the output of make to colorize it to make it easier read. In addition, there are two wrapper scripts included, cmake and clmake, which can be invoked instead of make with colorized output on-the-fly. 
Convers client with curses color support Colrconv is a modified version of VA3DP's ttylink client. In addition to the basic split screen session it gives you color and sound support plus some line editing capabilities, a scroll buffer and a status line. Also the default port is changed to 3600 (convers). 
remove columns from a file 
columnate lists 
Component Object Model (OLE, OLE2, OCX, ActiveX, MS) 
Computer Output on Microfilm 
Continuation of Message 
COM port
Communication or serial port on PCs of the Intel variety usually used for a data communication interface. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Cache Only Memory Architecture (SMP) 
COMmon Algorithmic Language 
COMputer Dealer's EXposition (fair) 
Comedi kernel module source Comedi (Control and Measurement Device Interface) is a collection of device drivers for data acquisition devices. This includes most devices that have analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, digital-to-analog (D/A) converters, raw digital I/O, digital counters, and timers. Well-known manufacturers include National Instruments, Data Translation, and Measurement Computing. A list of supported devices can be found in /usr/share/doc/comedi-source/. These drivers are not included in the Linux kernel source, so if you want to use these devices with Debian, you should install this package and compile the modules. The packages libcomedi0 and libcomedi-dev contain documentation about Comedi and Comedilib. This package provides the source code for Comedi. The kernel source is required to compile these modules. 
compare two sorted files line by line 
Comma-delimited file
A data file, usually in ASCII format, in which a user or program serates the data items by commas to facilitate the transfer of data to another program. 
A user-initiated signal given to a progam that initiates, terminates, or otherwise controls the execution of a specific operation. In command-driven programs, you type the command statement and its associated syntax and press Enter, In a menu=driven program, you choose a command from an on-screen menu. 
An instruction to execute a process given to a computer via a keyboard, mouse, or voice request. Commands can also be called from another running process or an executable script. 
In a Linux-based network, a Linux system that uses the file systems provided by another Linux system. In the X window system, it is an application program which depends on the display serve. 
command line
A space provided directly on the screen where users type specific commands. In Linux, you open a shell prompt and type commands at the command line, which generally displays a $ prompt at the end. 
command line option
A selected configuration or setting passed to a command by a user or process that executes the command with a certain feature or pointer that is not available by default. 
Command Prompt
The DOS/Windows and OS/2 term for the part of the command line interface where the user types commands. (Also, see Shell Prompt.) From I-gloss This term can also be used in a Linux/UNIX context to describe the '#' or '$' symbol which signifies that the system is ready to accept some input. From Binh
command-line (command-prompt, DOS prompt, shell, CLI, command-line interface)
One of the two fundamental user interfaces. Whereas most people are familiar with "graphical user interfaces (GUIs)" using windows and mice, the command-line provides a raw interface into the inner workings of the computer. Key point: The average hacker does all his/her work from the command-line. Virtually all hacker tools are command-line oriented. 
You tell the computer what to do with single words typed into the computer one at a time. Modern computers appear to have done away with the typing of commands by having beautiful graphical displays that work with a mouse, but, fundamentally, all that is happening is that commands are being secretly typed in for you. Using commands is still the only way to have complete power over the computer. You don't really know anything about a computer until you come to grips with the commands it uses. Using a computer will very much involve typing in a word, pressing , and then waiting for the computer screen to spit something back at you. Most commands are typed in to do something useful to a file. 
If set, bash attempts to save all lines of a multiple-line command in the same history entry. This allows easy re-editing of multi-line commands. 
Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS)
A freely-distributable collection of tools and drivers that allow UNIX and UNIX-compatible operating systems to control printer devices, manage print queues, and process print requests. 
compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
An optical disc that contains computer data. Storage capacity is typically 650-700 megabytes. CD-ROMs can usually be read by different kinds of computers, depending on the data stored on the disc. 
compact disc recordable (or rewritable) (CD-R(W))
A writable optical disc that contains computer data. CD-Rs can only be written to once, while CD-RWs can be written, erased, and rewritten. 
COMputergestuetztes PARtner-TeilebestandsSystem (MBAG) 
Compress/decompress images for mailheaders, user tools Converts 48x48 .xbm format (X bitmap) files to a compressed format that can be placed in your X-Face: mail header. Some mailreaders, like exmh will then display this image when the user is reading your mail. 
To turn a program from source code into an executable machine code file. 
To turn programming source code into an executable program. 
Compiled Language
A language that requires a compiler program to turn programming source code into an executable machine-language binary program. After compiling once, the program can continue to be run from its binary form without compiling again. Compiled languages/programs tend to be faster than interpreted or p-code languages, but require compilers (which can be expensive), and are often more difficult to program in than interpreted and p-code languages. Examples of compiled languages are C and C++, COBOL, and FORTRAN. 
A computer program that translates high-level programs, called source files, into low-level programs, called object files. 
A program that reads the statements written in a human-readable programming language, such as Pacal or Modula-2, and translates the statements into a machine-readable executable program. Compiled programs run significantly faster than interpreted ones because the program interacts directly with the microprocessor and doesn't need to share memory space with the interpreter. 
In programming, a compiler takes human readable source code and converts it into the binary code that the computer can understand. Key point: A compiler is a form of lossy compression and one-way encryption. All the information meaningful to humans is removed from the code leaving only the information necessary for the computer. This means that humans can no longer easily read the resulting program directly. Because of the "one-way" nature of the operation, programs cannot be used to recover the existing source code. This effect is different in various languages. C++ is the worst language in terms of decompilation; Java is the best. Most Java applets can be decompiled back to some semblance of their previous form. This has led to a market for programs that further obfuscate Java binaries in an effort to hide the original source code. Some compilers do leave human-readable symbols behind for debugging purposes. They won't reveal the original source, but can still be useful for reverse engineering They can be "stripped" from the binary. 
a caching wrapper around compilers to speed up compilations Compilercache is a wrapper around your C and C++ compilers. Each time you compile something, the wrapper puts the result of the compilation into a cache. And once you compile the same thing again, the result will be picked from the cache instead of being recompiled. Care is taken to ensure that compilation with and without compilercache always results in identical object files. 
Compledge Sentinel
Compledge Sentinel is a Linux distribution designed for monitoring, auditing and intrusion detection. - a complete solution to solve as many monitoring needs and aspects as possible. A wide variety of open source software is included: Nagios, Nagat, Nessus, Snort, ACID, openMosix, Apache /w OpenSSL, PHP and MySQL. The whole package is distributed on one CD, ready to install on any x86-based computer. Version RC2.1 was released May 22, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
A single element within a larger system; it can be hardware or software based and performs essential functions needed by the system. 
execute programs via entries in the mailcap file 
A UNIX compression utility that creates files with the *.Z extensin. A copyrighted program, compress cannot be freely redistributed, so many UNIX users prefer to use the Open Software Foundation's gunzip, which creates compressed files with the *.gz extension. 
To make a file smaller by applying a compression algorithm, usually for the purpose of conserving space or speeding up file transfers. This can also refer to the Unix command to compress a file which appends '.Z' to the filename, or to the free GNU enhanced version, gzip. 
Compressed file
A file converted by a file compression utility to a special format that minimizes the disk storage space required. 
Compressed Video
Video signals are downsized to allow travel along a smaller carrier. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Since encrypted data is essentially random, you cannot compress it. This defeats networking standards designed to automatically encrypt traffic (such as dial-up modems). Therefore, data must be compressed before it is encrypted. For this reason, compression is becoming an automatic feature to most encryption products. The most often used compression standard is gzip and its compression library zlib. 
Special encoding of data to reduce byte size; useful in storing and archiving large (or multiple) files or for transmission of data over a network. 
The compacting of files to save storage space and reduce transfer time. Compression uses algorithms such as Lempel-Ziv, LZW and Huffman coding. 
The reduction of a file's size by means of a compression program. The two types of compression are loassless compression and lossy compression. In lossless compression, the compression process allows for subsequent decompression of the data with no loss of the original data. Lossless compression is used for program and dat files. Lossy compression, in which the compression processes remove some of the data in a way that is not obvious to a person using te data. Lossy compression is used for sounds, graphics, animations, and videos. Many modems offer on-the-fly compression, and often use the MNP5 or V.42bis protocols. 
compression methods
There are two types: With lossless compression none of the original information is lost. Generally such compression can reduce the file size by about 50%. A popular lossless compression for graphics files is .tga (Targa) or for data .gz and .zip. The other compression method is lossy compression where some of the original information is lost. Lossy compression methods can reduce the file size often by 300% but are unsuitable in many situations. They are particularly useful for the compression of graphic files with JPEG compression being the most popular, especially as they help to reduce bandwidth. 
To break into a computer is to "compromise" its security. The word "compromise" is used as a synonym for "break into", "crack", "hack", and so on. 
COMPUSEC (computer security InfraGuard)
InfraGuard is an alliance between the FBI and the private sector designed to protect the information infrastructure (i.e. the Internet). InfraGuard provides formal and informal channels for exchanging information (between government and the private sector) about Internet threats and vulnerabilities. InfraGuard is organized into local area chapters throughout the United States, where local private organizations get in touch with the oppropriate FBI field office. Contrast: Information is gathered from InfraGuard chapters and funneled up to the NIPC, which analyzes and cleanses the data, and distributes it back out to its members. 
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Teaching process in which a computer is used to enhance the education of a student. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
COMputer TECHnologies (fair) 
To join two or more files or segments of text to form a single unit. The cat command, which is an abbreviation of this word, concatenates files. 
To link together two or more units of information, such as strings or files, so that they form one unit. In spreadsheet programs, concatenation is used to combine text in a formula by placing an ampersand between the formula and text. 
Communications for North Carolina Education, Research and Technology (network) 
COSINE Network's Central Information Service for Europe (COSINE, network) 
Conectiva Linux
Based in Brazil, Conectiva is well-known in South America and has excellent Portuguese and Spanish support. Conectiva is the Latin and South American arm of UnitedLinux. The most current versions (as of April 2003) seem to be Conectiva Linux 9 and Conectiva Linux Enterprise Edition - Powered by UnitedLinux v1.0. 
Alternate debconf configuration interface - frontends A "configlet" is a small Python/GNOME/Glade applet designed to load into a frontend application for the purpose of presenting an alternate interface to the standard debconf questions for one or more packages. This package provides a GNOME Druid frontend for the configlets, as well as a capplet interface that plugs configlets into the GNOME Control Center. 
The choices made in setting up a computer system or an application program so that it meets the user's needs. Properly configuring your system is one of the more onerous tasks of personal computing and is mostly performed via manual alteration of system files in the /etc directory or 'dotfiles' in a user's home directory. Wizards such as the linuxconf and webmin can make such a task much easier. 
Configuration file
A file created by an application progarm that stores the choices you make when you install (or configure) the program so that they're available the next time you start the program. 
Placeholder for code that should correctly deal with host and build architecture for GNU autoconf-generated configure scripts. 
??? [hardware description language] (HDL) 
a real-time, curses based, multi-player space warfare game Conquest is a predecessor of netrek. The object of the game is twofold. The short-range goal is to accumulate "kills" by shooting down enemy players. You get one kill point for each enemy ship shot down, plus some extra if the enemy had kills too. The major weapon used to shoot down ships is the photon torpedo. The long-range goal is to conquer the universe for your team by taking every planet. You take planets by killing off the enemy's armies via bombardment, and then beaming your team's armies down. When all the planets have been taken, the game ends, a new game begins, and the player who actually took the last planet gets his/her name up in lights. 
A Perl replacement for Make Excerpted from the README file: Cons is a system for constructing, primarily, software, but is quite different from previous software construction systems. Cons was designed from the ground up to deal easily with the construction of software spread over multiple source directories. Cons makes it easy to create build scripts that are simple, understandable and maintainable. Cons ensures that complex software is easily and accurately reproducible. Cons uses a number of techniques to accomplish all of this. Construction scripts are just Perl scripts, making them both easy to comprehend and very flexible. Global scoping of variables is replaced with an import/export mechanism for sharing information between scripts, significantly improving the readability and maintainability of each script. Construction environments are introduced: these are Perl objects that capture the information required for controlling the build process. Multiple environments are used when different semantics are required for generating products in the build tree. Cons implements automatic dependency analysis and uses this to globally sequence the entire build. Variant builds are easily produced from a single source tree. Intelligent build subsetting is possible, when working on localized changes. Overrides can be setup to easily override build instructions without modifying any scripts. MD5 cryptographic signatures are associated with derived files, and are used to accurately determine whether a given file needs to be rebuilt. 
Connection Oriented Networking Service 
Screen or station at which an administrator operates a computer system. Also called a terminal, shell prompt. 
Console Application
A command line program that does not require (or perhaps even offer) a graphical user interface to run. 
Console Linux
A general purpose distribution in Portuguese. 
Keeps a less syslog running on tty9 console-log keeps your syslog and your exim mainlog running in a less process on tty9/tty8. It also makes sure that this console is visible automatically after system boot so that a crashed system at least leaves the syslog readable on the console before reset. Using less makes searching, tagging and highlighting possible. 
Linux console and font utilities. This package allows you to set-up and manipulate the Linux console (ie. screen and keyboard), and manipulate console-font files. `console-tools' was developed from version 0.94 of the standard `kbd' package, and integrates many fixes and enhancements, including new kbd features up to 0.99. You will probably want to install a set of data files, such as the one in the `console-data' package. For command-line compatibility with kbd, you may want to install the kbd-compat package. 
load EGA/VGA console screen font, screen-font map, and/or application-charset map. 
Central Office NeTwork ACcess 
Adjacent; placed one next to or after the other. A range of cells in a spreadsheet is often, but not always, made up of contiguous cells. 
Control code
In ASCII (American Standard for Information Interchange, a code reserved for hardware-control purposes. In Abiword, for example, pressing Ctrl+F calls up the Find dialog box. 
vi. 1. "Stop whatever you are doing." From the interrupt character used on many operating systems to abort a running program. Considered silly. 2. interj. Among BSD Unix hackers, the canonical humorous response to "Give me a break!" 
GNOME (the GNU Network Object Model Environment) is an attractive and easy-to-use graphical desktop environment. The control-center package provides the GNOME Control Center utilities, which allow you to setupand configure your system's GNOME environment (such as the desktop background and theme, the screensaver, the window manager, system sounds, and mouse behavior). If you install GNOME, you need to install control-center. 
vi. "Stop talking." From the character used on some operating systems to abort output but allow the program to keep on running. Generally means that you are not interested in hearing anything more from that person, at least on that topic; a standard response to someone who is flaming. Considered silly. Compare control-S. 
vi. "Resume." From the ASCII DC1 or XON character (the pronunciation /X-on/ is therefore also used), used to undo a previous control-S. 
vi. "Stop talking for a second." From the ASCII DC3 or XOFF character (the pronunciation /X-of/ is therefore also used). Control-S differs from control-O in that the person is asked to stop talking (perhaps because you are on the phone) but will be allowed to continue when you're ready to listen to him -- as opposed to control-O, which has more of the meaning of "Shut up." Considered silly. 
convert the GNOME metadata.db file from DB version 1.85 or 2 to DB 3 
Powerful make replacement Cook is a very powerful and very easy to use replacement for make. Through the use of Cook's powerful description language, and it's many built in functions, sophisticated build can be easily accomplished. Cook supports file fingerprints to speed build times, and also supports parallel builds over a network without requiring contorted build rules. See cook-doc for documentation and cook-rsh for remote execution scripts 
cooked mode
A mode in which input is accepted command line by command line rather than character by character. Cooked mode, the default for the Linux system, is the opposite of raw mode. 
cooked mode
n. [Unix, by opposition from raw mode] The normal character-input mode, with interrupts enabled and with erase, kill and other special-character interpretations performed directly by the tty driver. Oppose raw mode, rare mode. This term is techspeak under Unix but jargon elsewhere; other operating systems often have similar mode distinctions, and the raw/rare/cooked way of describing them has spread widely along with the C language and other Unix exports. Most generally, `cooked mode' may refer to any mode of a system that does extensive preprocessing before presenting data to a program. 
The most common meaning of "Cookie" on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server. Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browsers' settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online "shopping cart" information, user preferences, etc. When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular users' requests. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their "expire time" has not been reached. Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them. 
A team of programs to help you maintain your cookie database The ''cookietool'' itself eliminates duplicate entries, sorts cookies alphabetically or by size if you wish. The ''cdbsplit'' extracts parts of the database to a separate file, by keyword, by size, by number, or as groups of 'similar' cookies. The ''cdbdiff'' compares two cookie databases. 
COBOL Object Orientated Language (OOP, COBOL) 
Cool Linux CD
Cool Linux CD is a bootable CD that contains a live Linux distribution based on Red Hat 7.3. It also includes the XFS filesystem, devfs, IceWM, QVWM, ROX-filer,, Opera, Mozilla, Sylpheed, Pan, Licq, X-chat, GFTP, ppp-redialer, xmms, xine, mplayer, gqview, LinNeighborhood, IPTraffic, VMWare, and more. Initial version 1.30 was released August 13, 2002. Version 2.01 was released November 24, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
A portable, fast X Window text editor with beautiful 3D widgets. It requires only the X11 library to run. The engine is the same as that used for the internal editor of the Midnight Commander and hence cooledit represents a X Window version of that editor. The library that comes with Cooledit is now standalone. You can use it to write your own Cool applications. Check out the included programs Coolman and Smalledit. 
Displays pixmap (.XPM) files as icons on the desktop. Each icon presents a menu (right-click) from where the user can perform various operations. Each icon has two user configurable scripts which are executed on receiving a drop event or on running the icon with a double-click. The icons scripts' as well as other properties can be modified through a dialog box accessible through each icon's menu. The scripts can directly manipulate a received drop event making it easy to program Trash Cans, Printer icons and so on. Several useful example icons are given. 
Mail notifier with 3d graphics Coolmail is like xbiff -- it watches your inbox mail file and lets you know when you have mail. But unlike xbiff, it can launch your favorite mail utility when you click on it, and it has cool animated 3D graphics. 
Man page viewer using the Cool Widget library. This man page reader just views the output of the man system command, with a nice point and click, drag and drop, GUI. 
Concurrent Object Orientated Programming (OOP) 
Character-Oriented Protocol 
Child Online Protection Act (Internet, USA, CIPA) 
/kop'ee-left/ n. [play on `copyright'] 1. The copyright notice (`General Public License') carried by GNU EMACS and other Free Software Foundation software, granting reuse and reproduction rights to all comers (but see also General Public Virus). 2. By extension, any copyright notice intended to achieve similar aims. 
Free Software Foundation license notice that details the use and distribution rights of the licensed software and the user of that software. 
a proof assistant for higher-order logic. Coq is a proof assistant for higher-order logic, which allows the development of computer programs consistent with their formal specification. It is developed using Objective Caml and Camlp4. 
Communication ORiented Application aNalysis 
an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network. 
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (OMG) 
COmmunity Research and Development Information Service (Europe) 
A core file is created when a program terminates unexpectedly, due to a bug, or a violation of the operating systems or hardwares protection mechanisms. The operating system kills the program and creates a core file that programmers can use to figure out what went wrong. It contains a detailed description of the state that the program was in when it died. If would like to determine what program a core file came from, use the file command, like this: $ file core That will tell you the name of the program that produced the core dump. You may want to write the maintainer(s) of the program, telling them that their program dumped core. To Enable or Disable Core Dumps you must use the ulimit command in bash, the limit command in tcsh, or the rlimit command in ksh. See the appropriate manual page for details. This setting affects all programs run from the shell (directly or indirectly), not the whole system. If you wish to enable or disable core dumping for all processes by default, you can change the default setting in /usr/include/linux/sched.h. Refer to definition of INIT_TASK, and look also in /usr/include/linux/resource.h. PAM support optimizes the system's environment, including the amount of memory a user is allowed. In some distributions this parameter is configurable in the /etc/security/limits.conf file. From Linux Administrator's Security Guide.
n. Main storage or RAM. Dates from the days of ferrite-core memory; now archaic as techspeak most places outside IBM, but also still used in the Unix community and by old-time hackers or those who would sound like them. Some derived idioms are quite current; `in core', for example, means `in memory' (as opposed to `on disk'), and both core dump and the `core image' or `core file' produced by one are terms in favor. Some varieties of Commonwealth hackish prefer store. 
core dump
a copy of the contents of core, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error. It is useful to determine the nature of a program crash. 
Core dump
In mainframe computing, a debugging technique that involved printing out the entire contents of the computer's core, or memory. In slang, the term refers to a person who, when asked a simple question, recites everything he or she remembers about a subject. 
core dump
n. [common Iron Age jargon, preserved by Unix] 1. [techspeak] A copy of the contents of core, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error. 2. By extension, used for humans passing out, vomiting, or registering extreme shock. "He dumped core. All over the floor. What a mess." "He heard about X and dumped core." 3. Occasionally used for a human rambling on pointlessly at great length; esp. in apology: "Sorry, I dumped core on you". 4. A recapitulation of knowledge (compare bits, sense 1). Hence, spewing all one knows about a topic (syn. brain dump), esp. in a lecture or answer to an exam question. "Short, concise answers are better than core dumps" (from the instructions to an exam at Columbia). See core. 
These are the GNU core utilities. This package is the union ofthe old GNU fileutils, sh-utils, and textutils packages.These tools're the GNU versions of common useful and popularfile & text utilities which are used for:- file management- shell scripts- modifying text file (spliting, joining, comparing, modifying, ...)Most of these programs have significant advantages over their Unix counterparts, such as greater speed, additional options, and fewer arbitrary limits. The following tools are included: basename cat chgrp chmod chown chroot cksum comm cp csplit cut date dd df dir dircolors dirname du echo env expand expr factor false fmt fold ginstall groups head hostid hostname id join kill link ln logname ls md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv nice nl nohup od paste pathchk pinky pr printenv printf ptx pwd rm rmdir seq sha1sum shred sleep sort split stat stty su sum sync tac tail tee test touch tr true tsort tty uname unexpand uniq unlink uptime users vdir wc who whoami yes 
The classic corewars game with gtk-look. Corewars is a game which simulates a virtual machine with a number of programs. Each program tries to crash the others. The program that lasts the longest time wins. A number of sample programs are provided and new programs can be written by the player. 
control IEEE1394 digital camera Coriander is a GUI that lets you control all the features of an IEEE-1394 Digital Camera complying with the DC Specifications v1.04 or later (see 
Tunnel TCP connections through HTTP proxies corkscrew is a simple tool to tunnel TCP connections through an HTTP proxy supporting the CONNECT method. It reads stdin and writes to stdout during the connection, just like netcat. It can be used for instance to connect to an SSH server running on a remote 443 port through a strict HTTPS proxy. 
Corrupted file
A file that contains scrambled and unrecoverable data. Files can become corrupted due to bad sectors (surface flaws on the disk), hard or floppy disk drive controller failures, or software errors. 
Card Operating System (OS, ICC) 
Cassette Operating System (OS) 
Class of Service 
Clip On Socket (CPU) 
Commercial Operating System (OS, DEC, PDP 11) 
Concurrent Operating System (OS, UNIVAC 9200, UNIVAC 9300) 
Corporation for Open Systems (org., OSI, user group) 
Cray Operating System (OS, Cray) 
COmputerunterstuetzte SAchbearbeitung 
COmputing in der Sozialen Arbeit (Org, Koeln, Germany) 
Common Open Software Environment (HP, Sun, IBM, SCO, USL, Univel) 
Cooperation for OSI Networking in Europe (org.) 
Distribution and website are in Chinese. 
COmputer System for Mainframe OperationS 
Common Object Services Specification 
COpenhagen SGML Tool (SGML), "CoST" 
General-purpose SGML/XML post-processing tool. Cost is a structure-controlled SGML/XML application programming tool. It is implemented as a Tcl extension, and works in conjunction with James Clark's nsgmls, sgmls, and/or expat parsers. 
Central Office Terminal 
Connection-Oriented Transport Protocol (OSI, ISO 8073) 
Connection-Oriented Transport [layer] Service 
ISO 3166 country code finder This ISO 3166 country code finder is mainly used to find out to which country a domain name belongs. It allows searching by 2- or 3-letter codes, country number, or country name. 
Courier Mail Server Base System The Courier mail transfer agent (MTA) is an integrated mail/groupware server based on open commodity protocols, such as ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, LDAP, SSL, and HTTP. Courier provides ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, webmail, and mailing list services within a single, consistent, framework. This package provides the functionality needed by all Debian courier packages like some configuration files, helper programs and the Courier TCP server daemon. 
Character Orientated Windows (MS, SAA, UI) 
a configurable talking cow Turns text into happy ASCII cows, with speech balloons. 
Cox, Alan
An important developer of the Linux kernel including developing Linux networking, SMP. Other projects he has worked on include Linux/SGI, Linux/Mac68K, Linux/8086 ports, TV card drivers and Linux sound. 
Coyote Linux
Coyote Linux v1.x (Floppy Release) is designed to run entirely from a floppy and does not require a hard drive or CDROM to be present in the system that it runs on. Creation of a Coyote Linux floppy can be done with either a Linux shell script or a Windows Wizard, both of which are available from the Coyote Linux download sites. Coyote Linux 1.32 was released January 6, 2003. Development version 2.0.0-pre5 was released June 18, 2003. Another project, the Fury IP Load Balancer, has been spun off the ECL base. Wolverine Alpha 1, a firewall and VPN product based on Embedded Coyote, was released January 15, 2002. Wolverine 1.0.283 was released November 12, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. 
Connection Processor 
Control Point (IBM, SNA) 
Control Program (IBM, OS, VM/ESA, VM) 
Coordination Point (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
copy files and directories 
Comprehensive PERL Archive Network (PERL) 
Debian Chinese Panel Debian Chinese Panel is a part of Debian Chinese Project. It aims to provide a user friendly interface for users to use Chinese in Debian GNU/Linux. Debian Chinese Panel is a program which can allow users to use/config Chinese software more easily. Another aim is that, users who want to use Chinese simply just install this package. 
a mirroring utility for backing up your files Backup Copy is basically a smart copy program that allows a user to copy mass files from one place to another. When coping over a previous copy, the key features will allow coping only of new or non existing files in the backup. This results in saving time and less load on the drive. Built into the same feature of copying new files only, is a file removal procedure. If a file is removed from the source path, the same file will be removed when the next backup is performed. This provides a backup that is exactly the same as the source without filling up the drive. As an added option, all files that will be overwritten or deleted when doing a copy over a previous backup, have the opportunity to be stored in a trash bin. You can leave this trash bin to grow and grow just in case you need a backup of your backup. When you start running out of disk space you will need to remove or clean up the trash bin. 
Cost Per Copy 
Common Part Convergence Sublayer (ATM) 
Cellular Digital Packet Data 
Customer Premises Equipment 
Control Program Facility (OS, IBM, S/38) 
Ceramic Pin Grid Array (CPU) 
Cost Per Hour 
Characters Per Inch 
Common Part Indicator (ATM) 
Common Programming Interface (IBM, SAA) 
Computer Private branch exchange Interface 
Common Programming Interface for Communications (IBM, SAA, API), "CPI/C" 
selectively update files 
copy files to and from archives 
CoPy In/Out (Unix) 
GNU cpio -- a program to manage archives of files. GNU cpio is a tool for creating and extracting archives, or copying files from one place to another. It handles a number of cpio formats as well as reading and writing tar files. This package also includes rmt, the remote tape server, and GNU mt, a tape drive control program. The mt program is essential for magnetic tape drive users. Debian's version of GNU mt supports SCSI tape drives. 
GNU cpio copies files into or out of a cpio or tar archive. Archives are files which contain a collection of other files plus information about them, such as their file name, owner, timestamps, and access permissions. The archive can be another file on the disk, a magnetic tape, or a pipe. GNU cpio supports the following archive formats: binary,old ASCII, new ASCII, crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old tar and POSIX.1tar. By default, cpio creates binary format archives, so that they are compatible with older cpio programs. When it is extracting files from archives, cpio automatically recognizes which kind of archive it is readingand can read archives created on machines with a different byte-order. Install cpio if you need a program to manage file archives. 
Common Programming Interface Resource Recovery (IBM, SAA) 
Combined Programming Language (DEC, PL/1) 
Conversational Programming Language (DEC) 
A front-end for various audio players cplay provides a user-friendly interface to play various types of sound files. It offers a simple file list with which you can navigate around looking for audio files and a playlist to which you can add the files you want to play. cplay can play the songs in your playlist in repeat or random mode, and offers the option to store the playlist. Currently, the following audio formats are supported: MP3 (through madplay, mpg321 or splay), Ogg Vorbis (through ogg123), MOD and other module formats (through mikmod). 
Complex Programmable Logic Device (PLD, IC, RL) 
Control Program for Microcomputers (OS, DR), "CP/M" 
Cost Per Minute 
Critical Path Method 
Central Point Management Services (Central Point) 
Tools to access CP/M file systems This package allows to access CP/M file systems similar to the well-known mtools package, which accesses MSDOS file systems. All CP/M file system features are supported. 
Calling Party Number 
Compuserve Packet Network (network) 
Customer Premises Network 
Control Program / NETwork (CP/M, OS), "CP/NET" 
Control Program / ??? (CP/NET, CP/M, OS), "CP/NOS" 
Contention Priority Orientated Demand Assignment (MAC, PODA) 
Cpp is the GNU C-Compatible Compiler Preprocessor. Cpp is a macroprocessor which is used automatically by the C compiler to transformyour program before actual compilation. It is called a macro processor because it allows you to define macros (abbreviations for longerconstructs). The C preprocessor provides four separate functionalities: the inclusion of header files (files of declarations that can besubstituted into your program); macro expansion (you can define macros and the C preprocessor will replace the macros with their definitions throughout the program); conditional compilation (using specialpreprocessing directives, you can include or exclude parts of the program according to various conditions); and line control (if you use a program to combine or rearrange source files into an intermediate file which is then compiled, you can use line control to inform the compiler about where each source line originated). 
The GNU C preprocessor. The GNU C preprocessor is a macro processor that is used automatically by the GNU C compiler to transform programs before actual compilation. This package has been separated from gcc for the benefit of those who require the preprocessor but not the compiler. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU C preprocessor for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
Card / Paper tape Programming System (OS, IBM) 
The Unit Testing Library for C++ CppUnit is a simple Framework for incorporating test cases in your C++ code. It is similar to, and inspired by, xUnit and JUnit. For more information on CppUnit visit the project homepage . 
generate C function prototypes and convert function definitions Cproto is a program that generates function prototypes and variable declarations from C source code. It can also convert function definitions between the old style and the ANSI C style. This conversion overwrites the original files, so make a backup copy of your files in case something goes wrong. 
Central Processing System 
Characters Per Second 
Configurable PostScript Interpreter 
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (org., USA) 
Central Processing Unit 
see central processing unit (CPU). 
CPU cache
A memory bank between the main memory and the CPU, which lets the computer read data and execute instructions faster. 
Central Processing Unit IDentifier (CPU) 
Intel and AMD x86 CPUID display program The program displays the vendor ID, Processor specific features, the processor name string, different kinds of instruction set extensions present, L1/L2 Cache information etc for the Processor on which it is running. 
Color QuickCam (PC/Parallel) control program gtkcam - camera with gtk libs xcqcam - cam for X11 / control panel by tk cqcam - capture a single picture, does not require X Features: * Automatic brightness and color adjustments * Batchable output, perfect for a webcam * Support for "millions" (24bpp) and "billions" (32bpp) modes * Nearly lossless on-the-fly despeckling (removal of the "Christmas lights" effect) * X11 front-end and control panel, with Floyd dithering for 8bpp displays * Support for images up to 640x480 * 24-bit PPM output 
Carriage Return (ASCII) 
To decrypt a password, or to bypass a copy protection scheme. See crackz for more about copy protection. History: When the UNIX operating system was first developed, passwords were stored in the file /etc/passwd. This file was made readable by everyone, but the passwords were encrypted so that a user could not figure out who a person's password was. The passwords were encrypted in such a manner that you could test a password to see if it was valid, but you really couldn't decrypt the entry. (Note: not even administrators are able to figure out user's passwords; they can change them, but not decrypt them). However, a program called "crack" was developed that would simply test all the words in the dictionary against the passwords in /etc/passwd. This would find all user accounts whose passwords where chosen from the dictionary. Typical dictionaries also included people's names since a common practice is to choose a spouse's or child's name. Contrast: A "crack" program is one that takes existing encrypted passwords and attempts to find some that are "weak" and easily discovered. However, it is not a "password guessing" program that tries to login with many passwords, that is known as a grind Key point: The sources of encrypted passwords typically include the following: /etc/passwd from a UNIX system SAM or SAM._ from a Windows NT system <username>.pwl from a Windows 95/98 system sniffed challenge hashes from the network Key point: The "crack" program is a useful tool for system administrators. By running the program on their own systems, they can quickly find users who have chosen weak passwords. In other words, it is a policy enforcement tool. Tools: on UNIX, the most commonly used program is called simply "crack". On Windows, a popular program is called "l0phtCrack" from 
multiplayer OpenGL puzzle game like "Tetris Attack" Crack Attack is an OpenGL puzzle game based on the Super Nintendo game "Tetris Attack". Slowly, your stack of colored blocks grows from the bottom, and you've got to make sure it never reaches the top. If it does, you lose. To eliminate blocks from the stack, line up at least three of one color, horizontally or vertically. Once you do, those blocks disappear, and put off slightly your inevitable demise. Crack Attack is very slow without hardware acceleration. For XFree users, this means you want DRI. 
A computer user who illegally visits networked computers to look around and/or cause harm. A criminal. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
A specific type of hacker who decrypts passwords or breaks software copy protection schemes (creating "crackz"). Also, a generic name used by some to refer to all "malicious" hackers. Controversy: This work is extremely controversial. See the word hacker for a discussion about the way that "cracker" is used in the computer enthusiast community vs. the security community. 
One who explores and exploits flaws in computer systems and networks for malicious purposes. 
CrackLib tests passwords to determine whether they match certainsecurity-oriented characteristics, with the purpose of stopping users from choosing passwords that are easy to guess. CrackLib performs several tests on passwords: it tries to generate words from a username and gecos entry and checks those words against the password; it checksfor simplistic patterns in passwords; and it checks for the password in a dictionary. CrackLib is actually a library containing a particular C function which is used to check the password, as well as other Cfunctions. CrackLib is not a replacement for a passwd program; it must be used in conjunction with an existing passwd program. Install the cracklib package if you need a program to check users'passwords to see if they are at least minimally secure. If you install CrackLib, you will also want to install the cracklib-dicts package. 
The cracklib-dicts package includes the CrackLib dictionaries. CrackLib will need to use the dictionary appropriate to your system, which is normally put in /usr/share/dict/words. Cracklib-dicts also containsthe utilities necessary for the creation of new dictionaries. If you are installing CrackLib, you should also install cracklib-dicts. 
A pro-active password checker library Run-time support programs which use the shared library in cracklib2 including programs to build the password dictionary databases used by the functions in the shared library. 
A pro-active password checker library Shared library for cracklib2 which contains a C function which may be used in a passwd like program. The idea is simple: try to prevent users from choosing passwords that could be guessed by crack by filtering them out, at source. cracklib2 is NOT a replacement passwd program. cracklib2 is a LIBRARY. 
Cray Research Adaptive FORTRAN (Cray, MPP, FORTRAN) 
Warcraft 2-like multi-player real-time strategy game You are a Viking and have to lead a nation. Your main task is to command citizens; you can tell them to harvest resources, or to build one of the 9 building types. The ultimate goal is to create enough knights, catapults etc. to wipe out the competing civilizations. You can play against other humans by sending a window to their X display, or against a pretty clever AI. 
Map editor for FreeCraft, the free WarCraft II clone. This is the map or from the FreeCraft Project, a realtime strategy game compatible with WarCraft II. This is the latest snapshot from the CVS repository. 
Cache RAM (RAM) 
Card Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
Tools for CramFs (Compressed ROM File System). This package contains tools that let you construct a CramFs (Compressed ROM File System) image from the contents of a given directory, as well as checking a constructed CramFs image and extracting its contents. Cram file systems are used for Debian INITRD images. 
A classical CRypto ANalysis toolKit Crank is short for "CRyptANalysis toolKit", and its overall purpose is to provide a powerful and extensible environment for solving classical (pen-and-paper) ciphers, providing as much automation as possible. Classical ciphers include common schemes like monoalphabetic substitutions, where each letter of the alphabet is mapped to another (usually different) letter consistently through the text. The first version of Crank is restricting itself to these special ciphers. Other algorithms forever devoid of Crank's attentions include Enigma, RSA, DES, MurkelFish, or anything else invented after 1900. 
Cable Repair Administrative System 
1. n. A sudden, usually drastic failure. Most often said of the system (q.v., sense 1), esp. of magnetic disk drives (the term originally described what happens when the air gap of a hard disk collapses). "Three lusers lost their files in last night's disk crash." A disk crash that involves the read/write heads dropping onto the surface of the disks and scraping off the oxide may also be referred to as a `head crash', whereas the term `system crash' usually, though not always, implies that the operating system or other software was at fault. 2. v. To fail suddenly. "Has the system just crashed?" "Something crashed the OS!" See down. Also used transitively to indicate the cause of the crash (usually a person or a program, or both). "Those idiots playing SPACEWAR crashed the system." 3. vi. Sometimes said of people hitting the sack after a long hacking run; see gronk out. 
A kernel debugging utility, allowing gdb like syntax. The core analysis suite is a self-contained tool that can be used to investigate either live systems, kernel core dumps created from the Kernel Core Dump patch offered by Mission Critical Linux, or kernel core dumps created by the LKCD patch offered by SGI. o The tool is loosely based on the SVR4 crash command, but has been completely integrated with gdb in order to be able to display formatted kernel data structures, disassemble source code, etc. o The current set of available commands consist of common kernel core analysis tools such as a context-specific stack traces, source code disassembly, kernel variable displays, memory display, dumps of linked-lists, etc. In addition, any gdb command may be entered, which in turn will be passed onto the gdb module for execution. o There are several commands that delve deeper into specific kernel subsystems, which also serve as templates for kernel developers to create new commands for analysis of a specific area of interest. Adding a new command is a simple affair, and a quick recompile adds it to the command menu. o The intent is to make the tool independent of Linux version dependencies, building in recognition of major kernel code changes so as to adapt to new kernel versions, while maintaining backwards compatibility. 
Crash Recovery Kit
The Crash Recovery Kit for Linux is based on Red Hat Linux. It can be used as a recovery disc for lots of systems, not just Linux. All Linux filesystems as well as FAT16 and FAT32 are supported. Version 2.4.18 was released March 31, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
JAM and *.MSG capable Fidonet tosser CrashMail II is basically a more portable version of CrashMail, a tosser for Amiga computers. Users of the old Amiga version will probably find some things familiar while some features are gone such as the ARexx port (for obvious reasons!) and the GUI configuration editor. The only feature that CrashMail II has and the old CrashMail hasn't is support for JAM messagebases. 
Stress tests operating system stability crashme generates strings of random bytes and then attempts to execute them. Used to test kernel stability. **WARNING** While Linux has been known to survive days and weeks of crashme, IT IS NOT GUARANTEED THAT YOUR SYSTEM WILL SURVIVE! DO NOT USE THIS PROGRAM UNLESS YOU REALLY WANT TO CRASH YOR COMPUTER 
Dungeon Crawl, a text-based roguelike game Crawl is a fun game in the grand tradition of games like Rogue, Hack, and Moria. Your objective is to travel deep into a subterranean cave complex and retrieve the Orb of Zot, which is guarded by many horrible and hideous creatures. 
Cyclic Redundancy Check[sum] 
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
A form of a checksum that is able to detect accidental transmission errors. It is used on Ethernet in order to detect packet errors. It is also used on some operating systems in order to detect accidental errors in programs before running them. Key point: Like a checksum, a CRC is not able to detect intentional changes. You must use a cryptographic hash for that. 
Common Routing Connection Group 
[fraunhofer] Center for Research in Computer Graphics (org., USA) 
Color Rendering Dictionary (PS) 
Plex86 Empty Disk Image Utility This tool is part of the Plex86 project. Its purpose is to generate disk images that are used to allocate the guest operating system in Plex86 environment. It can be useful for other programs that also make use of disk images, like Bochs. 
Your authentication information, such as a password, token, or certificate. Since not all systems require a password to login, we use the more abstract term "credentials" to refer to this information. 
Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (network) 
Color - Resolution Enhancement Technology (HP), "C-REt" 
Connection Related Function Virtual Channel (UPC, UNI), "CRF(VC)" 
Connection Related Function Virtual Path (UPC, UNI), "CRF(VP)" 
Cray Research, Inc. (manufacturer) 
Program for collection and display of time-series data This is Cricket. It is a configuration, polling, and data-display engine wrapped around the RRD tool by Tobias Oetiker. There are three user-visible pieces to Cricket: the collector, the grapher, and the config tree. The collector runs from cron and fetches data from a number of devices according to the info it finds in the config tree. The grapher is a CGI application that allows users to traverse the config tree from a web browser and see the data that the collector recorded. 
Continuity Rambus Inline Memory Module (RIMM, IC, Rambus) 
A hex-based tactical game Crimson Fields is a hex-based tactical war game in the tradition of Battle Isle (tm). Two players command their units on a map of hexagons, trying to accomplish mission objectives ranging from defending important locations to simply destroying all enemy forces. The game can either be played in 'hot seat' mode or via email. There's no AI opponent, yet. A simple editor can be used to create custom level files. 
Centre de Recherche en Informatique de Nancy (org., France) 
Complex-Reduced Instruction Set Computer 
Complex-Reduced Instruction Set Processor 
Shoot-em-up a la galaxian criticalmass, aka critter, is a shootemup in the style of Galaxian with very colorful and smooth graphics (provided that you have 3d acceleration) Note: criticalmass uses OpenGL, and will probably not run well if you do not have a 3d accelerator which is supported by X. 
Conversational Remote Job Entry (RJE) 
Certificate Revocation List 
Compile-time Reconfigurable Logic (RL) 
/ker'l*f/, sometimes /kru'l*f/ or /C-R-L-F/ n. (often capitalized as `CRLF') A carriage return (CR, ASCII 0001101) followed by a line feed (LF, ASCII 0001010). More loosely, whatever it takes to get you from the end of one line of text to the beginning of the next line. See newline, terpri. Under Unix influence this usage has become less common (Unix uses a bare line feed as its `CRLF'). 
Carriage Return - Line Feed (ASCII, DOS) 
Customer Relationship Management 
A daemon for UNIX and UNIX-compatible operating systems which executes commands and processes at arbitrary times specified by a user or application. 
A Linux daemon that executes specified tasks at a designated time or interval (can be daily, weekly, etc....). 
management of regular background processing cron is a background process (`daemon') that runs programs at regular intervals (for example, every minute, day, week or month); which processes are run and at what times are specified in the `crontab'. Users may also install crontabs so that processes are run on their behalf, though this feature can be disabled or restricted to particular users. Output from the commands is usually mailed to the system administrator (or to the user in question); you should probably install a mail system as well so that you can receive these messages. This cron package is configured by default to do various standard system maintenance tasks, such as ensuring that logfiles do not grow endlessly and overflow the disk. The lockfile-progs package is only a "Suggests" because of the poor way that dselect handles "Recomments", but I do strongly suggest that you install it; it prevents /etc/cron.daily/standard from running multiple times if something gets jammed. 
On UNIX, the cron daemon automated background tasks (such as backups or rotating the logs). It is really the simplest of programs; it reads instructions from a file and executes the appropriate programs at the scheduled time. Key point: When the machine is compromised, intruders will often put backdoor jobs into the crontab. When the victim tries to clean up his/her machine, the jobs in the crontab will run giving the intruder control again. This sort of thing happened in the famous attack against the New York Times; they kept cleaning up the machine, but cron kept giving control back to the intruder. Typically, these jobs would run during the wee hours of the morning when nobody is looking. 
Automatic update of packages using apt This package contains a tool that is run by a cron job at regular intervals. By default it just updates the package list and download new packages without installing. You can instruct it to run anything that you can do with apt-get. It also sends mail (configurable) to the system administrator on errors. Observe that this tool is a security risk, so you should not set it to do more than necessary (automatic upgrade of all packages is NOT recommended). 
Logfile rotator for web servers A simple program that reads log messages from its input and writes them to a set of output files, the names of which are constructed using template and the current date and time. The template uses the same format specifiers as the Unix date command (which are the same as the standard C strftime library function). It intended to be used in conjunction with a Web server, such as Apache, to split the access log into daily or monthly logs: TransferLog "|/usr/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/%Y/access.%Y.%m.%d.log" A cronosplit script is also included, to convert existing traditionally-rotated logs into this rotation format. 
fast, light-weight and functional GNOME e-mail client Cronos II is a powerful GNOME e-mail client. It has been designed to be fast, light, user-friendly, yet strong. Its strength resides in the extended configuration, that the user can manage dynamically without touching any code at all. The friendly aspect resides in the intuitive interface and in the simplicity of the environment and in the full compatibility with the GNOME Project. 
A short name for file /var/lib/crontab, which contains a list of Linux commands to be performed at specific times. A system administrator can use crontab as an automatic timer to trigger the initiation of important jobs. 
The crontabs package contains root crontab files. Crontab is theprogram used to install, uninstall or list the tables used to drive thecron daemon. The cron daemon checks the crontab files to see when particular commands are scheduled to be executed. If commands are scheduled, it executes them. Crontabs handles a basic system function, so it should be installed on your system. 
Base Client Side of the game Crossfire. Crossfire is "a multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game made for the X environment. It has certain flavours from other games, especially Gauntlet (TM) and Nethack/Moria. Any number of players can move around in their own window, finding and using items and battle monsters. They can choose to cooperate or compete in the same 'world'." This program can operate stand alone if you have access to a remote server. Playing with sounds will require rplay, also. This package contains no binaries 
Server for Crossfire Games This is the server program for the crossfire client Crossfire is a multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game made for the X environment. It has certain flavours from other games, especially Gauntlet (TM) and Nethack/Moria. Any number of players can move around in their own window, finding and using items and battle monsters. They can choose to cooperate or compete in the same "world". 
Candidate Rendezvous Point (PIM, RP, Multicast), "C-RP" 
Common Reference Platform (PowerPC) 
Center for Research on Parallel Computation (STC) 
Cell Relay Service (UNI, ATM) 
Cathode Ray Tube 
Computer Technology Research [corporation] (provider) 
Cathode Ray Tube Controller (EGA, VGA, MCGA) 
Find any cruft built up on your system cruft is a program to look over your system for anything that shouldn't be there, but is; or for anything that should be there, but isn't. It bases most of its results on dpkg's database, as well as a list of `extra files' that can appear during the lifetime of various packages. cruft is still in pre-release; your assistance in improving its accuracy and performance is appreciated. 
CRUX is a lightweight, i686-optimized Linux distribution targeted at experienced Linux users. The primary focus of this distribution is "keep it simple", which is reflected in a simple tar.gz-based package system, BSD-style initscripts, and a relatively small collection of trimmed packages. The secondary focus is utilization of new Linux features and recent tools and libraries. Version 1.1 was released March 24, 2003. 
Emacs-Lisp Code for handling compressed and encrypted files Code for handling all sorts of compressed and encrypted files like: .gz, .tar.gz, .Z, .zip, PGP etc. 
TCP/IP swiss army knife extended with twofish encryption Cryptcat is a simple Unix utility which reads and writes data across network connections, using TCP or UDP protocol while encrypting the data being transmitted. It is designed to be a reliable "back-end" tool that can be used directly or easily driven by other programs and scripts. At the same time, it is a feature-rich network debugging and exploration tool, since it can create almost any kind of connection you would need and has several interesting built-in capabilities. 
The study of codes, cryptography refers to the making and breaking of algorithms to conceal or otherwise encrypt information. One of the most popular internet encryption schemes is PGP. 
Multiplatform 3D Game Development Kit Crystal Space is a free 3D game toolkit. It can be used for a variety of 3D visualization tasks. Many people will probably be interested in using Crystal Space as the basis of a 3D game, for which it is well suited. 
Carrier Selection 
Chip Select (IC) 
Client/Server, "C/S" 
Code Segment [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
Coding Scheme (GPRS, mobile-systems) 
Computer Science 
Controlled Slip [error event] (DS1/E1) 
Convergence Sublayer (ATM) 
Capability Set 1 (IN), "CS-1" 
Capability Set 2 (IN) 
Callpath Service Architecture (IBM, CTI) 
Client Service Agent 
Configuration Status Accounting 
Common Speller Application Program Interface (API) 
Computer Sciences Corporation (provider) 
Concurrent SuperComputing Consortium (org.) 
Caldera Systems Curriculum Developers (Caldera) 
Interactively examine a C program source cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to browse through C source files for specified elements of code. Open-Sourced by: The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. (SCO) Maintainer: Petr Sorfa <> Home Page: 
Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence (org., Canada, AI) 
Computer Supported Cooperative Work 
Control flow Specification Diagram (CASE) 
Corrective Service Diskettes (IBM) 
Customer Specific Dictionaries 
Circuit Switched Digital Capability 
Code Segment Descriptor Cache [register] (CS, Intel, CPU) 
Client-Server Environment 
[conference on] Computer Support for Environmental Impact Assessment (IFIP, conference) 
Cable SELect (EIDE, HD) 
Centro Studi E Laboratori Telecomunicazioni [s.p.a.] (org., Italy) 
Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtecnique (org., Switzerland) 
C-bit Severely Errored Seconds (DS3/E3) 
Constructive Solid Geometry (CAD, CAM) 
C SHell (Unix, BSD, Shell) 
Complementary Software House (DEC) 
Shell with C-like syntax, standard login shell on BSD systems. The C shell was originally written at UCB to overcome limitations in the Bourne shell. Its flexibility and comfort (at that time) quickly made it the shell of choice until more advanced shells like ksh, bash, zsh or tcsh appeared. Most of the latter incorporate features original to csh. This package is based on current OpenBSD sources. 
CompuServe Incorporated (ISP) 
Convergence Sublayer Indication (ATM) 
Customer Specific Integrated Circuit (IC, RL) 
Caller Station IDentification (Fax) 
Central command/Southern command Integrated Data System (mil., USA) 
Center for Systems Interoperability and Integration (org., ???) 
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (org., UK) 
Central Schengen Information Systen (SIS, Europe, Strasbourg) 
Ceska Spolecnost pro Kybernetiku a Informatiku (org., Tschechien) 
Callable Services Library (IBM, VM/ESA, CMS) 
Computer SoLutions [software gmbh] (Haendler) 
Compressed [headers] Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP, IP) 
Carrier Sense Multiple Access 
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance, "CSMA/CA" 
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (IEEE 802.3, ethernet, CSMA/CD), "CSMA/CD" 
CannonSmash, a table tennis simulation game CannonSmash is a funny 3D table tennis game. It takes a while to get your hand at ease with the mouse+keyboard manipulations. But once you're used to the technique, you can feel like playing a real game. It is playable against the computer or through a network. Since csmash relies on OpenGL-compatible rendering, it is best experienced with a 3D accelerator card, although software rendering in wireframe mode should be sustainable. 
C Specific Media Support (NEST, MLID, Novell) 
Circuit Switching MUltipleXer (FDDI), "CS-MUX" 
Card Select Number (PNP) 
Computer + Science NETwork (USA, network, BITNET) 
Centro Supercacolo Piemonte (org., Italy, HPC) 
Chip Scale Package (IC) 
Communicating Sequential Processes 
Cross System Product (IBM) 
Circuit Switched Public Data Network (IN) 
Convergence Sublayer Protocol Data Unit (ATM, PDU), "CS PDU" 
split a file into sections determined by context lines 
Computer Systems Policy Project [group] (org., USA. manufacturer) 
Cell misSequenced Ratio (ATM) 
Cell Switch Router (Toshiba) 
Clock Synchronous Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
Cascading Style Sheets (HTML, WWW, JavaScript) 
Cascading Style Sheets: A simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents. 
Computer Sub System 
Content Scrambling System (DVD, Matsushita, IBM) 
Controlled Slip Seconds (DS1/E1) 
Customer Switching System 
CSS (Cascading Style Sheet)
A standard for specifying the appearance of text and other elements. CSS was developed for use with HTML in Web pages but is also used in other situations, notably in applications built using XPFE. CSS is typically used to provide a single "library" of styles that are used over and over throughout a large number of related documents, as in a web site. A CSS file might specify that all numbered lists are to appear in italics. By changing that single specification the look of a large number of documents can be easily changed. 
Clone of the Unix SCCS revision-control system. SCCS is a de-facto standard shipped with most commercial Unices, and is the pre-file revision-control system under many project-wide revision-control systems. This software is under development and not all features are implemented at this time. GNU-based systems use RCS instead of SCCS. 
Central Standard Time [-0600] (TZ, CDT, USA) 
Computer Supported Telecommunications Applications (ECMA, CTI) 
Computer Science and Technology Board (org., NRC) 
Computer Security Technology Center (org., CIAC) 
Computing Systems Technology Office (org., ARPA) 
Recoding utility and Czech sorter. This is a utility which allows you to re-encode files between various encodings and sort Czech data. Some main features: - Written in Perl, providing appropriate Perl modules. - Supported encodings: ASCII, ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2, Microsoft cp1250 and cp1252, Mac, MacCE, PC Latin 2, Koi8-CS and TeX Cork (T1). - You can create your own encoding definition files and use them for recoding to any other defined encoding. - Single to single or single to many chars recodings are supported. - Sophisticated sorting algorithm for Czech. 
Centre for Speech Technology Research 
print out string literals in C source code 
Computer Supported Telecommunications Standard 
Channel Service Unit (ATM) 
CSU/DSU (Customer Service Unit/Digital Service Unit)
Sometimes called a digital modem. It does not modulate or demodulate, but converts a computer's uni-polar digital signal to a bi-polar digital signal for transmission over ISDN lines. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
California State University NETwork (network, USA) 
Comma Separated Values 
Chipcard Terminal (ICC, CT) 
Chips & Technologies (manufacturer), "C&T" 
[magazin fuer] Computer Technik, "c't" 
The ctags program generate an index (or "tag") file for C, C++, Eiffel,Fortran, and Java language objects found in files. This tag file allows these items to be quickly and easily located by a text editor or other utility. A "tag" signifies a language object for which an index entry is available (or, alternatively, the index entry created for that object). Alternatively, ctags can generate a cross reference file which lists, inhuman readable form, information about the various source objects found in a set of language files. 
Comprehensive Tex Archive Network (TeX, FTP) 
Chipcard Terminal Application Program Interface (ICC, CT, API), "CT-API" 
Communication ToolBox (Apple) 
Channel To Channel Adapter (IBM, System/370) 
An acronym for Client-To-Client-Protocol, see IRC. 
Client To Client Protocol (IRC) 
Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria (Canada) 
Cell Transfer Delay (UNI, ATM, QOS) 
Compliance Test and Evaluation, "CT & E" 
Command TERMinal (DEC) 
A program to generate themable Web picture albums cthumb allows you to create themable web picture albums, i.e. collections of digital pictures, with small thumbnails of your pictures and with captions. In addition, it optionally allows you to have several views of the collection of pictures. An album is composed of a series of pages, each composed of a collection of pictures. For each page (and each picture), you can have several annotations per picture. cthumb will generate several versions of the page, for each annotation type. You can customize almost everything in the way the albums look on the screen, from the size of the thumbnails to the background and foreground colors, the border colors, whether you want film-strips, etc. 
Computer Telephony Integration 
merge multiple CWEB change files into one file This program is capable of merging multiple change files for a CWEB file into a single change file, or producing a master change file from them. It is based on the TIE program written for WEB (and found in the tetex-bin package). 
Unix jargon for "the time a file's status last changed". (cf. atime, mtime). 
a light compiler toolkit in Haskell CTKLight is a compiler toolkit for Haskell, helping in writing lexers and parsers using combinators. The resulting parsers and lexers are self-optimizing and thus fast. CTKLight works in both GHC and Hugs 98, language extensions turned on. CTKLight is suitable for small compiler projects. 
Communication Trunk of Medium range Mil., Germany 
Cassette Tape Operating System (OS, Datapoint) 
Common Technical Regulations (Europe) 
[columbia university] Center for Telecommunications Research (org., USA) 
Central TRON (TRON) 
Cipher Text Stealing [mode] (cryptography) 
Clear To Send (MODEM, RS-232) 
Conformance Testing Service (OSTC) 
C Topology Specific Module (NEST, MLID, Novell) 
Compatible Time Sharing System (Unix, predecessor, OS, MIT) 
Cray TimeSharing System (OS, Cray, LLNL) 
Cartridge Tape Transport 
Character Translation Table 
Cartridge Tape Transport Controller 
Thai word separator for Thai TeTeX/LaTeX and HTML This is a Thai word separator program intended for use with Thai LaTeX and HTML documents. Thai script is written continously without using "space" for breaking between words. A program such as LaTeX, then, needs to know where to break the sentence for a newline. 
Cell Tolerance Variation (ATM) 
Claude's Tab window manager ctwm is Claude Lecommandeur's extension to twm; in addition to the features of twm, it supports multiple virtual screens, the pixmap file format, pinnable ("sticky") menus, and other enhancements. 
Console teleTYpe 
Call Up (Unix) 
Common User Application 
Champaign-Urbana Computer Users Group (org., user group) 
Character User Interface (UI) 
Common User Interface (AMS, UI) 
encode C type declarations 
unloop C loops 
LALR parser generator for Java(tm) CUP is the "Constructor of Useful Parsers", a system for generating parsers from simple LALR specifications. It serves the same role as the widely used program YACC and in fact offers most of the features of YACC. However, CUP is written in Java, uses specifications including embedded Java code, and produces parsers which are implemented in Java. 
The Common Unix Printing System provides a portable printing layer for UNIX(TM) operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software Productsto promote a standard printing solution for all UNIX vendors and users. CUPS provides the System V and Berkeley command-line interfaces. This is the main package needed for CUPS servers (machines where a printer is connected to or which host a queue for a network printer). It can also be used on CUPS clients so that they simply pickup broadcasted printer information from other CUPS servers and do notneed to be assigned to a specific CUPS server by an/etc/cups/client.conf file. 
Common UNIX Printing System(tm) - server The Common UNIX Printing System (or CUPS(tm)) is a printing system and general replacement for lpd and the like. It supports the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP), and has its own filtering driver model for handling various document types. This package provides the CUPS scheduler/daemon and related files. The terms "Common UNIX Printing System" and "CUPS" are trademarks of Easy Software Products (, and refer to the original source packages from which these packages are made. 
Turn directories of images into static web content Curator is a powerful script that allows one to generate Web page image galleries with the intent of displaying photographic images on the Web, or for a CD-ROM presentation and archiving. It generates static Web pages only - no special configuration or running scripts are required on the server. The script supports many file formats, hierarchical directories, thumbnail generation and update, per-image description file with any attributes, and 'tracks' of images spanning multiple directories. The templates consist of HTML with embedded Python. Running this script only requires a recent Python interpreter and the ImageMagick tools. Upstream is: 
Get a file from an FTP, GOPHER, HTTP or HTTPS server. curl is a client to get documents/files from servers using any of the supported protocols. The command is designed to work without user interaction or any kind of interactivity. curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authentication, ftp upload, HTTP post, file transfer resume and more. This package is able to handle SSL requests only if installed together with libcurl2-ssl. More informations can be found at the curl web site . 
simple language to provide text application interfaces CURSEL is a freeware FMLI implementation, a small language that allows you to quickly make a form- and menu- based character interface to shell scripts and other programs. 
Normally a block character which marks the place for input on a computer screen. 
colorful console interface for CVS version control CurVeS performs two functions. It provides a menu and command completion interface to CVS so that inexperienced users can learn the features of CVS without documentation. This includes the creation of some meta-features built upon standard CVS commands that commonly are used together. The second function of CurVeS is to provide visual presentation of a project directory so that the status of each file is comprehensible at a glance. CurVeS uses color, when available, to accent the file classification marks. 
Configurable Unified Search Interface (WWW) 
Commonly Used System Program (DEC) 
Control Unit Terminal 
remove sections from each line of files 
C source code utilities C source code utilities, consisting of cdecl and cundecl - decode and encode C type declarations cobfusc - make a C source file unreadable but compilable chilight - highlight C source files cunloop - unloop C loops yyextract - extract grammar rules from yacc grammar yyref - yacc grammar reference program 
ComputerUnterstuetzte Unterweisung 
Tetris-like game with very impressive effects. Cuyo, named after a Spanish possessive pronoun, shares with tetris that things fall down and how to navigate them. When enough "of the same type" come "together", they explode. The goal of each level is to blow special "stones" away, you start with. But what "of the same type" and "together" means, varies with the levels. If you hear someone shout that a dragon is always burning his elephants, so that he is not able to blow the volcano away, there a good chances to find Cuyo on his screen. WARNING: It is known to successfully get many people away from more important things to do. 
Compressed Volume File (DOS) 
Computer Virus Industry Association (org., USA) 
Credential Validation Modules CVM is a framework for validating a set of credentials against a database using a filter program. The modules act as a filter, taking a set of credentials as input and writing a set of facts as output if those credentials are valid. Optional input is given to the module through environment variables. Some of the ideas for CVM came from experience with PAM (pluggable authentication modules), the checkpassword interface used by qmail-pop3d, and the "authmod" interface used by Courier IMAP and POP3. This framework places fewer restrictions on the invoking client than checkpassword does, and is much simpler to implement on both sides than PAM and the authmod framework. See for more information. 
A source code control system is a MUST to manage the changes occurring to a software project during development. Developers need a complete history of changes to backtrack to previous versions in case of any problems. Since source code is the most vital component of any software project and software development takes a huge amount of time and money, it is very important to spend some time in safe-guarding the source code by using source code control systems like CVS and RCS. CVS (Concurrent Version Control System) is a powerful tool which allows concurrent development of software by multiple users. It uses RCS underneath and has an application layer interface as a wrapper on top of RCS. CVS can record the history of your files (usually, but not always, source code). CVS only stores the differences between versions, instead of every version of every file you've created. CVS also keeps a log of who, when and why changes occurred, among other aspects. CVS is very helpful for managing releases and controlling the concurrent editing of source files among multiple authors. Instead of providing version control for a collection of files in a single directory, CVS provides version control for a hierarchical collection of directories consisting of revision controlled files. These directories and files can then be combined to form a software release. CVS can be used for storing "C", "C++", Java, Perl, HTML and other files. HISTORY of CVS: CVS is a very highly sophisticated and complex system. It is the "State of the Art" technology and is so called "software miracle". The CVS software is a very advanced and capable system developed over a very long period of time. And it took several years to mature!! It took about 20 to 30 years of research to develop CVS algorithms and later it was coded into a software. And even today, it is still evolving!! CVS algorithms actually started in Universities several decades ago and CVS implementation started out as a bunch of shell scripts written by Dick Grune, who posted it to the newsgroup comp.sources.unix in the volume 6 release of December, 1986. While no actual code from these shell scripts is present in the current version of CVS much of the CVS conflict resolution algorithms come from them. In April, 1989, Brian Berliner designed and coded CVS. Jeff Polk later helped Brian with the design of the CVS module and vendor branch support. And today each and every major software development project in the world is written using CVS as the safe repository. As good old software hats say - "You are in very safe hands, if you are using CVS !!!" From
Computer Vision Syndrome 
Concurrent Versions System (Unix) 
Concurrent Versions System CVS is a version control system, which allows you to keep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a log of who, when, and why changes occurred, etc., like RCS or SCCS. Unlike the simpler systems, CVS does not just operate on one file at a time or one directory at a time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories consisting of version controlled files. CVS helps to manage releases and to control the concurrent editing of source files among multiple authors. CVS allows triggers to enable/log/control various operations and works well over a wide area network. 
CVS means Concurrent Version System; it is a version control system which can record the history of your files (usually,but not always, source code). CVS only stores the differences between versions, instead of every version of every fileyou've ever created. CVS also keeps a log of who, when and why changes occurred, among other aspects. CVS is very helpful for managing releases and controllingthe concurrent editing of source files among multipleauthors. Instead of providing version control for a collection of files in a single directory, CVS providesversion control for a hierarchical collection ofdirectories consisting of revision controlled files. These directories and files can then be combined togetherto form a software release. Install the cvs package if you need to use a version control system. 
CVS-log-message-to-ChangeLog conversion script This perl script produces a GNU-style ChangeLog for CVS-controlled sources, by running "cvs log" and parsing the output. Duplicate log messages get unified in the Right Way. 
create HTML versions of CVS logs cvs2html is program that transforms the 'cvs log' output into a HTML file. The program can be used on any type of cvs archive, but since it invokes cvs itself, it needs to be run in a machine having a local checked out copy of the archive and access to the repository. 
Open Source Development with CVS, an online book This is an online version of a book written by Karl Fogel and published by Coriolis, Inc. This book covers CVS, starting with a tutorial and going on to cover repository administration, more advanced topics, troubleshooting, and a complete CVS reference. 
send problem report (PR) about CVS to a central support site 
The GNU Concurrent Versions System 
Continuous Variable Delta Modulation (DFUe) 
Codex Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction [algorithm] (Motorola, VOFR) 
Create a tree of revisions/branches from a CVS/RCS file. CvsGraph was inspired by the graph option from WinCVS. It represents the revisions and branches in a CVS/RCS file in a graphical tree structure, also listing any tags associated with any given revision. 
Tool to generate CVS patch set information CVSps is a program for generating 'patch set' information from a CVS repository. A patch set in this case is defined as a set of changes made to a collection of files, all committed at the same time (using a single 'cvs commit' command). This information is valuable for seeing the big picture of the evolution of a CVS project. While CVS tracks revision information, it is often difficult to see what changes were committed 'atomically' to the repository. 
A network file distribution system optimized for CVS (client) CVSup is a software package for distributing and updating collections of files across a network. It can efficiently and accurately mirror all types of files, including sources, binaries, hard links, symbolic links, and even device nodes. CVSup's streaming communication protocol and multithreaded architecture make it most likely the fastest mirroring tool in existence today. In addition to being a great general-purpose mirroring tool, CVSup includes special features and optimizations specifically tailored to CVS repositories. 
A network file distribution system optimized for CVS (server) CVSup is a software package for distributing and updating collections of files across a network. It can efficiently and accurately mirror all types of files, including sources, binaries, hard links, symbolic links, and even device nodes. CVSup's streaming communication protocol and multithreaded architecture make it most likely the fastest mirroring tool in existence today. In addition to being a great general-purpose mirroring tool, CVSup includes special features and optimizations specifically tailored to CVS repositories. 
CVS utilities for use in working directories Several utilities which are used to facilitate working with the files in the working directory of a developer using CVS. The utilities included in this package are: + cvsu: Offline "cvs update" simulator. Lists the files found in the current directory (or in the directories which you specify). + cvsco: "Cruel checkout". Removes results of compilation and discards local changes. Deletes all the files except listed unmodified ones and checks out everything which seems to be missing. + cvsdiscard: Discards local changes but keeps results of compilation. Works like "cvsco", but only deletes files which are likely to cause merge conflicts. + cvspurge: CVS-based "make maintainer-clean". Removes results of compilation but keeps local changes intact. Removes unknown files, but keeps changes in files known to CVS. + cvstrim: Removes files and directories unknown to CVS. + cvschroot: Makes it possible to change CVS/Root in all subdirectories to the given value. + cvsrmadm: Removes all CVS directories in the project. It is safer if you occasionally make mistakes in the "find" commands. + cvsdo: Simulates some of the CVS commands (currently add, remove and diff) without any access to the CVS server. 
a CGI interface to your CVS repository cvsweb is a WWW CGI script that provides remote access to your CVS repository. It allows browsing of the full tree, with configurable access controls. It will display the revision history of a file, as well as produce diffs between revisions and allow downloading any revision of the whole file. 
Command-line frontend to unixcw This package contains a simple command line client called cw, which sounds characters as Morse code on the console speaker. The included cwgen binary can generate groups of random characters for Morse code practice. Included are some examples files with embedded commands. These commands can be used to change speed, tone, spacing between characters and much more. 
Ncurses frontend to unixcw Cwcp is a curses-based interactive Morse code tutor program. It allows menu selection from a number of sending modes, and also permits character sounding options, such as the tone pitch, and sending speed, to be varied from the keyboard using a full-screen user interface. 
Knuth's & Levy's C/C++ programming system. CWEB allows you to write documents which can be used simultaneously as C/C++ programs and as TeX documentation for them. The philosophy behind CWEB is that programmers who want to provide the best possible documentation for their programs need two things simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a language like C for programming. Neither type of language can provide the best documentation by itself. But when both are appropriately combined, we obtain a system that is much more useful than either language separately. You may also want to install the ctie package which allows one to work with multiple change files simultaneously. 
C/C++ literate programming system (Marc van Leeuwen's version) This version is a complete rewrite of Levy & Knuth's version of CWEB. It uses a slightly different syntax from the L&K version, but provides a compatibility mode allowing L&K CWEB sources to be processed, producing similar (though not necessarily identical) output. CWEB allows you to write documents which can be used simultaneously as C/C++ programs and as TeX documentation for them. The philosophy behind CWEB is that programmers who want to provide the best possible documentation for their programs need two things simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a language like C for programming. Neither type of language can provide the best documentation by itself. But when both are appropriately combined, we obtain a system that is much more useful than either language separately. 
Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (org., Netherlands) 
Campus Wide Information System 
Common Warehousing Metadata Interchange (DB, DWH) 
Current Workspace Pointer (SPARC, CPU) 
Character Width Table 
Common X-windows Interface (Unix) 
Check an XPM (X PixMap) file - XPM 1, 2, or 3. 
Generates latex and HTML documentation for C programs. A program that takes as input a series of C source files and produces a LaTeX or HTML document containing a cross reference of the files/functions/variables in the program, including documentation taken from suitably formatted source code comments. The documentation is stored in the C source file in specially formatted comments, making it simple to maintain. The cross referencing includes lists of functions called, callers of each function, usage of global variables, header file inclusion, macro definitions and type definitions. Works for ANSI C, including many gcc extensions. 
Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well. 
Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks. 
The nebulous "place" where humans interact over computer networks, same as virtual space. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
A set of tracks on the platters of a hard disk. 
In hard and floppy disk drives, a unit of storage consisting of the set of tracks that occupy the same position on opposite sides of the platter. On a double-sided disk, a cylinder includes track 1 on the top of one another, a cylinder consists of track 1 on both sides of all the disks. 
Cylinders, heads, and sectors
The physical drive itself usually comprises several actual disks of which both sides are used. The sides are labelled 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on, and are also called heads because one magnetic head per side does the actual reading and writing. Each side/head has tracks, and each track is divided into segments called sectors. Each sector typically holds 512 bytes. The total amount of space on the drive in bytes is therefore: 512 x (sectors-per-track) x (tracks-per-side) x (number-of-sides) A single track and all the tracks of the same diameter (on all the sides) are called a cylinder. Disks are normally talked about in terms of ``cylinders and sectors'' instead of ``sides, tracks, and sectors.'' Partitions are (usually) divided along cylinder boundaries. Hence, disks do not have arbitrarily sized partitions; rather, the size of the partition is usually a multiple of the amount of data held in a single cylinder. Partitions therefore have a definite inner and outer diameter. 
Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, blacK (color system) 
CMU Cyrus mail system (common files) Cyrus is a fully-featured IMAP daemon, with a number of features not found in other IMAP implementations, including: o Designed to handle massive quantities of mail o No need for users to have login accounts o Support for POP3 in addition to IMAP o Servers don't run as root o Easy support for mail quotas For more information, see Note: Cyrus doesn't support reading from and storing mail in your standard mail spool - it stores mail in a separate directory in its own MH-like format. The Debian version of Cyrus has been modified to support authentication via PAM in addition to the standard UNIX password file. This package contains the common files needed by the other Cyrus components. The cyrus-imapd and/or cyrus-pop3d packages are needed to enable IMAP and POP3 support respectively. 
Direct3D (DirectX, MS) 
Direct3D Retained Mode (DirectX, MS) 
Graphical tool for downloading files from Internet Downloader for X is a tool for downloading files from the Internet via both HTTP and FTP with a powerful but userfriendly interface. It supports reconnecting and resuming on connection timeouts, has a download queue for multiple files, support for simultaneous downloads, and many other features for powerful downloading. It is written in C++, the GUI uses GTK+. 
Destination [MAC] Address (SNA, Token Ring, ATM, FDDI, ...) 
Digital-to-Analog (D/A), "D/A" 
DatenAustauschphase 11 [allgemeine bauabrechnung] (GAEB) 
DatenAustauschphase 81 [leistungsverzeichnis] (GAEB) 
DatenAustauschphase 82 [kostenanschlag] (GAEB) 
DatenAustauschphase 83 [angebotsanforderung] (GAEB) 
DatenAustauschphase 84 [angebotsabgabe] (GAEB) 
DatenAustauschphase 85 [nebenangebot] (GAEB) 
DatenAustauschphase 86 [zuschlag/auftragserteilung] (GAEB) 
Device Access Architecture (Vireo) 
Digest Access Authentication (HTTP) 
Digital Audio Broadcasting 
Digital to Analog Converter 
Discretionary Access Control 
Dual Address Cycle (PCI) 
Dual Attached Concentrator (FDDI) 
??? [hardware description language] (HDL) 
Distributed Academic Computing Network Operating System (OS, HECTOR) 
Digital Access Control System (ISDN, DES, cryptography) 
DAta Compression Technology 
Multi-algorithm compression DACT compresses each block within the file with all its known algorithms and uses the block with the best compression ratio. DACT can encrypt the compressed data with one of two algorithms. Compression time for DACT is slow as each block is compressed multiple times, Current supported compression algorithms include RLE, Delta, Text, Zlib, Modified Zlib, Bzip2 and Seminibble Encoding. 
Desktop Application Director (WordPerfect) 
Exterminates all rational thought DadaDodo is a program that analyses texts for Markov chains of word probabilities and then generates random sentences based on that. Sometimes these sentences are nonsense; but sometimes they cut right through to the heart of the matter and reveal hidden meanings. 
Digital Audio Extraction (CD, audio) 
/day'mn/ or /dee'mn/ n. [from the mythological meaning, later rationalized as the acronym `Disk And Execution MONitor'] A program that is not invoked explicitly, but lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. The idea is that the perpetrator of the condition need not be aware that a daemon is lurking (though often a program will commit an action only because it knows that it will implicitly invoke a daemon). For example, under ITS writing a file on the LPT spooler's directory would invoke the spooling daemon, which would then print the file. The advantage is that programs wanting (in this example) files printed need neither compete for access to nor understand any idiosyncrasies of the LPT. They simply enter their implicit requests and let the daemon decide what to do with them. Daemons are usually spawned automatically by the system, and may either live forever or be regenerated at intervals. Daemon and demon are often used interchangeably, but seem to have distinct connotations. The term `daemon' was introduced to computing by CTSS people (who pronounced it /dee'mon/) and used it to refer to what ITS called a dragon; the prototype was a program called DAEMON that automatically made tape backups of the file system. Although the meaning and the pronunciation have drifted, we think this glossary reflects current (2000) usage. 
A background process of the operating system that usually has root security level permission. A daemon usually lurks in the background until something triggers it into activity, such as a specific time or date, time interval, receipt of e-mail, etc. 
A process lurking in the background, usually unnoticed, until something triggers it into action. For example, the \cmd{update} daemon wakes up every thirty seconds or so to flush the buffer cache, and the \cmd{sendmail} daemon awakes whenever someone sends mail.
A program that runs continuously in the background, until activated by a particular event. A daemon can constantly query for requests or await direct action from a user or other process. 
a program which runs for an extended period (usually "forever") to handle requests for service as needed. 
A program, usually on a computer running UNIX, that serves some obscure function (such as routing electronic mail to its recipients) and usually has a very limited user interface. There's some debate about the origins of the word, but most say it derives from the devilish spirits of Greek mythology. 
Disk And Execution MONitor (Unix) 
daemon (service)
On UNIX, a daemon is a program running in the background, usually providing some sort of service. Typical daemons are those that provide e-mail, printing, telnet, FTP, and web access. 
Distributed Application Framework (CCITT) 
??? (Sun) 
Device Application Interface (Novell, Netware, SMS) 
Distributed Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
view web comic strips more conveniently A perl script that gathers online comic strips for more convenient viewing. When in normal mode, it creates an HTML page that references the strips directly, and when in local mode, it also downloads the images to your local disk. 
Deutsches AgrarInformationsNETz (WWW, org.) 
Distributed Application Integration System (ORB) 
Data Access Language (Apple) 
Distributed Artificial LIfe (AI), "DALi" 
Direct Access Method / Mode (DAM, SAM) 
Distributed Abstract Machine 
Draft AMendment (ISO) 
Damn Small Linux
Damn Small Linux is a business card size (50MB) Linux distribution. Despite it's miniscule size it strives to have a functional and easy to use desktop. The initial freshmeat announcement for version 0.1 was released March 19, 2003. Version 0.3.10 was released June 4, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
Dynamically Adaptive Multicarrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 
De.Admin.News.Announce (Usenet), "D.A.N.A." 
An IRC server designed for centrally maintained networks This is the ircd designed for use on OpenProjects Net (, based on the hybrid ircd used by efnet. It attempts to handle the network transparently as a unit, and to provide features to support the OPN philosophy. This package contains the main binary files. 
IRC services implementation for dancer-ircd This is the counterpart to dancer-ircd, a services implementation (nickserv, chanserv, etc) that works with the dancer protocol. It can connect to a remote server, but it is highly recommended that you run a local ircd instead and connect it to that. Note that dancer-services will not work properly with any ircd other than dancer-ircd. Dancer-services is essentially the same as hybserv, only patched to work with dancer-ircd. 
Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe (org., Europe) 
Deutschsprachige ANwendervereinigung TEx [e.v.] (TeX, user group) 
Provides a SOCKS wrapper for users behind a firewall. Dante provides "socksify" - a program which forwards network requests from any program to the SOCKS server (v4 or v5) which then performs them on your behalf. 
SOCKS server. dante-server provides "danted" - a SOCKS (v4 and v5) server 
Data Access Objects (DB) 
Destination Address Omitted [flag] (CATNIP) 
Disk At Once (CD-R) 
Data Access Protocol (DEC, DNA) 
Developers Assistance Program (IBM) 
Directory Access Protocol (X.500, DS) 
Directory Application Protocol (IN) 
Document Application Profile (JTC1, ODIF, ODA) 
Distributed Application Programming Environment (ORB) 
Document Application Processing in a Heterogeneous Network Environment 
Developer API Extensions (IBM, OS/2, API) 
Database Application Remote Interface (IBM, DB) 
Darkstar Linux
A source-based multi-platform Linux distribution. 
Defense Automation Resources Management Program (mil., USA) 
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (org., USA) 
Was formally called ARPA. Defence Advanced Reseach Project Agency.
Dynamic Advertising Reporting & Targeting [technology] (WWW, Doubleclick) 
Directory Assistance Service [protocol] (RFC 1202) 
Disk Array Subsystem (Unix, HP-UX) 
Dual Attached Station (FDDI) 
Dual Attachment Station (FDDI, Schneider & Koch) 
Dynamic Allocation Scheme [protocol] 
Direct Access Storage Device 
Dial Access Signaling Interface 
Drive Active, Slave Present (IDE) 
Distributed Authentication Security Service (RFC 1507) 
Digital Audio Tape (Digital audio) 
Data striping
An important method employed by redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) in which a single unit of data is distributed acroess several hard disks, increasing ressitance to a failure in one of the drives. 
A collection of persistently accessed data that is typically stored for fast and/or arbitrary access. Data stored within a database can be queried, viewed, and manipulated by user applications or Web services such as forms and applets. 
A computer holding large amounts of information that can be searched by an Internet user. A storehouse of information on the Net. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
An indexed collection of information which can be accessed, modified and queried using a query language such as SQL. Popular databases applications for Linux include the commercial Oracle product and Informix-SE. 
The database is one of the underpinning applications of the Internet. The concept of database "records" predates that of "files" within a computer. These days, most discussion of databases revolves around SQL (structured query language). An SQL statement is a special language that you may use to encode a statement such as show me everyone who has a first name of "Robert". The actual SQL statement would look like: "SELECT * from Everyone where firstname equals 'Robert'". Key point: The near-programming quality of SQL means that it is open to much the same security holes that plague other scripting languages. For example, a frequent attacks against databases is to insert shell metacharacters into data fields. For example, consider a reporting system using PERL that extracts data out of a database. I may create a bank acount where name is "| mail < /etc/passwd", which will send me the password field when you run your month-end reports. In late 1999 and early year 2000, thousands of Microsoft's web servers were broken into because programs submitted command-line statements through SQL query statements through a default script left open on default installations of their servers. 
A packet which includes both the source and destination addresses provided by the user, and not the network. Datagrams can also include data. 
In protocols, a datagram is a single transmission that stands by itself. They are often known as unreliable datagrams because there is not guarantee that they will reach their destination. It is up to some higher protocol or application to verify that a datagram reaches its destination. Streaming media (audio/video/voice) often use datagrams because it doesn't really matter if a few are lost in transmission. 
print or set the system date and time 
DATEnVerarbeitungszentrale der steuerberatenden Berufe (org., Nuernberg, Germany) 
DATa EXchange 
DATa EXchange - Jedermann ??? (Telekom), "DATEX-J" 
DATa EXchange - Leitungsvermittlung 
DATa EXchange - Multimegabit (Telekom, SMDS), "DATEX-M" 
DATa EXchange - Packetized / Packetvermittlung (Telekom, X.25), "DATEX-P" 
Digital Audio Video (Apple, Digital audio) 
[WWW] Distributed Authoring diVersioning (WWW) 
Digital Audio Visual Interoperatibility Council (org., Digital audio) 
Digital Audio Video Interactive Decoder (Digital audio) 
DAimler-Benz Vertragspartner-InformationsSystem (MBAG) 
Defense Attache Worldwide Network (network, mil.) 
Developer API eXtension (OS/2, IBM, API) 
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit that provides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. It should be installed if compatibility is needed with databases created with db1. This library used to be part of the glibc package. 
DataBase 2 (IBM, DB) 
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit that provides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. This library used to be part of the glibc package. 
DataBase 2 Client/Server (IBM, DB2, DB), "DB2 C/S" 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to DVI 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to HTML 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to PDF 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to PS 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to RTF 
DataBase 2 Software Development Toolkit (DB2, IBM, DB), "DB2 SDK" 
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit thatprovides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. The Berkeley DB includes B+tree, ExtendedLinear Hashing, Fixed and Variable-length record access methods, transactions, locking, logging, shared memory caching, and database recovery. The Berkeley DB supports C, C++, Java, and Perl APIs. It is used by many applications, including Python and Perl, so this should be installed on all systems. 
DataBase Administrator (DB) 
Drei Buchstaben Akronym 
DataBase Administration Center (DB) 
DataBase Administration System (DB) 
Database connection pooling, load balancing and write-replication DBBalancer provides facilities to transparently implement: - pooling of connections - load balancing across multiple backends - write replication to multiple backends DBBalancer is a middleware daemon that sits in between database clients, like C, C++, TCL, Java JDBC, Perl DBI, etc programs and a database server. Currently the only server supported is PostgreSQL, but the architecture is open to embrace more servers in future. Also see for more information. 
Device Bay Controller 
Double-Byte Character Set 
DataBase Description (IBM, DB) 
??? Direct Memory Access (Apple) 
Dual Brightness Enhancement Foile (LCD) 
The dbench (disk) and tbench (TCP) benchmarks dbench and tbench simulate the load of the netbench "industry standard" benchmark used to rate (windows) file servers. Unlike netbench, they do not require a lab of Microsoft Windows PCs: dbench produces the filesystem load on a netbench run, and tbench produces the network load, allowing simpler bottleneck isolation. Note that this benchmark is *not* a realistic reflection of normal server load. 
xBase <--> MySQL This program takes an xBase file and sends queries to an MySQL server to insert it into an MySQL table and vice versa. 
Converting xBase files to PostgreSQL This program takes an xBase-file and sends queries to an PostgreSQL-server to insert it into a table. 
DataBase Interface (DB) 
Interactive SQL shell with readline support Database shell with readline support [command history, tab completion etc] based on the Perl DBI: Has specific support for Oracle, MySQL, Sybase, PostgreSQL, and a generic driver that should work for anything supported by DBI. 
DataBase Language (DB) 
Dual Beam Landing Optimizer 
Dynamic Back Link Technology (WWW) 
DataBase Management, a library of functions which maintain key-content pairs in a data base. 
DataBase Manager (DB) 
DataBase Management Environment (DB) 
DataBase Management System (DB) 
Disk/Drum Based Operating System (OS) 
DataBase Publishing (DB) 
Delay Bandwidth Product 
Data Base Relational Application Directory (DB) 
Data Base Request Module (DB) 
Deutscher Bildungs-Server (DFN, WWW) 
Duplex Bus Selector 
Files used for the development of DBS source packages DBS stands for Debian Build System and is an alternative approach for source packages which want to ship a pristine source and then apply patches to it. This allows the distribution of multiple patches inside one package that are applied during the build process. Please see for further information on DBS. 
Dynamic Beam Spot Control (Eizo) 
The fastest dictionary server for SKK dbskkd-cdb is an alternate version of skkserv using cdb. 
Data Base Task Group (CODASYL, DB) 
View dBase III files Dbview is a little tool that will display dBase III and IV files. You can also use it to convert your old .dbf files for further use with Unix. It wasn't the intention to write a freaking viewer and reinvent the wheel again. Instead dbview is intend to be used in conjunction with your favourite unix text utilities like cut, recode and more. 
DatenBankVerwaltungsSystem (DB) 
the DB database archiver 
the DB database checkpoint utility 
the DB database deadlock detector 
the DB database dump utility 
the DB database dump utility 
the DB database loader 
Debugging utility to dump Berkeley DB log files. 
the DB database recovery utility 
display DB statistics 
Data Cartridge 
Device Context 
Dublin Core [meta data] 
The GNU dc arbitrary precision reverse-polish calculator GNU dc is a reverse-polish desk calculator which supports unlimited precision arithmetic. It also allows you to define and call macros. A reverse-polish calculator stores numbers on a stack. Entering a number pushes it on the stack. Arithmetic operations pop arguments off the stack and push the results. 
Data Center Automation 
Defense Communications Agency (org., USA, mil., predecessor, DISA) 
Digital Communication Associates 
Digital Controlled Amplifier (VCA) 
Distributed Communication Architecture (Sperry Univac) 
Document Center Architecture 
Document Content Architecture (IBM, CCS) 
Dynamic Cache Architecture [level] 2 
Distributed Console Access Facility 
Data link switching Client Access Protocol (DLSW, RFC 2114) 
Data Control Block 
Disk Coprocessor Board (Novell, SCSI, HBA) 
Data Communications Computer 
Data Country Code (ATM) 
Direct Client to Client (IRC) 
Display Combination Code 
DOS Command Center 
Dependable Computing for Critical Applications (conference) 
Distributed Component Computing Architecture (Star, C/S) 
Dedicated Control CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
DisContiguous Shared Segments 
Command-line CD player dcd (Dave's CD player) is a small CD player, for people who think workbone is too bloated and graphical. All functions are accessible from the command line. Loop tracks in the background, use it with 'at' as an alarm clock, whatever. 
Data Carrier Detect (MODEM, RS-232) 
DOMAIN Control DataBase (DOMAIN) 
Data Circuit terminating Equipment (X.25, CCITT, IBM, HP, DEC, Tandem, Sun) 
Data Communications Equipment 
Distributed Computing Environment (OSF) 
Distributed Computing Environment / Remote Procedure Call (DCE, RPC), "DCE/RPC" , "DCE RPC" 
Direct Connect Graphical client (GTK+) (peer-based file-sharing) dc_gui is a gtk front-end for the dctc program. dctc handles all communication with dc hubs and clients, while dcgui presents an interface that has many of the features of the original directconnect client, plus some really useful improvements. It is intended for peer-based file-sharing. In practise it works better than gnutella and other similar systems as it allows dc hubs (servers) administators to require clients to share specified amount of data. The amount is usually based on type of client's connection and it is used not to hurt or exclude anybody but to make file sharing "fair play". dcgui is still alpha, so some care has to be taken - try it out! 
Data Capture Interface (UMA) 
Device Control Interface 
Display Control Interface (MS, Windows, Intel) 
Data Control Language 
DEC Control Language (DEC) 
Digital Command [scripting] Language (DEC, VMS) 
Digital clock for the X Window System with flexible display. Dclock main feature is its great flexibility in how it can draw. You can even display the output from "date" in it such as "Wednesday, 3rd Jan". Dclock also supports setting an alarm. 
Digital Carrier Line Unit 
Data Compression Lempel-Ziv 
Digital Carrier Module 
Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment 
Data Communication Network Architecture 
Digital Controlled Oscillator 
Distributed Component Object Model (COM, MS, OLE, ActiveX) 
Desktop COmmunication Protocol (Linux, KDE) 
Perl bindings for DCOP Perl bindings for DCOP 
Python bindings for DCOP Python bindings for DCOP 
Data Compression Protocol (Motorola) 
Data Communications Protocol Standards 
Design Change Request (AIX, IBM) 
Digital Cellular Radio Conference (GSM, conference, mobile-systems) 
Data sharing Control System (NEC) 
Defense Communications System (mil., USA) 
Desktop Color Separation 
Digital Cellular System (mobile-systems) 
Digital Colour System (Adobe, Photoshop) 
Digital Control System (NEC) 
Digital Cross-connect System (DEC) 
??? (CICS, IBM) 
Data Collection Terminator (BTX) 
Discrete Cosine Transformation (MPEG, JPEG) 
Direct Connect Text Client Text console client of well known DC (Direct Connect) protocol which offers peer-based file-sharing. In practise it works better than gnutella and other similar systems as it allows dc hubs (servers) administators to require clients to share specified amount of data. The amount is usually based on type of client's connection and it is used not to hurt or exclude anybody but to make file sharing "fair play". It is *really* not intended to be used "by hand". Instead You should install and use dcgui program. 
Defense Commercial Telephone Network (mil., USA, network) 
Data Cache Unit (CPU, POWER) 
/dee-dee/ vt. [Unix: from IBM JCL] Equivalent to cat or BLT. Originally the name of a Unix copy command with special options suitable for block-oriented devices; it was often used in heavy-handed system maintenance, as in "Let's dd the root partition onto a tape, then use the boot PROM to load it back on to a new disk". The Unix dd(1) was designed with a weird, distinctly non-Unixy keyword option syntax reminiscent of IBM System/360 JCL (which had an elaborate DD `Dataset Definition' specification for I/O devices); though the command filled a need, the interface design was clearly a prank. The jargon usage is now very rare outside Unix sites and now nearly obsolete even there, as dd(1) has been deprecated for a long time (though it has no exact replacement). The term has been displaced by BLT or simple English `copy'. 
convert and copy a file 
copies a file (from standard input to standard output, by default) using specific input and output blocksizes, while optionally performing conversions on it. 
Dansk Dataforening (org., Denmark) 
Data Dictionary (SA, CASE, DB) 
Depacketization Delay 
Double Density [disks] (FDD) 
DOMAIN Defined Attribute (DOMAIN) 
converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates 
Data-Design HBCI Banking Application Components (HBCI) 
Distributed DataBase Management System (DBMS, DB) 
Device Color Characterization (XCMS) 
Display Data Channel (VESA) 
Device Data Channel [standard], level 2B (DDC) 
Double Density Compact Disk (CD, Sony) 
Double Density Compact Disk - Read (Sony, CD), "DDCD-R" 
Double Density Compact Disk - Read Write (Sony, CD), "DDCD-RW" 
Update dynamic IP address at A perl based client to update your dynamic IP address at (or other dynamic DNS services such as Hammernode, Zoneedit or EasyDNS), thus allowing you and others to use a fixed hostname ( to access your machine. This client supports both the dynamic and (near) static services, MX setting, and alternative host. It caches the address, and only attempts the update if the address actually changes. For more information on, see 
Digital Data Communication Message Protocol 
Distributed Database Connection Services /2 (IBM, DB, DRDA), "DDCS/2" 
Data Display Debugger (GNU) 
The Data Display Debugger, a graphical debugger frontend. The Data Display Debugger (DDD) is a popular graphical user interface to UNIX debuggers such as GDB, DBX, XDB, JDB and others. Besides ``usual'' front-end features such as viewing source texts and breakpoints, DDD provides an interactive graphical data display, where data structures are displayed as graphs. Using DDD, you can reason about your application by watching its data, not just by viewing it execute lines of source code. Other DDD features include: debugging of programs written in Ada, C, C++, Chill, Fortran, Java, Modula, Pascal, Perl and Python; machine-level debugging; hypertext source navigation and lookup; breakpoint, backtrace, and history editors; preferences and settings editors; program execution in terminal emulator window; debugging on remote host; on-line manual; interactive help on the Motif user interface; GDB/DBX/XDB command-line interface with full editing, history, and completion capabilities. This version is linked against Lesstif, an LGPL-ed implementation of Motif. 
Dynamic Data Exchange 
Digital Data Exchange System (ANSI) 
Data Decryption Field (cryptography) 
Device Dependent Interface 
Device Driver Interface 
Dual [RAS] Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM, RAS), "D-DIMM" 
Device Development / Driver Kit (MS) 
Data Definition Language 
Document Description Language 
Distributed Data Management (IBM, CCS) 
Display Driver Management Layer 
Defense Data Network (USA, network, mil.) 
Distributed DOMAIN Naming Service (TCP/IP) 
Dynamic DOMAIN Name Service (OS/2, IBM) 
Dynamic Drive Overlay (HDD, Ontrack) 
Distributed Denial Of Service [attack], "DDoS" 
DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)
A DDoS attack is one that pits many machines against a single victim. An example is the attacks of February 2000 against some of the biggest websites. Even though these websites have a theoretical bandwidth of a gigabit/second, distributing many agents throughout the Internet flooding them with traffic can bring them down. Key point: The Internet is defenseless against these attacks. The best defense is for ISPs to do "egress filtering": prevent packets from going outbound that do not originate from IP addresses assigned to the ISP. This cuts down on the problem of spoofed IP addresses. History: The original DDoS tools were clonebots used during IRC wars. See also: zombie. 
Datagram Delivery Protocol (AppleTalk) 
Distributed Data Processing 
Double Data Rate (SDR) 
Dynamic Desktop Router (Cogent) 
Defense Data Repository System (mil., USA) 
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM, RAM, IC), "DDR-SDRAM" 
Double Data Rate Static Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
Digital Data Service / System 
Digital Data Storage (Sony, HP, DAT, ISO, ANSI, ECMA, Streamer) 
Direct Digital Sampling (CD-RW, SCSI) 
Distributed Directory Service (DCE) 
Tools for using DDS features of DAT drives with GNU tar This tool makes use of the fast seek command of DAT devices. Files from a selected file archive can be extracted within one minute. An undocumented c-shell script scsi_vendor is provided which may help in learning more about an unknown SCSI device. It is used by the mt-dds tool. scsi_vendor requires the tcsh flavor of c-shell. 
Digital Data Service Adapter 
Digital Data Storage - Data Compression (DDS, DCLZ), "DDS-DC" 
Simple Kana to Kanji conversion program Daredevil SKK is a branch of SKK (Simple Kana to Kanji conversion program, an input method of Japanese). It forked from the main trunk, SKK version 10.56. It consists of a simple core and many optional programs which provide extensive features, however, our target is to more simplify core, and more expand its optional features. 
Double Dynamic Suspension System (Asus, CD-ROM) 
Dynamic Debugging Tool (DEC) 
Dynamic DNS Tools Client. This is the client side implementation of the DDTP protocol. It allows you to assign a fixed FQDN to any hosts that connects to the internet using a dynamic IP. You have to register with a DDT service provider in order to use it. 
Dynamic DNS Tools Server. This is the server side implementation of the DDTP protocol. This is useful only if you want to provide a service similar to the one at You should not install unless you know what you are doing. 
Dialog Data Unit (BTX) 
DatenDirektVerbindung (Telekom) 
DES-DES-Verfahren (cryptography, HBCI) 
Dialog Data Validation 
Daimler-benz DatenVerbundSystem (MBAG) 
Dynamic Dispatch Virtual Tables 
Digital Display Working Group (org., LCD) 
Distributed Data eXchange 
DatenElement (HBCI) 
Deterministischer Endlicher Automat 
adj. 1. Non-functional; down; crashed. Especially used of hardware. 2. At XEROX PARC, software that is working but not undergoing continued development and support. 3. Useless; inaccessible. Antonym: `live'. Compare dead code. 
n. 1. [techspeak] A situation wherein two or more processes are unable to proceed because each is waiting for one of the others to do something. A common example is a program communicating to a server, which may find itself waiting for output from the server before sending anything more to it, while the server is similarly waiting for more input from the controlling program before outputting anything. (It is reported that this particular flavor of deadlock is sometimes called a `starvation deadlock', though the term `starvation' is more properly used for situations where a program can never run simply because it never gets high enough priority. Another common flavor is `constipation', in which each process is trying to send stuff to the other but all buffers are full because nobody is reading anything.) See deadly embrace. 2. Also used of deadlock-like interactions between humans, as when two people meet in a narrow corridor, and each tries to be polite by moving aside to let the other pass, but they end up swaying from side to side without making any progress because they always move the same way at the same time. 
deallocate unused virtual terminals 
Tool to handle debian package archives. This tool can create a potato like file structure that dselect, apt-get and similar tools can use for easier installation. You just have to place the package files into a incoming directory and the tool does the sorting (if you place the generated '.changes' file there too). OBSERVE! This package will create a cronjob that does the actual sorting. 
Debian Auxiliary Programs This package contains Perl programs and modules to build and publish Debian packages. debaux-build automatically downloads APT sources before building, applies patches and additional sources. It has options to build the packages in an existing chroot environment, check the generated packages with lintian, install the created packages on your local system or turn them into RPM packages. debaux-build has experimental support for downloading Perl modules from CPAN and creating the necessary Debian packaging files. debaux-publish uploads packages and runs the scripts to create the APT sources and packages files on the remote system. debaux-publish doesn't support the pool structure yet. The DebAux::Debconf module provides an easy-to-use interface for the Debconf::Client::ConfModule::get function. 
The bug tracking system based on the active Debian BTS Debian has a bug tracking system which files details of bugs reported by users and developers. Each bug is given a number, and is kept on file until it is marked as having been dealt with. The system is mainly controlled by e-mail, but the bug reports can be viewed using WWW. This version is fully functional, but it does not autoconfig, see /usr/share/doc/debbugs/README.Debian after installation. Note: there might be some appearance issues where the a display variable doesn't expand as expected. 
Access the Debian BTS from within Emacs This package contains: * debian-bug.el, an Elisp function to submit a bug from within Emacs. * gnus-BTS.el, an enhancement to Gnus to provide buttons on bug numbers seen in Debian-related messages. 
Debian configuration management system Debconf is a configuration management system for debian packages. Packages use Debconf to ask questions when they are installed. 
communicate with debconf 
copy a debconf db 
extract a language from a templates file 
load template file into debconf database 
merge together multiple debconf template files 
dummy package for upgrade purposes This is an empty package which depends on debconf. It exists only to ensure smooth upgrades from potato to woody, and can be safely removed at any time. 
debconf utilities This package contains some small utilities to aid users and developers. There are utilities to help manage debconf databases, others to manage translated template files and a program to communicate directly with debconf from the command line. 
Install only wanted Debian packages debfoster is a wrapper program for apt and dpkg. When first run, it will ask you which of the installed packages you want to keep installed. After that, it maintains a list of packages that you want to have installed on your system. It uses this list to detect packages that have been installed only because other packages depended on them. If one of these dependencies changes, debfoster will take notice, and ask if you want to remove the old package. This helps you to maintain a clean Debian install, without old (mainly library) packages lying around that aren't used any more. 
download/compile source and binary Debian packages debget downloads source and binary Debian packages by name. It doesn't require a local copy of the Packages files, instead it lists directories on the FTP site to find out what versions are available. debget can also optionally unpack and compile source packages, and even install the generated binary packages. If you intend to use these features you should install the devscripts package for the dscverify script it contains. 
helper programs for debian/rules A collection of programs that can be used in a debian/rules file to automate common tasks related to building debian packages. Programs are included to install various files into your package, compress files, fix file permissions, integrate your package with the debian menu system, suidmanager, doc-base, etc. Most debian packages use debhelper as part of their build process. 
DMA Extended Bus Interface (Acorn, DMA) 
Debian GNU/Linux
The Debian Project is currently the largest volunteer based distribution provider. Debian has an old stable version 2.2 (potato), a newer stable version 3.0r1 (woody), and less stable but more current branches available. 
Tools for building (Official) Debian CD set Debian-cd is the official tool for building Debian CD set since the potato release. It was formerly called YACS (for Yet Another CD Script). Its goal is to facilitate the creation of customized Debian CD set. 
Text from: Debian GNU/Linux: Guide to Installation and Usage This package will install the full text in HTML and PostScript formats from the book "Debian GNU/Linux: Guide to Installation and Usage" by Debian developers John Goerzen and Ossama Othman (ISBN 0-7357-0914-9). You can find the installed items under /usr/doc/debian-guide. 
Debian-Ham is a floppy distribution specifically for contesting and logging. It is based on uClibc, busybox, and tlf. The current scheme uses a LILO boot floppy with a minix root floppy. Network support is included to connect to a DX cluster. The initial Freshmeat announcment was for version 0.3, released July 21, 2002. Version 0.5 was released April 24, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
This is an internal project to make Debian an OS that children of all ages will want to use. Our initial focus will be on producing something for children up to age 8. Once we have accomplished this, our next target age range is 7 to 12. By the time children reach their teens, they should be comfortable with using Debian without any special modifications. 
GnuPG (and obsolete PGP) keys of Debian Developers The Debian project wants developers to digitally sign the announcements of their packages with GnuPG, to protect against forgeries. This package contains keyrings of GnuPG and (deprecated) PGP keys of developers. 
Debian-Med is an internal Debian project to support tasks of people in medical care. The goal of Debian-Med is to build a a complete system for all tasks in medical care, using only free software. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Debian Policy Manual and related documents This package contains: - Debian Policy Manual - Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) - Authoritative list of virtual package names - Paper about libc6 migration - Policy checklist for upgrading your packages It also replaces the old Packaging Manual; most of the still-relevant content is now included as appendices to the Policy Manual. 
Scripts used to run tests against an installed Debian system This package contains tests and the framework to run them, and test provided by other packages to test themselves. The intent is that this should build into a test suite that provides a reasonable level of confidence that a Debian system is working correctly. 
DebianDoc SGML DTD and formatting tools This is an SGML-based documentation formatting package used for the Debian manuals. It reads markup files and produces DVI (via LaTeX), HTML, Info (via Texinfo), LaTeX, PostScript (via DVI), Texinfo, and plain text (with overstrikes a la troff as well as without) files. The LaTeX based output needs the libpaperg, tetex-bin and tetex-extra packages. The Texinfo based output needs the texinfo package. 
Miscellaneous utilities specific to Debian. Debianutils includes installkernel mkboot mktemp readlink run-parts savelog sensible-editor sensible-pager tempfile which. 
Debianizing Tool and automated binary generation Eases the development and maintenance of Debian Sourcepackages. - deb-make: Generate a debian style sourcepackage from a regular sourcecode archive. Customizes control files. Provides example setup for debstd that is usually usable with minimal editing. - "debstd" which has the following abilities: - Automates compression of documentation, localizes manpages compresses and installs them. - Supports multiple binaries generated from a single source package - Generates maintainer scripts for you and installs all scripts for you in the proper locations with the proper permissions. - Can perform modifications on a variety of important debian config files through generation of proper maintainer scripts. - Runs dpkg-shlibdeps on all ELF binaries for you and generates correct shlibs file for provided libraries automatically. - Checks symlinks to manpages /documentation and redirects them if a file was compressed. 
Bootstrap a basic Debian system debootstrap is used to create a Debian base system from scratch, without requiring the availability of dpkg or apt. It does this by downloading .deb files from a mirror site, and carefully unpacking them into a directory which can eventually be chrooted into. 
Find orphaned libraries. deborphan finds "orphaned" packages on your system. It determines which packages have no other packages depending on their installation, and shows you a list of these packages. It is most useful when finding libraries, but it can be used on packages in all sections. 
Debian Packages/Sources file partition tool debpartial is a program to separate Packages.gz and Sources.gz files by size of packages and sources. It can be used in the case of: * creating 1 DVD/CD Debian (source & binary) * creating Debian Daily Diff CD. * separating the debian archive into several harddisks. * mirroring packages only you want (using debmirror etc). 
A package for use at expos. Debroster starts up an eterm with the Debian logo as the background, with a randomly-ordered list of the current developers scrolling up the screen. Use it to show just how many people contribute to the Debian project - and so why we are so damn good :-) 
Debian Package Signature Verification Tool This tool inspects and verifies package signatures based on predetermined policies. 
applies cryptographics signatures to Debian packages debsigs is a program that allows GPG signatures to be embedded inside .deb packages. These signatures can later be verified to ensure the authenticity of the contents of the .deb. 
Verify installed package files against MD5 checksums. debsums can verify the integrity of installed package files against MD5 checksums installed by the package, or generated from a .deb archive. 
ext2 file system debugger 
A utility program, often included in compilers or interpreters, that helps programmers find and fix syntax errors and other errors in source code. 
The process of locating and correcting errors in a program. 
Emacs mode for viewing Debian packages After installing, you can use C-d in dired mode to view the .deb file on the current line. Allows both the structure and contents of a .deb archive to be examined. 
Wrapper for dpkg/apt-get 'debwrap' is a wrapper program for dpkg/apt-get, which reply questions from each package described in {pre,post}-inst scripts. 
/dek/ n. 1. v. Verbal (and only rarely written) shorthand for decrement, i.e. `decrease by one'. Especially used by assembly programmers, as many assembly languages have a dec mnemonic. Antonym: inc. 2. n. Commonly used abbreviation for Digital Equipment Corporation, later deprecated by DEC itself in favor of "Digital" and now entirely obsolete following the buyout by Compaq. Before the killer micro revolution of the late 1980s, hackerdom was closely symbiotic with DEC's pioneering timesharing machines. The first of the group of cultures described by this lexicon nucleated around the PDP-1 (see TMRC). Subsequently, the PDP-6, PDP-10, PDP-20, PDP-11 and VAX were all foci of large and important hackerdoms, and DEC machines long dominated the ARPANET and Internet machine population. DEC was the technological leader of the minicomputer era (roughly 1967 to 1987), but its failure to embrace microcomputers and Unix early cost it heavily in profits and prestige after silicon got cheap. Nevertheless, the microprocessor design tradition owes a major debt to the PDP-11 instruction set, and every one of the major general-purpose microcomputer OSs so far (CP/M, MS-DOS, Unix, OS/2, Windows NT) was either genetically descended from a DEC OS, or incubated on DEC hardware, or both. Accordingly, DEC was for many years still regarded with a certain wry affection even among many hackers too young to have grown up on DEC machines. DEC reclaimed some of its old reputation among techies in the first half of the 1990s. The success of the Alpha, an innovatively-designed and very high-performance killer micro, helped a lot. So did DEC's newfound receptiveness to Unix and open systems in general. When Compaq acquired DEC at the end of 1998 there was some concern that these gains would be lost along with the DEC nameplate, but the merged company has so far turned out to be culturally dominated by the ex-DEC side. 
Digital Equipment Corporation (manufacturer) 
DEutscher Commercial Internet eXchange (Internet), "DE-CIX" 
Digital Equipment Corporation NETwork (DEC) 
decryption (decrypt, decipher)
The opposite of encryption/encrypt/encipher, decryption is the process of taking encrypted data (called ciphertext) and converting it back to the original plaintext. 
Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (DFUe) 
Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (org., DEC, user group) 
Editor Tool with Japanese extension for beginners. The very simple editor with GNOME Environment for beginners. DEdit can handle gzipped files and some Japanese encoded files. (Japanese encode type: EUC-JP,ISO-2022-JP, SJIS) Also can convert Japanese string encode types. Original DEdit is distributed as a Debian native package. 
The "defaults" are the settings of a system before it has been configured. Key point: Security irritates customers who prefer products that are easy to use. Therefore, most vendors make the same trade off. They ship their systems with the best "out-of-box" experience, and as a result most boxes are easily hacked in their default state. The more a vendor touts its ease-of-use, the more likely hackers will find that vendor's products easy to hack. See also: samples. 
defender clone with penguins "Defendguin" is based loosely on William's classic arcade game, "Defender." Some recognizable stars in the realm of modern operating systems should be fairly obvious. A certain monopoly-owning bad guy has been cloned hundreds of times by an unknown alien race. They are now attacking earth, kidnapping little penguinoids and converting them into mutants. Helping them on their way are some other nasty alien ships, of which there are plenty... 
Definite Linux
Definite Linux was a boxed set of desktop Linux and applications. It hasn't been maintained since late 2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
Debian Font Manager -- automatic font configuration framework. Defoma, which stands for DEbian FOnt MAnager, provides a framework of automatic font configuration. An application whose configuration of fonts requires users' hand can make the configuration process automated through Defoma, by installing a Defoma-configuration script to Defoma. The script gets called whenever a font is installed and removed, so that the script updates the configuration. Font packages should register their fonts to Defoma in order to have them configured automatically for applications. 
configure a specific application about fonts registered in Debian Font Manager. 
register/unregister font(s) to Debian Font Manager 
generate font hints. 
Manage id-cache of Debian Font Manager 
register fonts installed in a PostScript printer. 
Reconfigure all from zero. 
Modify a rulefile of Defoma font substitution system. 
ext2, minix and xiafs filesystem defragmenter As a file system is used, data tends to become more and more scattered across the disk, degrading performance. A disk defragmenter simply re-organises the data on the disk, so that individual files occupy a single sequential set of disk blocks, and all the free space on the disk is collected together in a single region. Thie generally means that reading a whole file is faster, and disk accesses in general are more efficient. 
The process of relocating broken or separated files from random, non-contiguous locations on a physical disk platter to contiguous locations, which improves the speed and reliability of the disk. 
DatenElementGruppen (HBCI) 
The term degauss means to erase magnetic media. They work by creating magnetic fields thousands of times stronger than that used to store data on magnetic devices, thereby erasing them. Degaussing is a destructive process. It generates a lot of heat which can physicaly damage the device, and it will remove the "low level" formatting that is shipped with the drive. Note that some SCSI hard-drives can be low-level formatted in the field. Best practice: Degauss all floppy disks and hard-drives before throwing them away. A lot of data from corporations have been recovered from defective disks that were thrown away. An equivalent for CD-ROMs is to put them in the microwave. See also: wipe. 
framework for running test suites on software tools. DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs. Its purpose is to provide a single front end for all tests. DejaGnu provides a layer of abstraction which allows you to write tests that are portable to any host or target where a program must be tested. All tests have the same output format. DejaGnu is written in `expect', which in turn uses "Tcl"--Tool command language. 
see rm. 
remove a user or group from the system 
DeLi Linux
DeLi Linux stands for "Desktop Light" Linux, a desktop distribution for older computers, from 486 to Pentium MMX 166 or so. Slackware 7.1-based DeLi includes plenty of desktop software such as email clients, a graphical Web browser, an office package with word processor and spreadsheet, etc. A full install, including XFree86 and development tools, needs no more than 300 MB of harddisk space. DeLi uses the 2.2.19 kernel for a smaller footprint and rocksolid stability on older hardware. Initial version 0.1 was released November 3, 2002. Version 0.2 was released March 19, 2003. 
/de-lim'-in-ay-t*r/ n. [portmanteau, delimiter + eliminate] A string or pattern used to delimit text into fields, but which is itself eliminated from the resulting list of fields. This jargon seems to have originated among Perl hackers in connection with the Perl split() function; however, it has been sighted in live use among Java and even Visual Basic programmers. 
Local mail delivery agent Deliver delivers mail locally. Any user can write a shell (or perl or ...) script that processes each incoming message, possibly filing or deleting it based on content. The system administrator may also install scripts that process _all_ incoming messages. 
Digital Ethernet Local Network Interconnect (ethernet) 
Digital Ethernet Lowpower Q-bus network Adapter (ethernet) 
Developing European Learning through Technology Advance 
n. 1. [techspeak] A quantitative change, especially a small or incremental one (this use is general in physics and engineering). "I just doubled the speed of my program!" "What was the delta on program size?" "About 30 percent." (He doubled the speed of his program, but increased its size by only 30 percent.) 2. [Unix] A diff, especially a diff stored under the set of version-control tools called SCCS (Source Code Control System) or RCS (Revision Control System). 3. n. A small quantity, but not as small as epsilon. The jargon usage of delta and epsilon stems from the traditional use of these letters in mathematics for very small numerical quantities, particularly in `epsilon-delta' proofs in limit theory (as in the differential calculus). The term delta is often used, once epsilon has been mentioned, to mean a quantity that is slightly bigger than epsilon but still very small. "The cost isn't epsilon, but it's delta" means that the cost isn't totally negligible, but it is nevertheless very small. Common constructions include `within delta of --', `within epsilon of --': that is, `close to' and `even closer to'. 
The set of changes that RCS records for an RCS file. 
Digital Ethernet Lowpower Unibus network Adapter (ethernet) 
DEutsche Linux User Group (org., user group, Linux) 
remove a user or group from the system 
Distributed Enterprise Management ARChitecture (Banyan, VINES), "DeMarc" 
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
Systems or sections of a private local network that are made publicly available and visible from outside networks such as the Internet. Usually, a publicly-accessible resource (such as an HTTP server) is placed on a DMZ to protect the internal network while maintaining proper functionality for outside users. 
/de'moh/ [short for `demonstration'] 1. v. To demonstrate a product or prototype. A far more effective way of inducing bugs to manifest than any number of test runs, especially when important people are watching. 2. n. The act of demoing. "I've gotta give a demo of the drool-proof interface; how does it work again?" 3. n. Esp. as `demo version', can refer either to an early, barely-functional version of a program which can be used for demonstration purposes as long as the operator uses exactly the right commands and skirts its numerous bugs, deficiencies, and unimplemented portions, or to a special version of a program (frequently with some features crippled) which is distributed at little or no cost to the user for enticement purposes. 4. [demoscene] A sequence of demoeffects (usually) combined with self-composed music and hand-drawn ("pixelated") graphics. These days (1997) usually built to attend a compo. Often called `eurodemos' outside Europe, as most of the demoscene activity seems to have gathered in northern Europe and especially Scandinavia. See also intro, dentro. 
demo mode
n. 1. [Sun] The state of being heads down in order to finish code in time for a demo, usually due yesterday. 2. A mode in which video games sit by themselves running through a portion of the game, also known as `attract mode'. Some serious apps have a demo mode they use as a screen saver, or may go through a demo mode on startup (for example, the Microsoft Windows opening screen -- which lets you impress your neighbors without actually having to put up with Microsloth Windows). 
DemoLinux is a complete distribution on a bootable CDROM. Take Linux with you and run Linux anywhere. The website shows multi-lingual support for English, French, Italian, Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese. DemoLinux 3.01p15 was released July 27, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
n. 1. [MIT] A portion of a program that is not invoked explicitly, but that lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. See daemon. The distinction is that demons are usually processes within a program, while daemons are usually programs running on an operating system. 2. [outside MIT] Often used equivalently to daemon -- especially in the Unix world, where the latter spelling and pronunciation is considered mildly archaic. Demons in sense 1 are particularly common in AI programs. For example, a knowledge-manipulation program might implement inference rules as demons. Whenever a new piece of knowledge was added, various demons would activate (which demons depends on the particular piece of data) and would create additional pieces of knowledge by applying their respective inference rules to the original piece. These new pieces could in turn activate more demons as the inferences filtered down through chains of logic. Meanwhile, the main program could continue with whatever its primary task was. 
Digital Ethernet Multi-Port Repeater (ethernet) 
DeMuDi Agnula
The DeMuDi Agnula Project aims to create a Debian-based distribution for multi-media work. This is not a mini-distribution, but it is special purpose. The first official release, DeMuDi Agnula 0.9, is due out in November 2002 [as of July 10, 2002]. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Directory Enabled Networking (MS) 
Document Enabled Networking (Novell, Xerox) 
A gtk+ frontend to GNU Lilypond GNU Denemo is a GUI musical score editor written in C/gtk+. It is intended primarily as a frontend to GNU Lilypond, but is adaptable to other computer-music-related purposes as well. 
denial of service (DoS)
A type of network-based attack in which a malicious user sends massive amounts of unsolicited (and sometimes useless) data to a recipient system or network, causing congestion and availability issues for legitimate users. 
DEutsches Network Information Center, (org., Internet), "DE-NIC"
The dependency analyst. This little script analyses the dependencies of a set of files, and produces a full detailed report or such an output, that can be passed to another program. Comes handy when setting up a chrooted environment... 
Digital Ethernet Personal Computer-bus Adapter (ethernet) 
The proper functionality of one package may rely on the existence of another package, meaning there is a dependency. RPM will not normally allow packages with unresolved dependencies to be installed without explicit intervention by the user. 
handle dependency descriptions for loadable kernel modules 
adj. Said of a program or feature that is considered obsolescent and in the process of being phased out, usually in favor of a specified replacement. Deprecated features can, unfortunately, linger on for many years. This term appears with distressing frequency in standards documents when the committees writing the documents realize that large amounts of extant (and presumably happily working) code depend on the feature(s) that have passed out of favor. See also dusty deck. [Usage note: don't confuse this word with `depreciate', or the verb form `deprecate' with `depreciated`. They are different words; see any dictionary for discussion.] 
Digital Ethernet Q-bus Network Adapter (ethernet) 
Digital Ethernet REPeater (ethernet) 
removes roff and preprocessor constructs deroff strips out roff constructs and macros. The preprocessor (eqn, tbl, pic, grap, and vgrind) sections are removed entirely. The resulting output is suitable for spelling with e.g. spell(1). 
Data Encryption Standard (cryptography, NIST, IBM) 
Destination End System 
DES (Data Encryption Standard)
A controversial IBM developed encryption technique that was adopted by the US government for non-classified information, and widely used by financial institutions to transfer large sums of money electronically. Critics charge that DES technology was deliberately weakened so the government would be able to break DES-encoded messages when it chose to do so. 
DES (Data Encryption Standard, FIPS 46-3)
In cryptography, DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the most popular algorithm for encrypting data. It is standardized by the United States government (ANSI X9.17) as well as the ISO. Key point: DES ushered in a new era of cryptography. Before DES, strong encryption was only available to large governments and militaries. Cryptography research was similarly limited. Anything that the average person might use could easily be cracked by a major government. DES created a well-defined, easily verifiable security architecture that was available to anyone. DES-capable products flooded the market. Beyond making encryption products available to anyone, DES essentially created the cryptographic community. Before DES researchers toiled away under government/big-business secrecy, After DES, cryptography became a normal computer-science subject. Whereas DES itself was developed by secretive government agencies (NSA) and mammoth corporations (IBM), DES's replacement will likely be created by relatively independent researchers and the cryptographic community as a whole. Contrast: As of the year 2000, DES has been supplanted by the newer AES. Because DES has only 56-bit keys, it can easily be cracked within hours. Contrast: An increasingly popular form of DES is Triple DES which increases the key strength to 112 bits. History: In September, 1998, a German court ruled DES "out of date and unsafe" for banking applications. 
Data Encryption Standard/Cipher Block Chaining (DES), "DES/CBC" 
[PPP] Data Encryption Standard Encryption protocol (PPP, RFC 1969) 
DEsign by Simulation and REndering om parallel architectures [project] (ESPRIT) 
Desk Guide Applet for the GNOME panel. 
A small utility for creating desktop icons. DeskLaunch is a small utility for creating desktop icons using pixmaps. A simple click will launch the desired application. 
A root menu for X11 window managers DeskMenu is a root menu program which is activated by clicking the root window. It is configured from a .deskmenurc file in your home directory. DeskMenu is useful for window managers which do not provide a menu such as Oroborus. 
The operating system user interface, which is designed to represent an office desk with objects on it. Rather than physical telephones, lamps, in/out baskets, etc., the operating system desktop uses program and data icons, windows, taskbars, and the like. There are many different desktop environments available for Linux, including KDE, GNOME, and X11, that can be installed by a user. (Also, see GUI, Window manager and X Window System.) 
Visual component of a graphical user interface upon which icons, programs, and other visual components appear. 
desktop manager
See graphical login. 
Desktop Video
The merging of video, telephone, and computer technologies for the purpose of delivering multimedia information and telecommunication capabilities at the individual computer workstation. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
.desktop files are used to describe an application for inclusion in GNOME or KDE menus. This package contains desktop-file-validate which checks whether a .desktop file complies with the specification at, and desktop-file-install which installs a desktop file to the standard directory, optionally fixing it up in the process. 
Lycoris, formerly Redmond Linux, has a distribution targeted toward Windows users that are ready for a change. Desktop/LX Update 2 was released July 29, 2002. 
Data Element Standardization Program 
Digital Ethernet Single Port Repeater (ethernet) 
DEStek [group] Real Time (OS, Destek Group), "DES RT" 
Digital Ethernet thin-wire STation Adapter (ethernet) 
Attach/detach from interactive processes across the network detachtty lets you run interactive programs non-interactively, and connect to them over the network when you do need to interact with them. It's designed for long-running Lisp processes. Unlike screen, it works in emacs comint modes, and unlike qcmu, it deals correctly with passing on a SIGINT sent to it. Needs ssh for operation over the net. 
DEutsche TElekom BERliner KOMmunikationssystem, "DeTeBerkom" 
"probably the worlds nastiest Linux-distribution" You get just enough tools to download everything you need over the internet and build the packages on your computer. Could be very educational. 
Digital Ethernet Unibus Network Adapter (ethernet) 
The Red Hat Linux operating system uses file system entries to representdevices (CD-ROMs, floppy drives, etc.) attached to the machine. All of these entries are in the /dev tree (although they do not have to be). This package contains the most commonly used /dev entries. The dev package is a basic part of your Red Hat Linux system and it needs to be installed. 
The dev86 package provides an assembler and linker for real mode 80x86instructions. You need to have this package installed in order to build programs that run in real mode from their sources, including LILOand the kernel's bootstrapping code. You should install dev86 if you intend to build programs that run in realmode from their source code. 
DEVice File System (Linux, DRI), "DevFS" 
Daemon for the device filesystem This daemon sets up the /dev filesystem for use. It creates required symbolic links in /dev and also creates (if so configured, as is the default) symbolic links to the "old" names for devices. 
The devfsd programme is a daemon, run by the system bootscripts which can provide for intelligent management ofdevice entries in the Device Filesystem (devfs). As part of its setup phase devfsd creates certain symbolic links which are compiled into the code. These links are required by /usr/src/linux/Documentation/devices.txt. This behaviour may change in future revisions .devfsd will read the special control file .devfsd in amounted devfs, listening for the creation and removal of device entries (this is termed a change operation). For each change operation, devfsd can take many actions. The daemon will normally run itself in the background and send messages to syslog. The opening of the syslog service is automatically delayed until /dev/log is created. At startup, before switching to daemon mode, devfsd willscan the mounted device tree and will generate synthetic REGISTER events for each leaf node. 
Any hardware component or peripheral, such as a printer, modem, montor, or mouse, that can receive and/or receive data. Some devices require special software, called device drivers. 
In Linux devices are accessed as files which are located in the /dev directory. The entries contains the device numbers used by the kernel. 
Device Driver
A program that serves as an intermediary between the operating system and a device (ports, drives, monitors, printers, etc.) defining to the operating system what capabilities the device has and translating the operating system commands into instructions the device understands. 
device driver
code that controls and communicate with a device such as a graphics card, sound card or other peripherals. 
device driver
See device module. 
Device independence
The capability of a program, operating system or programming language to work on a varity of computers or peripherals, despite their electronic variation. UNIX, an operating system for multiuser computer systems, is designed to run on a wide variety of coputers, from personal computers to mainframes. PostScript, a page description language for high-quality printing, is used by many printer manufacturers. 
device module
Software that communicates directly with a computer hardware component or peripheral, allowing it to be used by the operating system; also referred to as a driver. 
Device name
In DOS, a three-letter abbreviation that registers to a peripheral device. 
Device node
An object in the hardware tree that represents a piece of hardware. 
Devil-Linux is a special Linux distribution used for Firewalls and Routers. The goal of Devil-Linux is to have a small, customizable and secure Linux OS. It comes on a CDROM and saves configuration data on a floppy disk, and it has several optional packages. Devil-Linux 0.5RC1 (Beta) was released May 30, 2002. Devil-Linux 0.5 was released September 2, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
Scripts to make the life of a Debian Package maintainer easier Contains the following scripts, dependencies/recommendations shown in brackets afterwards: - bts: A command-line tool for manipulating the BTS [www-browser, mailx] - dch, debchange: Automagically add entries to debian/changelog files - debclean: Purge a Debian source tree [fakeroot] - debuild: Wrapper to build a package without having to su or worry about how to invoke dpkg to build using fakeroot. Also deals with common environment problems, umask etc. [fakeroot, lintian, gnupg] - debdiff: Compare two versions of a Debian package to check for added and removed files [wdiff] - debpkg: Dpkg wrapper to be able to manage/test packages without su [perl-suid] - debi, debc: Convenience scripts to install a package and display its contents - debit: Convenience script to install a package and run debian-test on it [debian-test] - debrelease: Wrapper around dupload or dput [dupload | dput, ssh] - dscverify: Verify the integrity of a Debian package from the .changes or .dsc files [gnupg, debian-keyring, libdigest-md5-perl] - debsign, debrsign: sign a .changes/.dsc pair without needing any of the rest of the package to be present; can sign the pair remotely or fetch the pair from a remote machine for signing [gnupg, debian-keyring, ssh] - dpkg-depcheck, dpkg-genbuilddeps: Determine the packages used during the build of a Debian package; useful for determining the Build-Depends control field needed [build-essential, strace] - grep-excuses: grep the update_excuses.html file for your packages [libwww-perl] - mergechanges: merge .changes files from a package built on different architectures - plotchangelog: view a nice plot of the data in a changelog file [libtimedate-perl, gnuplot] - uupdate: Integrate upstream changes into a source package [patch] - uscan: Scan upstream sites for new releases of packages [libwww-perl] Also included are a set of example mail filters for filtering mail from Debian mailing lists using exim, procmail, etc. 
hierarchical, prioritized todo list manager Manipulate and display a hierarchical (ie "subtasks") and prioritized list of things with a coloured CLI. 
generate XFree86 X server configuration file from debconf database values 
Direction Flag (assembler) 
Disk Free (Unix) 
reports the amount of disk space used by the specified files, and by each directory in the hierarchies rooted at the specified files. 
Data Flow Diagram / DatenFlussDiagramm (CASE, SA) 
Deutsches FernerkundungsDatenzentrum (org.) 
Data Facility Distributed Storage Management (IBM) 
Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft (org.) 
Digital Facility Interface 
Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Kuenstliche Intelligenz (org., KI) 
The Desktop-File-Manager for X11 DFM is a desktop-manager for linux and other UNIX-OS. Files are shown as icons and every folder has it's own window. The desktop-background is a special folder in the home-directory. The idea is to write a filemanager like the OS/2 WPS. Therefore, this filemanager is optimally used together with the window manager icewm and warp3 theme. It also works with well ratpoison or wmaker anyway. 
Deutsches ForschungsNetz [e.V.] (org., ISP) 
Deutsches ForschungsNetz Computer Emergency Response Team (DFN, Internet), "DFN CERT" 
GUI frontend for defoma, DEbian FOnt MAnager. dfontmgr is a GUI frontend for defoma. You can see the fonts registered to defoma, their hints, their status (which applications they have succeeded or failed to register), the applications using defoma framework, information about the applications and the contents of their id-caches. You can also register a font by drag-and-drop a font file, which will generate as many hints as possible by asking you some questions, unregister a registered font, change hints of and re-register a registered font. If a defoma-aware application uses an id-cache and if there's an identifier conflict (which means some fonts provides the same identifier) in the id-cache, you can indicate which font should provide the identifier. GUI versions of some utilities in defoma and psfontmgr are also installed. 
Data Facility Product 
Digital Flat Panel [group / port] (LCD, org., Compaq, Acer, Fujitsu, ATI, Matrox, Samsung, ...) 
Distributed Functional Plane (IN) 
Digital Flat Panel Port (LCD, DFP) 
Direct File System (Novell, Oracle) 
Distributed File System (DCE) 
Direct File System Access 
Debian Free Software Guildlines (Linux, Dabian) 
Discrete Fourier Transformation 
Distributed Function Terminal (IBM) 
Drive Fitness Test (IBM, IDE, HDD) 
Data File Utility (IBM, ADT) 
Direct Graphics Access (XAA, X-Windows) 
test program for the XFree86-DGA extension 
DISA Global Control Center (DISA) 
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Dokumentation [e.v.] (org.) 
AMPRNet dynamic IPIP encapsulation routing daemon. This package provides both a client and server that implement the AMPRNet dynamic gateway routing protocol devised by Barry Siegfried, K2MF, and others. You will probably only make sensible use of this package if you are an amateur radio operator wishing to operate an encapsulating gateway. 
Direct Graphics Interface Standard 
Dissimilar Gateway Protocol 
Differential Global Positioning System (GPS) 
Correct GPS location with DGPS signal from internet Differential GPS is a technique to apply a correction factor from a known location to a GPS signal. This can substantially reduce the uncertainty in the GPS location. Normally the correction signal is acquired using a special radio receiver: dgpsip allow you to receive a DGPS signal via TCP/IP, and send it to the GPS connected to your serial port. 
Display GhostScript (GNU, GNUStep, PS) 
Defense Goal Security Architecture (mil., USA) 
Data General / UniX (Unix), "DG/UX" 
Distributed Host Command Facility (IBM, CCS) 
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol which allows individual devices on an IP network to get their own network configuration information (IP address, subnetmask, broadcast address,and more) from a DHCP server. The overall purpose of DHCP is to make iteasier to administer a large network. To use DHCP on your network, install a DHCP service (or relay agent),and on clients run a DHCP client daemon. The dhclient package provides the ISC DHCP client daemon. 
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Client 
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol which allows individual devices on an IP network to get their own network configuration information (IP address, subnetmask, broadcast address,etc.) from a DHCP server. The overall purpose of DHCP is to make iteasier to administer a large network. The dhcp package includes the DHCP server and a DHCP relay agent. You should install dhcp if you want to set up a DHCP server on yournetwork. You will also need to install the pump package, which provides the DHCP client daemon, on client machines. 
DHCP is a protocol like BOOTP (actually dhcpd includes much of the functionality of BOOTPD). It assigns IP addresses to clients based on lease times. DHCP is used extensively by Microsoft and more recently also by Apple. It is probably essential in any multi-platform environment.
DHCP server for automatic IP address assignment DHCP is a protocol like BOOTP (actually dhcpd includes much of the functionality of BOOTPD!). It assigns IP addresses to clients based on lease times. DHCP is used extensively by Microsoft and more recently also by Apple. It is probably essential in any multi-platform environment. Multiple Ethernet Interfaces are supported by this DHCP package. You need to run Linux 2.0.32 or later. 
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (TCP/IP, IETF, RFC 2131) 
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server 
Parse DHCP packets from tcpdump This package provides a tool for visualization of DHCP packets as recorded and output by tcpdump to analyze DHCP server responses. 
DHCP Daemon Ping Program This small tool provides an opportunity for a system administrator to perform a DHCP request to find out if a DHCP server is still running. 
online help system Read all documentation with a WWW browser. dhelp builds a index of all installed HTML documentation. You don't need a WWW server to read the documentation. dhelp offers a very fast search in the HTML documents. You can access the online help system with the dhelp program or with your browser. The URL to point your browser at is http://localhost/doc/HTML/index.html if you have a WWW server installed or file://localhost/usr/share/doc/HTML/index.html if not. 
Dynamic Host Information System (DHIS) client With DHIS your machine gets a fully qualified domain name under a domain. Your host, even if dynamically IP assigned, may be reached while you are online through a single name recognised on the whole internet. People may, from the outside, connect to your machine's FTP, WWW, IRC, ... server as it is also possible for you to receive emails under that address. Many other purposes may be achieved with DHIS. 
Distributed Heterogeneous Information Systems 
Dynamic HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 
Minimal secure webserver. No cgi-bin support! As it doesn't run external programs, this webserver cannot be easily hacked. Does not need a permanent IP Address. Memory efficient. Low profile. Quick. Just transfers files. Can be run from a user account on high ports. No configuration necessary. It just works. 
build debian packages 
clean up package build directories 
compress files and fix symlinks in package build directories 
fix permissions of files in package build directories 
generate and install control file 
install files into package build directories 
install changelogs into package build directories 
install cron scripts into etc/cron.* 
install files into the DEBIAN directory 
install files used by debconf in package build directories 
install a defoma related scripts 
create subdirectories in package build directories 
install documentation into package build directories 
register an emacs add on package 
install example files into package build directories 
install and register info files 
install init scripts into package build directories 
install kernel patch into package build directories 
install logrotate config files 
install man pages into package build directories 
old-style man page installer 
install debian menu files into package build directories 
install mime files into package build directories 
register modules with modutils 
install pam support files 
register a window manager 
install xaw wrappers config files into package build directories 
register X fonts 
create symlinks in package build directories 
list binary packages debhelper will act on 
automatically create shlibs file 
generate DEBIAN/md5sums file 
move files out of debian/tmp into subpackages 
calculates perl scripts & modules dependencies 
calculate shared library dependancies 
strip executables, shared libraries, and some static libraries 
obsolete suid registration program 
test directory before building debian package 
ensure that a package is built as root 
ensure that the correct version of debhelper is installed 
make symlinks to undocumented.7.gz man page 
Destination Index [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
Deutsche Informatik Akademie (org.) 
Diagram editor (common files) Dia is an editor for diagrams, graphs, charts etc. There is support for UML static structure diagrams (class diagrams), Entity-Relationship diagrams, network diagrams and much more. Diagrams can be exported to postscript. 
Diagram editor Dia is an editor for diagrams, graphs, charts etc. There is support for UML static structure diagrams (class diagrams), Entity-Relationship diagrams, network diagrams and much more. Diagrams can be exported to postscript. 
Document Interchange Architecture (IBM, CCS) 
a dia-UML to C/C++/Java code generator dia2code is a code generator which uses UML diagrams produced by dia, and turns them into C, C++ or Java files. 
It is using telephone lines or ISDN networks to connect your computer to the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Dial-Up Network
Connection to a network
dial on demand daemon for PPP and SLIP. Many sites use SLIP or PPP links to connect to other sites over phone lines. Normally these links must be explicitly turned on or off. diald can be used to bring a SLIP or PPP link up when there are Internet packets to be sent to another site, and to close the link down when it is idle. diald operates by starting a virtual link on a pseudo tty and setting up a route to the resulting interface. This interface is called the proxy. diald monitors the proxy to determine when to bring up a real communications link. When a real link is up diald routes packets from the proxy to the real link and monitors the real link to decide if it needs to be shut down. As well, if the link goes down unexpectedly diald will attempt to reestablish the link. The rules for controlling these operations are extensively configurable in run time startup files. Diald requires that you use either the ethertap interface (available in recent Linux kernels) or SLIP to provide the proxy interface. Thus, one or the other of these interfaces is required for diald to work. Diald needs a program like "chat" or "expect" to actually dial. Sorry, "dip" cannot be used. 
Dialog is a utility that allows you to show dialog boxes (containing questions or messages) in TTY (text mode) interfaces. Dialog iscalled from within a shell script. The following dialog boxes are implemented: yes/no, menu, input, message, text, info, checklist,radiolist, and gauge. Install dialog if you would like to create TTY dialog boxes. 
Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts This application provides a method of displaying several different types of dialog boxes from shell scripts. This allows a developer of a script to interact with the user in a much friendlier manner. The following types of boxes are at your disposal: yes/no Typical query style box with "Yes" and "No" answer buttons menu A scrolling list of menu choices with single entry selection input Query style box with text entry field message Similar to the yes/no box, but with only an "Ok" button text A scrollable text box that works like a simple file viewer info A message display that allows asynchronous script execution checklist Similar to the menu box, but allowing multiple selections radiolist Checklist style box allowing single selections gauge Typical "progress report" style box tail Allows viewing the end of files (tail) that auto updates background tail Similar to tail but runs in the background. 
dialog box
A graphical box displayed on a desktop that lets the user communicate with the computer. A dialog box can be used to enter information, set options, or run commands. 
Development and Integration of Accurate Mathematical Operations in Numerical Data-processing (ESPRIT) 
DIrect Access Network for Europe 
CGI script for making bible website A command line utility for sword, and a cgi perl script that uses the utility to produce a bible browsing/searching website. 
Defense Information Base (mil., USA) 
Device Independent Bitmap 
Directory Information Base (X.500, DS) 
DOS Info Block (BIOS, DOS) 
Dual Independent Bus 
Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (IC, MOSFET) 
Digital Interface Controller 
Delivering Information in a Cellular Environment (SNI, Internet) 
Dictionary InterChange Format (DICT) 
Dictionary Client Dict is the client that queries the dictd server. Since it is TCP based, it can access servers on the local host, on a local network, or on the Internet. The DICT Development Group maintains several public servers which can be accessed from any machine connected to the Internet. The default configuration is to query one of these servers first, but this may be changed in the configuration file /etc/dict.conf. Queries may be customized by numerous command line options, including specifying the database(s) to be queried and the search strategy to be used. 
Dictionary Server Dictd is a TCP based server that allows a client to access dictionary definitions from a set of natural language dictionary databases. Ten dictionary databases have been packaged for debian. They are: dict-gcide - An comprehensive dictionary of the English language, based on the 1913 Webster's Unabridged Dictionary dict-wn - WordNet 1.7, A Lexical Database for English dict-jargon - Hacker's Jargon File dict-foldoc - The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing dict-vera - List of acronyms used in the field of computing dict-elements - Chemical and Physical Properties of the Elements dict-devil - "The Devil's Dictionary" by Ambrose Bierce dict-easton - Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary dict-hitchcock - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary dict-gazetteer - Database of Geographic Data from the U.S. Census These packages are discussed in more detail in the file /usr/doc/dictd/README.Debian.gz Either dict-gcide or dict-wn is essential for a useful dictionary server. It is strongly recommended that both be installed. It is desirable that either dict-jargon or dict-foldoc, or both of them, be installed. The client program, dict, is packaged in dict*.deb If you are running a server, you will want the client for all machines in your network, and for testing server operations. 
Utility to format a file for use by the dictd server. dictfmt converts an input file to a dictionary database that conforms to the DICT protocol, and creates a corresponding index file. 
Utilities to help with style and diction (English and German) This is a free implementation of two Unix commands, style and diction. They may help you improve your writing. English and German rules are included. 
dictionary (wordlist)
In hacking circles, a dictionary is simply a list of words that plug into cracking programs in order to break passwords. Such dictionaries not only contain real words, but words that people choose for passwords (example: NCC1701, which is the serial number for the starship Enterprise in Star Trek). Key point: It takes only a couple minutes to run through hundreds of thousands of words in a dictionary in order to crack a password. Therefore, never choose a word that may be in a dictionary. Key point: The dictionary files that hackers use are not necessarily the same as English dictionaries. In theory, users will choose the same passwords they have used before, and unrelated users will choose the same passwords. Therefore, lists of passwords users chose in the past forms a key component of hacker dictionaries. Key point: Hackers also run non-English dictionaries, so choosing foreign words isn't a good defense. 
Dictionary sort
A sort order that ignores the case of characters as data is rearranged. See sort. 
Digital Image Design 
Dumb Interpretatively Evaluated String Expression Language (AutoCAD) 
DietLinux is a dietlibc-based Linux distribution. Glibc is fully avoided. Some of the most important server daemons (DHCP, DNS, etc.) are working. The initial version, 0.1, was released May 16, 2003. Version 0.1.1 was released May 22, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
Document Interchange Format 
/dif/ n. 1. A change listing, especially giving differences between (and additions to) source code or documents (the term is often used in the plural `diffs'). "Send me your diffs for the Jargon File!" Compare vdiff. 2. Specifically, such a listing produced by the diff(1) command, esp. when used as specification input to the patch(1) utility (which can actually perform the modifications; see patch). This is a common method of distributing patches and source updates in the Unix/C world. 3. v. To compare (whether or not by use of automated tools on machine-readable files); see also vdiff, mod. 
File comparison utilities The diff package provides the diff, diff3, sdiff, and cmp programs. `diff' shows differences between two files, or each corresponding file in two directories. `cmp' shows the offsets and line numbers where two files differ. `cmp' can also show all the characters that differ between the two files, side by side. `diff3' shows differences among three files. `sdiff' merges two files interactively. The set of differences produced by `diff' can be used to distribute updates to text files (such as program source code) to other people. This method is especially useful when the differences are small compared to the complete files. Given `diff' output, the `patch' program can update, or "patch", a copy of the file. 
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
The original public-key algorithm. Modern cryptography starts in 1976 when Diffie and Hellman published their groundbreaking paper "New Directions in Cryptography". Contrast: Whereas RSA is based upon the mathematical problem of factoring large numbers, DH is based upon the discrete logarithm problem. Whereas RSA can be used to encrypt messages, DH can only be used for key-exchange. However, RSA is essentially only used for key-exchange in the first place. The disadvantages of DH vs. RSA are: message expansion DH encrypted messages are larger (though this isn't really an issue for key-exchange). key size Current standards (e.g. DSS) specify smaller key sizes than those supported by RSA-based standards. CPU DH based standards take processing time than RSA based equivalents (and a lot more than than elliptical curve techniques). Advantages of DH over RSA are: patents This is no longer an important issue now that RSA patents have expired, but the reason DH became popular was because it was essentially patent-free. key generation It takes a long time to generate RSA keys, so DH is a better option if keys must be generated often. key size For keys of the same size, DH is more secure. In other words, it takes longer keys for RSA to be as secure as DH. security DH is conjectured to be less likely to be broken by new developements in mathematical theory. Contrast: The most common use of Diffie-Hellman is ElGamal, a public-key encryption variant of Diffie-Hellman. The U.S. government standard DSS is based upon ElGamal. See also: RSA, public-key crypto. 
Tool for reporting changes in system configuration. This tool is run by a nightly cron job, and takes a `diff' of specified system configuration files and emails them to a specified email address. Options to diff can be specified. This is useful in friendly environments where there are multiple sysadmins working on configuration files/setups and everyone's changes are reported. CVS is a better answer, but most of us don't want to have the hassle of putting system files in a repository. 
produces graph of changes introduced by a diff file This program is a simple that reads the output of the 'diff' program, and produces a histogram of the total number of lines that were changed. It is useful for scanning a patch file to see which files were changed. 
The diff command compares files line by line. Diffstat reads theoutput of the diff command and displays a histogram of the insertions, deletions, and modifications in each file. Diffstat is commonly used to provide a summary of the changes in large, complex patch files. Install diffstat if you need a program which provides a summary of the diff command's output. You also need to install diffutils. 
Diffutils includes four utilities: diff, cmp, diff3 and sdiff. * Diff compares two files and shows the differences, line by line. * The cmp command shows the offset and line numbers where two files differ, or cmp can show the characters that differ between the two files. * The diff3 command shows the differences between three files. Diff3 can be used when two people have made independent changes to a common original; diff3 can produce a merged file that contains both persons' changes and warnings about conflicts. * The sdiff command can be used to merge two files interactively. Install diffutils if you need to compare text files. 
Double Injection Floating Gate MOS 
DNS lookup utility 
dig (domain internet groper)
A tool for system administrators, dig sends DNS queries at the target server and decodes the replies. It is part of the BIND DNS server from the Internet Software Consortium. It is also popular with hackers because it allows fine-tuned queries to be crafted. Key point: Hackers like to run the following command in order to query the version of BIND: dig -t txt -c chaos VERSION.BIND The BIND server supports a kludge whereby a "chaos" "txt" record contains the version number of the server. You can look this up in your script-kiddy version list in order to figure out what scripts this server is vulnerable to. Here are some results I get back from this command: 4.9.6-REL RedHat 5.0 (Hurricane) 8.2.1 Mandrake 6.1 (Helios) SERVFAIL Solaris 2.6 NOTIMP WinNT DNS 8.2.2-P5 RedHat 6.2 A result of "SERVFAIL" means either that the target isn't running BIND, or that it is running a version of BIND older than 4.9.5. The result of "NOTIMP" means the server doesn't implement this type of query, which is returned by Microsoft's server. See also: DNS, BIND. 
The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regardsto the digital revolution. 
Deutsche InteressenGemeinschaft Internet [e.v.] (org., ISP) 
A data signal transmitted using discrete steps in voltage rather than frequency, as in an analog signal. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
digital signature
An authentication code used especially in email which can be used as a traditional written signature. Digital signatures cannot be forged because the signature is created with a sender's secret key and can be verified by a recipient using the sender's public key. 
An SQL based mp3 player front-end DigitalDJ is an SQL-based front-end to the mpg123 mp3 player designed for people who want to create an mp3 version of their CD collection. It is designed to work with the Grip ripping/encoding application (but can be used separately). When Grip encodes mp3 files, it will place all of the song information into an SQL database. DigitalDJ can then use this information to create playlists based on a number of criteria. You will need a MySQL server, which can either be on the local or a remote host. 
Defense Information Infrastructure (mil., USA, DISA) 
Dynamic Invocation Interface 
Defense Information Infrastructure Control Concept (mil., USA) 
Defense Info Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DISA, mil., USA), "DII COE" 
Dual InLine 
GTK-based web browser Dillo aims to be a multiplataform browser alternative that's small, stable, developer-friendly, usable, fast, and extensible. Dillo is mainly based on GTK+ (GNOME is NOT required!) Dillo is very fast! 
Desktop Integrated Media Environment (COSE) 
DIrect Memory Execute (AGP) 
Dual Inline Memory Module (IC) 
DSN Integrated Management Support System (DSN, mil., USA) 
Deutsches Institut fuer Normung (org.) 
Desktop INterface to AUTODIN Host (AutoDIN, mil., USA) 
Dictionary lookup program for Unix This is "Ding" * a dictionary lookup program for Unix, * DIctionary Nice Grep, * a Tk based Front-End to [ae]grep, ispell, dict, ... * Ding {n} :: thing This package needs agrep(1) or egrep(1) as a back end. agrep from the glimpse package is preferable, because it supports fault tolerant searching. You have to install some translation dictionary word list with a word/phrase in two languages in one line with some kind of separator between them. The default configuration of ding uses the German-English dictionary which can be found in the trans-de-en package, but you can use every other translation word lists with one entry per line. 
Deutsches InterNet Organisationssystem (WWW, Uni Goettingen, Germany) 
Dial-up Internet Protocol (Linux) 
Dual In-line Package (IC, DRAM) 
Write scientific papers with Debian Debian GNU/Linux is widely used at universities to do research and to write papers with LaTeX. The package diploma contains examples which illustrate the possible ways to do this effectively with Debian GNU/Linux. Each example consists of a source tree where you can do "make" in the top level directory and then the source code is compiled, the measurement data are processed, and the results are converted into nice figures. Then the text is processed and combined with the figures to a print file. 
list directory contents 
color setup for ls 
outputs a sequence of shell commands to define the desired color output from ls (and dir, etc.). 
IRC proxy for people who use IRC from different workstations dircproxy is an IRC proxy server designed for people who use IRC from lots of different workstations or clients, but wish to remain connected and see what they missed while they were away. You connect to IRC through dircproxy, and it keeps you connected to the server, even after you detach your client from it. While you're detached, it logs channel and private messages as well as important events, and when you re-attach it'll let you know what you missed. This can be used to give you roughly the same functionality as using ircII and screen together, except you can use whatever IRC client you like, including X ones! 
Display and merge changes between two directory trees. Dirdiff can handle up to 5 trees. It displays a main window with a list of the files which are different between the trees, with colored squares to indicate the relative ages of the versions. A menu allows you to display the differences between any two of the versions in another window. Another menu allows you to copy the file from one tree to another. 
A list of files or other directories on a computer at an Internet site. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
The Unix equivalent of a 'folder' on a Macintosh, all files are stored in directories. A directory can be created with the mkdir command and empty directories are removed with rmdir. 
Directory Service
A directory is like a database, but tends to contain more descriptive, attribute-based information. The information in a directory is generally read much more often than it is written. As a consequence, directories don't usually implement the complicated transaction or roll-back schemes that regular databases use for doing high-volume complex updates. Directory updates are typically simple all-or-nothing changes, if they are allowed at all. 
LDAP POSIX user/group manager for gnome. Directory administrator is an LDAP POSIX user/group manager. That, in plain English, means that it will allow you to easily manage your Linux/UNIX users and groups residing in an LDAP database. The 'rules' for this is defined in RFC2307. 
DIstributed and Reconfigurable MUltiprocessor (MP) 
Parse pathname components 
strip non-directory suffix from file name 
Defense Information System (mil., USA) 
Digital Identification Signal (HDLC) 
Draft International Standard (ISO) 
Data Interchange Standards Association (org.) 
Defense Information Systems Agency (org., mil., USA) 
DISA Information System (mil., USA), "DISA-IS" 
DISA Information Network (mil., USA, DISA, network), "DISANet" 
Defense Information System Council (mil., USA) 
Generates CD-disc covers for jewel-cases Disc-cover generates a Postscript page of an audio cd, using the cddb database. Intermediate tex output is also possible. 
n. [Usenet] Statement ritually appended to many Usenet postings (sometimes automatically, by the posting software) reiterating the fact (which should be obvious, but is easily forgotten) that the article reflects its author's opinions and not necessarily those of the organization running the machine through which the article entered the network. 
hardware identification system Discover is a hardware identification system based on the libdiscover1 library. Discover provides a flexible interface that programs can use to report a wide range of information about the hardware that is installed on a Linux system. In addition to reporting information, discover includes support for doing hardware detection at boot time. Detection occurs in two stages: The first stage, which runs from an initial ramdisk (initrd), loads just the drivers needed to mount the root file system, and the second stage loads the rest (ethernet cards, sound cards, etc.). 
Deutschsprachige Internationale SAS-benutzer Konferenz 
disk daemon; wait for disk to be inserted TQ 
Portable storage medium using magnetic disk of 3 1/2" or 5 1/4" in size and usually storing between 740KB to 1.44MB of data. 
Generate NFS file structure for diskless boot. This package comes with two programs, diskless_newimage, and diskless_newhost to simplify setting up and maintaining diskless clients NFS-Root file structure. These programs ask user friendly questions to aid configuration of the diskless system to the administrators preference. Either the diskless-image-simple or diskless-image-secure packages are required to be available (NOT INSTALLED!) in order to use this package. 
Diskless workstation
In a local area network (LAN), a workstation that has a central processing unit (CPU) and random-access memory (RAM) but lacks its own disk drives. Diskless workstations ensure that everyone in an organisation prodics compatible data and helps reduce security risks. However, diskless workstations cause serious loss of speed, flexibility, and originality and with greater vulneratibility to the effects of a disk or system crash. 
disk seek daemon; simulates Messy Dos' drive cleaning effect TQ 
Defense Information Systems Network (mil., USA) 
Defense Integrated Secure Network (network, mil., USA, predecessor, DSNET) 
Defense Information Systems Network - Near Term (DISN, mil., USA), "DISN-NT" 
DIStributed Office Support System (IBM, MVS) 
Directory Information Shadowing Protocol 
Draft International Standardized Profiles (ISO) 
Dutch Independent Shareware Programmer (org., Netherlands), "D.I.S.P." 
Displays verses from the Dhammapada. Displays a random verse (a dhammapada) from an English translation of the Dhammapada. It works similarly to fortune, so you can put it in your shell startup script. 
Defense Information System Security Program (mil., USA) 
Tools for developing, maintaining and distributing software. The dist package is a set of tools meant to ease the construction and maintenance of portable software. The first component is the Configure script generator, metaconfig, which automatically builds the Configure script from your sources. Ideally, the end-user receiving your source code will simply have to read your README file, run the Configure script (which is self-documented), and then run make. The second component is the Makefile.SH generator, which is a generic configured Makefile, reusing some of the information figured out by Configure, and a generic Jmakefile description. The third component is the RCS aware package generator, which is used when it's time to build up the shell archives used to distribute your program. The fourth and latest component is the patch generator, used to make updates of your sources, which can later be applied on the original distribution by using the patch program. The upstream sources for this packlage may be downloaded from CPAN, like so: 
Distance Education
Conveying knowledge from a distance. The organizational framework and process of providing instruction at a distance. Distance education takes place when a teacher and student(s) are physically separated, and technology such that voice, video, data and/or print is used to bridge the instructional gap. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Distance Learning
The term Distance Learning is typically used describe video-enabled instruction (integrated voice, data, and video transmissions) in college, university, medical school or kindergarten through the twelfth-grade environment. Distance Learning permits especially gifted teachers to reach an almost limitless number of students around the world. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
distinguished name (DN)
The six (6) fields comprising the certificate signing request in a SSL or TLS transaction. 
Client/daemon for distributed MP3 compression over TCP/IP Client (distmp3) and a daemon (distmp3host) for distributed mp3-encoding across multiple hosts on a network. 
A packaging of the Linux kernel (core) with various user interfaces, utilities, drivers, and other software into a user deliverable. Often available as a free download or in a low-cost CD-ROM package. Popular distributions include Caldera OpenLinux, CoreLinux, Debian, Red Hat, Slackware, SuSE, TurboLinux and others. 
n. 1. A software source tree packaged for distribution; but see kit. Since about 1996 unqualified use of this term often implies `Linux distribution'. The short for distro is often used for this sense. 2. A vague term encompassing mailing lists and Usenet newsgroups (but not BBS fora); any topic-oriented message channel with multiple recipients. 3. An information-space domain (usually loosely correlated with geography) to which propagation of a Usenet message is restricted; a much-underutilized feature. 
Distribution System
Any program that can be received by a satellite antenna and distributed into several viewing areas. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Directory Information Tree (X.500) 
Defense Information Technology Contracting Office (org., mil., DISA, USA) 
Allows you to play melodies from your built-in speaker Ditty enables you to play simple melodies from the command line. It does NOT require a sound card, as it can use the built-in speaker to play these melodies just as easily. (Note: in order for the built-in speaker to be used, ditty's stdout must be connected to a tty. Certain terminal emulators, such as xterm, don't support the sound controls. If you aren't using the sound card method, you should generally run ditty from a *real* pseudo-terminal). Some things that may make ditty fun to use are: Adding sound-effects to .bash_login and .bash_logout or other shellscripts. 
Digital Interface Unit 
Direct Interface Video Extensions (IBM, MMPM/2) 
Automatic IP configuration detection for laptops A utility to locate current network address via arp requests and perform light reconfigurations based on its findings. "divine" is intended for laptop users or people who use their machines in different networks all the time. It is meant to be run from the PCMCIA network initialization scripts. For more information see: 
DIgital Video eXpress (DVD), "Divx" 
DEC, Intel, Xerox (ethernet, DEC, Intel, Xerox) 
Source only package for building djbdns The following were taken from various HTML pages under dnscache is a local DNS cache. It accepts recursive DNS queries from local clients such as web browsers and mail transfer agents. It collects responses from remote DNS servers. It caches the responses to save time later. tinydns is a DNS server. It accepts iterative DNS queries from hosts around the Internet, and responds with locally configured information. pickdns is a load-balancing DNS server. It accepts iterative DNS queries from hosts around the Internet, and responds with a dynamic selection of locally configured IP addresses with 5-second TTLs. walldns is a reverse DNS wall. It accepts iterative DNS queries for domains from hosts around the Internet, and supplies generic responses that avoid revealing local host information. rbldns is an IP-address-listing DNS server. It accepts iterative DNS queries from hosts around the Internet asking about various IP addresses. It provides responses showing whether the addresses are on a locally configured list, such as RBL or DUL. axfrdns is a DNS zone-transfer server. It reads a zone-transfer request in DNS-over-TCP format from its standard input, and responds with locally configured information. The security of this software is guaranteed by the author. Details of the guarantee can be found at 
Tools for HP DeskJet printer. These tool purpose is to make better use of the HP DeskJet. They allow to send commands to a printer as well as make better use of the HP DeskJet's text modes. These programs were written for the HP DeskJet 500 series but should work with all printers that understand HP PCL. 
Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission (org., DIN, VDE) 
Deutsches KlimaRechenZentrum (org.) 
Distribution List 
Data Link Control 
Data Link Connection Identifier (ATM) 
Deutsche Linux Distribution (Linux) 
Data Link Escape 
Digital Line Graph 
Checks dns zone information using nameserver lookups This program analyzes any DNS zone you specify, and reports any problems it finds by displaying errors and warnings. Then it descends recursively to examine all zones below the given one (this can be disabled with a command- line option). You don't have to feed any BIND conffiles to Dlint. Dlint uses nameserver calls to gather information. Designed for Unix, dlint is written in Bourne Shell and Perl. You may try it online at (this server imposes a timeout period; to lint a big zone, you should install dlint yourself and use it locally - that's what this package is for). 
Internet Domain Name System (DNS) error checking utility 
??? (DB) 
Delay Locked Loop (GDR-SDRAM) 
Dynamic Link Library 
Dynamic Link Loader (BS2000) 
Dynamically Linked Library, a library linked to an executable program at run-time. 
fast alternative to dpkg -L and dpkg -S uses GNU locate to greatly speed up finding out which package a file belongs to (i.e. a very fast dpkg -S). many other uses, including options to view all files in a package, calculate disk space used, view and check md5sums, list man pages, etc. 
Digital Light Processing (TI) 
Discrete Logarithmic Problem 
Data Link Provider Interface (X/Open) 
Dynamic Link Routine 
DOS LAN Services (IBM, LAN Server) 
DownLoadable Sounds 
Data Link SWitching (APPN, MPTN, RFC 1795, SNA, NETBIOS), "DLSw" 
Digital Line Tape (DEC, Streamer) 
DLX is a full featured Linux system running on Intel PCs. DLX comes on a single 3.5" floppy disk. DLX also supports a parallel-port ZIP-Drive drive. Good for network trouble-shooting and/or FTPing from a university pc-lab. Last new version was released in 1996. Distribution development is not all that active.
Delta Modulation 
DeMilitarisierte zone (Firewall) 
Development Machine (Corel) 
Disconnect Mode (LAPB) 
Direct Memory Access (DMA) 
Direct Memory Access Controller 
Network-wide monitoring suite for monitoring machine status For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. Includes convenience scripts, and other tools. dmachinemon-html needs to be available on html-generating system 
Network-wide monitoring suite for monitoring machine status For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. this package contains dmachinemon-gtkiface a GTK+ interface to dmachinemon 
Network-wide machine monitoring suite -- master For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. This package includes dmachinemon-master, which needs to be installed on the master system. 
Network-wide monitoring suite -- servent For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. This package includes dmachinemon-servent, for servent systems, which often are cluster nodes. A servent system is a node which does the role of a server and a client, providing and requesting information at the same time. 
Network-wide machine monitoring suite - topology viewer For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. Includes network topology debugging (tree structure viewing) suite. 
procmail Mail Delivery Module 
Debug memory allocation library (non-threaded) Drop in replacement for the system's `malloc', `realloc', `calloc', `free' and other memory management routines while providing powerful debugging facilities configurable at runtime. These facilities include such things as memory-leak tracking, fence-post write detection, file/line number reporting, and general logging of statistics. 
DECT Multimeda Access Protocol (DECT) 
Data Management API runtime environment Files required by system software using the Data Management API (DMAPI). This is used to implement the interface defined in the X/Open document: Systems Management: Data Storage Management (XDSM) API dated February 1997. This interface is implemented by the libdm library. 
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (Telekom, Blaupunkt, DAB) 
Debian maintainer's bug-tool A GNOME-based tool and a set of perl packages to help a Debian maintainer manage the bugs reported against his/her packages. This software is in the very early stages of development. All feedback will be appreciated. 
Desktop Multimedia Conferencing 
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (USA) 
Device Manager Driver (OS/2) 
Differential Mode Delay (Gigabit-, ethernet) 
Digital Micromirror Device (IC, DLP, TI) 
Directory Management DOMAIN (OSI, DS) 
Dual MAC Dual Attached Concentrator (FDDI, DAC) 
Distributed Multiplexing Distributed Demultiplexing 
Distributed Management Data Facility (DCE, DME) 
Direct Memory Execution 
Distributed Management Environment (OSF) 
Duplex Multiple Environment, Real Time (OS, MERT) 
print or control the kernel ring buffer 
Digest Message Format (Internet, RFC 1153) 
Distribution Media Format [diskette] (FDD) 
Definition of Management Information (OSI) 
Desktop Management Interface (DTMF, DMI, BIOS) 
Digital Multiplexed Interface 
Data Manipulation Language 
Data Manipulation Logic 
Distributed Mode Loudspeaker (audio) 
Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
Dot Matrix Printer 
translate Troff output to low-level MetaPost input 
Data Management System 
Defense Message System (mil., USA) 
Digital Multiplexed System 
Disk Monitor System (OS, IBM) 
Distributed Media Services (COSE) 
Document Management System 
Display Management System/Conversional Monitor System, "DMS/CMS" 
Defense Message System Implementation Group (org., DMS, mil., USA) 
Distributed Mail System Protocol (Internet) 
Defense Message System Transition Working Group (org., DMS, mil., USA) 
Discrete Monitor Timings (VESA) 
Discrete Multitone Technology (ADSL, Amati Communications, ANSI) 
Desktop Management Task Force 
Default Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU), "D-MTU" 
Data Manipulation Unit 
Daten- und MedienVerlag 
Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung (org.) 
DeMilitarized Zone (LAN, Internet) 
DMZ (Demilitarized Zone)
In firewalls, a DMZ is an area that is mostly public to the Internet. This is where a companies web, e-mail, and DNS servers are located. A DMZ often has some limited protection, but since it is very exposed to the Internet, the assumption is that the machines in the zone will eventually be compromised. Therefore, the machines often have as little connectivity to the private network as any other machine from the Internet. 
Distinguished Name (X.500) 
Distribution Network 
See distinguished name (DN). 
Digital Network Architecture (DEC) 
Direct Network Attach (Xyratex, RAID) 
Distributed Network Architecture (NCR) 
DatenNetz-AnschlussEinrichtung (Telekom) 
Dynamic Network Address Translation 
Direct Numerical Control (CNC) 
Dynamic Network Controller 
Direct Numerical Control / ??? (CNC), "DNC/MPE" 
[PPP] DECNet phase iv Control Protocol (RFC 1762, DECNET, PPP) 
Division of Networking and Communication Research and Infrastructure 
Den Norske Dataforening (org., Norway) 
Base package for Linux DECnet This is the base package for Linux DECnet. it contains the necessary configuration files and a script to set up the MAC address of your ethernet card(s) at boot-up. You will also need to be running a 2.4+ kernel and have DECnet either built as a module or compiled into the kernel. To do useful work with DECnet you will need the libdnet package and probably also dnet-progs. 
DECnet user programs and daemons These tools are the application layer interface for DECnet on Linux systems. They provide file/terminal access facilities between OpenVMS and Linux and remote execution of commands. Also included is a Linux version of the VMS "Phone" utility and a VMSMail to SMTP gateway. 
Dynamic Non Hierarchical Routing 
De.Newusers.Info (Usenet) 
DECnet Network Interface 
Data Network Identification Code (X.121) 
De.Newusers.Questions (Usenet) 
Digital Noise Reduction 
DOMAIN Name System (Internet, RFC 1034/1035, DNS) 
See domain name system (DNS). 
DNS (Domain Name System)
Analogy: When calling somebody via the telephone, you can lookup their name in the phone book in order to find the telephone number. DNS is a similar directory service. When contacting a web site, your browser looks up the name in DNS in order to find the IP number. History: DNS is relatively new. When the Internet was small, every machine simply had a list of all other machines on the Internet (stored in /etc/hosts). Generally, people just had the IP addresses of machines memorized in much the same way that people memorize phone numbers today. Key point: DNS is not needed for communication. If a DNS server goes down, newbies will think that the entire network is down. Hackers frequently deal with raw IP addresses, and indeed often bypass DNS entirely as it may give off signs of an attack. Key point: The DNS hierarchy starts from the "top level domains" of .com, .net, .org, .edu, .giv, .mil, and the two-letter country codes (e.g. .us for United States, .jp for Japan). Misunderstanding: Both IP addresses and domain names use dots: "" vs. "". This has no significance; the usage of these dots is unrelated. Trying to match things up one-to-one is wrong (i.e. ".com" == "192."). Analogy: What is your phone number? If I asked you this, you could give me both your home number and your cell phone number. I can reach you at either one. In much the same way, the a domain name like can have multiple IP addresses. Every time you visit that site, you might go to a separate IP address. You can test this out yourself. Go to the command-line and type "ping". Notice how it comes back with an IP address that it pings. After that runs, try it again. Notice how the second time it is pinging a different IP address. Details: DNS provides a number of resource records (RR): A ^ The normal record that contain an name to IP address mapping. LOC ^ The geographic location containing latitude, longitude, altitude, and size. Altitude is meters above sea level. Size is the exponent in the in meters of the volumetric size of the object. Hackers sometimes use these records to find where you are located physically. Humor: The original name of this record was ICBM. HOST ^ HOST records can contain information about the machine, such as if it is a Windows or UNIX machine. Administrators probably should not fill them in; they are dangerous. PTR. 
DNS (Domain Name System)
This system maps hostnames to IP numbers. DNS is the Domain Name System. DNS converts machine names to the IP addresses that all machines on the net have. It translates (or "maps" as the jargon would have it) from name to address and from address to name, and some other things. This HOWTO documents how to define such mappings using Unix system, with a few things specific to Linux. A mapping is simply an association between two things, in this case a machine name, like, and the machine's IP number (or address) DNS also contains mappings the other way, from the IP number to the machine name; this is called a "reverse mapping". DNS is, to the uninitiated (you ;-), one of the more opaque areas of network administration. Fortunately DNS isn't really that hard. This HOWTO will try to make a few things clearer. It describes how to set up a simple DNS name server, starting with a caching only server and going on to setting up a primary DNS server for a domain. For more complex setups you can check the qanda section of this document. If it's not described there you will need to read the Real Documentation. I'll get back to what this Real Documentation consists of in the last chapter. Before you start on this you should configure your machine so that you can telnet in and out of it, and successfully make all kinds of connections to the net, and you should especially be able to do telnet and get your own machine (test it now!). You also need good /etc/nsswitch.conf, /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/hosts files as a starting point, since I will not explain their function here. If you don't already have all this set up and working the Networking-HOWTO and/or the Networking-Overview-HOWTO explains how to set it up. Read them. When I say `your machine' I mean the machine you are trying to set up DNS on, not any other machine you might have that's involved in your networking effort. I assume you're not behind any kind of firewall that blocks name queries. If you are you will need a special configuration --- see the section on qanda. Name serving on Unix is done by a program called named. This is a part of the ``BIND'' package which is coordinated by The Internet Software Consortium. Named is included in most Linux distributions and is usually installed as /usr/sbin/named, usually from a package called BIND, in upper or lower case depending on the whim of the packager. If you have a named you can probably use it; if you don't have one you can get a binary off a Linux ftp site, or get the latest and greatest source from This HOWTO is about BIND version 9. The old versions of the HOWTO, about BIND 4 and 8, is still available at in case you use BIND 4 or 8 (incidentally, you will find this HOWTO there too). If the named man page talks about (at the very end, in the FILES section) named.conf you have BIND 8; if it talks about named.boot you have BIND 4. If you have 4 and are security conscious you really ought to upgrade to the latest version of BIND 8. Now. DNS is a net-wide database. Take care about what you put into it. If you put junk into it, you, and others, will get junk out of it. Keep your DNS tidy and consistent and you will get good service from it. Learn to use it, admin it, debug it and you will be another good admin keeping the net from falling to its knees by mismanagement. Tip: Make backup copies of all the files I instruct you to change if you already have them, so that if after going through this nothing works you can get it back to your old, working state. From DNS-HOWTO
Frontends to DNS search. This package provides two programs to make user lookups on DNS servers: dns_tree and dns_browse. dns_tree is a command-line-based front-end to dig. It replaces the several dig invocations necessary to fetch a zone, and it formats the output in a somewhat sensible hierarchical style (a tree). dns_browse is a GUI front-end to dns_tree. It allows point-and-click DNS browsing and makes it easy to expand/compress hierarchies in one or more DNS zones. 
Non-blocking name resolver interface. 
Maintain DNS zone files under CVS control Maintain your DNS zone files under CVS control, and possibly automatically updating reverse zones. 
show the system's DNS domain name 
A caching DNS forwarder. Dnsmasq is lightweight, easy to configure DNS forwarder designed to provide DNS (domain name) services to a small network where using BIND would be overkill. It can be have its upstream DNS servers automatically configured by PPP or DHCP and it can serve the names of local machines which are not in the global DNS. It can integrate with the ISC DHCP daemon to serve the names of local machines which are configured using DHCP. Dnsmasq is ideal for networks behind NAT routers and connected via modem, ISDN, ADSL, or cable-modem. 
Defense Network Systems Organization (org., USA, mil.) 
Domain Name Supporting Organization (org., ICANN) 
A secure form of DNS. Its primary use is for updating DNS servers. TODO Algorithms: RSA, MD5. 
DNSSEC key generation tool 
DNSSEC zone signing tool 
DNSSEC key set signing tool 
DNSSEC zone signing tool 
Digitale NebenSTellenANlagen (Telekom), "DNStAn" 
Trace DNS queries to the source dnstracer determines where a given Domain Name Server (DNS) gets its information from for a given hostname, and follows the chain of DNS servers back to the authoritative answer. 
Clients provided with BIND This package delivers various client programs related to DNS that are derived from the BIND source tree. 
Checks dns zone information using nameserver lookups dnswalk is a DNS debugger. It performs zone transfers of specified domains, and checks the database in numerous ways for internal consistency, as well as accuracy. 
Deusche Notes User Group [e.v.] (org., user group, Lotus) 
Departmental Network eXchange [bridging router] (SNA, SDLC, Proteon) 
Distributed Objects (NeXT) 
Distributed Office Applications Model (ISO, IEC, DIS 10031-1 f.) 
/dok/ n. Common spoken and written shorthand for `documentation'. Often used in the plural `docs' and in the construction `doc file' (i.e., documentation available on-line). 
De.Org.CCC (Usenet, CCC) 
A documentation system for C/C++, IDL and Java DOC++ is a documentation system for C/C++, IDL and Java generating both LaTeX output for high quality hardcopies and HTML output for sophisticated online browsing of your documentation. The documentation is extracted directly from the C/C++/IDL header/source files or Java class files. Here are a list of the highlights: - hierarchically structured documentation - automatic class graph generation (as Java applets for HTML) - cross references - high end formating support including typesetting of equations For more information about DOC++ please take a look at it's home page at 
Utilities to manage online documentation This package contains utilities to manage online documentation on a Debian system. If you want to get additional information about doc-base please check out the `Debian doc-base Manual' included in this package. 
web-based documentation browser Doc-Central is a tool to browse the documentation installed on your system using their doc-base entries. 
Debian Project documentation, Debian FAQ and other documents The Debian Project is an association of individuals who have made common cause to create a free operating system. In this package, you will find: * Debian Linux Manifesto, * Constitution for the Debian Project, * Debian GNU/Linux Social Contract, * Debian Free Software Guidelines. Additionally provided are: * Debian GNU/Linux Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), * Debian Bug Tracking System documentation, and * Introduction to the Debian mailing lists. All of these files are available at and mirrors thereof. 
SGML DTD for authors of technical documentation DocBook is an SGML vocabulary particularly well suited to books and papers about computer hardware and software (though it is by no means limited to these applications). It has emerged as an open, standard DTD in the software industry, and is used to document many free software projects. This package contains the SGML DTD for DocBook, which describes the formal structure of documents complying this format. If you wish to author XML documents, see the 'docbook-xml' package. It is a part of Debian's SGML/XML infrastructure, along with other DTDs, tools for parsing, validating, and styling, and formatting SGML and XML documents. This package includes the 2.4.1, 3.0, 3.1, 4.0, and 4.1 versions of the DocBook SGML DTD. 
Modular DocBook DSSSL stylesheets, for print and HTML This package enables the use of DSSSL styling (formatting for output) with DocBook SGML or XML files. This package contains two DocBook DSSSL stylesheets, one for "print" output and one for HTML. The print stylesheet can be used in conjunction with the RTF and the TeX back-ends that Jade provides to produce output suitable for printing. The HTML stylesheet can be used to convert DocBook documents into HTML. The stylesheets are modular in design so that you can extend and customize them. Author: Norman Walsh <> Homepage: 
The DocBook Document Type Definition (DTD) describes the syntax oftechnical documentation texts (articles, books and manual pages). This syntax is XML-compliant and is developed by the OASIS consortium. This package contains SGML and XML versions of the DocBook DTD up toand including version 4.1.2. 
This package contains DSSSL stylesheets for converting any DocBook document to another printed (for example, RTF or PostScript) or online (for example, HTML) format. These stylesheets are highly customizable. 
These XSL stylesheets allow you to transform any DocBook XML document to other formats, such as HTML, FO, and XHTML. They are highly customizable. 
Converter from DocBook SGML into roff -man macros. The docbook-to-man tool is a batch converter that transforms UNIX-style manpages from the DocBook SGML DTD into nroff/troff -man macros. This is not the original version by Fred Dalrymple, but one with the ANS modifications by David Bolen. 
Convert Docbook files to other formats (HTML, RTF, Postscript, PDF) The docbook-utils is a set of a few small programs intended to ease everyday use of technical documentation software and more generally use of SGML and XML. Tasks they currently accomplish are: * jw: convert Docbook files to other formats (HTML, RTF, Postscript, PDF). * sgmldiff: detect the differences in markup between two SGML files. 
This package contains scripts are for easy conversion from DocBookfiles to other formats (for example, HTML, RTF, and PostScript), andfor comparing SGML files. 
This package contains a script for converting DocBook documents to PDF format. 
XML Website DTD and XSL Stylesheets A docbook-derived XML DTD for building web sites. This package includes the xsl stylesheets for this DTD. This version is a customization of the DocBook XML V4.1.2 DTD. Author: Norman Walsh <> Homepage: 
XML DTD for DocBook, also known as DocBk XML An XML representation of the DocBook DTD, which is sometimes referred to as DocBk XML. This is a DTD widely used for documenting software and other technical topics. This package ships with the newest DocBook XML DTD, as well as a select set of legacy DTDs for use with older documents. 
Stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files to HTML and FO. These are modular XSL stylesheets for processing documents composed with the DocBook XML DTD and its derivatives ("Simplified" DocBook XML, JRefEntry DTD, etc.). The documentation is included in the package. The stylesheets provide XSLT transformations for both HTML and Formatting Object output. The latter can be further processed to a number of print formats using FOP or TeX-based tools. The stylesheets are modular in the sense that you can extend and, to some extent, customize them. Included are extension classes for the Saxon and Xalan2 XSLT processors. The documentation is included in this package. For quickstart instructions, see /usr/share/doc/docbook-xsl/README.Debian Author: Norman Walsh <> Homepage: 
Stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files to HTML and FO. These are modular XSL stylesheets for processing documents composed with the DocBook XML DTD and its derivatives ("Simplified" DocBook XML, JRefEntry DTD, etc.). The documentation is included in the package. The stylesheets provide XSLT transformations for both HTML and Formatting Object output. The latter can be further processed to a number of print formats using FOP or TeX-based tools. The stylesheets are modular in the sense that you can extend and, to some extent, customize them. The documentation is included in this package. Author: Norman Walsh <> Homepage: 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
DISA Operations Control Complex (DISA, mil., USA) 
Compares two text files by character or by word/morpheme Compares two text files by character or by word/morpheme, and output the result in pseudo HTML format. 
Data Over Cable System Interface Specification 
n. The multiple kilograms of macerated, pounded, steamed, bleached, and pressed trees that accompany most modern software or hardware products (see also tree-killer). Hackers seldom read paper documentation and (too) often resist writing it; they prefer theirs to be terse and on-line. A common comment on this predilection is "You can't grep dead trees". See drool-proof paper, verbiage, treeware. 
The instructions, tutorials, and refernce information that provides you with the information you need to use a program or computer system effectively. Documentation can appear in printed form or in on-line help systems. 
Department Of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (mil., USA) 
Depends On Experience 
Distributed Objects Everywhere (Sun) 
Enhanced replacement for cat dog writes the contents of each given file, URL or standard input to standard output. It currently supports file, http and raw URLs. It is designed as a compatible, but enhanced replacement for cat. 
Disk On Module 
Document Object Model (MS) 
DOM (Document Object Model)
An application programming interface (API) for HTML and XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a document is accessed and manipulated. In the DOM specification, the term "document" is used in the broad sense - increasingly, XML is being used as a way of representing many different kinds of information that may be stored in diverse systems, and much of this would traditionally be seen as data rather than as documents. Nevertheless, XML presents this data as documents, and the DOM may be used to manage this data. 
An internet 'domain' is a subsection of the internet. The primary domains of the internet are .COM, .NET, .MIL, and .ORG, which refer to Commercial, Network, Military, and Organization. These domains are administered by the Internic. Each domain has a primary and secondary Domain Name Server associated with it. 
Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network (Apollo, Internet) 
The part of the Internet address that specifies your computer's location in the world. The address is written as a series of names separated by full stops. For example, the Domain name at Global SchoolHouse Foundation is shows that Global SchoolHouse Foundation is an organization. The another example,, shows that Statistics faculty is in the University of Dortmund, and the last de shows the it is in Germany (Deutschland). The German word for Germany is (de)utschland. The most common top level domains: .edu Educations(US).net network resource .com Commercial(US) .org Organization(US) .de (Code for Germany..) .gov Public bodies
The site's name that an organization uses; for example, Red Hat has a domain name of 
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names: can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names ( in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name. 
Domain Name Server
Each internet domain has two domain name servers, or DNS. The primary DNS for a domain is usually located on one of the machine in that network, you can often determine the server from the output of the nslookup command. 
domain name system (DNS)
A service database that translates an IP address into a domain name (like 
A name "key" that is used by NIS clients to be able to locate a suitable NIS server that serves that domainname key. Please note that this does not necessarily have anything at all to do with the DNS "domain" (machine name) of the machine(s). 
calculates and draws geodesic domes DOME is a program which calculates the properties of a geodesic dome symmetry triangle. DOME calculates spherical vertex coordinates, symmetry triangle topological abundance, and chord factors. DOME supports class I (alternate) and class II (triac on) breakdowns for Icosahedron, Octahedron and Tetrahedron polyhedron types. DOME also supports "Buckyball" formations as well as elliptical geodesics. See the Applied Synergetics Homepage ( for image samples and links to other Synergetics Web sites. 
Distributed Object Management Environment (ORB) 
Distributed Object Management Facility (Sun) 
1. A connector that attaches a conduit (such as a phone line or Ethernet cable) to a PCMCIA card. 2. A hardware attachment that authorizes a computer system to run a particular application. 
One Time Password calculator. Donkey is an alternative for S/KEY's "key" command. This means that donkey is also an alternative for "keyinit". Since the entry is printed to stdout (not to /etc/skeykeys), you can easily sent it to remote operator by e-mail (with PGP signature or something). So, it possible to initiate S/KEY without login from the console of the host. 
Decentralised Object Orientated Machine 
A port of the Doom engine that supports OpenGL Doom Legacy features 32-Player multiplayer over TCP/IP, high resolutions, OpenGL rendering, compatibility to most of the other ports extensions, and much more. 
Directory Operational binding management Protocol 
Make a fortune dealing drugs on the streets of New York dopewars is a UNIX rewrite of the MS-DOS program of the same name, which in turn was inspired by John E. Dell's "Drug Wars" game. You have one month to buy and sell drugs on the streets of New York, the aim being first to pay off your debt to the loan shark and then to make a fortune. And if you have to shoot a few cops in the process, well... The game includes TCP networking allowing you to meet (and shoot) other human drug dealers. 
Denial Of Service [attack], "DoS" 
Disk Operating System (OS, IBM, MS, ..., PC, Apple, RCA Spectra 70) 
DoS (Denial of Service)
An exploit whose purpose is to deny somebody the use of the service: namely to crash or hang a program or the entire system. Example: Some classes of DoS are: traffic flood Overwhelms the Internet connection. Because it is the Internet connection itself that is attacked, there isn't much the victim can do to stop the attack. A firewall might block the flood from going any further, but the Internet connection in front of the firewall is still overloaded. application floods or bombs Overwhelms a program with too many events. A firewall that allows the traffic cannot block these attacks. For example, a firewall configured to allow IRC cannot selectively block just the flood but allow all other traffic. Common services attacked this way are IRC, HTTP, and e-mail (SMTP). remote system crash/hang Historically, there have been a lot of ways of remotely crashing machines. These attack the TCP/IP stack within the system causing it to crash or hang. This affects all software running on the system. remote service crash Crashes just the application/service. This doesn't affect other software running on the system. Example: Some famous DoS attacks are: Ping of Death This exploit crashed most machines vintage 1995 by sending illegally fragmented packets at a victim. Even as late as 2000, some systems were vulnerable to variants of this DoS, such as the Jolt2 attack against Windows systems. SYN flood ping flood WinNuke Sending OOB/URG data across a TCP connection to Windows. teardrop Sends overlapping IP fragments at the victim. Overlapping IP fragments should normally never happen. This means that the code to handle them has never been tested -- and therefore many bugs exist. land (latierra) An attacker can forge a packet that is sent from the victim's machine to the victim's machine, which can cause it to reply back to itself in an infinite loop. targa A tool that includes many popular DoS attacks (by Mixter). Culture: A common word for DoS is "nuke", which was first popularized by the WinNuke program (a simple ping-of-death expoit script. These days, "nukes" are those DoS exploits that script kiddies in chat rooms use against each other. See also: SYN flood 
Disk Operating System - 15 (OS, DEC, PDP 15), "DOS-15" 
The dos2unix utility converts DOS or MAC format text files to UNIX format. 
Disk ??? Operating System / 360 (OS, IBM S/360), "DOS/360" 
SYSV and DOS filename conflicts check Checks filenames for conflicts under 14-character SYSV and 8.3 DOS limitations. 
The Linux DOS Emulator DOSEMU is a PC Emulator application that allows Linux to run a DOS operating system in a virtual x86 machine. This allows you to run many DOS applications. - Includes the FreeDOS kernel. - Color text and full keyboard emulation (via hotkeys) via terminal. - Built-in X support, includes IBM character set font. - Graphics capability at the console with most compatible video cards. - DPMI support so you can run DOOM. - CDROM support. - Builtin IPX and pktdrvr support. 
To quote the manual, "dosemu" is a user-level program which uses certain special features of the Linux kernel and the 80386 processor to run MS-DOS/FreeDOS/DR-DOS in what we in the biz call a `DOS box.' The DOS box, a combination of hardware and software trickery, has these capabilities: the ability to virtualize all input/output and processor control instructions, the ability to support the word size and addressing modes of the iAPX86 processor family's "real mode," while still running within the full protected mode environment, the ability to trap all DOS and BIOS system calls and emulate such calls as are necessary for proper operation and good performance, the ability to simulate a hardware environment over which DOS programs are accustomed to having control, the ability to provide DOS services through native Linux services; for example, dosemu can provide a virtual hard disk drive which is actually a Linux directory hierarchy." From DOSEMU-HOWTO
Inside of this package there are two utilities to create and to check MS-DOS FAT filesystems on either harddisks or floppies under Linux. This version uses the enhanced boot sector/superblockformat of DOS 3.3+ as well as provides a default dummy boot sector code. 
The dosfstools package includes the mkdosfs and dosfsck utilities, which respectively make and check MS-DOS FAT filesystems on harddrives or on floppies. 
Utilities to create and check MS-DOS FAT filesystems Inside of this package there are two utilities to create and to check MS-DOS FAT filesystems on either harddisks or floppies under Linux. This version uses the enhanced boot sector/superblock format of DOS 3.3+ as well as provides a default dummy boot sector code. 
Dedicated Office Systems and Services 
An Isola board game with nice graphics. The goal of Do'SSi Zo'la is to block the opponent by destroying the squares which surround him. In each turn, each player must first move to one of the squares adjacent to his current position, and then destroy a square of his choice. The first player who is unable to move loses. 
Disk ??? Operating System / Virtual Storage (OS, IBM S/370), "DOS/VS" 
Disk ??? Operating System / Virtual Storage Extended (OS, IBM 43XX, DOS/VS, VSE), "DOS/VSE" 
dot file
A file that is hidden from general file browsing partly because it contains important configuration options. 
Dot file
In UNIX, a file thet has a name preceded by a dot. Such a file normally isn't displayed by UNIX file-listing utility progams. Dot files are frequently used for user configuration files, such as a file that lists the newsgroups the user regularly consults. 
dot file
[Unix] n. A file that is not visible by default to normal directory-browsing tools (on Unix, files named with a leading dot are, by convention, not normally presented in directory listings). Many programs define one or more dot files in which startup or configuration information may be optionally recorded; a user can customize the program's behavior by creating the appropriate file in the current or home directory. (Therefore, dot files tend to creep -- with every nontrivial application program defining at least one, a user's home directory can be filled with scores of dot files, of course without the user's really being aware of it.) See also profile (sense 1), rc file. 
In printing, a type of printer that uses tiny hammers that strike the printer paper to form characters and images. 
Easy configuration of popular programs through Tcl/Tk interface The Dotfile Generator is a configuration tool, which configures the basic features, and even more exotic features of your favorite programs. It translates information from check boxes, entries, menus etc. to some sort of code (eg. Lisp, C, the configuration language for the fvwm window manager, or any other textual code). This transformation is coded in modules, where the programmer tells which elements are to be shown (a check button, listbox, etc.) and gives some help on each element. With this release, modules exist for configuring bash, fvwm1, fvwm2, tcsh, elm, rtin, ipfwadm, procmail and canna, and they can be found in separate packages named dotfile-<program>. 
Utility to manage lockfiles 
To tap the mouse button twice in succession to activate desktop objects. 
Data Over Voice [MODEM] 
Direct OverWrite (MO, ...) 
The process of taking information stored on the internet and copying it to your computer's hard disk. You may find yourself downloading the latest shareware from a site such as To transfer files from a server to a PC across a network (Internet). From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
The length of time a computer is not functioning (down). It is the reverse of uptime. 
Documentation system for C, C++ and IDL. Doxygen is a documentation system for C, C++ and IDL. It can generate an on-line class browser (in HTML) and/or an off-line reference manual (in LaTeX) from a set of documented source files. There is also support for generating man pages and for converting the generated output into Postscript, hyperlinked PDF or compressed HTML. The documentation is extracted directly from the sources. 
Doxygen can generate an online class browser (in HTML) and/or a reference manual (in LaTeX) from a set of documented source files. The documentation is extracted directly from the sources. Doxygen can also be configured to extract the code structure from undocumented source files. 
E-lisp package for making doxygen usage easier under Emacs. The purpose of the doxymacs project is to create a LISP package that will make using Doxygen from within {X}Emacs easier. 
Data Processing 
Detection Point (IN) 
Draft Proposal (ISO) 
Distributed Password Authentication 
change dialup password 
Drive Parameter Block (DOS, BIOS, FDD, HDD) 
Database Promotion Center (org., Japan, DB) 
Differential Phase Detection 
Distributed Processing Environment (IN) 
Discrete Packet Format (VXA, Streamer) 
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (org.) 
Data Processing Installation 
Dots Per Inch 
[SNMP] Distributed Program Interface (SNMP, RFC 1228) 
[SNMP] Distributed Protocol Interface (SNMP, RFC 1592) 
a medium-level package manager for Debian 
Package maintenance system for Debian This package contains the programs which handle the installation and removal of packages on your system. The primary interface for the dpkg suite is the `dselect' program; a more low-level and less user-friendly interface is available in the form of the `dpkg' command. In order to unpack and build Debian source packages you will need to install the developers' package `dpkg-dev' as well as this one. 
dpkg (Debian Package Manager)
A packaging and installation tool for Internet downloads, included with Debian Linux but compatible with other distributions. It produces files with a .DEB extension. Similar to RPM. 
set and determine the architecture for package building 
Gawk script to parse /var/lib/dpkg/{status,available} and Packages This script can parse the dpkg database files. It can do regular expressions on the fields, and only get what you want. It can also be made to output certain fields. As an added bonus, there is an option to sort the output. 'dpkg-awk "Status: .* installed$" -- Package Version Status' will output all installed packages, with only the listed fields. 'dpkg-awk -f=/var/lib/dpkg/available "Package:^[aA].*" -- Package Version' will output all available packages that start with the letter 'A.' 
Debian source package tools 
check build dependencies and conflicts 
Tools for cross compiling Debian packages dpkg-cross itself is a tool for installing libraries and headers for cross compiling in a way similar to dpkg. Furthermore, the functionality of dpkg-buildpackage and dpkg-shlibdeps is enhanced to support cross compiling. 
Debian package archive (.deb) manipulation tool 
Emacs-related Debian development helpers This package contains the following Emacs-related stuff: debian-changelog-mode.el: a helper mode for Debian changelogs; debian-control-mode.el: a helper mode for debian/control files. 
Debian source package tools 
override a package's version of a file 
Ftp method for dselect. This package provides another method to dselect that uses the ftp protocol to fetch the desired packages from a debian ftp site. To access it select 'ftp' from the Access menu in dselect. 
Debian source package tools 
Debian source package tools 
An interface to find relevant packages in Debian. This package adds some tools to find relevant packages in Debian using simple queries, both in natural language and by keywords. It makes uses of the document-vectoring program arrow, adding scripts to make use of it to index the Packages database, and to make queries on to it. Its functionality is similar to dlocate but uses a different (more useful?) approach to make the binary database. This package is a proof-of-concept package, any kind of improvements are are welcomed, although this idea should be part of a dpkg frontend {T,G}UI. 
Installation methods for multiple binary CDs This package provides three new methods to be used within dselect in order to access Debian binary package stored on multiple binary CD ROMS. 
rename Debian packages to full package names 
Debian source package tools 
let packages ask questions prior to their installation 
reconfigure an already installed package 
puts an unpacked .deb file back together dpkg-repack creates a .deb file out of a debian package that has already been installed. If any changes have been made to the package while it was unpacked (ie, files in /etc were modified), the new package will inherit the changes. This utility can make it easy to copy packages from one computer to another, or to recreate packages that are installed on your system, but no longer available elsewhere, or to store the current state of a package before you upgrade it. 
ruby interface for dpkg Contains ruby modules/classes for dpkg, the Debian package management system. It also provides dpkg-ruby( a dpkg-awk clone), dpkg.rb (a part of dpkg/dpkg-deb clone) and dpkg-checkdeps.rb (check utility of deb dependency problem) 
create Packages files 
Debian source package tools 
Debian source package tools 
Debian package archive split/join tool 
override ownership and mode of files 
WWW Debian package browser With the dpkg cgi-bin you can browse Debian packages on a local or remote host using a normal WEB browser. You can list packages, show package information and installed files, browse documentation and navigate through the packages dependencies. You can also find all the packages owners of a file or directory or those providing a virtual package. If you are the system administrator you can also install or remove packages by clicking on the buttons found in the package info page, provided that this feature has been enabled and you have properly configured your WEB browser. 
Descriptor Privilege Level (OS/2, NT) 
Defects Per Million 
Data Processing Management Association (org.) 
Demand Priority Access Method 
DOS Protected Mode Interface (DOS, MS, Intel) 
Display Power Management Signalling [standard] (VESA) 
DOS Protected Mode Services (Novell, DOS) 
Data Packet Network (Nortel) 
Data Processing Node (MODEM) 
Deutsches Provider Network (ISP) 
Data Packet Network-Packet Handler, "DPN-PH" 
Digital Print Order Format 
Distributed Parallel Processing 
Data Processing Quality 
Digital Property Rights Language (Xerox) 
display perl profile data 
Display PostScript (NeXT, GUI, NextStep, DPS) 
Display PostScript Engine (DPS, NextStep, OpenStep, Apple, Rhapsody) 
Display PostScript Executive 
Display PostScript Information 
Differential Phase Shift Keying (DFUe) 
Debian packages of system configurations. Dpsyco introduces the concept of configuration packages. It is a special form of debian packages that is applied on top of the original debian packages. With this you can add users, groups, apply a file skeleton, patch things and more. Observe! No such configuration packages should be uploaded to the debian archives. This kind of things are intended to be created and used by the system administrator only. For more information see This tool is very useful if you have a lot of servers on which you want to have similar configuration (but not identical). If you only have one server (or client) this is probably not useful at all. WARNING! Users with UID and GID between 500 and 999 will be automatically administrated by this tool. This means that if you do not have a admin package that set up users these users WILL BE REMOVED. Groups with GID between 300 and 499 will be handled in the same way. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED! 
Distributed Processing Technology (manufacturer) 
Drive Parameter Table 
Dynamic Packet Transport (Cisco) 
Debian package upload tool This script will allow you to put one or more Debian packages into the archive. It includes some tests to verify that the package is policy-compliant. It offers the possibility to run lintian before the upload. It can also run dinstall in dry-run-mode, when having used an appropriate upload method. This is very useful to see if the the upload will pass dinstall sanity checks in the next run. It's intended for Debian maintainers only. 
DatenPaketVermittlung [srechner] 
Distributed Queue Dual Bus (ISO, IEC, IS 8802/6, IEEE 802.6) 
Database Query Language (DB) 
Distributed Queueing Protocol 
Distributed Queueing System (Cluster) 
Designated Router (PIM, Multicast) 
Developer Release (Linux, Apple, ...) 
Digital Research (manufacturer) 
Dynamic Relay Authorization Control (pop-before-smtp) A daemon that dynamically updates a relay authorization map for some MTA (postfix, sendmail). It provides a way to allow legitimate users to relay mail through an SMTP server, while still preventing others from using it as a spam relay. User's IP addresses are added to the map immediately after they have authenticated to the POP or IMAP server. By default, map entries expire after 30 minutes, but can be renewed by additional authentication. Periodically checking mail on a POP server is sufficient to do this. The POP and SMTP servers can be on different hosts. 
DragonLinux is a complete Linux operating system distribution that has been customized to install on top of versions of Microsoft Windows or any version of DOS. DragonLinux v2r2pre was released November 26, 2001. 
drakconf includes the Mandrake Control Center which is an interface to multiple utilities from DrakXtools. 
Drakcronat is an application for scheduling programs to run in the background. It is a Graphical User Interface to Crontab/Cronand At (Unix system schedulers). Drakcronat provides features for beginners as well as sysadmins. 
The Mandrake First Wizard is a config tool to help user set up some basics things like themes & window managers, registration at mandrakeclub/mandrake expert the first time you login. 
Contains many Mandrake applications simplifying users and administrators life on a Mandrake Linux machine. Nearly all of them work both under XFree (graphical environment) and in console (text environment), allowing easy distant work. adduserdrake: help you adding a userddcxinfos: get infos from the graphic card and print XF86Config modelines diskdrake: DiskDrake makes hard disk partitioning easier. It isgraphical, simple and powerful. Different skill levels are available(newbie, advanced user, expert). It's written entirely in Perl andPerl/Gtk. It uses resize_fat which is a perl rewrite of the work ofAndrew Clausen (libresize).drakautoinst: help you configure an automatic installation replay drakbackup: backup and restore your systemdrakboot: configures your boot configuration (Lilo/GRUB,Bootsplash, X, autologin) drakbug: interactive bug report tool drakbug_report: help find bugs in DrakXdrakconnect: LAN/Internet connection configuration. It handlesethernet, ISDN, DSL, cable, modem.drakfloppy: boot disk creatordrakfont: import fonts in the systemdrakgw: internet connection sharingdrakproxy: proxies configurationdraksec: security options managment / msec frontenddraksound: sound card configurationdraksplash: bootsplash themes creationdrakTermServ: mandrake terminal server configuratordrakxservices: SysV service and dameaons configuratordrakxtv: auto configure tv card for xawtv grabberkeyboarddrake: configure your keyboard (both console and X)liveupdate: live update softwarelogdrake: show extracted information from the system logslsnetdrake: display available nfs and smb shareslspcidrake: display your pci information, *and* the correspondingkernel modulelocaledrake: language configurator, available both for root(system wide) and users (user only)mousedrake: autodetect and configure your mouseprinterdrake: detect and configure your printerscannerdrake: scanner configuratordrakfirewall: simple firewall configuratorXFdrake: menu-driven program which walks you through setting upyour X server; it autodetects both monitor and video card ifpossible 
Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
draws customized maps, using raw USGS data files Drawmap reads data in the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Digital Line Graph (DLG), and Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) formats. Can also work with SDTS, NAD-83, WGS-84, GTOPO30 data. Using the data in these files, drawmap can produce various kinds of customized maps, including shaded relief maps (with or without roads, streams, place names, and so on) and topographic maps (again, with or without additional features). Outputs sun raster format, portable gray map, or pov format files. 
distributed ruby druby (DRb) - DRb can send message to other ruby script that like Java's RMI. 
DRAM Row Boundary [register] (DRAM, PCI) 
Design Rule Checks (CAD) 
Data Reading Device 
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (IBM, DB) 
Distributed Relational Database Architecture Application Server (IBM, DB), "DRDA AS" 
Digital Research Disk Operating System (DR, OS), "DR-DOS" 
Defense Research and Engineering Network (network) 
Data Recovery Field 
Developer Relations Group (MS) 
Interactive geometry program. Dr. Genius is an interactive geometry program especially designed for educational purpose. It had a common history with Dr. Geo and Genius but the calculation part of Genius has be droped because it is unmaintained. It might be replaced by Scheme tools in future. URL: 
Defense Research Internet (ARPANET, successorr, network) 
Direct Rendering Infrastructure (XFree86) 
Picks out and displays images from network traffic. Inspired by EtherPEG, Driftnet is a program which listens to network traffic and picks out images from TCP streams it observes. It is interesting to run it on a host which sees a lot of web traffic. (Obviously, this is an invasion of privacy of a fairly blatant sort. Also, if you are possessed of Victorian sensibilities, and share an unswitched network with others who are not, you should probably not use it.) 
A device that reads/writes data from/to disks or tapes; for example, a hard drive, diskette drive, CD-ROM, or tape drive. 
n. 1. The main loop of an event-processing program; the code that gets commands and dispatches them for execution. 2. [techspeak] In `device driver', code designed to handle a particular peripheral device such as a magnetic disk or tape unit. 3. In the TeX world and the computerized typesetting world in general, a program that translates some device-independent or other common format to something a real device can actually understand. 
See device module. 
Dynamically Reconfigurable Logic (RL) 
Destination Release Mechanism (DQDB) 
Digital Rights Management (MS) 
Digital Remote Measurement Unit 
DECnet Routing Protocol (DEC) 
Defense Red Switch Network [hopefully no traffic ever] (network, mil. USA) 
Two-way remote file synchronisation uses rsync to synchronise between two directories (local or remote), but stores state information for files, so that it can be used in both directions, and can cope with files created, modified or deleted in either repository. 
Data Segment [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
Deutschsprachige Shareware (org.) 
Digital Services [level] 
Directory Service (OSI, ISO, DP 9594) 
Distribution Services (SNA) 
Distribution System (WLAN) 
Double Sided [disks] (FDD) 
Digital Signal level 0 (ISDN, T1), "DS-0" 
Digital Signal level 1 (ISDN, T1), "DS-1" 
??? (RFC 1406), "DS1/E1" 
Digital Signal level 2, "DS-2" 
Digital Signal level 3 (T3), "DS-3" 
Digital Signal level 3, "DS-3" 
??? (RFC 1407), "DS3/E3" 
Data Service Adapter 
Digital Signature Algorithm (cryptography, NIST) 
Digital Storage Architecture 
Directory System Agent (X.500, DSA) 
Distributed Systems Architecture (Bull) 
Dynamic Scalable Architecture (DB, Informix) 
DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm, DSS, Digital Signature Standard, FIPS 186, ANSI 9.30)
An alternative public-key algorithm, the DSA is a standard promulgated by NIST. DSA is only used for digital signatures but is not used for key exchange. It is based upon work done by Schnorr and ElGamal. Contrast: Whereas RSA is based upon the mathematical problem of factoring large numbers, DSA is based upon the discrete logarithm problem. DSA generates signatures faster; RSA verifies signatures better. Contrast: The terms DSA and DSS are essentially the same and are generally used interchangeably. DSS (Digital Signature Standard) is a government document mandating the use of DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm). They are both part of the same FIPS-186 document. Key point: The DSS specification provides for keys only up to 1024-bits. This is considered "weak" and probably breakable in a few years. Some products (e.g. PGP) allow non-standard larger keys to be generated. History: The standard was created by NIST with the help See also: RSA, Diffie-Hellman 
Destination link Service Access Point (SAP, LLC) 
Document Structuring Conventions (Adobe) 
Data Structure Diagram (CASE) 
Direct Stream Digital (Sony, Philips) 
Data Segment Descriptor Cache [register] (DS, Intel, CPU) 
Data Storage Definition ??? Language (DB) 
Differentiated System Description Table (ACPI) 
Data Switching Equipment (X.25, CCITT) 
Distributed Systems Environment (Honeywell, Bull) 
DataStation Emulation Adapter (IBM, AS/400, ...) 
Distributed Software Engineering Environment ??? (Apollo, CM) 
console Debian package handling frontend 
dancer's shell, or distributed shell Executes specified command on a group of computers using remote shell methods such as rsh. dsh aims to be a distributed shell with speed and efficiency, although it has not reached that goal yet. Something that is pretty handy when setting up clusters. 
Desperately Seeking Help (slang, Usenet) 
Defense Simulation Internet (network, mil., USA) 
Dial Services Interface [API] (API, IBM) 
Digital Speech Interpolation (VOFR) 
Dynamic Skeleton Interface (CORBA, ORB, OA) 
Destination Signaling IDentifier 
Dual [RAS] Single Inline Memory Module (IC), "D-SIMM" 
A command-line IRC client. 
Dialogue Scripting Language (DCE, UIL) 
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 
Digital system Specification Language (HDL) 
Distributed Service Logic (IN) 
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line (howeverr a DSL circuit is not a leased line. A common configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions. In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second. DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased Lines. 
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSL, ADSL) 
Dynamically Switched Link Control Protocol (RFC 1307) 
[TWAIN] Data Source Manager (MS, Windows) 
DSML (Directory Services Markup Language)
an XML dialect for working with directory information. 
Directory Service Manager for Netware (MS, Windows NT, FPNW) 
Defense Switched Network (mil., USA) 
Delivery Status Notification 
Developer Support News (IBM, OS/2) 
Distributed Systems Network (HP) 
Defense Secure NETwork (mil., USA) 
Various tools to sniff network traffic for cleartext insecurities This package contains several tools to listen to and create network traffic: * arpspoof - Send out unrequested (and possibly forged) arp replies. * dnsspoof - forge replies to arbitrary DNS address / pointer queries on the Local Arean Network. * dsniff - password sniffer for several protocols. * filesnarf - saves selected files sniffed from NFS traffic. * macof - flood the local network with random MAC addresses. * mailsnarf - sniffs mail on the LAN and stores it in mbox format. * msgsnarf - record selected messages from different Instant Messengers. * sshmitm - SSH monkey-in-the-middle. proxies and sniffs SSH traffic. * sshow - SSH traffic analyser * tcpkill - kills specified in-progress TCP connections. * tcpnice - slow down specified TCP connections via "active" traffic shaping. * urlsnarf - output selected URLs sniffed from HTTP traffic in CLF. * webmitm - HTTP / HTTPS monkey-in-the-middle. transparently proxies. * webspy - sends URLs sniffed from a client to your local browser. Please do not abuse this software. 
DSO (Dynamic Shared Object)

Distributed System Object Model (IBM) 
Digital Signal Processing / Processor (audio, video, RL, DSP) 
Digital signal processors - specialized microprocessors that perform the same task repetitively at very high frequency. Most often used in telecommunications and multimedia application platforms. 
Directory System Protocol (X.500, DS) 
Document Services for Printing (Xerox), "DS/P" 
DOMAIN Specific Part (NSAP, IDL) 
DSP (Digital Signal Processor)
A progammable sound processing circuit, used in both modems and sound boards. Sound boards use DSPs to handle a variety of sound resolutions, formats, and sound-altering filters without requiring separate circuits for each one, while modems use DSPs to handle several modulation protocols. 
Data Set Ready (MODEM, RS-232) 
Device Status Report 
Digital Signal Richtfunk Mil., Germany 
Digital Standard Relational Interface 
Defense Software Repository System (mil., USA) 
Decision Support System (IM) 
Defense Switched Services (mil., USA) 
Digital Signature Standard (NIST, cryptography) 
Directory and Security Services (DCE, IBM, LAN) 
Distributed Security Service (DCE) 
[setup] Digital Subscriber Signaling #2 
Defense Special Security Communications System (mil., USA) 
Digital Storage Systems Interconnect (VAX, DEC) 
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (WLAN) 
[standard] Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DTD, ISO, IEC, DIS 10179) 
Daylight Saving Time (TZ) 
Double SuperTwisted Nematic (LCD) 
dynamical systems investigation (Tk version) dstool with a Tk front end. dstool is a tool for the investigation of dynamical systems. It is an efficient research tool that integrates a friendly graphical user interface, data management capabilities, a rich set of numerical algorithms together with the flexibility to add more algorithms and communicate data with other programs. 
Data Secure Unix (Unix, OS, UCLA) 
Digital Service Unit (ATM) 
Distribution Service Unit (IBM, SNADS) 
Digital Signal Verbindung Mil., Germany 
Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data (MODEM) 
Display Terminal 
Distributed graphical user interface Toolkit (IBM, GUI, VM/ESA) 
Direct Tape Access (Seagate) 
Disk Transfer Area (DOS) 
Document Transfer, Access and Manipulation (CCITT, T.400, ODIF) 
Direct Transfer Application Part (MS, MM, MTP) 
Paperless money transfer with German banks on floppies This package contains a library that can read and write German DTAUS files. DTAUS is an acronym for DatenTraegerAUStausch. It is used by German credit institutes in order to transfer commands for money exchanges between accounts. This format is used both between banks and between banks and their customers. One mainly wants to use it to be able to do automatic "Bankeinzuege". This package probably will only be useful in Germany. 
Design Time Controls (MS) 
DeskTop Conferencing 
Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS, SQL Server, DB) 
Document Type Definition (SGML, XML. HTML, DTD) 
Data Terminal Equipment (X.25, CCITT) 
DialogTestHilfe (BS2000) 
Deception ToolKit 
Dual Translation Lookaside Buffer (CPU) 
DeskTop Management task Force (Intel) 
Dual Tone Multi Frequency 
A DTMF Tone Dialer dtmfdial is a DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency) tone generator. This program generates the same tones that modern "TouchTone" telephones use to dial. This program could actually be used to dial a phone on any phone system which supports DTMF tones. DTMF dial requires a sound card to work, and is designed to be used as a phone dialer from address book programs. 
DCPS Management Panel (DCPS) 
Document Transfer and Manipulation Services (CCITT, T.400) 
DeskTop Publishing 
Distributed Transaction Processing (X/Open, OLTP) 
Document Transfer Profile (SPAC, ODA, DAP, predecessor) 
Data Terminal Ready (MODEM, RS-232) 
DeskTop Reproduction (DTP) 
Document Filing and Retrieval (DOAM, ISO, IEC, DIS 10166-1 f.) 
Draft Technical Report 
Digital Theatre Sound (audio) 
Direct To SOM 
Distributed Time Server 
Distributed Time Service (DCE) 
Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (OS) 
Demand Transmission Unit 
Disk Used (Unix) 
Distribution Unit (MS, MSIE) 
estimate file space usage 
tells you how much disk space your files occupy. 
Directory User Agent (X.500, DS) 
dual homed system (multihomed)
A system having more than one network connection. An example could be a private network within your home, where one system also has a dial-up line. Contrast: The word dual-homed could refer to a router, but is usually used to clarify that the system has multiple network connection, but it NOT supposed to provide briding/routing/interconnection services between them. Dual-home systems are a prime target of hackers because when they are subverted, they provide a prime way to compromise networks. Examples: elliptic curves (ANSI x962, IEEE P1363)[5] Elliptic curves have been found useful for public key cryptography. Contrast: An elliptic curve key of roughly 160-bits is equivalent in security to a RSA or DH key of 1024-bits. Elliptic curve systems are dramatically faster than RSA or DH, which makes them useful in smart-card applications that have anemic CPUs. Certicom (the owner of many elliptic curve patents) recommends a public-key size of roughly twice the size of the symmetric-key to provide equivalent security. Point: While elliptic curves have many advantages (size, speed) over other techniques, they are a lot newer and therefore not trusted. 
The concept of two operating systems installed on a single computer system. 
Dualix is a mini-distribution of Linux based on libc5, kernel 2.2.10. It is intended for use as a quick, portable, and configurable network client, not a rescue system. Distribution development is not all that active. 
dumb terminal
a display and input device that doesn't process data and input locally. Instead it transmits input to a computer to which it is connected and displays the resulting output. 
4.4bsd dump and restore for ext2 filesystems Dump examines files on a filesystem and determines which files need to be backed up. These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage medium for safe keeping. The restore command performs the inverse function of dump. A full backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be restored from full or partial backups. 
n. 1. An undigested and voluminous mass of information about a problem or the state of a system, especially one routed to the slowest available output device (compare core dump), and most especially one consisting of hex or octal runes describing the byte-by-byte state of memory, mass storage, or some file. In elder days, debugging was generally done by `groveling over' a dump (see grovel); increasing use of high-level languages and interactive debuggers has made such tedium uncommon, and the term `dump' now has a faintly archaic flavor. 2. A backup. This usage is typical only at large timesharing installations. 
The dump package contains both dump and restore. Dump examines files ina filesystem, determines which ones need to be backed up, and copies those files to a specified disk, tape or other storage medium. The restore command performs the inverse function of dump; it can restore afull backup of a filesystem. Subsequent incremental backups can then belayered on top of the full backup. Single files and directory subtrees may also be restored from full or partial backups. 
dump filesystem information 
dump keyboard translation tables 
Dial Up Networking 
Distributed Unit Of Work (DRDA, IBM), "DUoW" 
Distribution Unit Profile (MS, OSD, DU, MSIE) 
utility to upload Debian packages This script will automagically upload Debian packages to a remote host with a Debian upload queue. The default host is configurable, along with a lot of other things. All uploads are logged. It's intended only for Debian package maintainers. 
Digital Video 
Digital Video Broadcasting (Europe, DVB) 
sources for drivers for the Fujitsu Siemens DVB card DVB is a standard for transmission of digital TV and Data over satelite transponders or cable connections. Some DVB cards based on the Fujitsu/Siemens chipset are supported by the linux driver. This package contains sorce code needed to create the driver package. The kernel sources (2.4.9 or newer) must be installed to compile these modules. You will also need the Firmware files for your card, see installation instructions in the package. 
Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable (DVB), "DVB-C" 
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-NIP" 
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-RC" 
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-RCGSM" 
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-RCT" 
Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite (DVB), "DVB-S" 
Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestic (DVB), "DVB-T" 
Digital Video Compression (video) 
Deutsche Vereinigung fuer Datenschutz [e.V.] (org.) 
Digital Versatile Disk (CD, MPEG, DVD) 
Digital Video Disk [old term] (DVD) 
DVD Copy Control Association (DVD, org.), "DVD CCA" 
DVD+RW tools This package includes a format utility for DVD+RW media, and some associated tools. 
Digital Versatile Disk Recodable (DVD), "DVD-R" 
Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory (DVD), "DVD-RAM" 
Digital Versatile Disk Read Only Memory (DVD, ROM), "DVD-ROM" 
Digital Versatile Disk + ReWritable (PC-RW, DVD, Sony, Philips, HP, Mitsubishi, Ricoh, Yamaha), "DVD+RW" 
Grab digital video data via IEEE1394 links dvgrab receives audio and video data from a digital camcorder via an IEEE1394 (widely known as FireWire) link and stores them into an AVI file. It features autosplit of long video sequences into several files, and supports saving the data as raw frames, AVI type 1 and AVI type 2. 
Manipulate the volume header on sgi partition layouts This tool is used to manipulate volume headers of devices using sgi disk labels, like moving files into and out of the volume header. 
DeVice Independent 
DeVice Independent: a typesetter independent file which is generated from TeX. 
Digital Video Interactive (LCD, Intel, IBM, Lotus, HP, Compaq, ...) 
DVI (Digital Video Interactive)
A format for recording digital video onto compact disc allowing for compression and full motion video. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Tweak DVI files dvi2dvi can: - expand virtual fonts in given DVI files, - change font names in given DVI files, - decompose 2-byte fonts into 1-byte subfonts. With dvi2dvi, you can convert DVI files generated by NTT jTeX to those of ASCII pTeX, and vice versa. 
convert a TeX DVI file to G3 fax format 
TeX DVI-driver for NTT jTeX, MulTeX and ASCII ptex. dvi2ps is another converter of DVI file to PostScript file. dvi2ps can handle NTT jTeX, MulTeX and ASCII ptex dvi files. 
Font data to convert ptex's dvi file to jtex's dvi file. Virtual font for converting dvi files of ASCII ptex to dvi files to NTT jtex. 
tfm files for bluesky research fonts. TFM files for bluesky research fonts for dvi2ps. 
Font data for dvi2ps-j and dvi2dvi. Virtual fonts and TFM files for Morisawa fonts, and VFlib. 
Font data to convert jtex's dvi file to ptex's dvi file. Virtual font for converting dvi files of NTT jtex to dvi files of ASCII ptex. 
Fake ptex TFM files Monometric TFM files for min and goth fonts of ASCII ptex. 
Font data of Richo LP5100 UX printer. Virtual font and TFM files for Richo LP5100 UX printer. 
Font data of Richo SP10 printer. Virtual font and TFM files for Richo SP10 printer. 
Font data of Typebank font. Virtual font and TFM files for Typebank font. 
Font data of Adobe Japanese fonts (futomin, futogo, jun101) Virtual font and TFM files for Adobe postscript fonts: FutoMinA101-Bold-H, FutoGoB101-Bold-H, Jun101-Light-H 
fontdesc files of dvi2ps for Morisawa Basic-5 type faces You can convert DVI file with Morisawa Basic-5 type faces of vfdata-morisawa5 to PS file by dvi2ps with this package. You should run 'dvi2ps -F morisawa' for Morisawa Basic-5 type faces. 
produce modified copy of DVI file 
Digital Video Interactive - Digital (LCD), "DVI-D" 
Manipulate .dvi files. Allows you to select, change the order, and/or shift the pages in a .dvi file. The main use is to print an a5 booklet on A4 paper, in such a way that you can put a staple through the bundle. A shell script that does just that is provided. 
A dvi viewer for framebuffer devices dvifb is a previewer for .dvi-files compiled by TeX. It let's you see what your printed output will look like. 
convert a TeX DVI file to Hewlett-Packard PCL 
a portable DVI interpreter library - runtime DVIlib2 is a library for handling DeVice Independent(DVI) files which are usually generated by TeX. It can be used for the core engine of your DVIware, and thanks to VFlib3 your product will be able to handle various fonts. EPS figures managed by graphicx.sty and Japanese TeX DVI files are also supported. Note that DVIlib2 itself is NOT DVIware. It's just a library. If you are looking for a complete DVI previewer etc., why don't you try xgdvi or spawx11? This package contains the shared libraries and configuration files needed to run programs using DVIlib2. This is a part of the TeX-Guy distribution. 
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
A dvi viewer for X dvilx is a screen-previewer for .dvi-files compiled by TeX. It let's you see what your printed output will look like. You can choose between a black-and-white representation and greyscaling. You can choose an arbitrary zoom factor (at some cost of performance). You can set marks to measure distances. You can search for text strings. You may visit lots of DVI files, set bookmarks and get them saved to a startup-file. dvilx does not support pxl-files. dvilx ignores all 'special'-commands and has no font-replacing mechanism. 
Convert TeX DVI file to PDF using ghostscript and dvips 
A DVI to PDF translator. Dvipdfm translates files from Donald Knuth's DVI format (commonly produced by TeX) to Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF). Important features include: \special's that approximate the functionality of the PostScript pdfmarks used by Adobe's Acrobat Distiller; the ability to include PDF, JPEG, PNG, MetaPost, and PostScript (with help from an external program) files as embedded images; support for several \special standards for improved DVI file portability; support for thumbnails (with a little help from GhostScript); re-encoding support for PostScript fonts; virtual font support; support for arbitrary linear graphics transformations; an internal color stack accessible via \special's; beginning of page (BOP) and end of page (EOP) \special's for placing arbitrary PDF stream graphics on every page; partial font embedding and Flate compression for reduced file size; and a balanced page tree and dest tree to improve reader speed on very large documents. 
convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript 
Virtual font data to process dvi files generated by NTT-JTeX. This package contains virtual font data to convert Dai-Nippon fonts, which are used in dvi files generated by NTT-JTeX, to Japanese built-in fonts in PostScript printer. 
DVI-to-PostScript translator with Japanese support This localized version of Tom Rokicki's dvips can handle Japanese DVI files. It can even output in Tate-Gaki(means "write vertically") style. This is part of the ASCII pTeX distribution. 
print dvi-files 
A dvi viewer for SVGAlib dvisvga is a screen-previewer for .dvi-files compiled by TeX. It let's you see what your printed output will look like. You can choose between a black-and-white representation and greyscaling. You can choose an arbitrary zoom factor (at some cost of performance). You can set marks to measure distances. You can search for text strings. You may visit lots of DVI files, set bookmarks and get them saved to a startup-file. dvisvga does not support pxl-files. dvisvga ignores all 'special'-commands and has no font-replacing mechanism. 
convert a TeX DVI file to a MetaPost MPXFILE 
translate a dvi file for humans 
Digital Video Link 
Direct Virtual Memory Access 
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (IP, Multicast) 
Typing tutor for dvorak keyboards dvorak7min is a typing tutor to help you learn dvorak. Also included are a pair of useful scripts to easily change between qwerty and dvorak layouts. 
Deutscher Verbandes fuer Post und Telekommunikation (org.) 
??? (DTP, Truevision) 
Digital Video Systems (manufacturer) 
DVTC (Desktop Videoconferencing)
Videoconferencing on a personal computer. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Digital Voice eXchange 
Dialup Wide-Area Network Game Organization (IVS Corporation) 
Dwarf's guide to installing and using Debian GNU/Linux This book by Debian Developer Dale Scheetz covers: - Package Management Tools - Installation - Basic System Administration This package contains the guide in PDF and HTML formats. 
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing [protocol] 
Drawing Web Format (AutoCAD) 
Data WareHouse (DB) 
DISA Western Hemisphere (DISA, mil., USA) 
Do What I Mean (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
Diskless Workstation Management (AIX, IBM) 
Discrete Wavelet MultiTone [modulation] 
Discrete Wavelet Transformation 
Read all on-line documentation via WWW dwww lets you read all install on-line documentation via a local WWW server. When possible, it converts the documentation to HTML. You need both a WWW server and a WWW browser. 
OpenDX (IBM Visualization Data Explorer) - main package Data Explorer is a system of tools and user interfaces for visualizing data. In general terms the visualization of data can be considered a 3-stage process: 1. Describing and importing data 2. Processing the data through a visualization program 3. Presenting the resulting image. This is the main package. 
Directory eXchange Agent 
Data eXchange Interface 
An X protocol compressor designed to improve the speed of X11 applications run over low-bandwidth links (such as dialup PPP connections). 
Directory eXchange Server 
Module for konwert package which loads UTF-8 fonts dynamically. This is a tool which allows displaying texts containing thousands of different characters. It switches console to UTF8 mode and loads required fonts dynamically. It is recommended to use this tool with filterm(1) tool, i.e. by executing 'filterm - dynafont' command or 'filterm - 512bold+dynafont' if you are not using framebuffer. The tool works with UTF8-compatible applications, i.e. lynx(1). There are problems with 8-bit only applications like mc(1). 
Create desktop entries for GNOME and KDE when a new peripheral is plugged in the system (mainly USB devices). 
The state or quality of an object that is frequently changed or modified. In computing terminology, dynamic usually applies to files and values that change often, such as IP addresses. 
DyneBolic is a live bootable CDROM that will give you a Linux desktop on any machine with a CD drive. Comes with audio streaming, realtime video effects, and Mozilla web browser. Development version 1.0 alpha 5 was released May 11, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 

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